Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N; Sales, Jessica M; Gaydos, Laura M; Pazol, Karen; Kramer, Michael; Swartzendruber, Andrea
Recently there have been calls to strengthen integration of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention messages, spurred by increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception. To assess the extent to which public health/clinical messages about unintended pregnancy prevention also address STI prevention, we conducted a content analysis of web-based health promotion information for young people. Websites identified through a systematic Google search were eligible for inclusion if they were operated by a United States-based organization with a mission related to public health/clinical services and the URL included: 1) original content; 2) about sexual and reproductive health; 3) explicitly for adolescents and/or young adults. Using defined protocols, URLs were screened and content was selected and analyzed thematically. Many of the 32 eligible websites presented information about pregnancy and STI prevention separately. Concurrent discussion of the two topics was often limited to statements about (1) strategies that can prevent both outcomes (abstinence, condoms only, condoms plus moderate or highly effective contraceptive methods) and (2) contraceptive methods that confer no STI protection. We also identified framing of condom use with moderate or highly effective contraceptive method for back-up pregnancy prevention but not STI prevention. STI prevention methods in addition to condoms, such as STI/HIV testing, vaccination, or pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis, were typically not addressed with pregnancy prevention information. There may be missed opportunities for promoting STI prevention online in the context of increasing awareness of and access to a full range of contraceptive methods. Strengthening messages that integrate pregnancy and STI prevention may include: describing STI prevention strategies when noting that birth control methods do not prevent STIs; promoting a full complement of STI prevention strategies; and
Full Text Available Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.
Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip
Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features
Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak
Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.
Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff
Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.
Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C
Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.
Qleibo, Haider W.
WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…
Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah
To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.
Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J
We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi
Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267
Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Gooding, Thomas [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Parker, Jeff [Rochester, MN
Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate an interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.
Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…
Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L; Connolly, Scott W; Ashikaga, Takamaru
Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American, Hispanic, and White youth participated. Impact of audience characteristics on message appeal ratings was assessed to provide guidance for audience segmentation strategies. Age had a strong effect on individual message appeal. The effect of gender also was significant. Message ratings were similar among the younger racial/ethnic groups, but differences were found for older African American youth. Lower academic achievement was associated with lower appeal scores for some messages. Age should be a primary consideration in developing and delivering smoking-prevention messages to youth audiences. The unique needs of boys and girls and older African American adolescents should also be considered.
Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan
This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.
Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra
Effective electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) prevention messages are needed to combat the rising popularity/uptake of e-cigarettes among youth. We examined preferences for e-cigarette prevention messages that either emphasized gains (e.g., You save money by not using e-cigarettes) or losses (e.g., You spend money by using e-cigarettes) among adolescents and young adults. Using surveys in two middle schools, four high schools, and one college in CT (N=5405), we assessed students' preferences for gain- or loss-framed e-cigarette prevention messages related to four themes: financial cost, health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker. We also assessed whether preferences for each message framing theme differed by sex, school level, cigarette-use status, and e-cigarette use-status. We also examined whether preference for message framing differed by cigarette and e-cigarette susceptibility status among never e-cigarette users. Overall, loss-framing was preferred for message themes related to health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker, whereas gain-framing was preferred for message themes related to financial cost. Logistic regression analyses showed that 1) females preferred loss-framed messages for all themes relative to males, 2) lifetime e-cigarette users preferred loss-framed health risks and social labeling messages relative to never users, and 3) high school students preferred gain-framed social labeling messages relative to college students. The preference for message framing did not differ by cigarette or e-cigarette susceptibility. Preference for message framing differed by themes and individual characteristics. This formative research could inform the construction of persuasive e-cigarette prevention messages. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire
Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.
Cornelius, Judith B.; St Lawrence, Janet S.
PURPOSE This study assessed African American adolescents’ receptivity to an HIV-prevention curriculum enhanced by text messaging. DESIGN AND METHODS Two focus groups were conducted with 14 African American adolescents regarding how an HIV-prevention curriculum could be enhanced for text messaging delivery. RESULTS The adolescents were receptive to the idea of text messaging HIV-prevention information but wanted to receive a maximum of three messages per day during the hours of 4:00–6:00 p.m. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS By taking the findings of this study, nurses, other healthcare providers, and community-based organizations can adapt evidence-based interventions for text messaging delivery to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:19356206
Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A
Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.
Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea; Krysinska, Karolina; Bryant, Marc; Spittal, Matthew J; Pirkis, Jane
Suicide and suicide-related behaviours are major public health concerns in Australia and worldwide. One universal intervention that has received an increased focus as a means of preventing suicide is the use of media campaigns. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the kinds of campaign messages that are safe and effective. The current paper aims to expand on this knowledge. The study objectives were to: (1) explore what suicide prevention experts consider to be essential characteristics of effective and safe suicide media campaigns; (2) develop suicide prevention media messages; and (3) explore the impact that these messages might have on different audiences. We conducted a workshop in July 2015 which was attended by 21 experts (professionals with knowledge about suicide prevention and/or media campaigns, and people with a lived experience of suicide). The experts were split into three groups, and each group developed a suicide prevention message for one of the following target audiences: people at risk of suicide; family and peers of people at risk of suicide; and people bereaved by suicide. The three groups generally agreed that these messages had to include two key characteristics: (1) validate or reflect the target group's issues and needs; and (2) promote help-seeking behaviours. They noted, however, that messages that might have a positive impact for one target audience might inadvertently have a negative impact for other target audiences. In particular, they were concerned that messages designed for family and peers about being supportive and looking for warning signs might leave those who had been bereaved by suicide feeling isolated, guilty or traumatised. Workshop participants highlighted that gaps exist in relation to the use of appropriate language, were unsure of how to create destigmatising messages without normalising or sensationalising suicide and commented on the lack of evaluative evidence for the efficacy of media campaigns. Developing
Hevey, David; Dolan, Michelle
The congruency hypothesis posits that approach-orientated individuals are persuaded to engage in prevention behaviours by positively framed messages; conversely, negatively framed messages are more persuasive in encouraging those who are avoidance-orientated. A 2 (frame: loss vs gain) × 2 (motivation: avoidance vs approach) design examined the effects of skin cancer information on sun-protective intentions and free sunscreen sample requests among 533 young adults. Gain-framed messages had the strongest effect on sun-protective intentions for approach-oriented individuals, whereas loss-framed messages had the strongest effect on avoidance-oriented individuals. Message framing effects on precautionary sun behaviour intentions were moderated by motivational differences. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8–10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers (n = 30 participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel (n = 10 reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0% and accessing the Internet (100.0%. The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%. Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach.
de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan
Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Johnson, K; LaTour, M S
This study was designed to examine the effects of fear appeals in AIDS prevention messages and to determine whether or not males and females differ in their response to these appeals. MANOVA results from a sample of 179 junior and senior business students at a mid-Atlantic urban university indicate that significant differences in message effects were associated with type of appeal, gender of the respondent, and the interaction between appeal and gender.
The aims of the study were to elicit the perceptions of young people in Tanzania on the role of fear appeals in HIV-prevention messages and to identify important contextual factors that may influence young people's perceptions of HIV-prevention posters. A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals using the extended parallel process model (EPPM) as a guide. Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with alternating high and low-threat messages (fear appeals), and then asked questions about their overall beliefs about HIV and AIDS, as well as about their response in terms of perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, the severity of the message, and their perceptions of self-efficacy and response efficacy. The images and messages that specifically targeted young people were highest in inducing perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, while pictorial descriptions of the physical consequences of HIV infection and those messages related to the stigma and discrimination faced by HIV-infected or affected people induced greater perceptions of severity. The information-based posters rated high in inducing response efficacy, while none of the images seemed to convince young people that they had the self-efficacy to perform the recommended health behaviours. The young people expressed a preference for fear-based appeals and a belief that this could work well in HIV-prevention efforts, yet they also stated a desire for more information-based messages about how to protect themselves. Finally, the messages evoking the most emotional responses were those that had been locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns. Finding the appropriate balance between fear and efficacy in HIV-prevention messages is imperative. Further research is needed to better understand how and when fear appeals work and do not work in African settings, especially among young people.
Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A
Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.
Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita
Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.
Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L
Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.
Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.
Chernick, Lauren Stephanie; Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were "brief," "professional," and "nonaccusatory." Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive "confidential" care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to maintain "surprise." No participant feared that text
Berrouiguet, Sofian; Alavi, Zarrin; Vaiva, Guillaume; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique; Vidailhet, Pierre; Gravey, Michel; Guillodo, Elise; Brandt, Sara; Walter, Michel
Suicidal behaviour and deliberate self-harm are common among adults. Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services can reduce reattempt risk. Feasibility trials demonstrated that intervention through text message was also effective in preventing suicide repetition amongst suicide attempters. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of text message intervention versus traditional treatment on reducing the risk of suicide attempt repetition among adults after self-harm. The study will be a 2-year multicentric randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants will be adults discharged after self-harm, from emergency services or after a short hospitalization. Participants will be recruited over a 12-month period. The intervention is comprised of an SMS that will be sent at h48, D7, D15 and monthly. The text message enquires about the patients' well-being and includes information regarding individual sources of help and evidence-based self help strategies. Participants will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. As primary endpoint, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide in each group at 6 months. As secondary endpoints, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide at 13 month, the number of suicide attempts in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 13 month, the number of death by suicide in the intervention and control groups at month 6 and 13. In both groups, suicidal ideations, will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. Medical costs and satisfaction will be assessed at month 13. This paper describes the design and deployment of a trial SIAM; an easily reproducible intervention that aims to reduce suicide risk in adults after self-harm. It utilizes several characteristics of interventions that have shown a significant reduction in the number of suicide reattempts. We
Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle
This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication.
Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J Michael; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM) and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heteronormative culture and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. Seventy-nine MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger study of SEM. Three macro themes-audience, location, and community representation-emerged from the analysis, as did the influence of homonormativity on the acceptability of SEM in HIV-prevention messages.
Aunzo, Rodulfo T., Jr.
A lot of teachers are complaining that students are "texting" inside the classroom even during class hours. With this, this research study "on students' perception before the integration and the students' attitude after the integration of text messaging inside the classroom during the mathematics teaching-learning process was…
Haney, Erica; Singh, Kavita
The AIDS epidemic has contributed to a drastic increase in the number of orphans in Zimbabwe. Female adolescent orphans are particularly in jeopardy of contracting HIV due to disadvantages including extreme poverty, low education, and the absent of parental oversight which can lead to higher risk-taking sexual behaviors. By understanding where girls receive education about HIV and who they rely on for information, organizations can effectively modify existing programs to better target this at-risk population. For this study a household survey was conducted which included 216 orphans and 324 non-orphans (n=540), aged 12-17 years, in the resource-poor setting of Hwange District, Zimbabwe. The aims of this article were to examine the differences between orphans and non-orphans in HIV prevention message exposure, level of motivation for learning about HIV, and communication with caregivers about safe sex. The household survey revealed that younger orphans, aged 12-15 years, were more motivated to learn about HIV and had greater HIV messaging exposure in school than non-orphans. These exposure and differences in the levels of motivation between groups dissipated at older ages. Our research also discovered less caregiver communication among orphans than non-orphans. Our findings suggest that HIV programs targeting orphans need to do a better job at keeping older orphans interested in HIV prevention at a time when it matters most. Furthermore, intervention strategies that provide caregiver support are instrumental in effectively delivering prevention messages to girls at home.
Robinson, Jo; Bailey, Eleanor; Hetrick, Sarah; Paix, Steve; O'Donnell, Matt; Cox, Georgina; Ftanou, Maria; Skehan, Jaelea
Social media is increasingly being used by young people for health-related issues, including communicating about suicide. Due to the concerns about causing distress or inducing suicidal thoughts or behaviors, to date young people neither have been engaged in the development of social media-based suicide prevention interventions nor have interventions focused on educating young people about safe ways to communicate about suicide online. Given the potential that social media holds to deliver messages to vast numbers of people across space and time and the fact that young people often prefer to seek help from their friends and peers, safely educating and engaging young people to develop suicide prevention messages that can be delivered via social media is an obvious next step. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide education to a small number of secondary school students about safe ways to communicate about suicide via social media; (2) engage the same young people in the development of a suite of social media-based suicide prevention multimedia messages; (3) assess the impact of this on participants; and (4) assess the acceptability and safety of the messages developed. This study involved two phases. In phase 1, 20 participants recruited from two schools took part in an 8- to 10-week program during which they were provided with psychoeducation about mental health and suicide, including how to talk safely about suicide online, and they were then supported to design and develop their own media messages. These participants completed an evaluation questionnaire at the conclusion of the program. In phase 2, a larger group of participants (n=69), recruited via an opt-in process, viewed the media messages and completed a short questionnaire about each one. Participants in phase 1 enjoyed the program and reported that they learned new skills, such as how to talk safely about suicide online, and felt more able to provide emotional support to others (16/20, 80%). No
Acosta, Joie; Ramchand, Rajeev; Becker, Amariah
Although communication is a key component of US strategies to prevent suicide and there are a number of marketing campaigns promoting messages that suicide is a preventable public health problem, there has been little evaluation of these campaigns. The study describes the development of a checklist of best practices for suicide prevention communication campaigns and the use of the checklist to evaluate California's investment in "Know the Signs" (KTS-M), a suicide prevention mass media campaign. We conducted a literature review and solicited expert feedback to identify best practices and then used the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method to assess whether KTS-M was consistent with the identified best practices. Overall, experts agreed that KTS-M adhered to most of the 46 checklist items and suggested that the campaign was among the best suicide prevention media campaigns they had observed. The checklist was developed through expert input and literature review and focuses only on media campaigns. Given the nascent state of the evidence about what makes an effective suicide prevention message and the growing number of campaigns, the checklist of best practices reflects one way of promoting quality in this evolving field. The consistency between the experts' comments and their ratings of KTS-M suggests that the checklist may provide important guidance to inform the development of future campaigns and the evaluation of ongoing campaigns.
Broussard, Sharee LeBlanc
This is an abbreviation of the author's dissertation. Because integrated marketing communication (IMC) research has traditionally been problematic, this study used an existing scale to determine that higher educational institutional advancement (alumni, marketing-communications, development) is an appropriate venue to study the process model of…
During the third week of February our global community of Earth and space scientists witnessed the shocking fall from grace of an accomplished AGU member who betrayed the principles of scientific integrity. In doing so he compromised AGU's credibility as a scientific society, weakened the public's trust in scientists, and produced fresh fuel for the unproductive and seemingly endless ideological firestorm surrounding the reality of the Earth's changing climate. Peter Gleick resigned as chair of AGU's Task Force on Scientific Ethics on 16 February, prior to admitting in a blog post that he obtained documents from the Heartland Institute under false pretenses. His transgression cannot be condoned, regardless of his motives. It is a tragedy that requires us to stop and reflect on what we value as scientists and how we want to be perceived by the public. Here are a few things that come immediately to mind:
Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.
O'Malley, Deborah A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E
This study examined how framed messages affect viewer attention to and cognitive processing of osteoporosis prevention print ads. Attention was measured with eye tracking technology. Cognitive processing was assessed through masked recall. A total of 60 college-aged women viewed 12 gain-framed, 12 loss-framed, and 12 neutral-framed ads. Number of fixations, dwell time, and recall of gain-framed osteoporosis prevention ads were higher than loss-framed or neutral-framed ads, p < .01. Message recall was positively correlated with the number of fixations and dwell time for the gain-framed and neutral-framed messages, p < .01. These findings provide preliminary insight into potential mechanisms underlying message framing effects.
Déglise, Carole; Suggs, L Suzanne; Odermatt, Peter
The last decade has witnessed unprecedented growth in the number of mobile phones in the developing world, thus linking millions of previously unconnected people. The ubiquity of mobile phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention efforts. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of SMS interventions for disease prevention in developing countries and provide recommendations for future work. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was performed for papers published in English, French, and German before May 2011 that describe SMS applications for disease prevention in developing countries. A total of 34 SMS applications were described, among which 5 had findings of an evaluation reported. The majority of SMS applications were pilot projects in various levels of sophistication; nearly all came from gray literature sources. Many applications were initiated by the project with modes of intervention varying between one-way or two-way communication, with or without incentives, and with educative games. Evaluated interventions were well accepted by the beneficiaries. The primary barriers identified were language, timing of messages, mobile network fluctuations, lack of financial incentives, data privacy, and mobile phone turnover. This review illustrates that while many SMS applications for disease prevention exist, few have been evaluated. The dearth of peer-reviewed studies and the limited evidence found in this systematic review highlight the need for high-quality efficacy studies examining behavioral, social, and economic outcomes of SMS applications and mobile phone interventions aimed to promote health in developing country contexts.
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...
Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.
Gokulakrishnan, P; Ganeshkumar, P
A Road Accident Prevention (RAP) scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN) structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET). The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident) is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i) the Road Side Unit (RSU) constructs a Prediction Report (PR) based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii) the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM) based on an abnormal PR, (iii) the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv) the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF) and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ). These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure). The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs) by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.
Bakker, A B
Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.
Background and Purpose: Racial and ethnic minority populations are disproportionally affected by obesity. Text messaging is a major feature of mobile phones and is popular because it allows people to receive information effectively, unobtrusively, and privately. However, the willingness to exercise and eat healthy to prevent obesity by receiving…
Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie
Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288
Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L
Background Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. Obj...
Levis, Denise M; Hillard, Christina L; Price, Simani M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Bonilla, Erika; Amin, Minal; Stowell, Jennifer D; Clark, Rebekah; Johnson, Delaney; Mask, Karen; Carpentieri, Cynthia; Cannon, Michael J
An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U.S. women. Fear appeal theories suggest that message recipients will take action if they feel fear. First, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 32) with women who had young children who tested positive for CMV. Second, we conducted eight focus groups (N = 70) in two phases and two cities (Phase 2: Atlanta, GA; Phase 3: San Diego, CA) with pregnant women and non-pregnant women who had young children. Few participants knew about CMV before the focus groups. Participants reviewed and gave feedback on messages created around fear appeals theory-based communication concepts. The following concepts were tested in one or more of the three phases of research: CMV is severe, CMV is common, CMV is preventable, CMV preventive strategies are similar to other behavior changes women make during pregnancy, CMV preventive strategies can be incorporated in moderation to reduce exposure, and CMV is severe but preventable. Participants recommended communicating that CMV is common by using prevalence ratios (e.g., 1 in 150) or comparing CMV to other well-known disabilities. To convey the severity of CMV, participants preferred stories about CMV along with prevention strategies. Participants also welcomed prevention strategies when it included a message about risk reduction. In general, participants said messages were motivating, even if they felt that it could be difficult to make certain behavior changes. Findings from this research can contribute to future efforts to educate pregnant women about CMV
Full Text Available A Road Accident Prevention (RAP scheme based on Vehicular Backbone Network (VBN structure is proposed in this paper for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET. The RAP scheme attempts to prevent vehicles from highway road traffic accidents and thereby reduces death and injury rates. Once the possibility of an emergency situation (i.e. an accident is predicted in advance, instantly RAP initiates a highway road traffic accident prevention scheme. The RAP scheme constitutes the following activities: (i the Road Side Unit (RSU constructs a Prediction Report (PR based on the status of the vehicles and traffic in the highway roads, (ii the RSU generates an Emergency Warning Message (EWM based on an abnormal PR, (iii the RSU forms a VBN structure and (iv the RSU disseminates the EWM to the vehicles that holds the high Risk Factor (RF and travels in High Risk Zone (HRZ. These vehicles might reside either within the RSU's coverage area or outside RSU's coverage area (reached using VBN structure. The RAP scheme improves the performance of EWM dissemination in terms of increase in notification and decrease in end-to-end delay. The RAP scheme also reduces infrastructure cost (number of RSUs by formulating and deploying the VBN structure. The RAP scheme with VBN structure improves notification by 19 percent and end-to-end delay by 14.38 percent for a vehicle density of 160 vehicles. It is also proved from the simulation experiment that the performance of RAP scheme is promising in 4-lane highway roads.
Kosal, Haluk; Skoog, Ronald A.
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) is designed to provide a connection-less transfer of signaling messages of reasonable length. Customers having access to user signaling bearer capabilities as specified in the ANSI T1.623 and CCITT Q.931 standards can send bursts of correlated messages (e.g., by doing a file transfer that results in the segmentation of a block of data into a number of consecutive signaling messages) through SS7 networks. These message bursts with short interarrival times could have an adverse impact on the delay performance of the SS7 networks. A control mechanism, Credit Manager, is investigated in this paper to regulate incoming traffic to the SS7 network by imposing appropriate time separation between messages when the incoming stream is too bursty. The credit manager has a credit bank where credits accrue at a fixed rate up to a prespecified credit bank capacity. When a message arrives, the number of octets in that message is compared to the number of credits in the bank. If the number of credits is greater than or equal to the number of octets, then the message is accepted for transmission and the number of credits in the bank is decremented by the number of octets. If the number of credits is less than the number of octets, then the message is delayed until enough credits are accumulated. This paper presents simulation results showing delay performance of the SS7 ISUP and TCAP message traffic with a range of correlated message traffic, and control parameters of the credit manager (i.e., credit generation rate and bank capacity) are determined that ensure the traffic entering the SS7 network is acceptable. The results show that control parameters can be set so that for any incoming traffic stream there is no detrimental impact on the SS7 ISUP and TCAP message delay, and the credit manager accepts a wide range of traffic patterns without causing significant delay.
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine
Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Panayiotou, Andrie G
Background: Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods: Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana St...
Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health
Adler, Alma J; Martin, Nicole; Mariani, Javier; Tajer, Carlos D; Owolabi, Onikepe O; Free, Caroline; Serrano, Norma C; Casas, Juan P; Perel, Pablo
Worldwide at least 100 million people are thought to have prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). This population has a five times greater chance of suffering a recurrent cardiovascular event than people without known CVD. Secondary CVD prevention is defined as action aimed to reduce the probability of recurrence of such events. Drug interventions have been shown to be cost-effective in reducing this risk and are recommended in international guidelines. However, adherence to recommended treatments remains sub-optimal. In order to influence non-adherence, there is a need to develop scalable and cost-effective behaviour-change interventions. To assess the effects of mobile phone text messaging in patients with established arterial occlusive events on adherence to treatment, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and adverse effects. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on Web of Science on 7 November 2016, and two clinical trial registers on 12 November 2016. We contacted authors of included studies for missing information and searched reference lists of relevant papers. We applied no language or date restrictions. We included randomised trials with at least 50% of the participants with established arterial occlusive events. We included trials investigating interventions using short message service (SMS) or multimedia messaging service (MMS) with the aim to improve adherence to medication for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Eligible comparators were no intervention or other modes of communication. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. In addition, we attempted to contact all authors on how the SMS were developed. We included seven trials (reported in 13 reports) with 1310 participants randomised. Follow-up ranged from one month to 12 months. Due to heterogeneity in the methods, population and outcome measures, we were unable to conduct meta-analysis on these studies
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan
Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.
Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani
Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.
Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.
Ducrotoy, M J; Yahyaoui Azami, H; El Berbri, I; Bouslikhane, M; Fassi Fihri, O; Boué, F; Petavy, A F; Dakkak, A; Welburn, S; Bardosh, K L
Integrating the control of multiple neglected zoonoses at the community-level holds great potential, but critical data is missing to inform the design and implementation of different interventions. In this paper we present an evaluation of an integrated health messaging intervention, using powerpoint presentations, for five bacterial (brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis) and dog-associated (rabies, cystic echinococcosis and leishmaniasis) zoonotic diseases in Sidi Kacem Province, northwest Morocco. Conducted by veterinary and epidemiology students between 2013 and 2014, this followed a process-based approach that encouraged sequential adaptation of images, key messages, and delivery strategies using auto-evaluation and end-user feedback. We describe the challenges and opportunities of this approach, reflecting on who was targeted, how education was conducted, and what tools and approaches were used. Our results showed that: (1) replacing words with local pictures and using "hands-on" activities improved receptivity; (2) information "overload" easily occurred when disease transmission pathways did not overlap; (3) access and receptivity at schools was greater than at the community-level; and (4) piggy-backing on high-priority diseases like rabies offered an important avenue to increase knowledge of other zoonoses. We conclude by discussing the merits of incorporating our validated education approach into the school curriculum in order to influence long-term behaviour change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Loh, Ivory H; Schwendler, Teresa; Trude, Angela C B; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth T; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Lange, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel
Social media and text messaging show promise as public health interventions, but little evaluation of implementation exists. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) was a multilevel, multicomponent (wholesalers, food stores, recreation centers) childhood obesity prevention trial that included social media and text-messaging components. The BHCK was implemented in 28 low-income areas of Baltimore City, Maryland, in 2 waves. The texting intervention targeted 241 low-income African American caregivers (of 283), who received 3 texts/week reinforcing key messages, providing nutrition information, and weekly goals. Regular posting on social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter) targeted community members and local stakeholders. High implementation standards were set a priori (57 for social media, 11 for texting), with low implementation defined as social media implementation improved from low-moderate to high reach, dose delivered, and fidelity. Text messaging increased from moderate to high in reach and dose delivered, fidelity decreased from high to moderate. Data were used to monitor and revise the BHCK intervention throughout implementation. Our model for evaluating text messaging-based and social media-based interventions may be applicable to other settings.
Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W
Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Noar, Seth M; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Zeitany, Alexandra; Kelley, Dannielle; Morales-Pico, Brenda; Thomas, Nancy E
The lack of a theory-based understanding of indoor tanning is a major impediment to the development of effective messages to prevent or reduce this behavior. This study applied the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations (CITE) scale in an analysis of indoor tanning behavior among sorority women (total N = 775). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that CITE positive and negative expectations were robust, multidimensional factors and that a hierarchical structure fit the data well. Social cognitive theory-based structural equation models demonstrated that appearance-oriented variables were significantly associated with outcome expectations. Outcome expectations were, in turn, significantly associated with temptations to tan, intention to tan indoors, and indoor tanning behavior. The implications of these findings for the development of messages to prevent and reduce indoor tanning behavior are discussed in two domains: (a) messages that attempt to change broader societal perceptions about tan skin, and (b) messages that focus more narrowly on indoor tanning-challenging positive expectations, enhancing negative expectations, and encouraging substitution of sunless tanning products.
