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Sample records for integrally filled cf

  1. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used data gap filling techniques which are applied to estimate relative potencies for mixtures of chemicals that contribute to an adverse outcome through a common biological target. For example, The TEF approach has been used for dioxin-like effects comparing individual chemical activity to that of the most toxic dioxin: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The aim of this case study was to determine whether integration of two data gap filling techniques: QSARs and TEFs improved the predictive outcome for the assessment of a set of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and their mixtures. PCBs are associated with many different adverse effects, including their potential for neurotoxicity, which is the endpoint of interest in this study. The dataset comprised 209 PCB congeners, out of which 87 altered in vitro Ca(2+) homeostasis from which neurotoxic equivalency values (NEQs) were derived. The preliminary objective of this case study was to develop a QSAR model to predict NEQ values for the 122 untested PCB congeners. A decision tree model was developed using the number of position specific chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl scaffold as a fingerprint descriptor. Three different positiona

  3. CF-integrals: A new family of pre-aggregation functions with application to fuzzy rule-based classification systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lucca, G.; Sanz, A.; Dimuro, G. P.; Bedregal, B.; Bustince, H.; Mesiar, Radko

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2018), s. 94-110 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : CF-integral * classification problems * pre-aggregation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/mesiar-0485363.pdf

  4. urCF: An Approach to Integrating User Reviews into Memory-Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxue

    2013-01-01

    Blessed by the Internet age, many online retailers (e.g., Amazon.com) have deployed recommender systems to help their customers identify products that may be of their interest in order to improve cross-selling and enhance customer loyalty. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is the most successful technique among different approaches to generating…

  5. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  6. Differential and integral comparisons of three representations of the prompt neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.; LaBauve, R.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Because of their importance as neutron standards, we present comparisons of measured and calculated prompt fission neutron spectra N(E) and average prompt neutron multiplicities anti nu/sub p/ for the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. In particular, we test three representations of N(E) against recent experimental measurements of the differential spectrum and threshold integral cross sections. These representations are the Maxwellian spectrum, the NBS spectrum, and the Los Alamos spectrum of Madland and Nix. For the Maxwellian spectrum, we obtain the value of the Maxwellian temperature T/sub M/ by a least-squares adjustment to the experimental differential spectrum of Poenitz and Tamura. For the Los Alamos spectrum, a similar least-squares adjustment determines the nuclear level-density parameter a, which is the single unknown parameter that appears. The NBS spectrum has been previously constructed by adjustments to eight differential spectra measured during the period 1965 to 1974. Among these three representations, we find that the Los Alamos spectrum best reproduces both the differential and integral measurements, assuming ENDF/B-V cross sections in the calculation of the latter. Although the NBS spectrum reproduces the integral measurements fairly well, it fails to satisfactorily reproduce the new differential measurement, and the Maxwellian spectrum fails to satisfactorily reproduce the integral measurements. Additionally, we calculate a value of anti nu/sub p/ from the Los Alamos theory that is within approximately 1% of experiment. 25 references

  7. Reconstitution of CF1-depleted thylakoid membranes with complete and fragmented chloroplast ATPase. The role of the delta subunit for proton conduction through CF0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, Siegfried; Lill, H; Junge, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    Chloroplast ATPase (CF1) was isolated from spinach, pea and maize thylakoids by EDTA extraction followed by anion-exchange chromatography. CF1 was purified and resolved by HPLC into integral CF1, and CF1 lacking the delta & epsilon subunits: CF1(-delta) and CF1(-epsilon). Washing Mono-Q-bound CF1

  8. Field configurations for small deviations of the integral filling factors in IQHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Castineiras, J.; Gonzalez, R.; Penaranda, S.

    1990-07-01

    A numerical solution of the effective Maxwell equations of the IQHE is presented. It corresponds to inhomogeneous electromagnetic field distributions appearing after a small constant magnetic field is added to a 2D-electron gas sheet when the density exactly fills an integral number of Landau levels. It follows that the Chern-Simons terms of the Maxwell equation transform the applied magnetic field into an equivalent homogeneous charge density. The numerical value of this density is exactly the one which is needed to furnish complete filling at the new value of the total magnetic field. The system then reacts tending to screen the effective charge density by removing charge from the sample edges. It is interesting that for the selected parameter values here, reflecting the current experimental situations, the system response is able to approximately establish an integral filling factor in the central portion of the sheet. Then, at least a small plateau is predicted to occur in pure samples at zero temperature. It also follows that the current distribution is unsymmetric under the inversion, as opposed to the configuration associated to a flow of a net Hall current at integral filling factors. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  9. CF and School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accommodations for College Scholarships and Financial Aid 10 Things I Wish I Knew Before Coming to College CF and College: The Secret to Getting it All Done View All Managing My CF in College Resources ...

  10. Filling the Gap: Integrating STEM into Career and Technical Education Middle School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Rorrer, Ray

    2017-01-01

    The field of STEM education is an educational framework that has surged in application over the past decade. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) is infused in nearly every facet of our society. Filling the gap of current research in middle school career and technical education (CTE) and STEM programs is important as traditional CTE…

  11. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins. PMID:28748051

  12. CF Mutation Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  13. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, C.; Dzahini, D.; Le Caer, T.; Richer, J.-P.; Torki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 KΩ), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e - +95 e - /pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements

  14. BiCMOS amplifier-discriminator integrated circuit for gas-filled detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: herve@esrf.fr; Dzahini, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Le Caer, T. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Richer, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Torki, K. [Laboratoire TIMA, Grenoble (France)

    2005-03-21

    The paper presents a 16-channel amplifier-discriminator designed in BiCMOS technology. It will be used for the binary parallel readout of gas-filled detectors being designed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The circuit (named AMS211) has been manufactured. The measured transimpedance gain (400 K{omega}), bandwidth (25 MHz) and noise (1570 e{sup -}+95 e{sup -}/pF ENC) well match the simulated results. The discriminator thresholds are individually controlled by built-in Digital to Analogue Converter. The experience gained with a first prototype of readout electronics indicates that the AMS211 should meet our requirements.

  15. A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liang; Li Zhi-Yong; Zhu Yu; Li Yun-Tao; Yu Yu-De; Yu Jin-Zhong; Fan Zhong-Cao; Han Wei-Hua

    2010-01-01

    A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor and deep etching is proposed in silicon-on-insulator for near vertical coupling between the rib waveguide and optical fibre. The deep slots acting as high efficient scattering centres are analysed and optimized. As high as 60% coupling efficiency at telecom wavelength of 1550-nm and 3-dB bandwidth of 61 nm are predicted by simulation. A peak coupling efficiency of 42.1% at wavelength 1546-nm and 3-dB bandwidth of 37.6 nm are obtained experimentally. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Performance of compact TES arrays with integrated high-fill-fraction X-ray absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, Mark A.; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chervenak, James A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline K.; Talley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently produced and tested two-dimensional arrays of Mo/Au transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeters with Bi/Cu absorbers. The arrays represent a significant step towards meeting the specifications of NASA's Constellation-X mission. The calorimeters are compactly spaced within 5x5 arrays of 250 μm square pixels necessary for an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. Lithographically produced absorbers hang over the substrate and wiring between the TESs for high filling fraction and high quantum efficiency. We designed the calorimeters with heat capacities and thermal couplings such that X-rays produce pulses with fall times of approximately 300 μs to allow relatively high count rates with low dead time. We read out up to four of the pixels simultaneously. The arrays demonstrated very good energy resolution (5 eV at 1.5 keV and 7 eV at 6 keV) and little crosstalk between neighboring pixels

  17. Filling the knowledge gap: Integrating quantitative genetics and genomics in graduate education and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomics revolution provides vital tools to address global food security. Yet to be incorporated into livestock breeding, molecular techniques need to be integrated into a quantitative genetics framework. Within the U.S., with shrinking faculty numbers with the requisite skills, the capacity to ...

  18. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections.