Grau, Lauretta E; Green, Traci C; Singer, Merrill; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Marshall, Patricia A; Heimer, Robert
To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. Following a month-long campaign in which intervention packets containing novel injection hygiene supplies and written materials were distributed to every client at each visit, intervention effectiveness was evaluated by comparing exposed and unexposed participants' self-reported injection practices. Over one-quarter of the exposed group began using the novel hygiene supplies which included an absorbent pad ("Safety Square") to stanch blood flow post-injection. Compared to those unexposed to the intervention, a smaller but still substantial number of exposed participants continued to inappropriately use alcohol pads post-injection despite exposure to written messages to the contrary (22.8% vs. 30.0%). It should also be noted that for those exposed to the intervention, 8% may have misused Safety Squares as part of pre-injection preparation of their injection site; attention should be paid to providing explicit and accurate instruction on the use of any health promotion materials being distributed. While this study indicates that passive introduction of risk reduction materials in injection drug users through syringe exchange programs can be an economical and relatively simple method of changing behaviors, discussions with SEP clients regarding explicit instructions about injection hygiene and appropriate use of novel risk reduction materials is also needed in order to optimize the potential for adoption of health promotion behaviors. The study results suggest that SEP staff should provide their clients with brief, frequent verbal reminders about the appropriate use when distributing risk reduction materials. Issues related to format and language of written materials are discussed.
Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L
Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students.
Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine
Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M; Christensen, Emily M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention behaviors involving handwashing, not sharing food and eating utensils, not kissing a child on the lips and not placing a pacifier in the mouth after it was in a child's mouth. An online panel of women 18-40 years, who were pregnant or planning a pregnancy were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive 1 of 4 CMV fact sheets. The fact sheets were framed as either what could be gained or be lost by following (or not) the recommendations and the likelihood of being affected by CMV (i.e., small chance or one of the most common infections in infants). The questionnaire measured CMV knowledge, participation in CMV risk or prevention behaviors, perceived severity of and susceptibly to CMV, and the perceived control over and the efficacy of recommended prevention behaviors. The dependent variable, intention to modify behavior, was an index score that ranged from 0 to 16 with higher values indicating greater intention. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between all independent variables and overall behavioral intention. The sample included 840 women; 15.5% were familiar with CMV. Behavioral intention was high (M = 10.43; SD = 5.13) but did not differ across the message frames (p = 0.23). Overall, behavioral intention was predicted by CMV knowledge, message credibility, perceived severity of CMV, perceived behavioral control and response efficacy. Significant interactions with gain vs. loss frame were observed for perceived behavioral control (p = 0.03) and response efficacy (p = .003). Framing CMV messages by what women stand to gain or lose interacts with perceived behavioral control and response efficacy to influence behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control and response efficacy were most predictive of behavioral intention overall regardless of frame. Messaging that focuses
Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E
Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.
Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick
Two experiments were conducted among adolescents in 2011 in urban parts of Belgium, Europe. The effectiveness of two-sided binge drinking and marijuana prevention messages was investigated in relation to argument type, refutation, and issue ambivalence. Study 1 (n = 373) serves as a baseline study for study 2 (n = 156). Data were collected through a printed questionnaire in classrooms in Flemish secondary schools. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Implications for health practitioners, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are given.
Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.
Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...
Hannah Maria Jennings
Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified
African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are ...
Tate, Deborah F; LaRose, Jessica G; Griffin, Leah P; Erickson, Karen E; Robichaud, Erica F; Perdue, Letitia; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R
Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP). We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic. The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited. These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).
Pinnock, Katherine; Evans, Ruth
As part of the prevention and social inclusion agenda, the Children's Fund, set up in 2000, has developed preventative services for children at risk of social exclusion. Drawing on a large qualitative dataset of interviews conducted in 2004/05 with children, young people and their parents/carers who accessed Children Fund services, this article…
Satia, Jessie A.; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L.
Aims To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents, and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Methods Semi-structured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African-American male and female adolescents, 12-16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the four sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term gain-, long-term gain-, short-term loss-, and long-term loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Results The majority of respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 (61.5%)), and fat consumption (7 (53.8%)). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. Conclusions Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework, should focus on gain-framed short-term messages regarding cancer prevention, and should employ the Internet for data collection and intervention and information delivery. PMID:20142738
Full Text Available Certificateless-based signcryption overcomes inherent shortcomings in traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI and Key Escrow problem. It imparts efficient methods to design PKIs with public verifiability and cipher text authenticity with minimum dependency. As a classic primitive in public key cryptography, signcryption performs validity of cipher text without decryption by combining authentication, confidentiality, public verifiability and cipher text authenticity much more efficiently than the traditional approach. In this paper, we first define a security model for certificateless-based signcryption called, Complex Conjugate Differential Integrated Factor (CC-DIF scheme by introducing complex conjugates through introduction of the security parameter and improving secured message distribution rate. However, both partial private key and secret value changes with respect to time. To overcome this weakness, a new certificateless-based signcryption scheme is proposed by setting the private key through Differential (Diff Equation using an Integration Factor (DiffEIF, minimizing computational cost and communication overhead. The scheme is therefore said to be proven secure (i.e. improving the secured message distributing rate against certificateless access control and signcryption-based scheme. In addition, compared with the three other existing schemes, the CC-DIF scheme has the least computational cost and communication overhead for secured message communication in mobile network.
Alagarsamy, Sumithra; Rajagopalan, S P
Certificateless-based signcryption overcomes inherent shortcomings in traditional Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Key Escrow problem. It imparts efficient methods to design PKIs with public verifiability and cipher text authenticity with minimum dependency. As a classic primitive in public key cryptography, signcryption performs validity of cipher text without decryption by combining authentication, confidentiality, public verifiability and cipher text authenticity much more efficiently than the traditional approach. In this paper, we first define a security model for certificateless-based signcryption called, Complex Conjugate Differential Integrated Factor (CC-DIF) scheme by introducing complex conjugates through introduction of the security parameter and improving secured message distribution rate. However, both partial private key and secret value changes with respect to time. To overcome this weakness, a new certificateless-based signcryption scheme is proposed by setting the private key through Differential (Diff) Equation using an Integration Factor (DiffEIF), minimizing computational cost and communication overhead. The scheme is therefore said to be proven secure (i.e. improving the secured message distributing rate) against certificateless access control and signcryption-based scheme. In addition, compared with the three other existing schemes, the CC-DIF scheme has the least computational cost and communication overhead for secured message communication in mobile network.
Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon
Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger st...
Full Text Available For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi2 (25 km2 network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016. Keywords: Integration, Variable message sign, Compliance behavior, Driving simulator, Traffic simulator, Discrete choice analysis
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Neupane, Shailes; Castelnau, Laure; Brown, Jane D
In response to the growing numbers of young people affected by HIV around the world, MTV (Music TV), the world's largest television network, has aired a global HIV prevention campaign since 1999, expanding it into a multicomponent campaign in 2002. Questions have been raised, however, about whether MTV is an appropriate channel for these messages, given its provocative content and its reach to those at the upper end of the socioeconomic scale. To address questions about who MTV reaches, viewership data were analyzed from baseline surveys conducted as part of an evaluation of the 2002 HIV prevention campaign. The two sites included in this analysis were Kathmandu, Nepal, and São Paulo, Brazil-each with very different cultures and media environments. We found that, in general, heavier viewers of MTV are younger, better educated, and more dependent on their parents, and they have more access to satellite television and the Internet. MTV viewing was associated with positive attitudes toward HIV prevention behaviors (except for abstinence until marriage) but not with premarital sexual activity.
Bull, Prince; McCormick, Carlos
This study investigated the use of text messaging as an educational tool in a pre-algebra course at a community college in the central region of North Carolina. The research was conducted in two pre-algebra classes with thirty-three students and one instructor. Data were gathered using qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method design…
Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.
Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…
Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.
Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…
The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.
Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson
Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.
Satia, Jessie A; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L
There is a dearth of knowledge regarding factors that may motivate African American adolescents to consume healthier diets. To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect Theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Semistructured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African American male and female adolescents, aged 12 to 16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect Theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the 4 sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term, gain-framed; long-term, gain-framed; short-term, loss-framed; and long-term, loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Most respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 [61.5%]) and fat consumption (7 [53.8%]). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. The gain-framed, short-term messages were most salient for motivating the majority of respondents to consume a healthy diet and most expressed a strong interest in participating in programs about diet and nutrition, with the Internet as the preferred communication channel. Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework
Full Text Available Abstract Background During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. Methods We explored residents’ beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person. Results The residents initially believed that the outbreak was caused by supernatural forces and continued drinking raw date palm sap despite messages from local health authorities to stop. Participants in community meetings stated that the initial messages did not explain that bats were the source of this virus. After our intervention, participants responded that they now understood how NiV could be transmitted and would abstain from raw sap consumption and maintain safer behaviours while caring for patients. Conclusions During outbreaks, one-way behaviour change communication without meaningful causal explanations is unlikely to be effective. Based on the cultural context, interactive communication strategies in lay language with supporting evidence can make biomedical prevention messages credible in affected communities, even among those who initially invoke supernatural causal explanations.
Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M Saiful; Begum, Momtaz; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Sultana, Rebeca; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P
During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. We explored residents' beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person. The residents initially believed that the outbreak was caused by supernatural forces and continued drinking raw date palm sap despite messages from local health authorities to stop. Participants in community meetings stated that the initial messages did not explain that bats were the source of this virus. After our intervention, participants responded that they now understood how NiV could be transmitted and would abstain from raw sap consumption and maintain safer behaviours while caring for patients. During outbreaks, one-way behaviour change communication without meaningful causal explanations is unlikely to be effective. Based on the cultural context, interactive communication strategies in lay language with supporting evidence can make biomedical prevention messages credible in affected communities, even among those who initially invoke supernatural causal explanations.
Thiha, Phyo; Pisani, Anthony R; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A
Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for "upstream" youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer 'opinion leader' programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength-an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program-and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target population to spread public health messages. ©Phyo Thiha, Anthony
Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ram, Jagannathan; Selvam, Sundaram; Simon, Mary; Nanditha, Arun; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Godsland, Ian F; Chaturvedi, Nish; Majeed, Azeem; Oliver, Nick; Toumazou, Christofer; Alberti, K George; Johnston, Desmond G
Type 2 diabetes can often be prevented by lifestyle modification; however, successful lifestyle intervention programmes are labour intensive. Mobile phone messaging is an inexpensive alternative way to deliver educational and motivational advice about lifestyle modification. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone messaging that encouraged lifestyle change could reduce incident type 2 diabetes in Indian Asian men with impaired glucose tolerance. We did a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial between Aug 10, 2009, and Nov 30, 2012, at ten sites in southeast India. Working Indian men (aged 35-55 years) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence to a mobile phone messaging intervention or standard care (control group). Participants in the intervention group received frequent mobile phone messages compared with controls who received standard lifestyle modification advice at baseline only. Field staff and participants were, by necessity, not masked to study group assignment, but allocation was concealed from laboratory personnel as well as principal and co-investigators. The primary outcome was incidence of type 2 diabetes, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00819455. We assessed 8741 participants for eligibility. 537 patients were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone messaging intervention (n=271) or standard care (n=266). The cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was lower in those who received mobile phone messages than in controls: 50 (18%) participants in the intervention group developed type 2 diabetes compared with 73 (27%) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·64, 95% CI 0·45-0·92; p=0·015). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of type 2 diabetes was 11 (95% CI 6-55). One patient in the control group died suddenly at the end of the first year. We recorded no other serious adverse events. Mobile
Full Text Available Openfire is an open source IM network and a single unified application that meets the needs of chat reference and internal communications. In Fall 2009, the California State University San Marcos (CSUSM Library began use of Openfire and other Jive software instant messaging technologies, to simultaneously improve our existing IM-integrated chat reference software and implement an internal IM network. This case study describes the chat reference and internal communications environment at the CSUSM Library and the selection, implementation, and evaluation of Openfire. In addition, the authors discuss the benefits of deploying an integrated instant messaging and chat reference network.
Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd
The fifth brief in the series about special operations highlights the possible strategic role of special operations in connection with Denmark's revitalized vision of integration of the state's instruments to create security through preventive stabilization efforts. The brief offers suggestion...
Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu
Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship
Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant N.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu
Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship
Masdin; Sudi-Ariyanto; Nuryanti
The growth of national energy demand in the future still become a great challenge for energy supply sector in Indonesia. The current energy supply strategy focuses the development and diversification of all energy options including fossil fuel, renewable energy and nuclear energy. Based on the Comprehensive Assessment Of Different Energy Source For Electricity Demand Study (CADES), final energy demand will grow from 4,065 PJ in 2000 to about 8,200 PJ in 2025. In this paper, the analysis of national energy system network will be divided into 2 regions, namely Java Bali region and Outside Java Bali region. Period of time horizon chosen in this study is 25 years (2000 to 2025). Simulation of network system configuration based on minimum objective function criteria was done by using MESSAGE (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) computer program. The focus of the analysis in this paper is simulation of electricity planning sector for Java Bali region. The result of simulation shows that for scenarios with no limitation on all fuel for power plant, scenario where fuel oil as constant supply for power plant and also configuration with limitation on gas supply, Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) does not appear during the study period using cost parameter set in this study. If there are limitations on gas supply and constrains of emissions (SO 2 and CO 2 ) due to coal combustion, NPP would become competitive and appear at about year 2015. (author)
Berrouiguet, Sofian; Larsen, Mark Erik; Mesmeur, Catherine; Gravey, Michel; Billot, Romain; Walter, Michel; Lemey, Christophe; Lenca, Philippe
Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services after a suicide attempt (SA) can reduce reattempt risk. Pilot studies have demonstrated that interventions using mobile health (mHealth) technologies are feasible in a suicide prevention setting. The aim of this study was to report three cases of patients recruited in the Suicide Intervention Assisted by Messages (SIAM) study to describe how a mobile intervention may influence follow-up. SIAM is a 2-year, multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants in the intervention group receive SIAM text messages 48 hours after discharge, then at day 8 and day 15, and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The study includes participants aged 18 years or older, who have attended a participating hospital for an SA, and have been discharged from the emergency department (ED) or a psychiatric unit (PU) for a stay of less than 7 days. Eligible participants are randomized between the SIAM intervention messages and a control group. In this study, we present three cases from the ongoing SIAM study that demonstrate the capability of a mobile-based brief contact intervention for triggering patient-initiated contact with a crisis support team at various time points throughout the mobile-based follow-up period. Out of the 244 patients recruited in the SIAM randomized controlled trial, three cases were selected to illustrate the impact of mHealth on suicide risk management. Participants initiated contact with the emergency crisis support service after receiving text messages up to 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Contact was initiated immediately following receipt of a text message or up to 6 days following a message. This text message-based brief contact intervention has demonstrated the potential to reconnect suicidal individuals with crisis support services while they are experiencing
Mitchell, Brian R.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Schweiger, E. William; Miller, Kathryn M.; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Grace, James B.
This chapter describes and illustrates how concepts of ecological integrity, thresholds, and reference conditions can be integrated into a research and monitoring framework for natural resource management. Ecological integrity has been defined as a measure of the composition, structure, and function of an ecosystem in relation to the system’s natural or historical range of variation, as well as perturbations caused by natural or anthropogenic agents of change. Using ecological integrity to communicate with managers requires five steps, often implemented iteratively: (1) document the scale of the project and the current conceptual understanding and reference conditions of the ecosystem, (2) select appropriate metrics representing integrity, (3) define externally verified assessment points (metric values that signify an ecological change or need for management action) for the metrics, (4) collect data and calculate metric scores, and (5) summarize the status of the ecosystem using a variety of reporting methods. While we present the steps linearly for conceptual clarity, actual implementation of this approach may require addressing the steps in a different order or revisiting steps (such as metric selection) multiple times as data are collected. Knowledge of relevant ecological thresholds is important when metrics are selected, because thresholds identify where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Metrics with thresholds at or just beyond the limits of a system’s range of natural variability can be excellent, since moving beyond the normal range produces a marked change in their values. Alternatively, metrics with thresholds within but near the edge of the range of natural variability can serve as harbingers of potential change. Identifying thresholds also contributes to decisions about selection of assessment points. In particular, if there is a significant resistance to perturbation in an ecosystem, with threshold
Ramírez, A Susana
In general, efforts to target Latinos are made through Spanish-language messages, yet 75% of U.S. Latinos are bilingual or English dominant. Acculturation (adapting mainstream traits) is associated with increased lifestyle-related risk behaviors. Latinos maintain cultural traits and ethnic identification even as they appear to acculturate (e.g., through language). This raises questions about how to communicate health information to more-acculturated Latinos who are not reached by traditional Spanish outreach yet may not identify with general-market messages. This study tested the relative efficacy of English-language messages targeted to Latinas, compared with general-market messages, among highly acculturated Latina women and non-Latina White women. In this pair of online experiments, Latinas (n = 715) and non-Latina White women (n = 704) rated the perceived effectiveness of general-market versus Latina-targeted Pap smear and mammogram public service announcements. In 1 of 2 experiments ethnically targeted messages were rated relatively more effective for the intended audience and equally effective for the general audience. The author discusses implications for how campaigns reach U.S. Latinos across the acculturation spectrum.
Alta C. van Dyk
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how clergy are dealing with HIV prevention and sexuality education of young people in their congregations. An electronic questionnaire was filled in by 142 clergy from white Afrikaans-speaking churches in the Reformed tradition. Results showed that 77% clergy believed that unmarried young people in their congregations are sexually active. More than 85% clergy agreed that it is the task of the church to provide sexuality and HIV prevention education to young congregants. However, not many clergy (13% offered HIV prevention programmes for young people in their own congregations. The main HIV prevention message 85% of clergy were prepared to share with young congregants was �abstinence only� or �your body is the temple of God�. Only 15% clergy (significantly more female clergy were prepared to offer comprehensive sexuality education (abstinence PLUS programmes. The HIV prevention message of the church should at least be in line with the lived experiences and reality of its youth in today�s society. The church can no longer afford to alienate young people through moralism only. She needs an approach that satisfies both morality and reality.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has implications for the fields of psychology, HIV and AIDS research and pastoral care. It challenges the way the church prepares young people to cope with HIV in a modern society and suggests change in terms of a greater participation in the sexuality education of young people.
Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S
Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport.
Liao, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xiufang; Jiang, Min
This article proposes a single-machine-based integration model to meet the requirements of production scheduling and preventive maintenance in group production. To describe the production for identical/similar and different jobs, this integrated model considers the learning and forgetting effects. Based on machine degradation, the deterioration effect is also considered. Moreover, perfect maintenance and minimal repair are adopted in this integrated model. The multi-objective of minimizing total completion time and maintenance cost is taken to meet the dual requirements of delivery date and cost. Finally, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve this optimization model, and the computation results demonstrate that this integrated model is effective and reliable.
Larizgoitia, Iker; Muguira, Leire; Vazquez, Juan Ignacio
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming extremely popular in the development of context aware systems. Traditionally WSN have been focused on capturing data, which was later analyzed and interpreted in a server with more computational power. In this kind of scenario the problem of representing the sensor information needs to be addressed. Every node in the network might have different sensors attached; therefore their correspondent packet structures will be different. The server has to be aware of the meaning of every single structure and data in order to be able to interpret them. Multiple sensors, multiple nodes, multiple packet structures (and not following a standard format) is neither scalable nor interoperable. Context aware systems have solved this problem with the use of semantic technologies. They provide a common framework to achieve a standard definition of any domain. Nevertheless, these representations are computationally expensive, so a WSN cannot afford them. The work presented in this paper tries to bridge the gap between the sensor information and its semantic representation, by defining a simple architecture that enables the definition of this information natively in a semantic way, achieving the integration of the semantic information in the network packets. This will have several benefits, the most important being the possibility of promoting every WSN node to a real semantic information source.
Hall, C. E.; Hodel, A. S.; Hung, J. Y.
PID controllers are frequently used to control systems requiring zero steady-state error while maintaining requirements for settling time and robustness (gain/phase margins). PID controllers suffer significant loss of performance due to short-term integrator wind-up when used in systems with actuator saturation. We examine several existing and proposed methods for the prevention of integrator wind-up in both continuous and discrete time implementations.
Full Text Available This review presents a multidisciplinary framework for integrating the ecological, regulatory, procedural and technical aspects of forest management for fires prevention under Mediterranean environments. The aims are to: i provide a foreground of wildfire scenario; ii illustrate the theoretical background of forest fuel management; iii describe the available fuel management techniques and mechanical operations for fire prevention in forest and wildland-urban interfaces, with exemplification of case-studies; iv allocate fire prevention activities under the hierarchy of forest planning. The review is conceived as an outline commentary discussion targeted to professionals, technicians and government personnel involved in forestry and environmental management.
Cornelius, Judith B.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; Howard, Jacquelyn C.; Shah, Deval; Poka, Avinash; McDonald, Delilah; White, Ann C.
Purpose This study examined African American adolescents’ perceptions of a mobile cell phone (MCP)-enhanced intervention and development of an MCP-based HIV prevention intervention. Design and Methods One focus group was conducted with 11 adolescents who participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen Text Messaging project. Results Adolescents said they benefited from the MCP-enhanced approach and were receptive to the idea of developing an MCP-based intervention. Practice Implications Nurses can use the findings of this report as a starting point in examining the development of MCP-based sexuality education with parents and adolescents. PMID:22188273
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Nathan Wright; David A Klingbeil
Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-D...
Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith
To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McVey, Gail L; Walker, Kathryn S; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L; Simkins, Sari W; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly
Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness about 1) weight bias and its negative effect on health, 2) ways to balance healthy weight messaging to prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation, and 3) the incorporation of mental health promotion into healthy weight messaging. We conducted a full-day workshop with 342 Ontario public health promoters and administered a survey at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up. Participation in the full-day workshop led to significant decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes and to significant increases in self-efficacy to address weight bias. Participants reported that the training heightened their awareness of their own personal weight biases and the need to broaden their scope of healthy weight promotion to include mental health promotion. There was consensus that additional sessions are warranted to help translate knowledge into action. Buy-in and resource support at the organizational level was also seen as pivotal. Professional development training in the area of weight bias awareness is associated with decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes around thinness. Health promoters' healthy weight messaging was improved by learning to avoid messages that trigger weight and shape preoccupation or unhealthful eating practices among children and youth. Participants also learned ways to integrate mental health promotion and resiliency-building into daily practice.
Pihl, Patricia; Grytnes, Regine; Andersen, Lars Peter S
Research has shown that employees in special education settings are at high risk for work-related threats and violence. Previous research has not yet been able to identify the essential components of training programs that offer protection from work-related threats and violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how employees in special education schools deal with prevention of work-related threats and violence. Group interviews were conducted with 14 employees working at 5 special education schools. Results show that employees use a wide range of prevention strategies drawing on specific violence prevention techniques as well as professional pedagogical approaches. We propose that the prevention of threats and violence in special education schools can be understood as an integrated pedagogical practice operating on three interrelated levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bogale, Gebeyehu W; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R
In the style of radio programmes, we developed three episodes of audio HIV prevention education for illiterate women in Ethiopia. We used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between women on HIV prevention, and expert-oriented presentation formats, such as an interview with a male doctor. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between evaluation of presentation formats and overall liking of episodes, which is important for persuasive effects. Thirty women from rural Amhara listened to the episodes and, after listening, female data collectors interviewed the women on evaluation of presentation formats, overall liking of episodes, identification with the characters and convincingness. Evaluation of social-oriented presentation formats was strongly related to overall liking of episodes, but evaluation of expert-oriented presentation formats was not. This relation was mediated through convincingness and not through identification. We conclude that social-oriented presentation formats make messages more convincing and, consequently, improve overall liking and persuasive impact.
Roche, Robert P. (Cheshire, CT); Nowak, Michael P. (Bolton, CT)
A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cells juxtaposed with one another in the stack and each including a pair of plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes that face one another, and a quantity of liquid electrolyte present at least between the electrodes. A separator plate is interposed between each two successive electrodes of adjacent ones of the fuel cells and is unified therewith into an integral separator plate. Each integral separator plate is provided with a circumferentially complete barrier that prevents flow of shunt currents onto and on an outer peripheral surface of the separator plate. This barrier consists of electrolyte-nonwettable barrier members that are accommodated, prior to the formation of the integral separator plate, in corresponding edge recesses situated at the interfaces between the electrodes and the separator plate proper. Each barrier member extends over the entire length of the associated marginal portion and is flush with the outer periphery of the integral separator plate. This barrier also prevents cell-to-cell migration of any electrolyte that may be present at the outer periphery of the integral separator plate while the latter is incorporated in the fuel cell stack.
Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.
It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)
Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.
Styles, David; O'Brien, Kieran; Jones, Michael B
This paper presents an innovative, quantitative assessment of pollution avoidance attributable to environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing, using Ireland's pharmaceutical-manufacturing sector as a case study. Emissions data reported by pharmaceutical installations were aggregated into a pollution trend using an Environmental Emissions Index (EEI) based on Lifecycle Assessment methodologies. Complete sectoral emissions data from 2001 to 2007 were extrapolated back to 1995, based on available data. Production volume data were used to derive a sectoral production index, and determine 'no-improvement' emission trends, whilst questionnaire responses from 20 industry representatives were used to quantify the contribution of integrated licensing to emission avoidance relative to these trends. Between 2001 and 2007, there was a 40% absolute reduction in direct pollution from 27 core installations, and 45% pollution avoidance relative to hypothetical 'no-improvement' pollution. It was estimated that environmental regulation avoided 20% of 'no-improvement' pollution, in addition to 25% avoidance under business-as-usual. For specific emissions, avoidance ranged from 14% and 30 kt a(-1) for CO(2) to 88% and 598 t a(-1) for SO(x). Between 1995 and 2007, there was a 59% absolute reduction in direct pollution, and 76% pollution avoidance. Pollution avoidance was dominated by reductions in emissions of VOCs, SO(x) and NO(x) to air, and emissions of heavy metals to water. Pollution avoidance of 35% was attributed to integrated licensing, ranging from between 8% and 2.9 t a(-1) for phosphorus emissions to water to 49% and 3143 t a(-1) for SO(x) emissions to air. Environmental regulation enforced through integrated licensing has been the major driver of substantial pollution avoidance achieved by Ireland's pharmaceutical sector - through emission limit values associated with Best Available Techniques, emissions monitoring and reporting requirements, and
Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil; Ben-Daya, Mohamed
This paper integrates production, maintenance, and quality for an imperfect process in a multi-period multi-product capacitated lot-sizing context. The production system is modeled as an imperfect machine, whose the status is considered to be either in-control or out-of-control. When the machine is out of control, it produces a fraction of nonconforming items. During each period, this machine is inspected and imperfect preventive maintenance activities are simultaneously performed to reduce its age, proportional to the preventive maintenance level. The objective is to minimize the total cost, while satisfying the demand for all products. Our optimization model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values of production plan, and the maintenance policy, while taking into account quality related costs. A solution algorithm is developed and illustrative numerical examples are presented. It is found that the increase in PM level leads to reductions in quality control costs. Furthermore, if the cost of performing PM is high to the point where it is not compensated for by reductions in the quality related costs, then performing PM is not justifiable. Finally, using non-periodic preventive maintenance with the possibility of different preventive maintenance levels may result in an improvement of the total cost. - Highlights: • We integrate production, maintenance, and quality. • We evaluate all the expected costs. • Our model allows for a joint selection of the optimal values. • A solution algorithm is developed. • Increasing PM level will decrease quality control costs.