  19. Neutron shielding for a 252 Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Eduardo Gallego, Alfredo Lorente

    2006-01-01

    To determine the neutron shielding features of water-extended polyester a Monte Carlo study was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through inelastic collisions and absorption reactions. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide production induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source. During calculations a detailed model for the 252 Cf and the shield was utilized. To compare the shielding features of water extended polyester, the calculations were also made for the bare 252 Cf in vacuum, air and the shield filled with water. For all cases the calculated neutron spectra was utilized to determine the ambient equivalent neutron dose at four sites around the shielding. In the case of water extended polyester and water shielding the calculations were extended to include the prompt gamma rays produced during neutron interactions, with this information the Kerma in air was calculated at the same locations where the ambient equivalent neutron dose was determined. (Author)

  20. Covariances of fission-integral measurements at the NBS 252Cf and ISNF facilities and at the ORNL-PCA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagschal, J.J.; Maerker, R.E.; Gilliam, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Integral measurements together with accompanying uncertainty estimates have been used for the past fifteen years in cross section adjustments. As the field of cross section adjustment came of age, the crude uncertainty estimates were replaced - only in principle, initially - by a quantitative cross section uncertainty covariance description and by uncertainty correlations of integral experiments. There is current interest in the fission reaction rate ratio measurements in the NBS standard neutron fields by people involved in fast reactor cross sections. Also those in the LWR pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry program are interested in these measurements and in similar measurements performed in the Oak Ridge Pool Critical Assembly (PCA). A careful re-examination of uncertainty analysis is presented

  1. Superior PSZ-SOD Gap-Fill Process Integration Using Ultra-Low Dispensation Amount in STI for 28 nm NAND Flash Memory and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chi Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gap-fill performance and process of perhydropolysilazane-based inorganic spin-on dielectric (PSZ-SOD film in shallow trench isolation (STI with the ultra-low dispensation amount of PSZ-SOD solution have been investigated in this study. A PSZ-SOD film process includes liner deposition, PSZ-SOD coating, and furnace curing. For liner deposition, hydrophilic property is required to improve the contact angle and gap-fill capability of PSZ-SOD coating. Prior to PSZ-SOD coating, the additional treatment on liner surface is beneficial for the fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. The superior film thickness uniformity and gap-fill performance of PSZ-SOD film are achieved due to the improved fluidity of PSZ-SOD solution. Following that up, the low dispensation rate of PSZ-SOD solution leads to more PSZ-SOD filling in the trenches. After PSZ-SOD coating, high thermal curing process efficiently promotes PSZ-SOD film conversion into silicon oxide. Adequate conversion from PSZ-SOD into silicon oxide further increases the etching resistance inside the trenches. Integrating the above sequence of optimized factors, void-free gap-fill and well-controlled STI recess uniformity are achieved even when the PSZ-SOD solution dispensation volume is reduced 3 to 6 times compared with conventional condition for the 28 nm node NAND flash and beyond.

  2. Laughter Filled the Classroom: Outcomes of Professional Development in Arts Integration for Elementary Teachers in Inclusion Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Katherine A.; Thompson, Janna Chevon

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' experiences with an arts integration curriculum. This study considered the teachers' perceptions of arts integrations before and after being introduced to the concepts of arts integration. The teachers were provided with knowledge and tools to integrate the arts into general education curriculum and…

  3. A corrected NEGF + DFT approach for calculating electronic transport through molecular devices: Filling bound states and patching the non-equilibrium integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Zhang Jiaxing; Hou Shimin; Qian Zekan; Shen Ziyong; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two problems in the conventional approach for studying charge transport in molecular electronic devices that is based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and density functional theory, i.e., the bound states and the numerical integration of the non-equilibrium density matrix. A scheme of filling the bound states in the bias window and a method of patching the non-equilibrium integration are proposed, both of which are referred to as the non-equilibrium correction. The discussion is illustrated by means of calculations on a model system consisting of a 4,4 bipyridine molecule connected to two semi-infinite gold monatomic chains

  4. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-17

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  5. Steam condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration within an integral test facility. Experiments and computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirndorfer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer is a source of danger and unpredictable loads in pipe systems. Studies concerning condensation induced water hammer were predominantly made for horizontal pipes, studies concerning vertical pipe geometries are quite rare. This work presents a new integral test facility and an analysis of condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration. Thanks to the state of the art technology, the phenomenology of vertical condensation induced water hammer can be analysed by means of sufficient high-sampled experimental data. The system code ATHLET is used to simulate UniBw condensation induced water hammer experiments. A newly developed and implemented direct contact condensation model enables ATHLET to calculate condensation induced water hammer. Selected experiments are validated by the modified ATHLET system code. A sensitivity analysis in ATHLET, together with the experimental data, allows to assess the performance of ATHLET to compute condensation induced water hammer in a vertical up-fill configuration.

  6. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252 Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252 Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  7. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  8. Integrated PC-based system for detecting and parameter monitoring at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sukhov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    New detection system of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) was put into operation in May 2012. It includes 32-strip position sensitive PIPS detector manufactured by CANBERRA NV, 24-strip back side PIPS detector, 8-strip V ETO P IPS detector, time-of-flight low pressure (∼1.7 Torr) pentane-filled gaseous detector, CAMAC fast ADC's with 5 μs dead time per three signals (energy, top position, bottom position), modified CC012 crate controller and PC-based C ++ Builder code for spectrometry data acquisition. New parameter monitoring system (project) is reported too together with the brief review of the present system. It is planned to put into operation with this system during 2013-2014. Examples of applications in the long-term experiments aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements in 48 Ca induced complete fusion nuclear reactions are also presented. Namely with the DGFRS facility 45 new isotopes of superheavy nuclei were synthesized since 2001

  9. Cluster structure in Cf nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shailesh K.; Biswal, S.K.; Bhuyan, M.; Patra, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the availability of advance experimental facilities, it is possible to probe the nuclei upto their nucleon level very precisely and analyzed the internal structure which will help us to resolve some mysterious problem of the decay of nuclei. Recently, the relativistic nuclear collision, confirmed the α cluster type structure in the 12 C which is the mile stone for the cluster structure in nuclei. The clustering phenomena in light and intermediate elements in nuclear chart is very interesting. There is a lot of work done by our group in the clustering behaviour of the nuclei. In this paper, the various prospectus of clustering in the isotopes of Cf nucleus including fission state is discussed. Here, 242 Cf isotope for the analysis, which is experimentally known is taken. The relativistic mean field model with well established NL3 parameter set is taken. For getting the exact ground state configuration of the isotopes, the calculation for minimizing the potential energy surface is performed by constraint method. The clustering structure of other Cf isotopes is discussed

  10. Electron drift velocities of Ar-CO2-CF4 gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markeloff, R.

    1994-11-01

    The muon spectrometer for the D0 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory uses proportional drift tubes filled with an Ar-CO 2 -CF 4 gas mixture. Measurements of drift velocity as a function of electric field magnitude for 90%-5%-5% and 90%-4%-6% Ar-CO 2 -CF 4 mixtures are presented, and our operational experiences with these gases at D0 is discussed

  11. Accuracy of two root canal length measurement devices integrated into rotary endodontic motors when removing gutta-percha from root-filled teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, O; Topuz, O; Tinaz, C; Nekoofar, M H; Dummer, P M H

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate ex vivo the accuracy of the integrated electronic root canal length measurement devices within TCM Endo V and Tri Auto ZX motors whilst removing gutta-percha and sealer from filled root canals. Forty freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth with mature apices were selected. Following access cavity preparation, the length of the root canals were measured visually 0.5 mm short of the major foramen (TL). The canals were prepared using the HERO 642 system and then filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using a lateral compaction technique. After 7 days the coronal temporary filling was removed and the roots mounted in an alginate experimental model. The roots were then randomly divided in two groups. The access cavities were filled with chloroform to soften the gutta-percha and allow its penetration using the Tri Auto ZX and the TCM Endo V devices in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The 'automatic apical reverse function' (ARL) of both devices was set to start at the 0.5 setting and the rotary instrument inserted inside the root canal until a beeping sound was heard and the rotation of the file stopped automatically. Once the auto reverse function had been initiated, the foot pedal of the motor was inactivated and the rubber stop placed against the reference point. The distance between the file tip and rubber stop was measured using a digital calliper to 0.01 mm accuracy (ARL). Then, a size 20, 0.02 taper instrument was attached to each device and inserted into the root canals without rotary motion until the integrated ERCLMDs positioned the instrument tips at the 0.5 setting as suggested by the devices. This length was again measured using a digital calliper (EL). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to investigate statistical differences between the true canal length and those indicated by the two devices when used in 'automatic ARL and when inserted passively (EL). In the presence of gutta-percha, sealer and chloroform, the auto