Were, Martin C; Kessler, Jason; Shen, Changyu; Sidle, John; Macharia, Stephen; Lizcano, John; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Kurth, Ann
Shortages of health workers and large number of HIV-infected persons in Africa mean that time to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and other messages to patients is limited. Using time-motion methodology, we documented the intensity and nature of counseling delivered to patients. The study was conducted at a rural and an urban HIV clinic in western Kenya. We recorded all activities of 190 adult patients on ART during their return clinic visits to assess type, frequency, and duration of counseling messages. Mean visit length for patients at the rural clinic was 44.5 (SD = 27.9) minutes and at urban clinic was 78.2 (SD = 42.1) minutes. Median time spent receiving any counseling during a visit was 4.07 minutes [interquartile range (IQR), 1.57-7.33] at rural and 3.99 (IQR, 2.87-6.25) minutes at urban, representing 11% and 8% of total mean visit time, respectively. Median time patients received ART adherence counseling was 1.29 (IQR, 0.77-2.83) minutes at rural and 1.76 (IQR, 1.23-2.83) minutes at urban (P = 0.001 for difference). Patients received a median time of 0.18 (0-0.72) minutes at rural and 0.28 (IQR, 0-0.67) minutes at urban clinic of counseling regarding contraception and pregnancy. Most patients in the study did not receive any counseling regarding alcohol/substance use, emerging risks for ongoing HIV transmission. Although ART adherence was discussed with most patients, time was limited. Reproductive counseling was provided to only half of the patients, and "positive prevention" messaging was minimal. There are strategic opportunities to enhance counseling and information received by clients within HIV programs in resource-limited settings.
Underhill, Kristen; Morrow, Kathleen M; Colleran, Christopher; Calabrese, Sarah K; Operario, Don; Salovey, Peter; Mayer, Kenneth H
We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical paraphrases, efficacy ranges versus point estimates, and success- versus failure-framed messages. Our findings indicated a range of comprehension and operational understandings of efficacy messages. Participants tended to prefer percentage-based and success-framed messages, although preferences varied for communicating about efficacy using a single percentage versus a range. Participants reported uncertainty about how to interpret numerical estimates, and many questioned whether trial results would predict personal effectiveness. These results suggest that providers and researchers implementing PrEP may face challenges in communicating with users about efficacy. Efforts to educate MSM about PrEP should incorporate percentage-based information, and message framing decisions may influence message credibility and overall PrEP acceptability.
Morton, Jennifer F; Celum, Connie; Njoroge, John; Nakyanzi, Agnes; Wakhungu, Imeldah; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Ongachi, Snaidah; Sedah, Eric; Okwero, Emmanuel; Ngure, Kenneth; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Haberer, Jessica E; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee
For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use. We conducted individual and group discussions with counseling staff to elicit the health communication framework and key messages about ART and PrEP that were delivered to couples. Counseling sessions for serodiscordant couples about PrEP and ART included discussions of HIV serodiscordance, PrEP and ART initiation and integrated use, and PrEP discontinuation. ART messages emphasized daily, lifelong use for treatment and prevention, adherence, viral suppression, resistance, side effects, and safety of ART during pregnancy. PrEP messages emphasized daily dosing, time-limited PrEP use until the HIV-positive partner sustained 6 months of high adherence to ART, adherence, safety during conception, side effects, and other risks for HIV. Counseling messages for HIV-serodiscordant couples are integral to the delivery of time-limited PrEP as a "bridge" to ART-driven viral suppression. Their incorporation into programmatic scale-up will maximize intervention impact on the global epidemic.
Murphy, Terrence E; Baker, Dorothy I; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Bianco, Luann; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; King, Mary B
To describe the ongoing efforts of the Connecticut Collaboration for Fall Prevention (CCFP) to move evidence regarding fall prevention into clinical practice and state policy. A university-based team developed methods of networking with existing statewide organizations to influence clinical practice and state policy. We describe steps taken that led to funding and legislation of fall prevention efforts in the state of Connecticut. We summarize CCFP's direct outreach by tabulating the educational sessions delivered and the numbers and types of clinical care providers that were trained. Community organizations that had sustained clinical practices incorporating evidence-based fall prevention were subsequently funded through mini-grants to develop innovative interventional activities. These mini-grants targeted specific subpopulations of older persons at high risk for falls. Building collaborative relationships with existing stakeholders and care providers throughout the state, CCFP continues to facilitate the integration of evidence-based fall prevention into clinical practice and state-funded policy using strategies that may be useful to others.
Russell, Cristel Antonia; Régnier-Denois, Véronique; Chapoton, Boris; Buhrau, Denise
Two studies were conducted to investigate the role of connectedness with music videos in affecting youths' beliefs about substances (alcohol and tobacco) embedded therein and the potential for a prevention message to limit the impact of these images. The first study used cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,023 adolescents (54.3% male) to evaluate the relationship between youths' consumption of music videos and their beliefs about the consequences of consuming alcohol and tobacco. A controlled experiment with 151 participants (57% male) then tested whether exposure to smoking in a video affects youths' smoking beliefs and the preventive potential of a pre-video warning. Connectedness to music videos, not overall amount of viewing, is the main correlate of beliefs about the positive outcomes of consuming alcohol/tobacco. A single exposure to a music video with smoking images can increase beliefs that smoking leads to positive consequences, and connected viewers are especially receptive to these images. Alerting youths to the presence of substance messages in a video leads to differential results as a function of connectedness. Many youths spend hours every day watching music videos in which positive visuals about drinking and smoking abound. Rather than the quantity of viewing, it is the degree to which youths immerse themselves in these music videos that enhances their beliefs that smoking and drinking have positive consequences. Interventions that warn youths about the presence of substances in music videos can minimize their influence, but youths highly connected with the music video content are especially resistant to warnings.
Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.
Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North
Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan
Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Battle, Shanice; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Denson, Damian; Pitts, Nicole; Holman, Jeremy; Landers, Stewart; Mansergh, Gordon
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States. In 2013, 48 black and 42 Latino (total study sample = 90) mixed HIV serostatus MSM from Chicago, Ft. Lauderdale, and Kansas City participated in either an individual interview or focus group discussion. Men were recruited online and at community-based organizations in each city. We elicited feedback on the comprehensibility, credibility, and relevance of two draft messages on PrEP. The messages included efficacy estimates from iPrEx, a phase III clinical trial to ascertain whether the antiretroviral medication tenofovir/emtricitabine disoproxil fumarate (commercially known as Truvada ® ) could safely and effectively prevent HIV acquisition through sex among MSM and transgender women. With participants' consent, the interviews and focus groups were recorded and transcribed. The data were then summarized and analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. The majority of men were unfamiliar with PrEP. It was suggested that additional information about the medication and clinical trials establishing efficacy was needed to enhance the legitimacy and relevancy of the messages. Participants sought to form an opinion of PrEP that was grounded in their own interpretation of the efficacy data. However, confusion about nonadherence among clinical trial subjects and individual versus average risk limited comprehension of these messages. Thematic overlaps suggest that message believability was connected to participants' ability to derive meaning from the Pr
Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R
Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Dixon, Helen
To provide a comprehensive overview of trends in news coverage about sun protection issues in an Australian setting over a 14-year period. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N=547) published in two major daily newspapers, The Age and the Herald Sun, from 1993 to 2006. Articles were coded for article type, prominence, theme, spokesperson, topic slant and opinion slant. The most frequent themes were the health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (24% of articles), education/prevention (14%) and product issues (12%). Themes that became more dominant over time were vitamin D issues, solaria issues and fake tans. Sixty per cent of articles included a pro-sun protection spokesperson and 12% an anti-sun protection spokesperson, with the profile of anti-sun protection spokespeople increasing over time. Half the articles reported on topics positive for sun protection, whereas 18% reported on negative topics; however, this difference narrowed considerably from 2001 onwards. In opinionated articles, the opinions expressed by authors were mainly positive (57%) rather than negative (7%) for sun protection. The findings suggest that the mix of sun protection issues covered and views of sun protection have changed over time, resulting in greater coverage of controversies and issues not necessarily positive for sun protection objectives. These findings imply that evaluation of paid skin cancer prevention public education campaigns may need to take account of the changing news media environment in which they take place.
Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...
This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...
Jaqueline Apolônio de Freitas Guimarães
Full Text Available This is an integrative review that aimed to synthesize the scientific knowledge published in national nursing journals about the prevention of cervical cancer. It was made a literature review in May 2009 in BIREME, covering the national nursing publications, from 1999 to 2009. We identified 15 articles that comprised the study sample. Of these, 11 addressed the nursing care, 6 were about prevention of cancer and 5 were about risk factors for such disease. In 4 articles the studies were accomplished in the Family Health Care Unit (UBASF which was the most prevalent place. It was found out that 6 of the articles used the qualitative method. The most studied population was formed by users of the Family Health Care Unit, in 3 studies. It was so concluded that the national research about this topic was related to the problems identified in health places, either in the effectiveness of the examination, in the knowledge of users or in conducted health education.
Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie
The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F
Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.
Sindhu, R.; Vanitha, M. M.; Norman, J.
The Message verification remains some of the best actual methods for prevent the illegal and dis honored communication after presence progressed to WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). Intend for this purpose, several message verification systems must stand established, created on both symmetric key cryptography otherwise public key cryptosystems. Best of them will have some limits for great computational then statement above in count of deficiency of climb ability then flexibility in node settlement occurrence. In a polynomial based system was newly presented for these problems. Though, this system then situations delay will must the dimness of integral limitation firm in the point of polynomial: once the amount of message transferred remains the greater than the limitation then the opponent will completely improve the polynomial approaches. This paper suggests using ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography). Though using the node verification the technique in this paper permits some nodes to transfer a limitless amount of messages lacking misery in the limit problem. This system will have the message cause secrecy. Equally theoretic study then model effects show our planned system will be effective than the polynomial based method in positions of calculation then statement above in privacy points though message basis privacy.
Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith
Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.
Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D
Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.
The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies
Robu, Andreea; Gauca, Bianca; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara
A better monitoring of pregnant women, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy and an easy communication between physician and patients are very important for the prevention and good health of baby and mother. The paper presents an integrated system as support for the Obstetrics - Gynaecology domain consisting in two modules: a mobile application, ObGynCare, dedicated to the pregnant women and a new component of the Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department Information System dedicated to the physicians for a better monitoring of the pregnant women. The mobile application informs the pregnant women about their status, permits them to introduce glycaemia and weight values and has as option pulse and blood pressure acquisition from a smart sensor and provides results in a graphic format. It also provides support for easy patient-doctor communication related to any health problems. ObGyn Care offers nutrition recommendations and gives the pregnant women the possibility to enter a social space of common interests using social networks (Facebook) to exchange useful and practical information. Data collected from patients and from sensor are stored on the cloud and the physician may access the information and analyse it. The extended module of the Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department Information System already developed supports the physicians to visualize weekly, monthly, or on a trimester, the patient data and to discuss with her through the chat module. The mobile application is in test by pregnant women and medical personnel.
Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123
Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.
In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely
Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.
Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E
In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely
Sontag, Jennah M; Barnes, Spencer R
Visual framing can improve health-message effectiveness. Narrative structure provides a template needed for determining how to frame visuals to maximise message effectiveness. Participants (N = 190) were assigned to a message condition determined by segments (establisher, initial, peak), graphic (static, animated) and cancer (lung, melanoma). ANOVAs revealed that melanoma was more believable than lung cancer with static graphics at the establisher and peak; narratives were more believable with animated graphics at the peak segment; melanoma elicited greater positive attitudes; graphics in the peak influenced greatest intentions. Animated graphics visually framed to emphasise information at the establisher and peak segments suggest maximum effectiveness.
Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.
Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.
Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012
Objective: The prevention of childhood blindness through the provision of preventive services at the community level, specialized surgical services in ophthalmic units and the provision of devices to correct low and services to children with established visual loss. Materials and methods: A series of free surgical cataract eye ...
Adonis, Leegale; Paramanund, Jithen; Basu, Debashis; Luiz, John
The impact of health message framing on cervical cancer screening uptake is poorly understood. In a prospective randomized control study with 748 females, aged 21-65 years with no Pap smear in the previous 3 years, they randomly received a loss-framed, gain-framed, or neutral health message (control) regarding cervical cancer screening by email. Screening rate in the control group was 9.58 percent (CI: 9.29%-9.87%), 5.71 percent (CI: 5.48%-6.98%) in the gain-framed group, and 8.53 percent (CI: 8.24%-8.81%) in the loss-framed group. Statistically there was no difference between the three screening rates. Framing of health messages may not be a significant consideration when communicating through emails.
A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated In-person and Mobile Phone Delivered Counseling and Text Messaging Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk among Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Thomas, Beena; Biello, Katie; Johnson, Blake E; Swaminathan, Soumya; Navakodi, Pandiyaraja; Balaguru, S; Dhanalakshmi, A; Closson, Elizabeth F; Menon, Sunil; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection in India, particularly those who engage in transactional sex with other men (i.e., male sex workers; MSW). Despite the need, HIV prevention efforts for Indian MSW are lacking. As in other settings, MSW in India increasingly rely on the use of mobile phones for sex work solicitation. Integrating mobile phone technology into an HIV prevention intervention for Indian MSW may mitigate some of the challenges associated with face-to face approaches, such as implementation, lack of anonymity, and time consumption, while at the same time proving to be both feasible and useful. This is a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine participant acceptability, feasibility of study procedures, and preliminary efficacy for reducing sexual risk for HIV. MSW (N = 100) were equally randomized to: (1) a behavioral HIV prevention intervention integrating in-person and mobile phone delivered HIV risk reduction counseling, and daily, personalized text or voice messages as motivating "cognitive restructuring" cues for reducing condomless anal sex (CAS); or (2) a standard of care (SOC) comparison condition. Both groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline and 6-months, and completed ACASI-based, behavioral and psychosocial assessments at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Mixed-effects regression procedures specifying a Poisson distribution and log link with a random intercept and slope for month of follow-up was estimated to assess the intervention effect on the primary outcomes: (1) CAS acts with male clients who paid them for sex, and (2) CAS acts with male non-paying sexual partners-both outcomes assessed over the past month. The intervention was both feasible (98% retention at 6-months) and acceptable (>96% of all intervention sessions attended); all intervention participants rated the intervention as "acceptable" or "very acceptable." A reduction in the reported number of CAS acts with male clients who
Wilson, Michael G; Lavis, John N; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre
Living with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) - and facing complex, uncoordinated and fragmented care - is part of the daily life of a growing number of Canadians. We undertook: a knowledge synthesis; a "gap analysis" of existing systematic reviews; an issue brief that synthesized the available evidence about the problem, three options for addressing it and implementation considerations; a stakeholder dialogue involving key health-system leaders; and a citizen panel. We identified several recommendations for actions that can be taken, including: developing evidence-based guidance that providers can use to help achieve goals set by patients; embracing approaches to supporting self-management; supporting greater communication and collaboration across healthcare providers as well as between healthcare providers and patients; and investing more efforts in health promotion and disease prevention. Our results point to the need for health system decision-makers to support bottom-up, person-centred approaches to developing models of care that are tailored for people with multimorbidity and support a research agenda to address the identified priorities. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.
Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.
In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.
Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri
Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III
The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems
Protection of academic integrity in online environments can be challenging. Understanding how the technology works and concerns about each of the methods for monitoring online interactions can assist in the selection of the best proctoring tools. Depending on the content, the type of assessment and the comfort level with the technology, a…
Park, Hyun Sook
The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.
Scholliers, J.; Joshi, S.; Gemou, M.; Hendriks, F.; Ljung Aust, M.; Luoma, J.; Netto, M.; Engstrom, J.; Leanderson Olsson, S.; Kutzner, R.; Tango, F.; Amditis, A.J.; Blosseville, J.M.; Bekiaris, E.
Preventive safety functions help drivers avoid or mitigate accidents. No quantitative methods have been available to evaluate the safety impact of these systems. This paper describes a framework for the assessment of preventive and active safety functions, which integrates procedures for technical
Full Text Available This 21st century will witness great advances in science and technology, many of which are certain to improve quality of life. Though numerous advances provide benefits, we still face the challenge of infectious diseases, which emerge or remerge, naturally or otherwise. The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa at the end of 2013 is a case in point. It has continued for over a year and spread from the known origin of Guinea to neighboring countries, and reached the United States, Europe, and Asia through international travel. This outbreak accelerated translational research on vaccines and practical therapeutics. Thus, basic research paved the way for translational medicine. The driver for translational medicine is human health needs. In the era of the Internet, it is inevitable that people take full advantage of all this powerful tool can offer. The most obvious feature of the Internet age is the free sharing of knowledge and other information. In this regard, there is a need for a platform to share knowledge about infectious diseases and translational medicine. This journal, Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine (IDTM, was designed to meet this requirement. We editors hope that this new journal will help our colleagues in exchanging ideas and bridging the gaps between basic research and translational medicine. We also hope that our readers will help in sharing their efforts with their colleagues by means of this platform. IDTM is a peer-reviewed, double-blinded, open-access, high-quality platform for online publication in both PDF and HTML formats. The journal is devoted to basic, applied, and translational research of infectious diseases. It includes diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive countermeasures as well as related basic research, focusing on genomics, proteomics, and other omics-driven research to examine such areas as evolution, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. Here, we are formally announcing the launch of
Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.
Trpevska T, Magdalena; Kostova, Brankitsa
Within the Low on the Environment, Regulations of the Directive 96/61/Eu regarding Integrated Pollution Prevention Control are implemented. The Low significantly changes the manner of industrial plants operation in reference to environmental protection. The study presents description of the system for Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, list of production branches to which this system refers, and as well as experiences of Tehnolab Ltd, Skopje - expert consulting company, concerning preparation of A and B Integrated Environmental Permits for several installation from R. Macedonia.(Author)
Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Kirpitchev, I.
The TJ-II autonomous acquisition systems are computers running dedicated applications for programming and controlling data acquisition channels and also integrating acquired data into the central database. These computers are located in the experimental hall and have to be remotely controlled during plasma discharges. A remote control for these systems has been implemented by taking advantage of the message-oriented middleware recently introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system. Java Message Service (JMS) is used as the messaging application program interface. All the acquisition actions that are available through the system console of the data acquisition computers (starting or aborting an acquisition, restarting the system or updating the acquisition application) can now be initiated remotely. Command messages are sent to the acquisition systems located in the experimental hall close to the TJ-II device by using the messaging software, without having to use a remote desktop application that produces heavy network traffic and requires manual operation. Action commands can be sent to only one or to several/many acquisition systems at the same time. This software is integrated into the TJ-II remote participation system and the acquisition systems can be commanded from inside or outside the laboratory. All this software is integrated into the security framework provided by PAPI, thus preventing non-authorized users commanding the acquisition computers. In order to dimension and distribute messaging services some performance tests of the message oriented middleware software have been carried out. Results of the tests are presented. As suggested by the tests results different transport connectors are used: TCP transport protocol is used for the local environment, while HTTP protocol is used for remote accesses, thereby allowing the system performance to be optimized
Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Kirpitchev, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)
The TJ-II autonomous acquisition systems are computers running dedicated applications for programming and controlling data acquisition channels and also integrating acquired data into the central database. These computers are located in the experimental hall and have to be remotely controlled during plasma discharges. A remote control for these systems has been implemented by taking advantage of the message-oriented middleware recently introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system. Java Message Service (JMS) is used as the messaging application program interface. All the acquisition actions that are available through the system console of the data acquisition computers (starting or aborting an acquisition, restarting the system or updating the acquisition application) can now be initiated remotely. Command messages are sent to the acquisition systems located in the experimental hall close to the TJ-II device by using the messaging software, without having to use a remote desktop application that produces heavy network traffic and requires manual operation. Action commands can be sent to only one or to several/many acquisition systems at the same time. This software is integrated into the TJ-II remote participation system and the acquisition systems can be commanded from inside or outside the laboratory. All this software is integrated into the security framework provided by PAPI, thus preventing non-authorized users commanding the acquisition computers. In order to dimension and distribute messaging services some performance tests of the message oriented middleware software have been carried out. Results of the tests are presented. As suggested by the tests results different transport connectors are used: TCP transport protocol is used for the local environment, while HTTP protocol is used for remote accesses, thereby allowing the system performance to be optimized.
Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui
This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy
Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B; Kumkale, G Tarcan
Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance.
Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan
Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance. PMID:15018672
Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.
Bartolucci, G B; Santantonio, P; Casciani, M; Dagazzini, I
The multifarious issues of health and safety at work require multi-disciplinary skills, both in the risk assessment and in the subsequent definition and management of preventive measures, and this requires a renewed operational protocol that supports integration and co-operation between the technical prevention figures. Thus, between occupational physicians and technical advisers there should be a concrete and fruitful interaction, which should not be episodic or occasional, but a modus operandi systematic and constant. In this contribution is discussed as the technical prevention figures should be included in the Health and Safety Management System and should make a specific contribution in defining corporate policies on prevention. In particular it is outlined the role that the occupational physician may play in the development of prevention and health promotion activities within the strategies of corporate social responsibility.
Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan
As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...
Kat, W. [Corus Staal BV, Evironmental Manangement Dept. (Netherlands)
The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive (IPPC) published in the EU in 1996 is presented within an approach based on source-targeted measures. The Directive implementation is based on the granting of permits and it introduces new concepts like Best Available Technique (BAT), Best Reference Document (BREF) and Level Playing Field (LPF). The consequences for the EU steel industry are discussed. (author)
Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin
Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…
Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.
An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…
Huan, J N
Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…
Tofighi, Babak; Nicholson, Joseph M; McNeely, Jennifer; Muench, Frederick; Lee, Joshua D
Mobile phone use has increased dramatically and concurrent with rapid developments in mobile phone-based health interventions. The integration of text messaging interventions promises to optimise the delivery of care for persons with substance dependence with minimal disruption to clinical workflows. We conducted a systematic review to assess the acceptability, feasibility and clinical impact of text messaging interventions for persons with illicit drug and alcohol dependence. Studies were required to evaluate the use of text messaging as an intervention for persons who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criterion for a diagnosis of illicit drug and/or alcohol dependence. Authors searched for articles published to date in MEDLINE (pubmed.gov), the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and PsychINFO. Eleven articles met the search criteria for this review and support the acceptability and feasibility of text messaging interventions for addressing illicit drug and alcohol dependence. Most studies demonstrated improved clinical outcomes, medication adherence and engagement with peer support groups. Text messaging interventions also intervened on multiple therapeutic targets such as appointment attendance, motivation, self-efficacy, relapse prevention and social support. Suggestions for future research are described, including intervention design features, clinician contact, privacy measures and integration of behaviour change theories. Text messaging interventions offer a feasible platform to address a range of substances (i.e. alcohol, methamphetamine, heroin and alcohol), and there is increasing evidence supporting further larger-scale studies. [Tofighi B, Nicholson JM, McNeely J, Muench F, Lee JD. Mobile phone messaging for illicit drug and alcohol dependence: A systematic review of the literature. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:477-491]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)
textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states. Objective DELTA PREP’s summative evaluation addressed four major questions: (1) Did coalitions improve their prevention capacity during the project period? (2) Did coalitions serve as catalysts for prevention activities within their states during the project period? (3) Was initial prevention capacity associated with the number of prevention activity types initiated by coalitions by the end of the project? (4) Did coalitions sustain their prevention activities 6 months after the end of the project period? Results DELTA PREP achieved its capacity-building goal, with all 19 participant coalitions integrating prevention within their organizations and serving as catalysts for prevention activities in their states. At 6 months follow up, coalitions had sustained almost all prevention activities they initiated during the project. Baseline prevention capacity (Beginner vs. Intermediate) was not associated with the number of prevention activity types coalitions implemented by the end of the project. Conclusion Service and treatment organizations are increasingly asked to integrate a full spectrum of prevention strategies. Selecting organizations that have high levels of general capacity and readiness for an innovation like integrating a public health approach to IPV prevention will likely increase success in building an innovation-specific capacity, and in turn implementing an innovation. PMID:26245932
Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le
This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.
The Effect of a Text Messaging Based HIV Prevention Program on Sexual Minority Male Youths: A National Evaluation of Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Guy2Guy.
Ybarra, Michele L; Liu, Weiwei; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian
There is a paucity of literature documenting how the constructs of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model are affected by exposure to technology-based HIV prevention programs. Guy2Guy, based on the IMB model, is the first comprehensive HIV prevention program delivered via text messaging and tested nationally among sexual minority adolescent males. Between June and November 2014, 302 14-18 year old gay, bisexual, and/or queer cisgender males were recruited across the US on Facebook and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial testing Guy2Guy versus an attention-matched control program. Among sexually inexperienced youth, those in the intervention were more than three times as likely to be in the "High motivation" group at follow-up as control youth (aOR = 3.13; P value = 0.04). The intervention effect was not significant when examined separately for those who were sexually active. HIV information did not significantly vary by experimental arm at 3 months post-intervention end, nor did behavioral skills for condom use or abstinence vary. The increase in motivation to engage in HIV preventive behavior for adolescent males with no prior sexual experience is promising, highlighting the need to tailor HIV prevention according to past sexual experience. The behavioral skills that were measured may not have reflected those most emphasized in the content (e.g., how to use lubrication to reduce risk and increase pleasure), which may explain the lack of detected intervention impact. ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT02113956.
Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate that the art infusion effect, in which the presence of visual art causes a positive impact on consumers’ perceptions of products and advertising messages, might have a moderation effect on regulatory fit and non-fit messages. We investigate the impact of visual art on advertisement evaluations in regulatory (non- fit conditions. Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers rely on their motivational focus (prevention vs. promotion for their evaluations and decisions. Usually, consumers prefer products that fit with their personal motivational focus. In the present study, the results of three experiments indicate that using visual art with a promotion or prevention fit message is recommended, while non-art images increase message persuasiveness when non-fit messages are presented. Therefore, not all information compatible with the consumer’s motivational focus are best evaluated. When non-art images are presented, non-fit messages might be more persuasive.
Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie
Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can
Mason, Alicia M; Miller, Claude H
To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR) content claims of commercial food advertisers. A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. RESULTS provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims). As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1) good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2) an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.
Alicia M. Mason
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of various types of inoculation message treatments on resistance to persuasive and potentially deceptive health- and nutrition-related (HNR content claims of commercial food advertisers. METHODS: A three-phase experiment was conducted among 145 students from a Midwestern U.S. university. Quantitative statistical analyses were used to interpret the results. Results: Results provide clear evidence that integrating regulatory focus/fit considerations enhances the treatment effectiveness of inoculation messages. Inoculation messages that employed a preventative, outcome focus with concrete language were most effective at countering HNR advertising claims. The findings indicate that inoculation fosters resistance equally across the most common types of commercially advertised HNR product claims (e.g., absolute, general, and structure/function claims. CONCLUSIONS: As the drive to refine the inoculation process model continues, further testing and application of this strategy in a public health context is needed to counter ongoing efforts by commercial food advertisers to avoid government regulations against deceptive practices such as dubious health/nutrition claims. This research advances inoculation theory by providing evidence that 1 good regulatory fit strengthens the effect of refutational preemption and 2 an inoculation approach is highly effective at fostering resistance to commercial advertisers' HNR content claims. This macro approach appears far superior to education or information-based promotional health campaigns targeted solely at specific populations demonstrating rising rates of noncommunicable disease.
Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714
Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael
In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.
Botto, Lorenzo D; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo
Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high-value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low-resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose "triple surveillance:" integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.
Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual
Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd
SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.
Full Text Available Accident analysis shows that one of the main reasons for accidents is non-integration of maintenance units with safety. Merging these two processes through an integrated system can reduce and or eliminate accidents, diseases, and environmental pollution. These issues lead to improvement in organizational performance, as well. The aim of this study is to design and establish an integrated system for obtaining the aforementioned goal. Integration was carried out at Nirou Moharreke Machine Tools Company via Structured System Analysis & Design Method (SSADM. In order to measure the effectiveness of the system, selected indexes were compared using statistical methods prior and after system establishment. Results show that the accident severity index reduced from 135.46 in 2010, to 43.85 in 2012. Moreover, system effectiveness improved equipment reliability and availability (e.g. reliability of the Pfeiffer Milling machine (P (t>50 increased from 0.89 in 2010, to 0.9 in 2012. This system by forecasting various failures, and planning and designing the required operations for preventing occurrence of these failures, plays an important role in improving safety conditions of equipment, and increasing organizational performance, and is capable of presenting an excellent accident prevention program.
In this paper I take up the quest for an integrated approach to health promotion and prevention that incorporates the social context. I suggest that an integrated theory of public health has to rethink the individual society relationships and move beyond the dominance of socialization theory and individual level analysis. A theoretical analysis of key issues in an integrated theory of public health. I maintain that we must shift the attention away from the individual to the social organization and the embeddedness of the social actor in the ongoing social networks and relationships; we must pay attention to the definition of levels of analysis and the relationships between them; we must emphasize the social mechanisms that influence people in social relationships and networks and connect various levels; we must reconsider some of the epistemological and methodological ideas that have been taken for granted and pay attention to issues of emergence and reductionism and the use of multiple methods. I conclude by suggesting that if public health is to move forward and develop better theories, and more efficient ways of prevention and health promotion, it needs to move beyond reductionist models of social behaviour and develop a transdisciplinary approach that integrates various elements from different disciplines and different levels of analysis.
Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger
-planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.
Ortiz Monica E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.
Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.
Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W
Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight
There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections.
Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook
When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)
The objective of this study was to assess the level of integration of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in facilities providing services for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and reproductive health (RH) in Senegal. The survey, conducted from August through November, 2014, comprised five parts : a literature review to assess the place of this integration in the health policies, standards, and protocols in effect in Senegal; an analysis by direct observation of attitudes and practices of 25 healthcare providers at 5 randomly-selected obstetrics and gynecology departments representative of different levels of the health pyramid; a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes of 10 providers about the integration of PMTCT services into MNCH/RH facilities; interviews to collect the opinions of 70 clients, including 16 HIV-positive, about the quality of PMTCT services they received; and a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and opinions of 14 policy-makers/managers of health programs focusing on mothers and children about this integration. The literature review revealed several constraints impeding this integration : the policy documents, standards, and protocols of each of the programs involved do not clearly indicate the modalities of this integration; the programs are housed in two different divisions while the national Program against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus reports directly to the Prime Minister; program operations remains generally vertical; the resources for the different programs are not sufficiently shared; there is no integrated training module covering integrated management of pregnancy and delivery; and supervision for each of the different programs is organized separately.The observation of the providers supporting women during pregnancy, during childbirth, and in the postpartum period, showed an effort to integrate PMTCT into the MNCH/RH services delivered daily to clients. But this desire is hampered by many
White, Heather L; Meglioli, Alejandra; Chowdhury, Raveena; Nuccio, Olivia
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa-in large part because of inadequate coverage of screening and preventive treatment services. A number of programs have begun integrating cervical cancer prevention services into existing family planning or HIV/AIDS service delivery platforms, to rapidly expand "screen and treat" programs and mitigate cervical cancer burden. Drawing upon a review of literature and our experiences, we consider benefits and challenges associated with such programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We then outline steps that can optimize uptake and sustainability of integrated sexual and reproductive health services. These include increasing coordination among implementing organizations for efficient use of resources; task shifting for services that can be provided by nonphysicians; mobilizing communities via trusted frontline health workers; strengthening management information systems to allow for monitoring of multiple services; and prioritizing an operational research agenda to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness and benefits of integrated service delivery. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Chalkley, A B
For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.
Vanesa C. Góngora
Full Text Available Eating disorders problems are highly relevant in adolescence and require intervention through the implementation of prevention and promotion health programs. A Few primary prevention programmers to fight eating disorders have reached satisfactory results. The most successful results have been obtained with approaches that promote media literacy, the use of cognitive dissonance and the enhancement of self-esteem. Since many of the programs based on the disease model have failed to prevent such difficulties, the prevention of eating disorders may be improved by taking the contributions of positive psychology. Studies have shown that interventions based on this paradigm are effective to increase the feeling of happiness and subjective well-being. Unlike the traditional approach that works with the identification of risk and protective factors, positive psychology emphasizes the identification and promotion of healthy factors. Positive interventions assume that strengthening the positive, the dysfunctional or negative will be diminished. The integration of both contributions will enrich the approach to promote healthy behavior in adolescents.
Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica
This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.
Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R
Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.
Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
Lamberti, J S; Weisman, R L; Schwarzkopf, S B; Price, N; Ashton, R M; Trompeter, J
Jails and prisons have become a final destination for persons with severe mental illness in America. Addiction, homelessness, and fragmentation of services have contributed to the problem, and have underscored the need for new models of service delivery. Project Link is a university-led consortium of five community agencies in Monroe County, New York that spans healthcare, social service and criminal justice systems. The program features a mobile treatment team with a forensic psychiatrist, a dual diagnosis treatment residence, and culturally competent staff. This paper discusses the importance of service integration in preventing jail and hospital recidivism, and describes steps that Project Link has taken towards integrating healthcare, criminal justice, and social services. Results from a preliminary evaluation suggest that Project Link may be effective in reducing recidivism and in improving community adjustment among severely mentally ill patients with histories of arrest and incarceration.
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C; Wuermli, Alice J; Betancourt, Theresa S
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey. Five interventions were parent education programs, including center-based sessions (n = 3) and home visiting (n = 2), while one intervention was a teacher education program. All but one study reported improvements in both child development and maltreatment outcomes. The dearth of evidence on ECD+VP interventions suggests additional research is needed. Integrated ECD+VP interventions may improve multiple child outcome domains while leveraging limited resources in LMICs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C
Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.
Full Text Available Prescribed burning is used in many geographical areas for multiple and integrated objectives (wildfire prevention, habitat conservation, grazing management. In Europe the collaboration between researchers and fire professionals has brought to implement this technique over increasing areas (~104 ha year-1, effectively and efficiently. In Italy prescribed burning has not been much studied and it is rarely applied. A new interest is recently rising. Some Regions particularly threatened by wildfires have updated their legislation and set up procedures to authorize prescribed fire experiments and interventions. From 2004 to 2011 several scientific, operative and training experiences have been carried out at a regional level (Basilicata, Campania, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piemonte, Sardegna, Toscana. The present paper aims to: (i document and compare these regional programs; (ii discuss their frameworks and limitations; (iii provide information about objectives, prescriptions, methods and results. The study has involved Universities, Forest Corps, Civil Protection, Municipalities, Parks and professionals from Italy and other Countries. Interventions have regarded integrated objectives (fire hazard reduction; habitat conservation; forest and grazing management, and involved several vegetation types (broadleaved and conifer forests; Mediterranean and Continental shrublands; grasslands. Studies on fire behaviour and ecology have helped to set prescriptions for specific objectives and environments. Results have been transferred to professionals through training sessions. Several common elements are outlined: integrated objectives, multidisciplinary character, training and research products. Ecological questions, certification to the use of fire, communication to local communities and the proposal of new studies, are some of the issues outlined in the discussion. The present study is the first review at national level and we hope it will help to deepen the
Molina-Aguilera, Ida Berenice; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Lourdes Otilia; Palma-Ríos, María Aparicia; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina
We sought to review and describe health interventions integrated with immunization delivery, both routine and during national vaccination weeks, in Honduras between 1991 and 2009. We compiled and examined all annual evaluation reports from the national Expanded Program on Immunization and reports from the national vaccination weeks (NVWs) between 1988 and 2009. We held discussions with the persons responsible for immunization and other programs in the Health Secretary of Honduras for the same time period. Since 1991, several health promotion and disease prevention interventions have been integrated with immunization delivery, including vitamin A supplementation (since 1994), folic acid supplementation (2003), early detection of retinoblastoma (since 2003), breastfeeding promotion (2007-2008), and disease control activities during public health emergencies, such as cholera control (1991-1992) and dengue control activities (since 1991, when a dengue emergency coincides with the NVW). Success factors included sufficient funds and supplies to ensure sustainability and joint planning, delivery, and monitoring. Several health interventions have been integrated with vaccination delivery in Honduras for nearly 20 years. The immunization program in Honduras has sufficient structure, organization, acceptance, coverage, and experience to achieve successful integration with health interventions if carefully planned and suitably implemented.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Lorainne Tudor Car
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of integrated perinatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV interventions compared to non- or partially integrated services on the uptake in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We searched for experimental, quasi-experimental and controlled observational studies in any language from 21 databases and grey literature sources. RESULTS: Out of 28 654 citations retrieved, five studies met our inclusion criteria. A cluster randomized controlled trial reported higher probability of nevirapine uptake at the labor wards implementing HIV testing and structured nevirapine adherence assessment (RRR 1.37, bootstrapped 95% CI, 1.04-1.77. A stepped wedge design study showed marked improvement in antiretroviral therapy (ART enrolment (44.4% versus 25.3%, p<0.001 and initiation (32.9% versus 14.4%, p<0.001 in integrated care, but the median gestational age of ART initiation (27.1 versus 27.7 weeks, p = 0.4, ART duration (10.8 versus 10.0 weeks, p = 0.3 or 90 days ART retention (87.8% versus 91.3%, p = 0.3 did not differ significantly. A cohort study reported no significant difference either in the ART coverage (55% versus 48% versus 47%, p = 0.29 or eight weeks of ART duration before the delivery (50% versus 42% versus 52%; p = 0.96 between integrated, proximal and distal partially integrated care. Two before and after studies assessed the impact of integration on HIV testing uptake in antenatal care. The first study reported that significantly more women received information on PMTCT (92% versus 77%, p<0.001, were tested (76% versus 62%, p<0.001 and learned their HIV status (66% versus 55%, p<0.001 after integration. The second study also reported significant increase in HIV testing uptake after integration (98.8% versus 52.6%, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Limited, non-generalizable evidence supports the effectiveness of integrated PMTCT programs. More research measuring coverage and
Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L
Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Baron, Naomi S.
Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.
Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.
The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr
Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.
In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…
Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.
CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...
Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; Boot, C.R.L.
Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative
Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.L.
Background. Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is still not fully established in the European Union. Recently, the United European Gastroenterology Federation (UEGF) supported CRC screening with the publication of quality guidelines and a written declaration in the European Parliament in favor of European-wide monitored CRC screening and primary prevention of CRC, the latter particularly in young citizens. In this article, the need for population-based CRC screening is once again stressed. In addition, the value of opportunistic CRC screening is pointed out, either as a regional or nation-wide alternative (such as in the USA and Germany) or as a 'forerunner' activity in view of subsequent population-based CRC screening. With regard to other parallel organ-related screening activities in Europe (breast, uterus) and the increasing need for primary prevention of malignant and benign diseases, the question is raised as to whether preventive activities should not be recognized as an integrated and logical part of a 'healthcare chain' offered to all European citizens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wheeler, Noah J; Upadhya, Krishna K; Tawe, Marie-Sophie; Tomaszewski, Kathy; Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Marcell, Arik V
Certified health educator (CHE)-based HIV counseling and testing typically focus on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention only. A quality improvement initiative examined integrating assessment of reproductive life plans, counseling about pregnancy prevention, and contraception referral into a CHE-based HIV testing program. Between February 2014 and January 2017, in one urban pediatric primary care clinic serving patients aged 0-25, CHEs assessed sexual history, HIV risk, short-term (i.e., the next 6-12 months) pregnancy desire, and current contraception method and satisfaction among patients aged 13-25 who had ever had vaginal sex, using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a de-identified administrative dataset that also tracked referrals to initiate contraception and actual method initiation. Of 1,211 patients, most (96%) reported no short-term pregnancy or partner pregnancy desire. Use of less effective or no contraception, as well as method dissatisfaction, was common. A high proportion of female patients referred to new methods opted for more effective methods (62%) and initiated these methods (76%); a high proportion of male patients opted for receipt of condoms (67%). Patients reporting short-term pregnancy desire reported higher rates of previous pregnancy and STIs. Program findings highlight the potential benefit of integrating assessment for and counseling about pregnancy prevention in a CHE-based HIV testing program. This can more effectively address the needs of patients with concomitant risks of STI/HIV and unintended pregnancy, and link patients who do not desire pregnancy to more effective methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B
Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for
..., Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health..., Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (hereafter referred to as ``the Advisory Group... Advisory Group provides recommendations and advice to the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen
Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…
Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.
With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...
Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida
Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Lanser, Shelley; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja
In August 2000, health authorities in England and Wales became statutory consultees for permits issued to industry by the Environment Agency as part of the implementation of EU directives. This responsibility has since been delegated to Primary Care Trusts. To assess health authority responses to applications made under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) regulations, we collected data from public registers during the first 12 months of this new regulatory regime. There was evidence of 27 applications, of which 59 per cent had substantive comments from health authorities. There was wide variation in the length and content. Responses were from Consultants in Communicable Disease Control (57 per cent) or Directors of Public Health (43 per cent). Only two health authorities had a dedicated resource for responding to IPPC applications. Capacity and capability are lacking and require resources invested for consistent, effective public health input to the process of permitting potentially polluting industries.
Helmi, Syed Ahmad; Nordin, Nur Nashwa; Hisjam, Muhammad
Integration of Poka Yoke and TRIZ is a method of solving problems by using a different approach. Poka Yoke is a trial and error method while TRIZ is using a systematic approach. The main purpose of this technique is to get rid of product defects by preventing or correcting errors as soon as possible. Blame the workers for their mistakes is not the best way, but the work process should be reviewed so that every workers behavior or movement may not cause errors. This study is to demonstrate the importance of using both of these methods in which everyone in the industry needs to improve quality, increase productivity and at the same time reducing production cost.
Baker, Courtney N; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Voegler-Lee, Mary Ellen; Arnold, David H; Willoughby, Michael T
Preschools provide a promising setting in which to conduct preventive interventions for childhood problems, but classroom programs can only be effective if teachers are willing and able to implement them. This study is one of the first to investigate predictors of the frequency of teacher participation in a classroom-based, randomized controlled trial of an integrated prevention program for preschoolers. The intervention was designed to promote school readiness with an integrated social and academic program, to be implemented by teachers with the support of classroom consultants. The current study is part of a larger project conducted with Head Start and community child care centers that serve primarily economically disadvantaged families; 49 teachers from 30 centers participated in this study. Overall, teachers conducted approximately 70% of the program activities. Participation decreased significantly over time from the first to the final week of the intervention, and also decreased within each week of the intervention, from the first to the final weekly activity. Teachers working at community child care centers implemented more intervention activities than did Head Start teachers. Teacher concerns about the intervention, assessed prior to training, predicted less participation. In addition, teachers' participation was positively related to their perception that their centers and directors were supportive, collegial, efficient, and fair, as well as their job satisfaction and commitment. Teacher experience, education, ethnicity, and self-efficacy were not significantly related to participation. In multi-level models that considered center as a level of analysis, substantial variance was accounted for by centers, pointing to the importance of considering center-level predictors in future research.
Pintar, Paula A
Hospital quality and financial sustainability rely on reducing healthcare-associated events/infections, length of stay, and readmissions. This project focused on designing an integrated role for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and the infection prevention professional (IPP) to proactively manage the delivery of evidence-based practice to high-risk surgical patients. The healthcare industry is in the midst of a paradigm shift driven by changing health policy focusing on quality indicators, patient satisfaction, and lowering costs. Coupled with these indicators is the expectation and responsibility to provide evidence-based practice at all levels of the healthcare continuum. This paradigm shift places healthcare facilities in a very competitive atmosphere as they rally for the revenue of a fixed payer mix. A literature search using CINHAL, PubMed, and the CNS national listserve databases was completed to identify if there was any previously written information available on an integrated role of the CNS/IPP. An online business plan template was used to communicate the significance, implications, and return on organizational investment to practice with establishing this role. Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms can place patients at an increased risk for developing a surgical site infection or complications. The CNS/IPP will proactively manage these risk factors, including the patient and family in a preventive care model to manage the acute inpatient high-risk surgical patient. Care management will include coordinated, collaborative, and consultative follow-up by the CNS/IPP in the acute care, long-term care facilities, and home settings. The infection prevention skill set brings a level of clinical expertise that makes a unique CNS. The IPP is immersed in using epidemiological principles that examine the impact of comorbidities and the added risk that can
Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L
The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Dixit, Hemant; Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan; Ethirajan, Tamilmani
In modern integrated circuits (ICs), billions of transistors are connected to each other via thin metal layers (e.g. copper, cobalt, etc) known as interconnects. At elevated process temperatures, inter-diffusion of atomic species can occur among these metal layers, causing sub-optimal performance of interconnects, which may lead to the failure of an IC. Thus, typically a thin barrier metal layer is used to prevent the inter-diffusion of atomic species within interconnects. For ICs with sub-10 nm transistors (10 nm technology node), the design rule (thickness scaling) demands the thinnest possible barrier layer. Therefore, here we investigate the critical thickness of a titanium–nitride (TiN) barrier that can prevent the cobalt diffusion using multi-scale modeling and simulations. First, we compute the Co diffusion barrier in crystalline and amorphous TiN with the nudged elastic band method within first-principles density functional theory simulations. Later, using the calculated activation energy barriers, we quantify the Co diffusion length in the TiN metal layer with the help of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such a multi-scale modelling approach yields an exact critical thickness of the metal layer sufficient to prevent the Co diffusion in IC interconnects. We obtain a diffusion length of a maximum of 2 nm for a typical process of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Our study thus provides useful physical insights for the Co diffusion in the TiN layer and further quantifies the critical thickness (∼2 nm) to which the metal barrier layer can be thinned down for sub-10 nm ICs. (paper)
Dixit, Hemant; Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan; Ethirajan, Tamilmani
In modern integrated circuits (ICs), billions of transistors are connected to each other via thin metal layers (e.g. copper, cobalt, etc) known as interconnects. At elevated process temperatures, inter-diffusion of atomic species can occur among these metal layers, causing sub-optimal performance of interconnects, which may lead to the failure of an IC. Thus, typically a thin barrier metal layer is used to prevent the inter-diffusion of atomic species within interconnects. For ICs with sub-10 nm transistors (10 nm technology node), the design rule (thickness scaling) demands the thinnest possible barrier layer. Therefore, here we investigate the critical thickness of a titanium-nitride (TiN) barrier that can prevent the cobalt diffusion using multi-scale modeling and simulations. First, we compute the Co diffusion barrier in crystalline and amorphous TiN with the nudged elastic band method within first-principles density functional theory simulations. Later, using the calculated activation energy barriers, we quantify the Co diffusion length in the TiN metal layer with the help of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such a multi-scale modelling approach yields an exact critical thickness of the metal layer sufficient to prevent the Co diffusion in IC interconnects. We obtain a diffusion length of a maximum of 2 nm for a typical process of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Our study thus provides useful physical insights for the Co diffusion in the TiN layer and further quantifies the critical thickness (~2 nm) to which the metal barrier layer can be thinned down for sub-10 nm ICs.
Full Text Available Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the “work situation system” considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the “work situation system” and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs.
The effect of an interactive weekly mobile phone messaging on retention in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (WELTEL PMTCT).
Awiti, Patricia Opondo; Grotta, Alessandra; van der Kop, Mia; Dusabe, John; Thorson, Anna; Mwangi, Jonathan; Belloco, Rino; Lester, Richard; Ternent, Laura; Were, Edwin; Ekström, Anna Mia
Improving retention in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs is critical to optimize maternal and infant health outcomes, especially now that lifelong treatment is immediate regardless of CD4 cell count). The WelTel strategy of using weekly short message service (SMS) to engage patients in care in Kenya, where mobile coverage even in poor areas is widespread has been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral load suppression among those on ART. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the WelTel SMS intervention compared to standard care on retention in PMTCT program in Kenya. WelTel PMTCT is a four to seven-centers, two-arm open randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will be conducted in urban and rural Kenya. Over 36 months, we plan to recruit 600 pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and follow the mother-infant pair until they are discharged from the PMTCT program (when infant is aged 24 months). Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control arm (standard care) at a 1:1 ratio. Intervention arm participants will receive an interactive weekly SMS 'How are you?' to which they are supposed to respond within 24 h. Depending on the response (ok, problem or no answer), a PMTCT nurse will follow-up and triage any problems that are identified. The primary outcome will be retention in care defined as the proportion of mother-infant pairs coming for infant HIV testing at 24 months from delivery. Secondary outcomes include a) adherence to WelTel; (b) adherence to antiretroviral medicine; (c) acceptance of WelTel and (d) cost-effectiveness of the WelTel intervention. This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of mHealth for PMTCT retention. Trial results and the cost-effectiveness evaluation will be used to inform policy and potential scale-up of mHealth among mothers living with HIV. ISRCTN98818734 ; registered on 9th December 2014.
Bélanger-Gravel, A; Lottinville, S; Beaurivage, D; Laferté, M; Therrien, F; Gauvin, L
To favour the dissemination and the implementation of the WIXX multimedia communication campaign, the aim of this study was to examine practitioners' beliefs towards the integration of the WIXX campaign activities into daily practice. An exploratory qualitative study. Overall, 58 community-based practitioners completed an online questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour guidelines pertaining to perceived advantages/disadvantages and perceived barriers/facilitators toward the campaign. A content analysis was performed by two independent coders to extract modal beliefs. Results were validated by a third coder. Local partners had a positive attitude toward the WIXX campaign, but significant barriers remained and needed to be addressed to ensure full implementation of this campaign (e.g. lack of time or resources, additional workload, complexity of the registration process and so forth). Beliefs were fragmented and diversified, indicating that they were highly context dependent. To conclude, some remaining challenges regarding the full implementation of the WIXX communication campaign were identified, suggesting that additional efforts might be needed to ensure the full adoption of the campaign by local practitioners. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.
This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the
Ahn, Ho-Young; Wu, Lei; Kelly, Stephanie; Haley, Eric
The purpose of this study was to investigate how college students deal with conflicting health messages in advertising regarding binge drinking and wine promotion. Phenomenological in-depth long interviews were conducted beyond the point of redundancy (N = 16). The results of this study indicated that students' meaning making regarding the conflicting messages relied greatly upon how consistent either message was with their prior beliefs about alcohol. Additionally, not all students perceived the messages to be contradictory; these students saw the messages as being constructed for different purposes and as such incomparable. Overall, students who perceived conflict responded to the topic with apathy fueled by advertising skepticism. Employing qualitative methodology to understand how college students respond to conflicting messages will assist health promotion practitioners develop more effective alcohol abuse prevention messages and provide suggestions for researchers for studying this phenomenon from other perspectives in the future. Implications are further discussed within.
Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.
Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight
Looman, Wilhelmina Mijntje; Huijsman, Robbert; Fabbricotti, Isabelle Natalina
Integrated care is increasingly promoted as an effective and cost-effective way to organise care for community-dwelling frail older people with complex problems but the question remains whether high expectations are justified. Our study aims to systematically review the empirical evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for community-dwelling frail older people and close attention is paid to the elements and levels of integration of the interventions. We searched nine databases for eligible studies until May 2016 with a comparison group and reporting at least one outcome regarding effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. We identified 2,998 unique records and, after exclusions, selected 46 studies on 29 interventions. We assessed the quality of the included studies with the Effective Practice and Organization of Care risk-of-bias tool. The interventions were described following Rainbow Model of Integrated Care framework by Valentijn. Our systematic review reveals that the majority of the reported outcomes in the studies on preventive, integrated care show no effects. In terms of health outcomes, effectiveness is demonstrated most often for seldom-reported outcomes such as well-being. Outcomes regarding informal caregivers and professionals are rarely considered and negligible. Most promising are the care process outcomes that did improve for preventive, integrated care interventions as compared to usual care. Healthcare utilisation was the most reported outcome but we found mixed results. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. High expectations should be tempered given this limited and fragmented evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive, integrated care for frail older people. Future research should focus on unravelling the heterogeneity of frailty and on exploring what outcomes among frail older people may realistically be expected. © 2018 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community
Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin
During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.
Full Text Available The loss of coastal habitats is a widespread problem in Europe. To protect the intertidal salt marshes of the lagoon of Venice from the erosion due to natural and human causes which is diffusely and intensely impacting them, the European Commission has funded the demonstrative project LIFE VIMINE. LIFE VIMINE aims to protect the most interior, hard-to-access salt marshes in the northern lagoon of Venice through an integrated approach, whose core is the prevention of erosion through numerous, small but spatially-diffuse soil-bioengineering protections works, mainly placed through semi-manual labour and with low impact on the environment and the landscape. The effectiveness of protection works in the long term is ensured through routine, temporally-continuous and spatially-diffuse actions of monitoring and maintenance. This method contrasts the common approach to managing hydraulic risk and erosion in Italy which is based on large, one-off and irreversible protection actions. The sustainability of the LIFE VIMINE approach is ensured by the participatory involvement of stakeholders and the recognition that protecting salt marshes means defending the benefits they provide to society through their ecological functions, as well as protecting the jobs linked to the existence or conservation of this habitat.
Conventional wisdom provides an increasingly strong endorsement of far-reaching decentralization and delegation of authority to bureaucratic agents as the most likely mechanisms to attain such central environmental policy goals as pollution prevention,cross-media regulatory integration, and development of reliable measures of environmental outcomes. Canada would appear an unusually fertile context for such innovation, given its far-reaching deference to individual provinces and their environment ministries in environmental policy. Comparative analysis of select subnational governments in Canada and the United States suggests that the states in general are far ahead of their provincial counterparts in most of these areas of innovation. Despite all the opprobrium heaped on the American environmental policy system, a combination of federal policy tools and state policy entrepreneurship appear to contribute directly to this innovation in some states and are almost completely absent in the Canadian system. These findings suggest a need for careful study of the mix of intergovernmental policy tools and principal-agent relations most likely to realize desired environmental policy goals.
Hollander, M.; Eppink, L.; Nielen, M.; Badenbroek, I.; Stol, D.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de
Background & Aim: Selective cardio-metabolic prevention programs (CMP) may be especially effective in well-organized practices. We studied the effect of a CMP program in the academic primary care practices of the Julius Health Centers (JHC) that offer integrated cardiovascular disease management
Cook, Clayton R.; Frye, Megan; Slemrod, Tal; Lyon, Aaron R.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Zhang, Yanchen
Mental health among children and adolescents is a growing national concern and schools have taken center stage in efforts to prevent problems and promote wellness. Although research and policymakers support the integration of mental health services into the schools, there is limited agreement on the ways to package or combine existing supports to…
Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul
Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...
Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori
Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…
Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.
In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package
Cuesta Benjumea, Carmen de la; Henriques, Maria Adriana; Abad Corpa, Eva; Roe, Brenda; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel; Lidón-Cerezuela, Beatriz; Avendaño-Céspedes, Almudena; Oliver-Carbonell, José Luis; Sánchez Ardila, Carmen
Aim. To review the evidence about the role of care providers in fall prevention in older adults aged ≥ 65 years, this includes their views, strategies, and approaches on falls prevention and effectiveness of nursing interventions. Background. Some fall prevention programmes are successfully implemented and led by nurses and it is acknowledged the vital role they play in developing plans for fall prevention. Nevertheless, there has not been a systematic review of the literature that describes ...
Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Thompson, Debbe; Lenz Dunker, Karin Louise; Nicklas, Theresa; Tucunduva Philippi, Sonia; Lopez, Tabbetha; Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Baranowski, Tom
Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusing on weight may contribute to excessive concern with diet and weight. Therefore, the proposed research will assess whether integrating obesity and eating disorder prevention procedures ('integrated approach') do better than single approach interventions in preventing obesity among adolescents, and if integrated approaches influence weight-related outcomes. Integrated obesity and eating disorder prevention interventions will be identified. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials reporting data on adolescents ranging from 10 to 19 years of age from both sexes will be included. Outcomes of interest include body composition, unhealthy weight control behaviours and body satisfaction measurements. MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SciELO will be searched. Data will be extracted independently by two reviewers using a standardised data extraction form. Trial quality will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. The effects of integrated versus single approach intervention studies will be compared using systematic review procedures. If an adequate number of studies report data on integrated interventions among similar populations (k>5), a meta-analysis with random effects will be conducted. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression will be performed only if between-study heterogeneity is high (I 2 ≥75%). Ethics approval will not be required as this is a systematic review of published studies. The findings will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted
Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.
Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas
Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Wald, David S; Butt, Shahena; Bestwick, Jonathan P
Mobile telephone text messaging is a simple potential solution to the failure to take medications as directed. There is uncertainty over the effectiveness of 1-way text messaging (sending text message reminders only) compared with 2-way text messaging (sending reminders and receiving replies confirming whether medication has been taken) as a means of improving medication adherence. A meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials (1994 patients) that tested the effectiveness of text messaging on medication adherence was performed. The trials were divided into 2 groups: trials using 1-way text messaging versus no text messaging and trials using 2-way text messaging versus no text messaging. The summary estimates of the effect of the 2 methods of text messaging (1-way or 2-way) were compared. The summary relative risk estimate was 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.11) for 1-way text messaging and 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.35) for 2-way text messaging. The difference in effect between the 2 methods was statistically significant (P = .007). Two-way text messaging is associated with substantially improved medication adherence compared with 1-way text messaging. This has important implications in the provision of mobile-based messaging in the management of patients taking medication for the prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coe, Laura J.; St. John, Julie Ann; Hariprasad, Santhi; Shankar, Kalpana N.; MacCulloch, Patricia A.; Bettano, Amy L.; Zotter, Jean
Older adult falls continue to be a public health priority across the United States—Massachusetts (MA) being no exception. The MA Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) program within the MA Department of Public Health aims to reduce the physical and economic burdens of chronic health conditions by linking evidence-based clinical care with community intervention programs. The PWTF partnerships that focused on older adult falls prevention integrated the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Stopping Elderly Accidents, Death and Injuries toolkit into clinical settings. Partnerships also offer referrals for home safety assessments, Tai Chi, and Matter of Balance programs. This paper describes the PWTF program implementation process involving 49 MA organizations, while highlighting the successes achieved and lessons learned. With the unprecedented expansion of the U.S. Medicare beneficiary population, and the escalating incidence of falls, widespread adoption of effective prevention strategies will become increasingly important for both public health and for controlling healthcare costs. The lessons learned from this PWTF initiative offer insights and recommendations for future falls prevention program development and implementation. PMID:28321393
Seidell, J.C.; Halberstadt, J.; Noordam, H.; Niemer, S.I.J.
The Partnership Overweight Netherlands (PON) is a collaboration between 18 partners, which are national organizations of health care providers, health insurance companies and patient organizations. The PON published an integrated health care standard for obesity in November 2010.The integrated
There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis-the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals-has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that wo...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM. Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international the different physical, economical, political and socio
Rianne J. A. Hoek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1 the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2 the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. Methods The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees’ perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Secondary outcome measures
Hoek, Rianne J A; Havermans, Bo M; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L
Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1) the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2) the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees' perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Secondary outcome measures are job demands, job resources and the number
Grant, Robert M; Smith, Dawn K
Best practices for integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral interventions for prevention and treatment are suggested based on research evidence and existing normative guidance. The goal is to provide high-impact prevention services during periods of substantial risk. Antiretroviral medications are recommended for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV infection. We reviewed research evidence and current normative guidelines to identify best practices for integrating these high-impact prevention strategies. More sensitive HIV tests used for screening enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, more appropriate counseling, and help limit drug resistance. A fully suppressive PEP regimen should be initiated based on exposure history or physical findings when sensitive diagnostic testing is delayed or not available and antibody tests are negative. Transitions from PEP to PrEP are often warranted because HIV exposure events may continue to occur. This algorithmic approach to integrating PEP, PrEP, and early treatment decisions may increase the uptake of these interventions by a greater number and diversity of knowledgeable healthcare providers.
Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A
Message framing has been an important focus in health communication research, yet prior meta-analyses found limited support for using framing to increase persuasiveness of health messages. This meta-analysis distinguished the outcomes used to assess the persuasive impact of framed messages (attitudes, intentions, or behavior). One hundred eighty-nine effect sizes were identified from 94 peer-reviewed, published studies which compared the persuasive impact of gain- and loss-framed messages. Gain-framed messages were more likely than loss-framed messages to encourage prevention behaviors (r = 0.083, p = 0.002), particularly for skin cancer prevention, smoking cessation, and physical activity. No effect of framing was found when persuasion was assessed by attitudes/intentions or among studies encouraging detection. Gain-framed messages appear to be more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting prevention behaviors. Research should examine the contexts in which loss-framed messages are most effective, and the processes that mediate the effects of framing on behavior.
Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J
The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...
Yu, Nan; Shen, Fuyuan
This study examined the effects of message frames when they were culturally tailored. Focusing on one aspect of culture-individualism and collectivism-the study discovered some similar patterns across cultures: The effect of message framing in motivating preventive behaviors could be moderated by the cultural values embedded in the messages. Messages focusing on individualistic gains and collectivistic losses successfully increased people's intention to adopt preventive behaviors. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Lucas, Todd; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James E; Asabigi, Kanzoni; Novak, Julie M
This preliminary study examined the effect of gain versus loss-framed messaging as well as culturally targeted personal prevention messaging on African Americans' receptivity to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This research also examined mechanistic functions of perceived racism in response to message framing. Community samples of African Americans (N = 132) and White Americans (N = 50) who were non-compliant with recommended CRC screening completed an online education module about CRC, and were either exposed to a gain-framed or loss-framed message about CRC screening. Half of African Americans were exposed to an additional and culturally targeted self-control message about personal prevention of CRC. Theory of planned behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as primary outcomes. The effect of messaging on perceived racism was also measured as an outcome. Consistent with prior research, White Americans were more receptive to CRC screening when exposed to a loss-framed message. However, African Americans were more receptive when exposed to a gain-framed message. The contrary effect of loss-framed messaging on receptivity to screening among African Americans was mediated by an increase in perceived racism. However, including an additional and culturally targeted prevention message mitigated the adverse effect of a loss-framed message. This study identifies an important potential cultural difference in the effect of message framing on illness screening among African Americans, while also suggesting a culturally relevant linking mechanism. This study also suggests the potential for simultaneously presented and culturally targeted messaging to alter the effects of gain and loss-framed messaging on African Americans. What is already known on this subject? African Americans are at an increased risk of both developing and dying from colorectal cancer (CRC). These disparities can be
Cosin-Sales, J; Orozco Beltrán, D; Ledesma Rodríguez, R; Barbon Ortiz Casado, A; Fernández, G
To determine the perception of Primary Care (PC) physicians on the integration with cardiology (CA) through continuity of healthcare programs. A cross-sectional and multicentre study was conducted, in which a total of 200 PC physicians from all over Spain completed a qualitative survey that evaluated the level of integration with CA in secondary prevention. Physicians were grouped according to the level of PC-CA integration. The integration between CA and PC was good, but it was better in those centres with a higher integration (74.0% vs. 60.0%; p=.02) and in general, physicians considered that integration had improved (92.0% vs. 73.0%; pintegration. In 55.8%, 63.6%, and 51.3% of hospital discharge reports, indications were given on when to perform the follow-up blood analysis, as well as information about returning to working life and sexual activity, respectively. The most common communication method was the paper-based report (75 vs. 84%; p=NS). The communication between healthcare levels was greater in those Primary Care centres with a higher level of integration, as well as periodicity of the communication and the satisfaction of physicians (80.0% vs. 63.0%; p=.005). The level of integration between PC and CA is, in general, satisfactory, but those centres with a higher level of integration benefit more from a greater communication and satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Quinn, Margaret M; Henneberger, Paul K; Braun, Barbara; Delclos, George L; Fagan, Kathleen; Huang, Vanthida; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Kusek, Linda; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Le Moual, Nicole; Maher, Kathryn A E; McCrone, Susan H; Mitchell, Amber Hogan; Pechter, Elise; Rosenman, Kenneth; Sehulster, Lynne; Stephens, Alicia C; Wilburn, Susan; Zock, Jan-Paul
The Cleaning and Disinfecting in Healthcare Working Group of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Occupational Research Agenda, is a collaboration of infection prevention and occupational health researchers and practitioners with the objective of providing a more integrated approach to effective environmental surface cleaning and disinfection (C&D) while protecting the respiratory health of health care personnel. The Working Group, comprised of >40 members from 4 countries, reviewed current knowledge and identified knowledge gaps and future needs for research and practice. An integrated framework was developed to guide more comprehensive efforts to minimize harmful C&D exposures without reducing the effectiveness of infection prevention. Gaps in basic knowledge and practice that are barriers to an integrated approach were grouped in 2 broad areas related to the need for improved understanding of the (1) effectiveness of environmental surface C&D to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases and colonization in health care workers and patients and (2) adverse health impacts of C&D on health care workers and patients. Specific needs identified within each area relate to basic knowledge, improved selection and use of products and practices, effective hazard communication and training, and safer alternatives. A more integrated approach can support multidisciplinary teams with the capacity to maximize effective and safe C&D in health care. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the
Under background of reductionism in the modern science, physiology and medicine are stepwise refined into system, organ, disease, cell and gene etc. Although clinical medicine, only service in whole human object, obviously brought tremendous progress, it also appeared obvious defects and limits at the same time. Professionalized and specialized medicine not only needs to be integrated from basics to clinical fields, but also from prevention, health management, clinical treatment and functional rehabilitation medicine. People are indivisible organic whole. Professionalization, translation and integration must be combined. In order to provide the best quality and optimized medical service for the Chinese people and to lead in the world, we have to strengthen professional and technical knowledge, and have to establish the holistic integrative medical philosophy for physiology and medicine too.
Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman
In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.
Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.
Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.
Manoff, R K
This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
A message in Spanish from actor Jimmy Smits about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer. Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
A message in Spanish from actor Jimmy Smits about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer. Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…
A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer. Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer. Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health promotes an ecological approach to chronic disease prevention, however, little research has been conducted to assess the integration of an ecological approach in community-based prevention programs. This study sought to contribute to the evidence base by assessing the extent to which an ecological approach was integrated into an Aboriginal community-based cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes prevention program, across three-intervention years. Methods Activity implementation forms were completed by interview with implementers and participant observation across three intervention years. A standardised ecological coding procedure was applied to assess participant recruitment settings, intervention targets, intervention strategy types, extent of ecologicalness and organisational partnering. Inter-rater reliability for two coders was assessed at Kappa = 0.76 (p Results 215 activities were implemented across three intervention years by the health program (HP with some activities implemented in multiple years. Participants were recruited most frequently through organisational settings in years 1 and 2, and organisational and community settings in year 3. The most commonly utilised intervention targets were the individual (IND as a direct target, and interpersonal (INT and organisational (ORG environments as indirect targets; policy (POL, and community (COM were targeted least. Direct (HP→ IND and indirect intervention strategies (i.e., HP→ INT→ IND, HP→ POL → IND were used most often; networking strategies, which link at least two targets (i.e., HP→[ORG-ORG]→IND, were used the least. The program did not become more ecological over time. Conclusions The quantity of activities with IND, INT and ORG targets and the proportion of participants recruited through informal cultural networking demonstrate community commitment to prevention. Integration of an ecological approach would have been
Alberding, Matthäus B.; Tjønnås, Johannes; Johansen, Tor A.
This work presents an approach to rollover prevention that takes advantage of the modular structure and optimisation properties of the control allocation paradigm. It eliminates the need for a stabilising roll controller by introducing rollover prevention as a constraint on the control allocation problem. The major advantage of this approach is the control authority margin that remains with a high-level controller even during interventions for rollover prevention. In this work, the high-level control is assigned to a yaw stabilising controller. It could be replaced by any other controller. The constraint for rollover prevention could be replaced by or extended to different control objectives. This work uses differential braking for actuation. The use of additional or different actuators is possible. The developed control algorithm is computationally efficient and suitable for low-cost automotive electronic control units. The predictive design of the rollover prevention constraint does not require any sensor equipment in addition to the yaw controller. The method is validated using an industrial multi-body vehicle simulation environment.
As a major ITS initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program is to revolutionize : transportation by creating an enabling communication infrastructure that will open up a wide range of : safety applications. The road-condition warn...
Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores
In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages) could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.
Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.
Seyed Kazem Malakouti
Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.
Mun, So Youn; Lee, Byoung Sook
The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated internet addiction prevention program and test its effects on the self-regulation and internet addiction of elementary students who are at risk for internet addiction. A quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=28) or control group (n=28). Contents of the program developed in this study included provision of information about internet addiction, interventions for empowerment and methods of behavioral modification. A pre-test and two post-tests were done to identify the effects of the program and their continuity. Effects were testified using Repeated measures ANOVA, simple effect analysis, and Time Contrast. The self-regulation of the experimental group after the program was significantly higher than the control group. The score for internet addiction self-diagnosis and the internet use time in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. The effects of the integrated internet addiction prevention program for preventing internet addiction in elementary students at risk for internet addiction were validated.
Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin
Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Rwanda - a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million - is well positioned to tackle a number of "high-burden" noncommunicable diseases. The country's integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. In 2011-2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227,246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women's health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years.
Full Text Available In most industrial environments, it is usually considered that machines are accessible throughout the planning horizon, but in real situation, machines may be unavailable due to a scheduled preventive maintenance where the periods of unavailability are known in advance. The main idea of this paper is to consider different preventive maintenance policies on machines regarding open shop scheduling problem (OSSP with sequence dependent setup times (SDST using immune algorithm. The preventive maintenance (PM policies are planned for maximizing availability of machines or keeping minimum level of reliability through the production horizon. The objective function of the paper is to minimize makespan. In total, the proposed algorithm extensively is compared with six adaptations of existing heuristic and meta-heuristic methods for the problem through data sets from benchmarks based on Taillard’s instances with some adjustments. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other algorithms for this problem.
Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura
Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.
Hanson, Koren; Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Skinner, Martie L; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Mason, W Alex; Thompson, Ronald W; Redmond, Cleve
As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements. The messages fell into four categories: information about the law, general advice/conversation starters, consequences of marijuana use/positive alternatives, and information on potential harmful effects of teen marijuana use. The messages were presented through an online survey to 282 parent (84% female) and 283 teen (54% female) participants in an ongoing study in Washington State. Both parents and youth rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Messages about potential harms of marijuana use were rated lower than other messages by both generations. Parents who had used marijuana within the past year (n = 80) rated consequence/positive alternative messages lower than parent nonusers (n = 199). Youth marijuana users (n = 77) and nonusers (n = 202) both rated messages containing information about the law higher than other types of messages. Youth users and nonusers were less likely than parents to believe messages on the harmful effects of marijuana. The high ratings for messages based on information about the marijuana law highlight the need for informational health campaigns to be established as a first step in the marijuana legalization process.
Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo
Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.
Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most threatening vector borne diseases, affecting both humans and animals, causing severe epidemics and has brought the world to take serious steps for its control and prevention. DF is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, due to unavailability of vaccine and lack of effective treatment, emphasis is given on its vector control. The only option left for its eradication is to restrict mosquito breeding. This can be achieved by chemical, biological and environment management methods. Use of botanicals is also an alternate and probably most effective approach for controlling DF vector. Community based eradication campaigns including educating people about its prevention and control meseaures and personal prophylaxis also play a vital role to prevent its occurrence. Likewise, use of nanotechnology and micro-emulsion, use of pheromones, insect sterilization techniques has also shown promising results in vector control. Utilization of only one method cannot control this dangerous disease but combination of all above interventions, discussed in the present paper, may prevent the DF vector and ultimately might help in the eradication programs of this disease.
Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…
Martorell, S.; Munoz, A.; Serradell, V.
Surveillance requirements and maintenance activities in a nuclear power plant aim to preserve components' inherent reliability. Up to now, predictive and preventive maintenance mainly concerned plant staff, but the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Maintenance Rule released in July 1991 will have significant impact on how nuclear power plants perform and document this maintenance. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a systematic methodology to establish maintenance tasks for critical components in plant with a high degree of compliance with the goals of the Rule. RCM pursues the identification of applicable and efficient tasks to prevent these components from developing their dominant failure causes, and, in turn, towards achieving proper levels of components availability with low cost. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the most suitable set of tasks to achieve this goal, which involves the integration of maintenance activities and surveillance requirements for each critical component based on the unavailability and cost associated with each individual task which is performed on it
Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea
Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.
Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klein, Susan J; Candelas, Alma R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Rothman, Jeffrey R; Feldman, Ira S; Tsui, Dennis S; Cotroneo, Richard A; Flanigan, Colleen A
New York State is home to an estimated 230,000 individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and roughly 171,500 active injection drug users (IDUs). HCV/HIV co-infection is common and models of service delivery that effectively meet IDUs' needs are required. A HCV strategic plan has stressed integration. HCV prevention and care are integrated within health and human service settings, including HIV/AIDS organisations and drug treatment programmes. Other measures that support comprehensive HCV services for IDUs include reimbursement, clinical guidelines, training and HCV prevention education. Community and provider collaborations inform programme and policy development. IDUs access 5 million syringes annually through harm reduction/syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) and a statewide syringe access programme. Declines in HCV prevalence amongst IDUs in New York City coincided with improved syringe availability. New models of care successfully link IDUs at SEPs and in drug treatment to health care. Over 7000 Medicaid recipients with HCV/HIV co-infection had health care encounters related to their HCV in a 12-month period and 10,547 claims for HCV-related medications were paid. The success rate of transitional case management referrals to drug treatment is over 90%. Training and clinical guidelines promote provider knowledge about HCV and contribute to quality HCV care for IDUs. Chart reviews of 2570 patients with HIV in 2004 documented HCV status 97.4% of the time, overall, in various settings. New HCV surveillance systems are operational. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain. A comprehensive, public health approach, using multiple strategies across systems and mobilizing multiple sectors, can enhance IDUs access to HCV prevention and care. A holisitic approach with integrated services, including for HCV-HIV co-infected IDUs is needed. Leadership, collaboration and resources are essential.
Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; do Prado, Antonio Francisco; Hammoudi, S.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Cordeiro, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.
The main objective of this paper is to present a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. This architecture has been designed by integrating different concepts and technologies
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mali is endemic for all five targeted major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. As one of the five 'fast-track' countries supported with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID funds, Mali started to integrate the activities of existing disease-specific national control programs on these diseases in 2007. The ultimate objectives are to eliminate lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma as public health problems and to reduce morbidity caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis through regular treatment to eligible populations, and the specific objectives were to achieve 80% program coverage and 100% geographical coverage yearly. The paper reports on the implementation of the integrated mass drug administration and the lessons learned. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated control program was led by the Ministry of Health and coordinated by the national NTD Control Program. The drug packages were designed according to the disease endemicity in each district and delivered through various platforms to eligible populations involving the primary health care system. Treatment data were recorded and reported by the community drug distributors. After a pilot implementation of integrated drug delivery in three regions in 2007, the treatment for all five targeted NTDs was steadily scaled up to 100% geographical coverage by 2009, and program coverage has since been maintained at a high level: over 85% for lymphatic filariasis, over 90% for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, around 90% in school-age children for schistosomiasis, and 76-97% for trachoma. Around 10 million people have received one or more drug packages each year since 2009. No severe cases of adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mali has scaled up the drug treatment to national coverage through integrated drug delivery involving the primary health care system. The successes and lessons
Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.
We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs
Sutton, Jeannette; Vos, Sarah C; Olson, Michele K; Woods, Chelsea; Cohen, Elisia; Gibson, C Ben; Phillips, Nolan Edward; Studts, Jamie L; Eberth, Jan M; Butts, Carter T
The aim of this project was to describe and evaluate the levels of lung cancer communication across the cancer prevention and control continuum for content posted to Twitter during a 10-day period (September 30 to October 9) in 2016. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships between tweet characteristics in lung cancer communication on Twitter and user-level data. Overall, 3,000 tweets published between September 30 and October 9 were assessed by a team of three coders. Lung cancer-specific tweets by user type (individuals, media, and organizations) were examined to identify content and structural message features. The study also assessed differences by user type in the use of hashtags, directed messages, health topic focus, and lung cancer-specific focus across the cancer control continuum. Across the universe of lung cancer tweets, the majority of tweets focused on treatment and the use of pharmaceutical and research interventions, followed by awareness and prevention and risk topics. Among all lung cancer tweets, messages were most consistently tweeted by individual users, and personal behavioral mobilizing cues to action were rare. Lung cancer advocates, as well as patient and medical advocacy organizations, with an interest in expanding the reach and effectiveness of social media efforts should monitor the topical nature of public tweets across the cancer continuum and consider integrating cues to action as a strategy to increase engagement and behavioral activation pertaining to lung cancer reduction efforts. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, Junjie; Si, Chengyong; Lind, Morten
In this paper, a hierarchical management system is proposed to integrate electric vehicles (EVs) into a distribution grid. Three types of actors are included in the system: Distribution system operators (DSOs), Fleet operators (FOs) and EV owners. In contrast to a typical hierarchical control sys...
Full Text Available factors over other contributing factors. The aim of the thesis is three-fold. Firstly, to review theories explaining crime causation in general and child abuse in particular. Secondly to develop the Integrated Modeled Theory as a model that facilitates...
Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malay...
the key to the prevention of suicide is positive leadership and deep concern by supervisors of military personnel and civilian employees who are at... Belongingness Respected and Valued Relationship Problems Loving Relationship Unit Cohesion Peer Support Engaged Leadership Sleep Disturbances Quality...and DA civilian employees who are at increased risk of suicide” (U.S. Army, 2010, pg. 2). Figure 34 shows how the synchronization of this
Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh
Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...