  12. Integrated U-Pb zircon and palynological/palaeofloristic age determinations of a Bashkirian palaeofjord fill, Quebrada Grande (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Buso, Victoria; di Pasquo, Mercedes; Milana, Juan Pablo; Kneller, Benjamin; Fallgatter, Claus; Junior, Farid Chemale; Gomes Paim, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new age framework for the main Bashkirian glacio-eustatic transgression in Argentina, including the first absolute age for the Jejenes Formation, San Juan Province, based on radiometric dating of a crystal-rich tuff, supported by palynological and palaeofloristic studies, and presented within a revised palaeogeographic setting. The Jejenes Formation represents the glacial to postglacial fill of the Quebrada Grande palaeofjord carved in the Eastern Precordillera. The succession has been subdivided into five stages, the youngest of which suggests a previously unrecognised glacial event for this locality. Six productive levels for palynology were found within proglacial strata, and in the base and top of the succeeding interglacial stage. Palynoassemblages are characterized by poorly preserved trilete spores and monosaccate pollen grains along with a large amount of terrestrial phytoclasts. Main species indicating the Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata SubZone (DMa SZ) are Vallatisporites ciliaris, Cristatisporites rollerii, C. stellatus, C. chacoparanensis, C. inconstans and monosaccates such as Circumplicatipollis plicatus. This DMa SZ is estimated as Serpukhovian/Bashkirian and characterizes the glacial-related Guandacol Formation and equivalents units of the western Paganzo Basin. A tuffaceous level in the proglacial unit, bearing platyspermic seeds, plant remains and palynomorphs, yielded first-cycle volcanic zircons that were analysed by SHRIMP. An absolute age of 321.3 ± 5.3 Ma confirms a Bashkirian age for the main postglacial transgression in the Paganzo Basin, and offers a novel calibration for the palynoassemblages of DMa SZ that occurs elsewhere in Western Argentina.

  13. The fast neutron emission spectrum of 252-Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensch, F.

    1979-07-01

    The aim of this work was a new measurement of the neutron emission spectrum of 252-Cf neutron standard sources as the IAEA is offering to users. The main feature was the application of gas-filled proton-recoil spectrometers and no TOF technique. The special interest of this document was in the temperature parameter of the Maxwellian distribution and in its relative deviations. In this connection, special measurements with high energy resolution were carried out in a search for fine structure neutron groups, which have been observed in some TOF measurements, but could not be reproduced during this measurement

  14. Electron and photon impact studies of CF3I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, N.J.; Eden, S.; Limao Vieire, P.; Kendall, P.; Pathak, S.; Dawes, A.; Tegeder, P.; Kitajima, M.; Okamoto, M.; Tanaka, H.; Samukawa, S.; Cho, H.; Hoffmann, S.

    2002-01-01

    The manufacture of ultra-large-scale-integrated circuits, requires a well collimated, specially uniform, high density plasma source operating under low pressure conditions. The main feed gases used are perfluorocarbons, however these are also strong greenhouse gases, therefore must be replaced by alternative compounds with low global warming potentials. CF 3 I is one possible replacement, due to its high photolysis rate, is expected to have a very short lifetime in the atmosphere. It is also predicted to be able to produced high yields of CF 3 radicals in any etching plasma, since its weak C - I bond should be possible to break by direct electron impact. Prior adapting existing industrial plasma reactors to use CF 3 I, it is necessary to run simulations of the reactant plasma, requiring a detailed database of the electron interactions with the feed gases, however such CF 3 I data does not exist. Thus an exhaustive series of experiments to measure elastic and inelastic scattering from CF 3 I including a study of its electronic state spectroscopy using photon absorption and electron scattering techniques were performed. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photo-absorption spectroscopy were employed. A comprehensive set of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering CF 3 I over the impact energy region from 1.5 to 60 eV for scattering angles between 20 and 130 were compiled. The photo-absorption spectrum is characterized by three regions, the first is a very weak continuum around centered about 4.7 eV; the second consists of four prominent band structures observed around 7.4, 8.1, 9.0 and 9.8 eV, respectively, containing vibrational structure from 7 to 10 eV; the third (above the ionization potentials) could only be studied by using EELS and additional broad peaks were observed. (nevyjel)

  15. Neutron shielding for a {sup 252} Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Eduardo Gallego, Alfredo Lorente [Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    To determine the neutron shielding features of water-extended polyester a Monte Carlo study was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through inelastic collisions and absorption reactions. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide production induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source. During calculations a detailed model for the {sup 252}Cf and the shield was utilized. To compare the shielding features of water extended polyester, the calculations were also made for the bare {sup 252}Cf in vacuum, air and the shield filled with water. For all cases the calculated neutron spectra was utilized to determine the ambient equivalent neutron dose at four sites around the shielding. In the case of water extended polyester and water shielding the calculations were extended to include the prompt gamma rays produced during neutron interactions, with this information the Kerma in air was calculated at the same locations where the ambient equivalent neutron dose was determined. (Author)

  16. A restructuring of CF package for MIDAS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    CF package, which evaluates user-specified 'control functions' and applies them to define or control various aspects of computation, has been restructured for the MIDAS computer code. MIDAS is being developed as an integrated severe accident analysis code with a user-friendly graphical user interface and modernized data structure. To do this, data transferring methods of current MELCOR code are modified and adopted into the CF package. The data structure of the current MELCOR code using FORTRAN77 causes a difficult grasping of meaning of the variables as well as waste of memory, difficulty is more over because its data is location information of other package's data due to characteristics of CF package. New features of FORTRAN90 make it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, which lead to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding of the code. Restructuring of the CF package addressed in this paper includes module development, subroutine modification, and treats MELGEN, which generates data file, as well as MELCOR, which is processing a calculation. The verification has been done by comparing the results of the modified code with those from the existing code. As the trends are similar to each other, it hints that the same approach could be extended to the entire code package. It is expected that code restructuring will accelerate the code domestication thanks to direct understanding of each variable and easy implementation of modified or newly developed models

  17. Scandinavian Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (SNSG/CF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Erwander, Inger

    2006-01-01

    /CF comprises one CF nurse from each of the centers. The board meets twice a year to plan workshops and courses. SNSG/CF is part of the International Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (INSG/CF). Results: Within the framework of SNSG/CF a 2-day workshop is held every second year for approximately 40...

  18. Two-quasineutron states in 98248Cf and 98250Cf and the neutron-neutron residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, K.; Ahmad, I.; Friedman, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Two-quasineutron states in 248 Cf and 250 Cf were investigated by single-neutron transfer reactions, 249 Cf(d,t) 248 Cf and 249 Cf(d,p) 250 Cf. The majority of levels observed were assigned to 12 bands in 248 Cf and six bands in 250 Cf, constructed from the single-particle states in neighboring Cf nuclei. The effective two-body interactions between two odd neutrons coupled outside a deformed core were deduced from the differences in the energies of the bandheads formed by the parallel and antiparallel coupling of the intrinsic spins of the two single-particle states

  19. Integral procedure to assess crack filling and mechanical contribution of polymer-based healing agent in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilabert Villegas, Francisco Antonio; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Van Stappen, J.; Cnudde, Veerle; De Belie, Nele; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an experimental and numerical study to analyze the crack filling process in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete. A specimen consisting of two small concrete blocks has been designed containing capsules filled with a polyurethane-based healing agent. This design enables to

  20. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition View more Partner Message ...

  1. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  2. Study of the 249-251Cf + 48Ca reactions: recent results and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Abdullin, F. Sh; Brewer, N. T.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Stoyer, M. A.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Vostokin, G. K.

    2018-02-01

    Experiment aiming at the synthesis of heavy isotopes of Z=118 (Og) using beam of 48Ca and a target of 249-251Cf was undertaken in October 2015 - April 2016 employing the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (FLNR JINR). The target of mixed isotopes of 249-251Cf (50.7% of 249Cf, 12.9% of 250Cf, and 36.4% of 251Cf) was irradiated by 48Ca ions at two beam energies of 252 and 258 MeV with the corresponding accumulated beam doses of 1.6×1019 and 1.1×1019. A single event observed at lower beam energy was assigned to the isotope 294Og, the product of the reaction 249Cf(48Ca, 3n); its decay pattern and the observed radioactive properties of the nuclides in the decay chain reproduce in full those observed for 294Og in our earlier experiments of 2002-2005 and 2012. At higher beam energy we observed no decay chains that could be attributed to the isotopes of Og. The possibility of renewal of this experiment in the future is discussed.