This is an abridged version of an address by the chairman of the Oslo and Paris (Ospar) commission to the SPE/UKOOA/E and P Forum European Environmental Conference and Exhibition held in Aberdeen in April 1997. The Ospar Commission arose out of the Oslo and Paris Conventions on marine pollution in the 1970s. The petroleum industry is now effectively working under the revised and consolidated Oslo Convention of 1992. Three main elements which arise from the provisions of the Convention and set the framework within which the Commission works are discussed. The first of these is a general obligation to take all possible steps to prevent and eliminate pollution, to protect the marine ecosystem and to restore the main adversely affected areas when practicable. Secondly, there are two guiding principles to be observed, the ''polluter pays'' principle and the ''precautionary principle''. The third main element is that the Commission is to take measures which ensure the application of the best available technology and the best environmental practice. Current issues being addressed by the Commission within this framework include: the oil content of discharges from platforms; cuttings produced by drilling; discharge of chemicals offshore; disposal of offshore installations no longer in use. Finally, the problems associated with effective communication on these issues, particularly with regard to risk are considered. (UK)
H.K. Salinda Premadasa
Full Text Available Short messaging service (SMS is perhaps the most popular mobile technology prevalent among students in higher education due to its ubiquitous nature and the capability of two-way communication. However, a major limitation in two-way text messaging is sending back a part of received data with the reply message. This limitation results in users of a mobile learning environment being unable to reply back to the correct destination. This article presents a two-way text messaging system that can be integrated into a learning management system (LMS to provide an interactive learning experience to the user community. Initially, a database is integrated into the LMS that holds message information such as recipient's phone number, message body and user data header. A specific port associated with the SMS is used to conceal and exchange data of a particular course unit. Subsequently, software in the student's mobile device captures this message and sends back the reply message to the appropriate course unit allowing both teachers and students to view messages sent and replies received pertaining to a particular course. Results indicate the educational impact of the proposed system in improving the learning environment and benefits it offers to the community in a campus-wide implementation.
Qing, Yu; Shuai, Han; Qiang, Wang; Jing-Bo, Xue
To report the integrated progress of the hydatid disease information management system, and to provide the reference for further system improvements by analysis of results on simulation test feedback. The work of institutional code matching by collecting fundamental and integrated information of the system in epidemic areas of hydatid disease was carried out, and professional control agencies were selected to carry out the simulation test. The results of agencies code matching at stage indicated the average completion rate was 94.30% on administrative agencies, 69.94% on registered professional agencies and 56.40% on professional institutions matching related to hydatid disease prevention and control implements in seven provinces (autonomous regions) and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Meanwhile, the response rate of open-ended proposals was 93.33% on fifteen feedbacks, and the statistics showed 21.43% believed the system was low fluency, 64.29% considered the system was inconvenience for data inputs and 42.86% considered it would be improved on system statistics functions, of which 27.78% were provincial users, 22.22% were the city users and 50.00% were the county users. The hydatid disease prevention information management system meets the fundamental needs of the majority agencies in hyperendemic areas of echinococcosis, it needs to develop the further test with more agencies joining after the work of the institutional code matching completion and the system service improvement in the next stage.
Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff
To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J; Belgrave, Faye Z
This study examined which characteristics of persuasive communications are most effective in changing African American women's condom use attitudes. Focus groups were convened with 40 African American women (M age = 25.54, SD = 4.67) to assess their opinions on current effective strategies used to promote condom use among their peers. Participants discussed effective characteristics of messaging campaigns (i.e., source, message type, channel) and how these could be used in future prevention messages. Findings revealed that making messages that are fun, catchy, and informative, delivered frequently through social media, TV, or radio by a peer or celebrity would be perceived as most effective in changing young African American women's attitudes. Other themes that emerged were that condom use is more strongly associated with pregnancy prevention than HIV prevention and that sexual partners were perceived to have negative condom use attitudes. Recommendations centered on increasing exposure of HIV prevention messages by placing messages on the Internet and including a funny phrase or jingle in the message so that it is easy to remember and could potentially serve as a conversation starter for discussing safe sex with partners.
Loredana Teresa Pedata
Full Text Available The path and the pilot study presented here come from a synergy between a pharmaceutical, universities and institutions in the area. The intervention evaluation wants to establish itself as a means of "re-thinking" youth intervention benefited: the assumption that the integration of knowledge can constitute an enrichment of the whole person, we believe that such enrichment is more likely to occur in group in comparison with others and the development of social skills and human resources.
Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…
Wall, Miranda Wakeman
The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…
The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)
There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.
Weidman, Justin; Dickerson, Deborah E; Koebel, Charles T
Prevention through Design (PtD), eliminating hazards at the design-stage of tools and systems, is the optimal method of mitigating occupational health and safety risks. A recent National Institute of Safety and Health initiative has established a goal to increase adoption of PtD innovation in industry. The construction industry has traditionally lagged behind other sectors in the adoption of innovation, in general; and of safety and health prevention innovation, in particular. Therefore, as a first step toward improving adoption trends in this sector, a conceptual model was developed to describe the parameters and causal relationships that influence and predict construction stakeholder "adoption readiness" for PtD technology innovation. This model was built upon three well-established theoretical frameworks: the Health Belief Model, the Diffusion of Innovation Model, and the Technology Acceptance Model. Earp and Ennett's model development methodology was employed to build a depiction of the key constructs and directionality and magnitude of relationships among them. Key constructs were identified from the literature associated with the three theoretical frameworks, with special emphasis given to studies related to construction or OHS technology adoption. A conceptual model is presented. Recommendations for future research are described and include confirmatory structural equation modeling of model parameters and relationships, additional descriptive investigation of barriers to adoption in some trade sectors, and design and evaluation of an intervention strategy.
Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is known as point and non-point source of contaminations in the environment. A major class of petroleum contaminant is groups of compounds consist of two or more fused benzene rings called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic. Source identification of petroleum pollution is necessary to prevent pollution entry into the environment. Eight sedimentary cores were obtained from developed and developing areas around Peninsular Malaysia to investigate the historical profile of PAHs, their characteristics and its possible origins. The results showed that the PAHs concentrations varied from very minimum to 2400 ng/g d. w. in average quarter century intervals. Most of the studied locations showed high contribution of PAHs from combusted fuel, coal, biomasses and wood materials except for the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia in which revealed dominance of petroleum products. The findings indicate that PAHs are delivered from different intermediate materials such as asphalt, street dust, vehicular emission and crankcase oil. However, there has been a decline of PAHs input into the marine environment in recent years; petroleum is shown to be a significant cause of marine pollution since the second quarter of 20th century. An overview on sourced materials of petroleum pollution indicates multi-approach necessity toward pollution control, regardless of concentration and possible degradation processes. Various sectors both governmental and non-governmental are needed for prevention and control of petroleum pollution where different sources apparently contribute to the pollution generation process.
Barros, M C; Bello, P; Roca, E; Casares, J J
The heavy ceramic industry (building materials and refractory products manufacture) is an important source of pollutants to the environment. For this reason these industrial sub-sectors are included in prevention and control pollution policies, specifically those of the European Union. The IPPC Directive pays particular attention to the mineral industries, not least to the ceramic industry (epigraph 3.5, Annex I). In this paper, a methodology which is being applied to support IPPC installations and the competent administrative authority in Galicia (NW Spain) is presented. For that, the Galician heavy ceramic industry is analysed, as also are the ways to study the Best Available Techniques (BAT) with a view to establishing the emission limit values (ELV) for each specific case. Hence, a technological state of the art has been carried out for both sub-sectors, from the point of view of implementation of the IPPC in Galicia. Following this, the processes are described briefly and an analysis of the consumption and emission levels of the main pollutants is made. An inventory that includes the best environmental practices and the preventive and abatement candidate techniques as BAT was elaborated for both considered sub-sectors. An information data sheet for each candidate BAT is presented as a method to help both the industries and the competent authority to identify a candidate technique of the inventory as BAT. Three illustrative examples of the application of this procedure are presented for different emissions to environmental media for Galician installations.
ten Hoor Gill A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.
Vakoch, Douglas A.
As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.
Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco
This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on
Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.
Víctor Vázquez Calvo
Full Text Available The principles introduced by the Directive Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC (currently known as the Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU are innovative and have raised interests in the framework of the literature debate on environmental regulation. Many articles describe and analyze the application of the Directive in European countries, but only a few articles focus on how the interest for the Directive’s principles, including the integrated approach, have reached countries outside the European Union. This paper aims to contribute to this topic, describing the experience of the authors in carrying out an EU-funded project on transferring the IPPC approach and Best Available Techniques (BAT concepts to three Arab countries, i.e., Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. The paper presents the experience referring to two sectors falling within the scope of the IPPC Directive: the textile and dairy sector. The objectives, methodologies, activities and experiences are described and can be used and valorized to integrate the IPPC approach and BAT concepts in the current environmental legislation of the three countries.
Chinh, L.D.; Gheewala, S.H.; Bonnet, S. [King Mongkuts University of Technology at Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)
Abstract: Using the concept of life cycle analysis, the whole life cycle of anthracite production in Vietnam was assessed and the environmental 'hot-spots' were identified. These include (I) dust pollution at coal transfer points or piles in storage; (ii) noise pollution resulting from the usage of heavy equipment, and (iii) high volume of acid and turbid mine water discharged into the environment. Pollution prevention and treatment options were identified and discussed in this study which consists of wet treatment of dust, planning, collection and treatment of mine water, planting of trees for dust and noise reduction as well as minimization of erosion. Some recommendations are made for pollution abatement from coal production and improvement of anthracite production in the region.
Jin, X; Xie, L; Zhao, X; Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, Q M
Holistic integrative medicine (HIM), as one of the important ideas in the field of medicine, arouses great concern recently. HIM regards the human body as a whole, turns data and evidence in medical research back to facts, integrates technologies and experience developed in clinical research into medical skills. The repeated practices at the levels of fact, experience, and medical skills will generate true knowledge to solve the wide spread problems brought by linearized thinking and fragmented knowledge. With the development of highly divided medical disciplines, how to utilize and practice HIM has become a common concern of the medical community. Specialization of stomatology, which is a first level discipline like medicine, has also become a trend for years. However, holistic concept cannot be overlooked, especially in the development of oral medicine. This article aims at the communication and exchange of knowledge about HIM among dental professionals. In order to serve the patients better, the authors look forward to practicing the HIM concept in the field of oral medicine through the efforts of us all.
Malaviya, Prashant; Brendl, C Miguel
Research on regulatory focus has established a regulatory matching effect: The persuasiveness of a message is enhanced when regulatory orientations of message and perceiver match (i.e., both are promotion or both are prevention). We report evidence that varying the hedonic outcome reverses this effect. We manipulated hedonic outcome by explicitly stating pleasurable versus painful outcomes as part of the message frame as well as by priming perceivers to focus on either pleasurable or painful outcomes. When both message and perceiver were focused on pleasurable outcomes, we replicated the regulatory matching effect. However, the matching effect reversed when the hedonic outcome of the message was opposed to that of the perceiver (i.e., one was pleasurable and the other painful). Under these conditions, messages that mismatched the perceivers' regulatory orientation were more persuasive (i.e., promotion message for a prevention oriented perceiver or vice versa). We also examined the persuasion effects when both message and perceiver were focused on painful outcomes and found that the regulatory matching effect re-emerged. The reversal of the regulatory matching effect by hedonic outcome strongly suggests that hedonic motives (approach of pleasure vs. avoidance of pain) and regulatory focus motives are distinct constructs. This is important because contrary to theoretical statements these constructs have often been confounded.
Short messaging service (SMS) messages may present a convenient and cost-effective method to support healthcare interventions. This work assesses the effects of short messaging service on various healthcare interventions found in systematic reviews. The search strategy was based on two key concepts: short messaging service and healthcare delivery. The initial search was conducted in December 2012 and was updated in June 2013. Of the 550 identified references, 13 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria, of which 8 were published in peer-reviewed journals and 5 were retrieved from the Cochrane library. Data analysis shows that low to moderate research evidence exists on the benefits of short messaging service interventions for appointment reminders, promoting health in developing countries and preventive healthcare. In many interventions, however, there were a few studies that were of high quality, and most of the studies were rated from low to moderate quality or had no rating at all. Healthcare organizations, policy makers, or clinicians using short messaging service messages to support healthcare interventions should (1) implement interventions that have been found to work in healthcare settings, (2) continue evaluating short messaging service interventions that have not been adequately assessed, and (3) improve collaboration between various healthcare entities to develop studies targeted at specific populations to evaluate the long-term impact of short messaging service on healthcare outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lazard, Allison J; Bamgbade, Benita A; Sontag, Jennah M; Brown, Carolyn
Depression is highly prevalent among college students. Although treatment is often available on university campuses, many stigma-based barriers prevent students from seeking help. Communication strategies, such as the use of metaphors, are needed to reduce barriers. Specially, the use of visual metaphors, as a strategic message design tactic, may be an effective communication strategy to increase message appeal and engagement. Using a 2-phase approach, this study first identified common metaphors students use to conceptualize mental illness. Messages incorporating conceptual and visual metaphors were then designed and tested to determine their potential in reducing stigma. Participants (n = 256) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in a between-subjects experiment: messages with visual and textual metaphors, messages with straightforward visuals and textual metaphors, text-based metaphor messages, or a control group. Overall, metaphorical messages are appealing, the use of visual metaphors leads to greater message engagement, and messages based on conceptual metaphors have the potential to reduce stigma. The use of conceptual and visual metaphors in campaign design is an effective strategy to communicate about a complex health topic, such as mental illness, and should be considered for use in campaigns to reduce barriers for help-seeking behavior.
Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi
Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.
Marusic, Ana; Wager, Elizabeth; Utrobicic, Ana; Rothstein, Hannah R; Sambunjak, Dario
Improper practices and unprofessional conduct in clinical research have been shown to waste a significant portion of healthcare funds and harm public health. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational or policy interventions in research integrity or responsible conduct of research on the behaviour and attitudes of researchers in health and other research areas. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL health research bibliographical databases, as well as the Academic Search Complete, AGRICOLA, GeoRef, PsycINFO, ERIC, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. We performed the last search on 15 April 2015 and the search was limited to articles published between 1990 and 2014, inclusive. We also searched conference proceedings and abstracts from research integrity conferences and specialized websites. We handsearched 14 journals that regularly publish research integrity research. We included studies that measured the effects of one or more interventions, i.e. any direct or indirect procedure that may have an impact on research integrity and responsible conduct of research in its broadest sense, where participants were any stakeholders in research and publication processes, from students to policy makers. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, such as controlled before-and-after studies, with comparisons of outcomes in the intervention versus non-intervention group or before versus after the intervention. Studies without a control group were not included in the review. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. To assess the risk of bias in non-randomized studies, we used a modified Cochrane tool, in which we used four out of six original domains (blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, other sources of bias) and two additional domains (comparability of groups and confounding factors). We categorized our primary outcome into the following levels: 1) organizational change
Sellner, D.; Schnutenhaus, J.
This EC Directive is intended to incorporate integrated pollution control as a mandatory obligation in the legal provisions governing industrial installations licensing within the EC. The article in hand presents an assessment of the Directive and discusses some possible impacts on the German national law in the field of pollution control, which hitherto has been defined on the basis of a preferably medium-oriented approach. A serious point of deviation from the German approach is seen in the fact that the draft's provisions relating to the licensing of industrial installations defines certain pre-conditions allowing a plant in a low-polluted area to be licensed, although the pollution control systems of the plant do not them come up to the state-of-the-art in pollution abatement technology. This is seen as a fact jeopardizing the principle of precantionary measures which has been firmly established in German pollution control law. (orig./HP) [de
Maria do Socorro Burity Dialectaquiz
Full Text Available En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
Claudiana Maria da Silva Leal
Full Text Available En este artículo se enfoca la educación, la comunicación y las relaciones humanas como medios de prevención para la salud de los trabajadores, y como catalizadores para los cambios en el adulto. También se expone el análisis de principios de educación integral y autodescubrimiento, promocionando la acción de cambio, haciendo que el trabajador graduado tome conciencia de su conducta hacia él mismo y hacia otros trabajadores, lo que hace posible la reducción del sufrimiento mental.
Charguéraud , Arthur
International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...
Major, Lesa Hatley; Coleman, Renita
Using experimental methodology, this study tests the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention messages tailored specifically to college-aged African Americans. To test interaction effects, it intersects source role and evidence format. The authors used gain-framed and loss-framed information specific to young African Americans and HIV to test message effectiveness between statistical and emotional evidence formats, and for the first time, a statistical/emotional combination format. It tests which source--physician or minister--that young African Americans believe is more effective when delivering HIV/AIDS messages to young African Americans. By testing the interaction between source credibility and evidence format, this research expands knowledge on creating effective health messages in several major areas. Findings include a significant interaction between the role of physician and the combined statistical/emotional format. This message was rated as the most effective way to deliver HIV/AIDS prevention messages.
O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy
Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794
... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...
Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan
University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...
Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.
A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the
Bill R. Christian
Full Text Available Patients requiring emergency airway management may be at greater risk of acute hypoxemic events because of underlying lung pathology, high metabolic demands, insufficient respiratory drive, obesity, or the inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Emergency tracheal intubation is often required before complete information needed to assess the risk of procedural hypoxia is acquired (i.e., arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or chest radiograph. During pre-oxygenation, administering high-flow nasal oxygen in addition to a non-rebreather face mask can significantly boost the effective inspired oxygen. Similarly, with the apnea created by rapid sequence intubation (RSI procedures, the same high-flow nasal cannula can help maintain or increase oxygen saturation during efforts to secure the tube (oral intubation. Thus, the use of nasal oxygen during pre-oxygenation and continued during apnea can prevent hypoxia before and during intubation, extending safe apnea time, and improve first-pass success attempts. We conducted a literature review of nasal-cannula apneic oxygenation during intubation, focusing on two components: oxygen saturation during intubation, and oxygen desaturation time. We performed an electronic literature search from 1980 to November 2017, using PubMed, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. We identified 14 studies that pointed toward the benefits of using nasal cannula during emergency intubation.
Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muñoz, R
Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Harrison, Kristen; Quick, Brian L
A growing body of evidence suggests that entertainment-education (EE) is a promising health communication strategy. The purpose of this study was to identify some of the factors that facilitate and hinder audience involvement with EE messages. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors introduce a construct they call experiential involvement, which describes the experience of being cognitively and emotionally involved with EE messages and is a product of transportation into an EE text and identification with EE characters. Using an experimental design, the authors also investigated how reports of experiential involvement and health information recall varied depending on the degree to which the educational content was well integrated with the narrative content in EE messages. Findings indicated that integration significantly influenced health information recall. Results indicated that experiential involvement and the perception that the health topic in EE messages was personally relevant predicted participants' systematic processing of the information in EE messages. Contrary to expectation, personal relevance did not predict experiential involvement, and systematic message processing was negatively related to health information recall. Implications for the construction of EE messages and the study of the EE strategy are discussed.
Castro-Orozco, Raimundo; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Gómez-Arias, Rubén
We analyzed and compared two Integrated Management Strategies for Dengue Prevention and Control (IMS-dengue Colombia and IMS-dengue Peru), through a narrative review of available literature, in order to identify common and dissimilar patterns in two Andean countries with epidemiological differences in the context of dengue disease. We were able to identify differences related to: formal assessment of problem, formation of groups of actors, and quantitative information provided by performance indicators. These limitations identified in IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010 were overcome in a new version of the strategy (IMS-dengue Colombia 2012-2021). We were able to document an epidemiological impact of implementation of IMS-dengue Colombia 2006-2010. Additionally, a gradual increase was observed in incidence rates of dengue cases that could be related to the strengthening of surveillance system of IMS- dengue Peru.
Okafor, M T; Nwagha, T U; Anusiem, C; Okoli, U A; Nubila, N I; Al-Alloosh, F; Udenyia, I J
The entire genetic information carried by an organism makes up its genome. Genes have a diverse number of functions. They code different proteins for normal proliferation of cells. However, changes in the base sequence of genes affect their protein by-products which act as messengers for normal cellular functions such as proliferation and repairs. Salient processes for maintaining the integrity of the genome are hinged on intricate mechanisms put in place for the evolution to tackle genomic stresses. To discuss how cells sense and repair damage to their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as well as to highlight how defects in the genes involved in DNA repair contribute to cancer development. Methodology: Online searches on the following databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Biomed Central, and SciELO were done. Attempt was made to review articles with keywords such as cancer, cell cycle, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair. The cell cycle, tumor suppression genes, DNA repair mechanism, as well as their contribution to cancer development, were discussed and reviewed. Knowledge on how cells detect and repair DNA damage through an array of mechanisms should allay our anxiety as regards cancer development. More studies on DNA damage detection and repair processes are important toward a holistic approach to cancer treatment.
Mariani, M.; Sera, B.
The present paper considers the gas-turbine pollution and joints out that the NO, is the most important pollutant among others pollutants as well as the carbon oxide and the volatile organic compounds because the NO x , has a high mass production rate (in the combustion chamber), elevated toxicity to the ecosystem and because of being in the atmosphere a precursor of secondary ultrafine particles PM 2,5 . In with reference to the integrated pollution and control (IPPC) the job shows schemes of chain chemical reactions which are on the base of the formation of different types of NO x , thermal and organic, and it illustrates the influence of some operative parameters on the combustion's efficiency and then on the NO x , production rate. Also, the study gives the best absolvable techniques (BAT) to reduce the NO x , production rate and to demolish it before its introduction, as well as gas exhaust, in the atmosphere. At the end, the work shows that the gas-turbine are to consider thermal engines with a little environment impact index specially when they make use of the natural gas, as well as fuel [it
ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo
Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...
Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien
Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.
Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad
Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...
Kahn, James G; Muraguri, Nicholas; Harris, Brian; Lugada, Eric; Clasen, Thomas; Grabowsky, Mark; Mermin, Jonathan; Shariff, Shahnaaz
Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.
James G Kahn
Full Text Available Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign.We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease.Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442, at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015. Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20.A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.
Full Text Available As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear appeals to promote healthy behaviors. Theoretical models, such as the Extended Parallel Process Model integrate concepts as 'perceived threat' and 'perceived efficacy' to explain how such messages operate and can cause diverse behavioral reactions. It is however still not entirely clear how these different aspects are valuated and combined to determine desired versus undesired response behaviors in individuals. In a functional integration task, threat-appeal based exercise promotion messages varying in psychological threat and efficacy content were shown to sedentary employees in order to assess how they affect their intention to engage in physical exercise. Our results show that individuals can be categorized in 4 different clusters depending on the way they valuate threat and efficacy appeals: i.e. individuals sensitive to both types of cues, those sensitive to either the threat or the efficacy component in the message and those insensitive to either one of them. As different segments of receivers of the message react differently to threat and efficacy combinations, it is concluded that different approaches to designing effective mass media campaigns may be required for effective exercise promotion.
Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.
Carlucci, Celeste; Kardachi, Julie; Bradley, Sara M.; Prager, Jason; Wyka, Katarzyna
Background: Despite the development of evidence-based fall-prevention programs, there remains a need for programming that will engage older adults in real-world settings. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a community-based group program that integrates joyful movement into fall prevention. The curriculum emphasizes a positive experience of movement, cultivating a healthy body image, and retraining of biomechanics. Design: Program evaluation was conducted using a one-group pre–post test study design. Key outcomes were functional balance and confidence. Qualitative feedback was gathered at the final class sessions. Results: Two hundred fifteen older adults enrolled at four sites over the period from 2010 to 2014. Among 86 participants who provided feedback, most credited the program for an increased sense of optimism and/or confidence (70%), and better walking ability (50%). Among 102 participants who completed both initial and final assessments, there was evidence of significant improvements on the Functional Reach Test (d = .60, p Falls Efficacy Scale (d = .17, p balance and confidence. Future research should examine whether the positive changes encouraged by joyful movement lead to lasting reductions in fall risk and additional health benefits. PMID:29796405
Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa
The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.
Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative
Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka
A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.
Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl
Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...
Broaddus, Michelle R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
African American young adults are at high risk of HIV infection during their lifetimes, and the male condom remains the best method of prevention. Efforts to increase condom use should address the barrier of condom negotiation. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with African American young adults to examine their use of text messaging for requesting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and condom use within the larger context of general sexual communication using text messages. Text messaging gave participants a level of comfort and disinhibition to discuss sexual topics and negotiate sexual safety. Benefits of text messages included ease of communication, privacy, and increased ability to express condom desires. Difficulties reflected the potential relationship implications of suggesting HIV/STI testing and condom use. Condom negotiation strategies using text messages also mirrored those found to be used in face-to-face communication.
... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...
Fitó, Montserrat; Melander, Olle; Martínez, José Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía; Carpéné, Christian; Corella, Dolores
Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. PMID:27598147
Smith, Linda L; Lake, Noelle H; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Perlman, Adam; Wroth, Shelley; Wolever, Ruth Q
To describe the evolution, training, and results of an emerging allied health profession skilled in eliciting sustainable health-related behavior change and charged with improving patient engagement. Through techniques sourced from humanistic and positive psychology, solution-focused and mindfulness-based therapies, and leadership coaching, Integrative Health Coaching (IHC) provides a mechanism to empower patients through various stages of learning and change. IHC also provides a method for the creation and implementation of forward-focused personalized health plans. Clinical studies employing Duke University Integrative Medicine's model of IHC have demonstrated improvements in measures of diabetes and diabetes risk, weight management, and risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. By supporting and enabling individuals in making major lifestyle changes for the improvement of their health, IHC carries the potential to reduce rates and morbidity of chronic disease and impact myriad aspects of healthcare. As a model of educational and clinical innovation aimed at patient empowerment and lifestyle modification, IHC is aligned well with the tenets and goals of recently sanctioned federal healthcare reform, specifically the creation of the first National Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy. IHC may allow greater patient-centricity while targeting the lifestyle-related chronic disease that lies at the heart of the current healthcare crisis.
Belhadj, Hedia; Rasanathan, Jennifer J K; Denny, Lynette; Broutet, Nathalie
People living with HIV are at an increased risk of acquiring HPV and of developing evolutive cervical cancers (women) and penile and anal cancers (men). Low-cost screening-visual inspection with acetic acid, HPV DNA diagnostics and primary care level treatment, cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2), and primary prevention through HPV vaccination of girls aged 9-13 years-makes the goal of eliminating cervical cancer possible in the long term. Integration of cervical cancer screening and treatment into a sexual and reproductive health service package raises programmatic questions and calls for a continuum of care. The latter is only possible when adequate cytopathology skills and treatment for advanced cancer conditions are available. The present paper highlights the role of member societies of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in developing the base for an integrated package that responds to women's sexual and reproductive health needs. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.
Burleigh, Scott C.