  3. A 1.7 MHz Chua's circuit using VMs and CF+s

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a high-frequency Chua's chaotic oscillator based on unity gain cells (UGCs) is introduced. Leveraging the internal buffers of the integrated circuit AD844, a voltage mirror (VM) and a positive current follower (CF+) are designed, taking into account the parasitic elements associated to each UGC. Afterwards, the behavior of the nonlinear resistor and of the grounded inductor are designed by using several VMs, CF+s, discrete capacitors and resistors. In this way, Chua's circuit i...

  4. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry of (CF3)2CF-C≡N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Kyte, Mildrid; Thirstrup Andersen, Simone

    2017-01-01

    FTIR/smog chamber experiments and ab initio quantum calculations were performed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFCN, a proposed replacement compound for the industrially important sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The present study determined k(Cl + (CF3)2CFCN) = (2.33 ± 0.87) × 10–17, k......(OH + (CF3)2CFCN) = (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10–15, and k(O3 + (CF3)2CFCN) ≤ 6 × 10–24 cm3 molecule–1 s–1, respectively, in 700 Torr of N2 or air diluent at 296 ± 2 K. The main atmospheric sink for (CF3)2CFCN was determined to be reaction with OH radicals. Quantum chemistry calculations, supported by experimental...

  6. Trajectory calculations for the ternary cold fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misicu, S.

    1998-01-01

    We compute the final kinetic energies of the fragments emitted in the light charged particle accompanied by cold fission of 252 Cf taking into account the deformation and the finite-size effects of the fragments and integrating the equations of motion for a three-body system subjected only to Coulomb forces. The initial conditions for the trajectory calculations were derived in the framework of a deformed cluster model which includes also the effect due to the absorbative nuclear part. Although the distributions of initial kinetic energies are rather broad we show that in cold fission the initial conditions can be better determined than in the usual spontaneous fission

  7. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls: A proof of principle case study (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used d...

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions of CF, CHF, and CF2 radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, D.S.Y.; Umstead, M.E.; Lin, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    This chapter reviews briefly methods for the production of CF, CHF and CF 2 , and inmore detail, the reactions of these interesting and important radicals. Although a considerable, but not extensive, amount of work has been done on the reactions of CF 2 , little of the chemistry of CF and CHF is known. This chapter also includes the preliminary results of some experiments carried out in this Laboratory on the dynamics of some of the reactions involving these radicals. These results were largely arrived at through investigations of the degree of vibrational excitation of the HF and CO reaction products, determined by HF and CO laser emission and CO laser resonance absorption measurements. The coverage of this review is restricted to the gas phase chemistry of these radicals, and does not include their addition reactions to olefins

  9. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  10. Reactivation of the chloroplast CF1-ATPase beta subunit by trace amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit suggests a chaperonin-like activity for CF1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, A; Avital, S; Gromet-Elhanan, Z

    1991-04-25

    Incubation of tobacco and lettuce thylakoids with 2 M LiCl in the presence of MgATP removes the beta subunit from their CF1-ATPase (CF1 beta) together with varying amounts of the CF1 alpha subunit (CF1 alpha). These 2 M LiCl extracts, as with the one obtained from spinach thylakoids (Avital, S., and Gromet-Elhanan, Z. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7067-7072), could form active hybrid ATPases when reconstituted into inactive beta-less Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. Pure CF1 beta fractions that have been isolated from these extracts could not form such active hybrids by themselves, but could do so when supplemented with trace amounts (less than 5%) of CF1 alpha. A mitochondrial F1-ATPase alpha subunit was recently reported to be a heat-shock protein, having two amino acid sequences that show a highly conserved identity with sequences found in molecular chaperones (Luis, A. M., Alconada, A., and Cuezva, J. M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 7713-7716). These sequences are also conserved in CF1 alpha isolated from various plants, but not in F1 beta subunits. The above described reactivation of CF1 beta by trace amounts of CF1 alpha could thus be due to a chaperonin-like function of CF1 alpha, which involves the correct, active folding of isolated pure CF1 beta.