This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to
Ryu, Keun Jung; Kim, Bang Hyun; Lee, Yohan; Lee, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jae Hwa
The arthroscopic suture-bridge technique has proved to provide biomechanically firm fixation of the torn rotator cuff to the tuberosity by increasing the footprint contact area and pressure. However, a marginal dog-ear deformity is encountered not infrequently when this technique is used, impeding full restoration of the torn cuff. To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes of the use of a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity compared with a conventional suture-bridge method in rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence 2. A consecutive series of 71 patients aged 50 to 65 years who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness medium-sized to massive tears was evaluated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to repair technique: a conventional suture-bridge technique (34 patients; group A) versus a modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity (37 patients; group B). Radiographic evaluations included postoperative cuff integrity using MRI. Functional evaluations included pre- and postoperative range of motion (ROM), pain visual analog scale (VAS), the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, the Constant score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. All patients were followed up clinically at a minimum of 1 year. When the 2 surgical techniques were compared, postoperative structural integrity by Sugaya classification showed the distribution of types I:II:III:IV:V to be 4:20:2:4:4 in group A and 20:12:4:0:1 in group B. More subjects in group B had a favorable Sugaya type compared with group A (P bridge technique repairs were found in the retear group (P = .03). There were significant differences between healed and retear groups in functional outcome scores, with worse results in the retear group. A modified suture-bridge technique to prevent a marginal dog-ear deformity provided better structural outcomes than a
Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...
Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko
Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)
Genaidy, A.M., E-mail: email@example.com [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Sequeira, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Tolaymat, T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Kohler, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC (United States); Rinder, M. [WorldTek Inc, Cincinnati (United States)
An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO2 and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and
Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M
An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and
Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.
Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main
Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Gubin, Rehana; Holston, Martine M; Fullerton, Judith; Prata, Ndola
Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births. We conducted an integrative review of published research studies and evaluation reports from programs that distributed misoprostol at the community level for prevention of PPH at home births. We reviewed methods and cadres involved in education of end-users, drug administration, distribution, and coverage, correct and incorrect usage, and serious adverse events. Eighteen programs were identified; only seven reported all data of interest. Programs utilized a range of strategies and timings for distributing misoprostol. Distribution rates were higher when misoprostol was distributed at a home visit during late pregnancy (54.5-96.9%) or at birth (22.5-83.6%), compared to antenatal care (ANC) distribution at any ANC visit (22.5-49.1%) or late ANC visit (21.0-26.7%). Coverage rates were highest when CHWs and traditional birth attendants distributed misoprostol and lower when health workers/ANC providers distributed the medication. The highest distribution and coverage rates were achieved by programs that allowed self-administration. Seven women took misoprostol prior to delivery out of more than 12,000 women who were followed-up. Facility birth rates increased in the three programs for which this information was available. Fifty-one (51) maternal deaths were reported among 86,732 women taking misoprostol: 24 were attributed to perceived PPH; none were directly attributed to use of misoprostol. Even if all deaths were attributable to PPH, the equivalent ratio (59 maternal deaths/100,000 live births) is substantially lower than the reported maternal mortality ratio in any of these
Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.
This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a
Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S
Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention
Dijkstra, Arie; Rothman, Alexander; Pietersma, Suzanne
According to Regulatory Focus theory (RFT), outcomes in persuasive messages can be framed in four different ways, as gains, non-gains, losses or non-losses. In study 1, the persuasiveness of all four frames was compared and the presence/absence effect that was expected on the basis of the feature-positive effect was verified: Statements about present outcomes (gain, loss) were more persuasive than those about absent outcomes (non-gain, non-loss). However, this study failed to support the prediction that a gain-framed message would be more persuasive than a loss-framed message when promoting a prevention behaviour. Study 2 was designed to examine the latter finding. It was hypothesised that the threat posed by the loss-framed message in study 1 was too low to elicit a defensive reaction. Therefore, in study 2, the personal relevance of the gain and the loss framed message was manipulated. Consistent with predictions, the gain-framed message was more persuasive than the loss-framed message, but only when the message was personalised to increase self-relevance. Moreover, the effect was due to a significant drop in persuasion in the loss condition, probably caused by a defensive reaction. These data shed a new light on the findings of past framing studies.
Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E
This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining "sugar-sweetened beverage" and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates.
Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel
To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.
Shi, Jingyuan Jolie; Smith, Sandi W
This study examined the effect of moderately repeated exposure (three times) to a fear appeal message on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) variables of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions for the recommended behaviors in the message, as well as the proportions of systematic and message-related thoughts generated after each message exposure. The results showed that after repeated exposure to a fear appeal message about preventing melanoma, perceived threat in terms of susceptibility and perceived efficacy in terms of response efficacy significantly increased. The behavioral intentions of all recommended behaviors did not change after repeated exposure to the message. However, after the second exposure the proportions of both systematic and all message-related thoughts (relative to total thoughts) significantly decreased while the proportion of heuristic thoughts significantly increased, and this pattern held after the third exposure. The findings demonstrated that the predictions in the EPPM are likely to be operative after three exposures to a persuasive message.
Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.
Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.
McVey, Gail L.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L.; Simkins, Sari W.; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly
Introduction Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. Methods An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness ab...
González, M. R.; Torres, F.; Yoldi, V.; Arcega, F.; Plaza, I.
It is proposed an integrated management model for an organization. This model is based on the continuous improvement Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and it intends to integrate the environmental, risk prevention and ethical aspects as well as research, development and innovation projects management in the general quality management structure proposed by ISO 9001:2008. It aims to fulfill the standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OSHAS 18001, SGE 21 y 166002.
Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice
Senier, Laura; Smollin, Leandra; Lee, Rachael; Nicoll, Lauren; Shields, Michael; Tan, Catherine
In the past decade, healthcare delivery has faced two major disruptions: the mapping of the human genome and the rise of evidence-based practice. Sociologists have documented the paradigmatic shift towards evidence-based practice in medicine, but have yet to examine its effect on other health professions or the broader healthcare arena. This article shows how evidence-based practice is transforming public health in the United States. We present an in-depth qualitative analysis of interview, ethnographic, and archival data to show how Michigan's state public health agency has navigated the turn to evidence-based practice, as they have integrated scientific advances in genomics into their chronic disease prevention programming. Drawing on organizational theory, we demonstrate how they managed ambiguity through a combination of sensegiving and sensemaking activities. Specifically, they linked novel developments in genomics to a long-accepted public health planning model, the Core Public Health Functions. This made cutting edge advances in genomics more familiar to their peers in the state health agency. They also marshaled state-specific surveillance data to illustrate the public health burden of hereditary cancers in Michigan, and to make expert panel recommendations for genetic screening more locally relevant. Finally, they mobilized expertise to help their internal colleagues and external partners modernize conventional public health activities in chronic disease prevention. Our findings show that tools and concepts from organizational sociology can help medical sociologists understand how evidence-based practice is shaping institutions and interprofessional relations in the healthcare arena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As a result of the 1984 Regional Workshop for the Development of Packages of Adequate Learning Requirements in Population Education, the participants tackled the problem of non-institutionalization of population education into the formal and non-formal educational curricula in their countries. Based on their deliberations, several sets of guidelines and core messages were formulated to provide countries with a more definite direction that will hopefully ensure the functional and effective integration of population education in their respective national school and out-of-school curriculum system. Useful packages of learning materials in population education should help realize the country's population policy and goals within the broader framework of socioeconomic development, and the content of the package should comprehensively cover the core messages of the country's Population Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Program. The population knowledge base of the package should be accurate and relevant; the package should provide for graphic and visual presentation and for assessment of effects on the target groups. Proposed core messages in population education discuss the advantages of small family size and delayed marriage, and aspects of responsible parenthood. Other messages discuss population resource development and population-related beliefs and values.
Haire-Joshu, Debra L; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Peskoe, Sarah B; Budd, Elizabeth L; Brownson, Ross C; Joshu, Corinne E
Adolescence represents a critical period for the development of overweight that tracks into adulthood. This risk is significantly heightened for adolescents that become pregnant, many of whom experience postpartum weight retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate Balance Adolescent Lifestyle Activities and Nutrition Choices for Energy (BALANCE), a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention targeting postpartum adolescents participating in a national home visiting child development-parent education program. A group randomized, nested cohort design was used with 1325 adolescents, 694 intervention and 490 control, (mean age = 17.8 years, 52 % underrepresented minorities) located across 30 states. Participatory methods were used to integrate lifestyle behavior change strategies within standard parent education practice. Content targeted replacement of high-risk obesogenic patterns (e.g. sweetened drink and high fat snack consumption, sedentary activity) with positive behaviors (e.g. water intake, fruit and vegetables, increased walking). Parent educators delivered BALANCE through home visits, school based classroom-group meetings, and website activities. Control adolescents received standard child development information. Phase I included baseline to posttest (12 months); Phase II included baseline to follow-up (24 months). When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents who were ≥12 weeks postpartum were 89 % more likely (p = 0.02) to maintain a normal BMI or improve an overweight/obese BMI by 12 months; this change was not sustained at 24 months. When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents significantly improved fruit and vegetable intake (p = .03). In stratified analyses, water intake improved among younger BALANCE teens (p = .001) and overweight/obese BALANCE teens (p = .05) when compared to control counterparts. There were no significant differences between groups in sweetened drink and snack consumption
Huang, Qinlong; Yang, Yixian; Shi, Yuxiang
With the growing number of vehicles and popularity of various services in vehicular cloud computing (VCC), message exchanging among vehicles under traffic conditions and in emergency situations is one of the most pressing demands, and has attracted significant attention. However, it is an important challenge to authenticate the legitimate sources of broadcast messages and achieve fine-grained message access control. In this work, we propose SmartVeh, a secure and efficient message access control and authentication scheme in VCC. A hierarchical, attribute-based encryption technique is utilized to achieve fine-grained and flexible message sharing, which ensures that vehicles whose persistent or dynamic attributes satisfy the access policies can access the broadcast message with equipped on-board units (OBUs). Message authentication is enforced by integrating an attribute-based signature, which achieves message authentication and maintains the anonymity of the vehicles. In order to reduce the computations of the OBUs in the vehicles, we outsource the heavy computations of encryption, decryption and signing to a cloud server and road-side units. The theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that our secure and efficient scheme is suitable for VCC.
Metzler, April E.; Weiskotten, David; Morgen, Keith J.
Ninth grade students (n=298) participated in a study to examine the influence source credibility, message, quality, and personal relevance on HIV prevention message efficacy. A pilot study with adolescent focus groups created the high and low quality messages, as well as the high (HIV+) and low (worried parent) credibility sources. Participants…
Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo
Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.
Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M
Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.
Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem
Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.
Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas
Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.
Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.
Kevin F. Steinmetz
Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.
Full Text Available Noncommunicable disease (NCD scenario models are an essential part of the public health toolkit, allowing for an estimate of the health impact of population-level interventions that are not amenable to assessment by standard epidemiological study designs (e.g., health-related food taxes and physical infrastructure projects and extrapolating results from small samples to the whole population. The PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl is an openly available NCD scenario model that estimates the effect of population-level changes in diet, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco consumption on NCD mortality. The structure and methods employed in the PRIME are described here in detail, including the development of open source code that will support a PRIME web application to be launched in 2015. This paper reviews scenario results from eleven papers that have used the PRIME, including estimates of the impact of achieving government recommendations for healthy diets, health-related food taxes and subsidies, and low-carbon diets. Future challenges for NCD scenario modelling, including the need for more comparisons between models and the improvement of future prediction of NCD rates, are also discussed.
Barlow, Alexandra; Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry
In this paper we report on the implementation and impact of an integrated prevention model (Achievement for All - AfA) to improve the educational experiences and outcomes of students with disabilities. It comprises three inter-related strands: assessment, tracking and intervention; structured conversations with parents; and, developing provision for wider outcomes. Participants were 12,038 students with disabilities from 431 mainstream primary and secondary schools across 10 Local Authorities in England involved in the two-year AfA pilot. Pre- and post-test data on academic attainment in English and Maths were compared with national data on academic progress for students with and without disabilities over an equivalent period of time. School-level contextual and implementation data and student-level socio-demographic and psychosocial data were also collected. Four hypotheses were tested regarding the impact of AfA on academic attainment in English (H1) and Maths (H2); the influence of aspects of the implementation context and processes (H3); and individual differences between students (H4). Our findings are discussed in relation to the identification and validation of critical intervention components and standards for assessing the practical significance of attempts to improve outcomes for students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klein, Amarolinda Zanela; da Silva Freitas, José Carlos, Jr.; da Silva, Juliana Vitória Vieira Mattiello Mattiello; Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória; Baldasso, Lucas
The popularity of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) has prompted educators to integrate it in teaching and learning in higher education. WhatsApp® is a multi-platform instant messaging application widely used worldwide, however, there is still little applied research on its use as a platform for educational activities in management higher education.…
Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei
Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.
Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875
Schultz, Don; Macdonald, Emma K.; Baines, Paul R.
Integrated marketing communications can substantially improve target audience reception, message resonance, and positive behavioural response but, to reach its true potential, the process requires a strong focus on data integration/customer insight.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... a meeting is scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... advice to the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health (the ``Council''). The Advisory...
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005-2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2-15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p awareness of the program and each of its messages over time in HNE compared to no change over time in NSW (p Awareness was significantly higher (p awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region.
Berrouiguet, Sofian; Baca-García, Enrique; Brandt, Sara; Walter, Michel; Courtet, Philippe
Mobile phone text messages (short message service, SMS) are used pervasively as a form of communication. Almost 100% of the population uses text messaging worldwide and this technology is being suggested as a promising tool in psychiatry. Text messages can be sent either from a classic mobile phone or a web-based application. Reviews are needed to better understand how text messaging can be used in mental health care and other fields of medicine. The objective of the study was to review the literature regarding the use of mobile phone text messaging in mental health care. We conducted a thorough literature review of studies involving text messaging in health care management. Searches included PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science databases on May 25, 2015. Studies reporting the use of text messaging as a tool in managing patients with mental health disorders were included. Given the heterogeneity of studies, this review was summarized using a descriptive approach. From 677 initial citations, 36 studies were included in the review. Text messaging was used in a wide range of mental health situations, notably substance abuse (31%), schizophrenia (22%), and affective disorders (17%). We identified four ways in which text messages were used: reminders (14%), information (17%), supportive messages (42%), and self-monitoring procedures (42%). Applications were sometimes combined. We report growing interest in text messaging since 2006. Text messages have been proposed as a health care tool in a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders including substance abuse, schizophrenia, affective disorders, and suicide prevention. Most papers described pilot studies, while some randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were also reported. Overall, a positive attitude toward text messages was reported. RCTs reported improved treatment adherence and symptom surveillance. Other positive points included an increase in appointment attendance and in satisfaction with
Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher
There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Volpe, Massimo; Battistoni, Allegra; Gallo, Giovanna; Coluccia, Roberta; De Caterina, Raffaele
While the use of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CVD) is well established, aspirin in primary prevention is not systematically recommended because the absolute CV event reduction is similar to the absolute excess in major bleedings. Recently, emerging evidence suggests the possibility that the assumption of aspirin, may also be effective in the prevention of cancer. By adding to the CV prevention benefits the potential beneficial effect of aspirin in reducing the incidence of mortality and cancer could tip the balance between risks and benefits of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention in favour of the latter and broaden the indication for treatment with in populations at average risk. While prospective and randomized study are currently investigating the effect of aspirin in prevention of both cancer and CVD, clinical efforts at the individual level to promote the use of aspirin in global (or total) primary prevention could be already based on a balanced evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio.
Shrestha, Munik Kumar
Epidemic processes are common out-of-equilibrium phenomena of broad interdisciplinary interest. In this thesis, we show how message-passing approach can be a helpful tool for simulating epidemic models in disordered medium like networks, and in particular for estimating the probability that a given node will become infectious at a particular time. The sort of dynamics we consider are stochastic, where randomness can arise from the stochastic events or from the randomness of network structures. As in belief propagation, variables or messages in message-passing approach are defined on the directed edges of a network. However, unlike belief propagation, where the posterior distributions are updated according to Bayes' rule, in message-passing approach we write differential equations for the messages over time. It takes correlations between neighboring nodes into account while preventing causal signals from backtracking to their immediate source, and thus avoids "echo chamber effects" where a pair of adjacent nodes each amplify the probability that the other is infectious. In our first results, we develop a message-passing approach to threshold models of behavior popular in sociology. These are models, first proposed by Granovetter, where individuals have to hear about a trend or behavior from some number of neighbors before adopting it themselves. In thermodynamic limit of large random networks, we provide an exact analytic scheme while calculating the time dependence of the probabilities and thus learning about the whole dynamics of bootstrap percolation, which is a simple model known in statistical physics for exhibiting discontinuous phase transition. As an application, we apply a similar model to financial networks, studying when bankruptcies spread due to the sudden devaluation of shared assets in overlapping portfolios. We predict that although diversification may be good for individual institutions, it can create dangerous systemic effects, and as a result
Van Leuven, Jim
Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)
Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna
This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…
... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...
Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno
Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…
Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin
Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission
Boone, Tanya L.
The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…
A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...
Ernst, Erik; Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme
. This supports evolution from a dynamically typed programto a strictly statically typed form. We present a formal model of Dart that elucidates how a core of the language and its standard type system works. This allows us to characterize message-safe programs and present a theorem stating that such programs......This paper establishes a notion of message-safe programs as a natural intermediate point between dynamically typed and statically typed Dart programs. Unlike traditional static type checking, the type system in the Dart programming language is unsound by design. The rationale has been...... that this allows compile-time detection of likely errors and enables code completion in integrated development environments, without being restrictive on programmers. We show that, despite unsoundness, judicious use of type annotations can ensure useful properties of the runtime behavior of Dart programs...
Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.
Omar Jehovani López Orozco
Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.
Zucker, Nancy L; Green, Steven; Morris, James P; Kragel, Philip; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Bulik, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S
This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were defined as conflicting sequences of biological motion and facial affect signals that are unexpected within a particular social context (e.g. observing the reception of a gift). Across four social vignettes, valenced facial expressions were crossed with rejecting and accepting gestures in a virtual avatar responding to presentation of a gift from the participant. The results indicate that conflicting facial affect and gesture activated superior temporal sulcus, a region implicated in expectancy violations, as well as inferior frontal gyrus and putamen. Scenarios conveying rejection differentially activated the insula and putamen, regions implicated in embodied cognition, and motivated learning, as well as frontoparietal cortex. Characterizing how meaning is inferred from integration of conflicting nonverbal communicative cues is essential to understand nuances and complexities of human exchange.
van Velthoven, M H M M T; Brusamento, S; Majeed, A; Car, J
The objective of this mixed method systematic review was to assess the scope, effectiveness, acceptability and feasibility of the use of mobile phone messaging for HIV infection prevention, treatment and care. We comprehensively searched the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed study quality of included studies (any research design) focusing on mobile phone messaging interventions for HIV care. We present a narrative overview of the results. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomized controlled trials, 11 interventional studies using other study designs and seven qualitative or cross-sectional studies. We also found six on-going trials and 21 projects. Five of the on-going trials and all the above mentioned projects took place in low or middle-income countries. Mobile phone messaging was researched for HIV prevention, appointment reminders, HIV testing reminders, medication adherence and for communication between health workers. Of the three randomized controlled trials assessing the use of short message service (SMS) to improve medication adherence, two showed positive results. Other interventional studies did not provide significant results. In conclusion, despite an extensive search we found limited evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone messaging for HIV care. There is a need to adequately document outcomes and constraints of programs using mobile phone messaging to support HIV care to assess the impact and to focus on best practice.
Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...
Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.
The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process
Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene
Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.
Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M
This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.
Taleban, Roya; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Moafi, Mohammad; Jiryaee, Nasrin; Khadivi, Reza
Intensity of depressive symptoms could be exacerbated due to the paucity of appropriate treatments. We assessed the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and text messaging, which aimed at amelioration of patient's behavior and consciousness, which could lead to suicide prevention. This was a randomized clinical trial implemented in rural health centers of Isfahan district (Iran). Health centers were assigned in three trials consisting of the booklet, text messaging, and control groups. Each group consisted of 70 patients. Inclusion criteria were being affected by depressive symptom, text messaging. Out of 210 individuals, 198 patients finished this study. The intensity of depressive symptom was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction (F = 12.30, P text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment.
Abhyankar, Purva; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca
This study examined the effects of message framing on intentions to obtain the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine for one's child and investigated whether Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and perceived outcome efficacy variables mediate and/or moderate message framing effects. One hundred and forty women read either a loss-framed or gain-framed message and then completed measures assessing their intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine for their child, and TPB and outcome efficacy variables. Exposure to the loss frame increased intentions to obtain the MMR vaccine and influenced perceptions of outcome efficacy. This suggests that outcome efficacy, but not other TPB variables may mediate framing effects within the context of MMR vaccination. Message frame, in addition to TPB variables, significantly predicted unique variance in behavioural intentions. These findings are discussed within the context of Prospect Theory, perceived risk and prevention/detection behaviours.
Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina
Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.
Full Text Available In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness versus mixed (joy and sadness, with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.
A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals ... Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with ... locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns.
Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce
This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Corinne Graffunder... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group'') within the Department of Health and Human Services. To...
van Koperen, Marije Tm; van der Kleij, Rianne Mjj; Renders, Carry Cm; Crone, Matty Mr; Hendriks, Anna-Marie Am; Jansen, Maria M; van de Gaar, Vivian Vm; Raat, Hein Jh; Ruiter, Emilie Elm; Molleman, Gerard Grm; Schuit, Jantine Aj; Seidell, Jacob Jc
The aim of this paper is to describe the research aims, concepts and methods of the research Consortium Integrated Approach of Overweight (CIAO). CIAO is a concerted action of five Academic Collaborative Centres, local collaborations between academic institutions, regional public health services, local authorities and other relevant sectors in the Netherlands. Prior research revealed lacunas in knowledge of and skills related to five elements of the integrated approach of overweight prevention in children (based upon the French EPODE approach), namely political support, parental education, implementation, social marketing and evaluation. CIAO aims to gain theoretical and practical insight of these elements through five sub-studies and to develop, based on these data, a framework for monitoring and evaluation. For this research program, mixed methods are used in all the five sub-studies. First, problem specification through literature research and consultation of stakeholders, experts, health promotion specialists, parents and policy makers will be carried out. Based on this information, models, theoretical frameworks and practical instruments will be developed, tested and evaluated in the communities that implement the integrated approach to prevent overweight in children. Knowledge obtained from these studies and insights from experts and stakeholders will be combined to create an evaluation framework to evaluate the integrated approach at central, local and individual levels that will be applicable to daily practice. This innovative research program stimulates sub-studies to collaborate with local stakeholders and to share and integrate their knowledge, methodology and results. Therefore, the output of this program (both knowledge and practical tools) will be matched and form building blocks of a blueprint for a local evidence- and practice-based integrated approach towards prevention of overweight in children. The output will then support various communities to
Huybregts, Lieven; Becquey, Elodie; Zongrone, Amanda; Le Port, Agnes; Khassanova, Regina; Coulibaly, Lazare; Leroy, Jef L; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T
Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM) in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage) of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM) model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS) study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM). The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i) repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii) a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of implementation of the intervention guided by country
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. Methods/Design The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM. The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of
Jeong, Erwin W; Feger, Erin; Noble, Harmony K; Kmiec, Magdalen; Prayaga, Ram S
Background Nonadherence is a major concern in the management of chronic conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes where patients may discontinue or interrupt their medication for a variety of reasons. Text message reminders have been used to improve adherence. However, few programs or studies have explored the benefits of text messaging with older populations and at scale. In this paper, we present a program design using tailored and interactive text messaging to improve refill rates of partially adherent or nonadherent Medicare members of a large integrated health plan. Objective The aim of this 3-month program was to gain an understanding of whether tailored interactive text message dialogues could be used to improve medication refills in Medicare patients with one or more chronic diseases. Methods We used the mPulse Mobile interactive text messaging solution with partially adherent and nonadherent Medicare patients (ie, over age 65 years or younger with disabilities) of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KP), a large integrated health plan, and compared refill rates of the text messaging group (n=12,272) to a group of partially adherent or nonadherent Medicare patients at KP who did not receive text messages (nontext messaging group, n=76,068). Both groups were exposed to other forms of refill and adherence outreach including phone calls, secure emails, and robo-calls from December 2016 to February 2017. Results The text messaging group and nontext messaging group were compared using an independent samples t test to test difference in group average of refill rates. There was a significant difference in medication refill rates between the 2 groups, with a 14.07 percentage points higher refill rate in the text messaging group (Pimprove medication refill rates among Medicare patients. These findings also support using interactive text messaging as a cost-effective, convenient, and user-friendly solution for patient engagement
The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.
Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.
Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A
In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.
Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.
The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)
Park, Somi; Chung, ChaeWeon; Cochrane, Barbara B
To examine the effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk in obese Korean women. Pretest/post-test with two comparison treatments. Rural community settings in South Korea. Non-random sample of 64 obese women. Based on the Health Belief Model, tailored message education involved a one-session individual approach addressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. The comparison group received a one-time standard education group session. Data on breast cancer risk factors and mammography findings were recorded. Knowledge, awareness, emotional barriers, self-efficacy, and intent to screen and prevent breast cancer. Compared to standard education, tailored message education showed significantly higher score changes on awareness of personal risk (F = 5.21, p message education targeting breast cancer and risk associated with obesity is useful in breast cancer screening education. Future studies should incorporate individualized messages on nutrition, exercise, and cultural barriers to reduce breast cancer risk in obese women. Individual educational strategies can effectively enhance breast cancer prevention and early screening. Public and preventive education should include a focus on cultural, cognitive, and emotional domains. For obese women, a heightened awareness and self-efficacy may influence screening behaviors.
Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen
The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.
Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Gubin, Rehana; Holston, Martine M; Fullerton, Judith; Prata, Ndola
Abstract Background Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births. Metho...
Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.
This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards. Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Date Released: 11/15/2007.
Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna
The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.
Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne
L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...
Full Text Available Text-based conferencing can be both asynchronous (i.e., participants log into the conference at separate times, and synchronous (i.e., interaction takes place in real time. It is thus subject to the same wide variation as the online audio- and video-conferencing methods (see the earlier Reports in this series. Synchronous text-based approaches (e.g., online chat groups and instant messaging systems are highly popular among online users generally owing to their ability to bring together special-interest groups from around the world without cost. In distance education (DE, however, synchronous chat methods are less widely used, owing in part to the problems of arranging for working adults in different time zones to join a discussion group simultaneously. Instant text messaging is more popular among DE users in view of the choice it provides between responding to a message immediately (synchronous communication or after a delay (asynchronous. The different synchronous and asynchronous approaches are likely to become more widely used in parallel with one another, as they are integrated in individual product packages.
Rosemeyer, Helmut; Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J
The universal genetic code is used by all life forms to encode biological information. It can also be used to encrypt semantic messages and convey them within organisms without anyone but the sender and recipient knowing, i.e., as a means of steganography. Several theoretical, but comparatively few experimental, approaches have been dedicated to this subject, so far. Here, we describe an experimental system to stably integrate encrypted messages within the yeast genome using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based, one-step homologous recombination system. Thus, DNA sequences encoding alphabetical and/or numerical information will be inherited by yeast propagation and can be sent in the form of dried yeast. Moreover, due to the availability of triple shuttle vectors, Saccharomyces cerevisiae can also be used as an intermediate construction device for transfer of information to either Drosophila or mammalian cells as steganographic containers. Besides its classical use in alcoholic fermentation and its modern use for heterologous gene expression, we here show that baker's yeast can thus be employed in a novel Saccharomyces application (NSA) as a simple steganographic container to hide and convey messages. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Olwig, Karen Fog
, while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers
Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.
Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)
Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...
Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai
This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...
This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...
Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...
Patterns of care seeking during episodes of childhood diarrhea and its relation to preventive care patterns: national integrated monitoring and evaluation survey (IMES of family health. Islamic republic of Iran
Mohammad Esmail Motlagh
Conclusion: According to this national survey, our health system needs to integrate all the levels of prevention, especially the Integrated Management of Child Illnesses (IMCI programs with a family physician project. Futher more, there is a great need for empowering the referral system and gate keeping in all referral levels, to make efficient national integrated programs.
Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E
Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie
In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.
L. R. Kolesnikova
Full Text Available Objective: to identify and develop methods for the prevention of common dental diseases in teenagers with hypertension. The paper presents the results of dental examination in a group of teenagers with hypertension and in a control group before and after preventive measures. The Fedorov-Volodkina hygiene index modified by Pakhomov was used to assess their oral hygienic status. The periodontal tissue status was evaluated using the comprehensive periodontal index. Calcium glycerophosphate and magnesium chloride were used as preventive agents. After training in oral hygiene techniques and completing a prevention course, there were positive changes in the hygienic and periodontal tissue status, which is important for the further maturation of dental tissues and for the formation of healthy periodontal ones in both groups.
Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. Information...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. Information...
... Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The web meeting will be open to the public. The agenda...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. [[Page 38346...
Feinson, Judith; Raughley, Erin; Chang, Christine D; Chidekel, Aaron
Much research exists demonstrating that pediatricians should counsel patients and families about tobacco. However, few data are available about tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices. Since an anti-tobacco office environment can be a strong component of an active tobacco prevention program, we evaluated pediatric offices in Delaware to characterize tobacco-related messages. A convenience sample of 32 of 63 (51%) pediatric offices in Delaware was directly evaluated for the presence of tobacco-related messages. Fifty-five of 63 (87%) pediatric practices in Delaware were contacted by telephone to inquire about the presence of a tobacco coordinator. The 32 practices represented 71 physicians, were located in all three counties throughout the state, and were urban and non-urban in setting. The same investigator evaluated practices in a single site visit. All were located in smoke-free buildings. At one office, people were seen smoking outside; however, the presence of discarded cigarettes was much more common. Thirteen practices (41%) employed smokers, most of whom smoked outside during work hours. Twenty-one of 28 practices (75%) had waiting room magazines containing tobacco advertisements. Fifteen practices (47%) offered anti-tobacco literature while six practices (19%) displayed visual media, none exclusively addressing tobacco. Nine practices (28%) use chart flags to identify smokers. None of 55 pediatric practices in Delaware contacted by telephone identified an office tobacco prevention coordinator. Our data indicate that, in Delaware, the pediatric offices we visited overall convey a limited message about tobacco and could strengthen tobacco prevention strategies. Research measuring the impact of office-based anti-tobacco messages is needed. If these messages are effective in preventing tobacco use, practitioners can supplement active counseling with indirect interventions that require minimal maintenance once established and that place no
Avşar, Pınar; Karadağ, Ayişe
A reduction in tissue tolerance promotes the development of pressure ulcers (PUs) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). To determine the cost-effectiveness and efficacy of evidence-based (EB) nursing interventions on increasing tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. The study involved 154 patients in two intensive care units (77 patients, control group; 77 patients, intervention group). Data were collected using the following: patient characteristics form, Braden PU risk assessment scale, tissue integrity monitoring form, PU identification form, IAD and severity scale, and a cost table of the interventions. Patients in the intervention group were cared for by nurses trained in the use of the data collection tools and in EB practices to improve tissue tolerance. Routine nursing care was given to the patients in the control group. The researcher observed all patients in terms of tissue integrity and recorded the care-related costs. Deterioration of tissue integrity was observed in 18.2% patients in the intervention group compared to 54.5% in the control group (p cost to increase tissue tolerance prevention in the intervention and control groups was X¯ = $204.34 ± 41.07 and X¯ = $138.90 ± 1.70, respectively. It is recommended that EB policies and procedures are developed to improve tissue tolerance by maintaining tissue integrity. Although the cost of EB preventive initiatives is relatively high compared to those that are not EB, the former provide a significant reduction in the prevalence of tissue integrity deterioration. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José
This work aims to analyse the influence of message-driven factors -informativeness, ubiquity, frequency and personalization- on consumer attitude and behaviour -opening and forwarding- towards mobile advertising messages. A theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a sample of 355 Spanish teenager mobile users. Findings show that frequency is the dimension accounting the most -and significantly- of the four message-driven factors analysed on attitude toward mobile advertisi...
Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna
The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...
Gore, P; Madhavan, S; Curry, D; McClurg, G; Castiglia, M; Rosenbluth, S A; Smego, R A
Effective immunization campaigns can be designed by determining which persuasion strategy is most effective in attracting the attention of mothers of preschoolers. The authors assess the impact of three persuasional strategies: fear-arousal, motherhood-arousal, and rational messages, on mothers of preschoolers who are late for their immunizations. The fear-arousal message was found to be most effective, followed by the motherhood-arousal, and then the rational message, in attracting mothers' attention to their child's immunization status.
Ybarra, Michele L; Mwaba, Kelvin; Prescott, Tonya L; Roman, Nicolette V; Rooi, Bronwyn; Bull, Sheana
One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable, and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1107 8th-11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Respondents were enrolled in one of three public high schools in Langa, a lower income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty-nine percent of respondents have used text messaging (SMS) and 86% have gone online. If an HIV prevention program was offered online, 66% of youth would be somewhat or extremely likely to access it; slightly fewer (55%) felt the same about SMS-based programming. In comparison, 85% said they would be somewhat or extremely likely to access a school-based HIV prevention program. Interest in Internet- (60%) and SMS-based (54%) HIV prevention programming was similar for youth who had a self-appraised risk of HIV compared to youth who appraised their risk to be lower, as it was for youth who were tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention. Technology use is common - even among high school students who live in lower income communities. At the same time, these data reveal that it is not uncommon for youth to be tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention, and many of the typical topics key to HIV prevention have low interest levels among youth. HIV prevention researchers need to be mindful of the extent of existing programming that youth are exposed to. Technology-based programming may be especially amenable to meeting these requirements because of its novelty especially in developing countries, and because interactive functionality can be easily integrated into the program design. Given the preference for school- and Internet-based programming, it seems that a hybrid approach is likely feasible and acceptable.
Full Text Available Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise and systematically useful to the programmer, but also to handle a full-blown programming language and to cope with large-sized programs efficiently. In this work, we present a modification to the traditional ML type inference algorithm implemented in OCaml that, by significantly reducing the left-to-right bias, allows us to report error messages that are more helpful to the programmer. Our algorithm remains fully predictable and continues to produce fairly concise error messages that always help making some progress towards fixing the code. We implemented our approach as a patch to the OCaml compiler in just a few hundred lines of code. We believe that this patch should benefit not just to beginners, but also to experienced programs developing large-scale OCaml programs.
Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...
Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.
Bates, S Brady; Riedy, Christine A
Pregnancy can be a critical and important period in which to intervene to improve oral health in both the mother and her child. This study examined an online approach for promoting awareness of oral health messages targeted at pregnant women, and whether this type of health messaging impacts oral health knowledge and beliefs. The study was conducted in three parts: production and pilot testing of a brief commercial, Web site/commercial launch and testing, and dissemination and monitoring of the commercial on a video-sharing site. The brief commercial and pre- and postsurveys were produced and pilot tested among a convenience sample of pregnant women (n = 13). The revised commercial and surveys were launched on a newly created Web site and monitored for activity. After 2 months, the commercial was uploaded to a popular video-sharing Web site. Fifty-five individuals completed both the pre- and postsurveys after the Web site was launched. No one responded 100 percent correctly on the presurvey; 77.4 percent responded correctly about dental visits during pregnancy, 66.0 percent about cavity prevention, and 50.9 percent about transmission of bacteria by saliva. Most respondents recalled the correct information on the posttest; 100 percent or close to 100 percent accurately responded about visiting the dentist during pregnancy and preventing cavities, while 79.2 percent responded correctly to the transmission question. Social media can effectively provide dental health messages during pregnancy. This approach can play an important role in increasing awareness and improving oral health of both mother and child. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Mitchell-Foster, Kendra; Ayala, Efraín Beltrán; Breilh, Jaime; Spiegel, Jerry; Wilches, Ana Arichabala; Leon, Tania Ordóñez; Delgado, Jefferson Adrian
This project investigates the effectiveness and feasibility of scaling-up an eco-bio-social approach for implementing an integrated community-based approach for dengue prevention in comparison with existing insecticide-based and emerging biolarvicide-based programs in an endemic setting in Machala, Ecuador. An integrated intervention strategy (IIS) for dengue prevention (an elementary school-based dengue education program, and clean patio and safe container program) was implemented in 10 intervention clusters from November 2012 to November 2013 using a randomized controlled cluster trial design (20 clusters: 10 intervention, 10 control; 100 households per cluster with 1986 total households). Current existing dengue prevention programs served as the control treatment in comparison clusters. Pupa per person index (PPI) is used as the main outcome measure. Particular attention was paid to social mobilization and empowerment with IIS. Overall, IIS was successful in reducing PPI levels in intervention communities versus control clusters, with intervention clusters in the six paired clusters that followed the study design experiencing a greater reduction of PPI compared to controls (2.2 OR, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.7). Analysis of individual cases demonstrates that consideration for contexualizing programs and strategies to local neighborhoods can be very effective in reducing PPI for dengue transmission risk reduction. In the rapidly evolving political climate for dengue control in Ecuador, integration of successful social mobilization and empowerment strategies with existing and emerging biolarvicide-based government dengue prevention and control programs is promising in reducing PPI and dengue transmission risk in southern coastal communities like Machala. However, more profound analysis of social determination of health is called for to assess sustainability prospects. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the
Highlights the importance of using music, multimedia, video, and computers to enrich and enhance religious education, and of integrating media education into faith formation. Suggests that media literacy plays an important role in increasing awareness of the influence of mass media on society. (DJM)
The participants indicated that they were willing to discuss the themes addressed in either a poster or radio advertisement because they appreciated the message and felt that its content ... Keywords: communication strategies; health behaviour; HIV prevention; mass media; public health; radio advertisements; rhetoric; youth
Lemos, Marina Serra; Rothes, Inês Areal; Oliveira, Filipa; Soares, Luisa
Objective: To evaluate the incremental efficacy of a Short Message Service (SMS) combined with a brief video intervention in increasing the effects of a health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention, over and beyond a video-alone intervention, with respect to key determinants of health behaviour change--knowledge, motivation and…
Larysa M. Derkach
Full Text Available The article considers possibilities of integration of some Media Literacy topics with the Ukrainian Language curriculum topics (the Ukrainian Language is viewed here as an academic discipline for professional direction. Different possibilities of the use of certain Media Literacy topics during the Ukrainian Language classes are analyzed. Efficiency of such integration is investigated. It is proved that due to integration students learn skills that help them to understand and evaluate complex messages they receive from mass media, identify bias, misinformation and lies, and recognize what the media maker wants them to believe or do. Research results show that integration of Media Literacy with the Ukrainian Language as an academic discipline facilitates better understanding of media messages and prevents manipulation of students’ consciousness.
Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Emri, Salih
Background Cell phone text messaging is gaining increasing recognition as an important tool that can be harnessed for prevention and intervention programs across a wide variety of health research applications. Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes, very little is available about the design decisions that scaffold the development of text messaging-based health interventions. What seems to be missing is documentation of the thought process of investigators in the initial stages of protocol and content development. This omission is of particular concern because many researchers seem to view text messaging as the intervention itself instead of simply a delivery mechanism. Certainly, aspects of this technology may increase participant engagement. Like other interventions, however, the content is a central driver of the behavior change. Objective To address this noted gap in the literature, we discuss the protocol decisions and content development for SMS Turkey (or Cebiniz birakin diyor in Turkish), a smoking cessation text messaging program for adult smokers in Turkey. Methods Content was developed in English and translated into Turkish. Efforts were made to ensure that the protocol and content were grounded in evidence-based smoking cessation theory, while also reflective of the cultural aspects of smoking and quitting in Turkey. Results Methodological considerations included whether to provide cell phones and whether to reimburse participants for texting costs; whether to include supplementary intervention resources (eg, personal contact); and whether to utilize unidirectional versus bidirectional messaging. Program design considerations included how messages were tailored to the quitting curve and one’s smoking status after one’s quit date, the number of messages participants received per day, and over what period of time the intervention lasted. Conclusion The content and methods of effective smoking cessation quitline programs were
Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Parker, Ruth M; Yang, Baiyu; Elon, Lisa
Text messaging is an increasingly popular communication tool in health interventions, but has been little studied in maternal and infant health. This literature review evaluates studies of text messaging that may be applied to the promotion of maternal and infant health. Articles from peer-reviewed journals published before June 2012 were included if they were experimental or quasi-experimental studies of behaviors endorsed either by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the American Pediatrics Association, or the United States Preventive Services Task Force; included reproductive age women (12-50 years) or infants up to 2 years of age; and were available in English. Qualitative studies of text messaging specific to pregnant women were also included. Studies were compared and contrasted by key variables, including: design, time-period, study population, and results. Forty-eight articles were included, 30 of which were randomized controlled trials. Interventions vary greatly in effectiveness and soundness of methodology, but collectively indicate that there is a wide range of preventative behaviors that text message interventions can effectively promote, including smoking cessation, diabetes control, appointment reminders, medication adherence, weight loss, and vaccine uptake. Common methodological issues include not accounting for attention affect and not aligning text message content to measured outcomes. Those interventions that are based on an established theory of behavior change and use motivational as opposed to informational language are more likely to be successful. Building on the growing body of evidence for text message interventions reviewed here, as well as the growing popularity of text messaging as a medium, researchers should be able to use this technology to engage difficult to reach populations.
Cadaxa, Aedê Gomes; Sousa, Maria Fátima de; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado
To identify health promoting contents (information that can be transformed into decision-making resources to improve quality of life and the health of individuals or groups) in Facebook postings by the ministries of health in Brazil and Peru. This case study compared the messages published in Facebook by the ministries of health from Brazil and Peru during World AIDS Day. Content analysis was employed to identify health promoting contents in the messages posted between November 2013 and February 2014. A total of 105 messages were published on the topic of interest (37 from Peru and 68 from Brazil). In both cases, most messages focused on individuals, addressing the change or adoption of personal behaviors relating to the prevention and detection of HIV - 34 messages (50.0%) for Brazil and 17 (45.9%) for Peru. Twenty-one (30.9%) messages with a structural emphasis were published by Brazil and 14 (37.8%) by Peru, addressing the context of health care system organization, including HIV/ AIDS health policies, available services, access to HIV testing and initiatives to promote testing. Hybrid messages, including both emphases, were less frequent: 13 (19.1%) for Brazil and six (16.2%) for Peru. Health promoting contents were identified in hybrid messages, which provided resources to expand the understanding of individuals about the susceptibility to AIDS.
Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C
Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing research for the last two decades, and does not cease to appeal to researchers. The present paper examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis. We performed six empirical studies on the interaction between perceived risk and message framing. These studies were conducted in two different countries and employed framed messages targeting skin cancer prevention and detection, physical activity, breast self-examination and vaccination behaviour. Behavioural intention served as the outcome measure. None of these studies found evidence in support of the risk-framing hypothesis. We conclude that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and discuss the ramifications of this for future message framing research.
Van ’t Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D.; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D.; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.
Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This ‘risk-framing hypothesis’, as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing research for the last two decades, and does not cease to appeal to researchers. The present paper examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis. We performed six empirical studies on the interaction between perceived risk and message framing. These studies were conducted in two different countries and employed framed messages targeting skin cancer prevention and detection, physical activity, breast self-examination and vaccination behaviour. Behavioural intention served as the outcome measure. None of these studies found evidence in support of the risk-framing hypothesis. We conclude that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and discuss the ramifications of this for future message framing research. PMID:24579986
Nelson, LaRon E; Walker, Ja'Nina J; DuBois, Steve N; Giwa, Sulaimon
Evidence-based interventions have been developed and used to prevent HIV infections among black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada and the United States; however, the degree to which interventions address racism and other interlocking oppressions that influence HIV vulnerability is not well known. We utilize integrative antiracism to guide a review of HIV prevention intervention studies with black MSM and to determine how racism and religious oppression are addressed in the current intervention evidence base. We searched CINAHL, PsychInfo, MEDLINE and the CDC compendium of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions and identified seventeen interventions. Three interventions targeted black MSM, yet only one intervention addressed racism, religious oppression, cultural assets and religious assets. Most interventions' samples included low numbers of black MSM. More research is needed on interventions that address racism and religious oppression on HIV vulnerability among black MSM. Future research should focus on explicating mechanisms by which multiple oppressions impact HIV vulnerability. We recommend the development and integration of social justice tools for nursing practice that aid in addressing the impacts of racism and other oppressions on HIV vulnerability of black MSM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P
The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....
Thomsen, Steven R; Fulton, Kristi
To investigate whether adolescent readers attend to responsibility or moderation messages (e.g., "drink responsibly") included in magazine advertisements for alcoholic beverages and to assess the association between attention and the ability to accurately recall the content of these messages. An integrated head-eye tracking system (ASL Eye-TRAC 6000) was used to measure the eye movements, including fixations and fixation duration, of a group of 63 adolescents (ages 12-14 years) as they viewed six print advertisements for alcoholic beverages. Immediately after the eye-tracking sessions, participants completed a masked-recall exercise. Overall, the responsibility or moderation messages were the least frequently viewed textual or visual areas of the advertisements. Participants spent an average of only .35 seconds, or 7% of the total viewing time, fixating on each responsibility message. Beverage bottles, product logos, and cartoon illustrations were the most frequently viewed elements of the advertisements. Among those participants who fixated at least once on an advertisement's warning message, only a relatively small percentage were able to recall its general concept or restate it verbatim in the masked recall test. Voluntary responsibility or moderation messages failed to capture the attention of teenagers who participated in this study and need to be typographically modified to be more effective.
Day, Molly A; Anthony, Christopher A; Bedard, Nicholas A; Glass, Natalie A; Clark, Charles R; Callaghan, John J; Noiseux, Nicolas O
Automated mobile phone messaging has not been reported in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our purpose was to compare Press Ganey (PG) and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores between TJA patients who did and did not receive perioperative automated mobile phone messages. Patients were prospectively enrolled and received messages for 1 week prior until 2 weeks after TJA. Message content included reminders, activity, and pain control. Patients answered select PG/HCAHPS and questions regarding their experience with the automated communication platform. Average PG/HCAHPS scores were compared to historical TJA patients in the 3-year window prior (control group) with significance P communication via automated mobile phone messaging had improved patient satisfaction scores postoperatively. Patients perceived this form of communication was useful and kept them better informed. Automated mobile phone messaging can be an easily integrated, helpful adjunct to surgeons, healthcare systems, and case managers to more effectively communicate with patients undergoing TJA in this era of value-based care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Leary, D Peter; Zaheer, Amir; Redmond, H Paul; Corrigan, Mark A
The successful prevention and treatment of cancer is dependent upon efficient and reliable communication between healthcare workers and patients. Advances in social media and mHealth platforms have provided new ways in which to enhance the sharing of cancer related information. Other benefits of embracing this technology include utilising its analytic capabilities which can process the vast quantity of information generated from genome exploration in a highly efficient manner. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the rapidly evolving areas through which digital engagement is proving useful in the prevention and control of cancer.
Imam Syed H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys have provided evidence that tobacco use is widely prevalent amongst the youth in Pakistan. Several reviews have evaluated the effectiveness of various tobacco control programs, however, few have taken into account the perceptions of students themselves regarding these measures. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective anti-smoking messages that can be delivered to high-school students in Pakistan, based on their self-rated perceptions. It also aimed to assess the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages compared with written health warnings and to discover differences in perceptions of smokers to those of non-smokers to health warning messages. Methods This study was carried out in five major cities of Pakistan in private English-medium schools. A presentation was delivered at each school that highlighted the well-established health consequences of smoking using both written health warnings and pictorial/multi-media health messages. Following the presentation, the participants filled out a graded questionnaire form, using which they rated the risk-factors and messages that they thought were most effective in stopping or preventing them from smoking. The Friedman test was used to rank responses to each of the questions in the form. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank test used to analyze the impact of pictorial/multi-media messages over written statements. The Mann Whitney U test was used to compare responses of smokers with those of non-smokers. Results Picture of an oral cavity cancer, videos of a cancer patient using an electronic voice box and a patient on a ventilator, were perceived to be the most effective anti-smoking messages by students. Addiction, harming others through passive smoking and impact of smoking on disposable incomes were perceived to be less effective messages. Pictorial/multi-media messages were perceived to be more effective than written health warnings. Health warnings were perceived as
Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusin...
Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia
Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…
Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, pSMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was -1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD -0.37; pSMD, -1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits.
M. V. Avdeeva
Full Text Available The article contains the modern literature data about impact of various infectious agents on the development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. The data are demonstrated the role of various infectious diseases, including periodontal diseases, in the development of biological degradation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. The article questions of organization of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease based on the screening assessment by stomatologist the oral sanitary status. Necessary to carry out sanitation of chronic infection foci of the mouth on the basis of existing children’s health centers. The children’s health centers have a set of dental equipment, with which can perform a screening diagnosis of dental caries, periodontal diseases, non-carious lesions, diseases of the mucous membranes, and conduct preventive oral sanitation. The duties of dental hygienists is teaching children of different age groups to the rules of oral care, demonstration of skills, brushing teeth, information about the importance of prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease, as it is not only important for the preservation of the teeth, but also may prevent the development of ardiovasculardisease adulthood.
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n = 9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE = 748, NSW = 619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p campaign (except the vegetable one) and significantly higher awareness levels were sustained for each campaign until the end of the program. At the end of the program participants without a tertiary education were significantly more likely (p = 0.04) to be aware of the brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174
Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda
Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.
Timothy De Ver Dye
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries face severe scale-up barriers toward achievement of MDGs. We ascertained motivational and experiential dimensions of participation in a novel, rapid, "diagonal" Integrated Prevention Campaign (IPC in rural Kenya that provided prevention goods and services to 47,000 people within one week, aimed at rapidly moving the region toward MDG achievement. Specifically, the IPC provided interventions and commodities targeting disease burden reduction in HIV/AIDS, malaria, and water-borne illness. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews (IDI were conducted with 34 people (18 living with HIV/AIDS and 16 not HIV-infected randomly selected from IPC attendees consenting to participate. Interviews were examined for themes and patterns to elucidate participant experience and motivation with IPC. FINDINGS: Participants report being primarily motivated to attend IPC to learn of their HIV status (through voluntary counseling and testing, and with receipt of prevention commodities (bednets, water filters, and condoms providing further incentive. Participants reported that they were satisfied with the IPC experience and offered suggestions to improve future campaigns. INTERPRETATION: Learning their HIV status motivated participants along with the incentive of a wider set of commodities that were rapidly deployed through IPC in this challenging region. The critical role of wanting to know their HIV status combined with commodity incentives may offer a new model for rapid scaled-up of prevention strategies that are wider in scope in rural Africa.
Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W
Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.
Ortiz Lopez, P. [Groupe de travail de la CIPR sur la prevention des expositions accidentelles liees a l' utilisation des nouvelles technologies de Radiotherapie par Faisceau Externe, Madrid (Spain)
The ICRP gives its recommendations in the case of use of new technologies in radiotherapy: lessons learned from conventional technologies and also applicable to the new ones. Training, and specialization of the personnel as well as the need in personnel must be evaluated again. Managers of a radiotherapy service should bear in mind that the work environment must focus on concentration and avoid the risk of inattention. Manufacturers, for their part must provide reliable equipment with correct calibration files and documentation. the acquisition and implementation programs must focus not only on devices for treatment but also on treatment planning systems, computer systems and imaging devices used in radiation therapy, software, procedures and whole clinical process. The devices and procedures need to be re-classified after any changes to hardware, including upgrades and updates of software. The dosimetry protocols must be developed specially for the low doses irradiations and non standard irradiations. To increase the dose without increasing a probability of complication in sane tissues it is necessary to use a conformal therapy with a positioning of the patient. Communication is essential, especially concerning the activities of maintenance and repair that must ne notified to the physicists. In the same way, procedures of failures management in the computer systems must be implemented in order to avoid a loss of data susceptible to lead to serious accidental irradiations. The return of experience can be an help and then must be integrated in personnel training that is encouraged to share the experience in matter of incidents by providing information in a data base such the R.O.S.I.S. data base (radiation oncology safety information system). Before introducing new technologies it is recommended to realize probabilistic safety evaluations in order to develop quality assurance programmes integrating risk factors as, by example the analysis of failure modes and
Lucas, Todd; Manning, Mark; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James
This study demonstrates the potential of racial identity to moderate how gain and loss-framed messaging, as well as culturally-targeted messaging, can affect receptivity to preventive health screening. African-Americans (N = 132) who were noncompliant with recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening completed a measure of racial identity centrality-encompassing the extent to which racial identity is a core component of self-concept-and then participated in an online education module about CRC screening, during which either gain or loss-framed messaging was introduced. Half of African-Americans were also exposed to a culturally-targeted self-help message about preventing CRC. Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as outcomes. Results confirmed that effects of messaging on receptivity to CRC screening depended on racial identity. Among low racial identity African Americans, gain-framed messaging most effectively increased normative beliefs about obtaining CRC screening, whereas among high racial identity African Americans loss-framed messaging was most compelling. However, these effects most strongly emerged when culturally-targeted self-help messaging was included. We discuss implications for health disparities theory and research, including a potential to simultaneously deploy culturally-targeted and tailored messaging based on racial identity.
Nabi, Robin L
Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.
Choong Hoon Lim
Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.
Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.
The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require an application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI open-quote C close-quote and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process
Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien
At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.