  11. Graphite moderated {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a {sup 252}Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the {sup 252}Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  12. Study of fusion reactions forming Cf nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Hinde, D. J.; Du Rietz, R.; Carter, I. P.; Dasgupta, M.; Duellmann, C. E.; Evers, M.; Wakhle, A.; Williams, E.; Yakushev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a compound nucleus in different projectile and target combinations is a powerful method for investigating the fusion process. Recently, the dominance of quasi-fission over fusion-fission has been inferred for 34 S+ 208 Pb in comparison to 36 S+ 206 Pb; both reactions lead to the compound nucleus 242 Cf*.The mass and angle distributions of the fission fragments from these reactions were studied in order to further investigate the presence of quasi-fission. (authors)

  13. Californium Cf-252 for pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y; Feola, J M; Tai, D; Wilson, L C; Van Nagell, J R; Yoneda, J

    1978-01-01

    Clinical data about therapy concerning tumors of the female gynecological cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus are reviewed. Dosimetric, laboratory and radiobiological research data form the basis for an approach to such tumors using Cf-252 as a form of boost brachytherapy. Extreme personnel hazards are a real and important consideration and indicate that maximal containment and isolation procedures should be exercised in its use.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH...... respectively. Using relative rate techniques, a value of k(Cl + CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO) = (1.84 +/- 0.30) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was determined. The yield of the perfluorinated acid, CF3(CF2)(3)COOH, from the 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol increased with the diluent gas oxygen concentration......, and CF3(CF2)(3)CH2C(O)OOH are secondary oxidation products. Further irradiation results in the formation of CF3(CF2)(3)COOH, COF2, and CF3OH. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, and CF3(CF2)(3)CH2C(O)OOH are formed from CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO oxidation in yields of 46 27 and less than or equal to 27...

  15. Filling the Frame. Adult Education and Vocational Training Institute Guidelines for the Implementation of Integrated Curricula within the Certificates of General Education for Adults Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Corrective Services, Sydney (Australia).

    This document contains learning modules for adult basic education courses in Australia, along with teacher information for integrating curricula, using integrated themes, and planning curricula. The learning modules contain learning activities in the following areas: job search skills; occupational health and safety; life skills; ceramics;…

  16. Enhancement of discharge performance of Li/CF x cell by thermal treatment of CF x cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Foster, Donald; Read, Jeffrey

    In this work we demonstrate that the thermal treatment of CF x cathode material just below the decomposition temperature can enhance discharge performance of Li/CF x cells. The performance enhancement becomes more effective when heating a mixture of CF x and citric acid (CA) since CA serves as an extra carbon source. Discharge experiments show that the thermal treatment not only reduces initial voltage delay, but also raises discharge voltage. Whereas the measurement of powder impedance indicates the thermal treatment does not increase electronic conductivity of CF x material. Based on these facts, we propose that the thermal treatment results in a limited decomposition of CF x, which yields a subfluorinated carbon (CF x- δ), instead of a highly conductive carbon. In the case of CF x/AC mixture, the AC provides extra carbon that reacts with F 2 and fluorocarbon radicals generated by the thermal decomposition of CF x to form subfluorinated carbon. The process of thermal treatment is studied by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction, and the effect of treatment conditions such as heating temperature, heating time and CF x/CA ratio on the discharge performance of CF x cathode is discussed. As an example, a Li/CF x cell using CF x treated with CA at 500 °C under nitrogen for 2 h achieved theretical specific capacity when being discharged at C/5. Impedance analysis indicates that the enhanced performance is attributed to a significant reduction in the cell reaction resistance.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CHOCH3, (CF3)2CHOCHO, and CF3C(O)OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Wallington, Timothy J.; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk

    2015-01-01

    Smog chambers with in situ FTIR detection were used to measure rate coefficients in 700 Torr of air and 296 ± 2 K of: k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (5.41 ± 1.63) × 10(-12), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCHO) = (9.44 ± 1.81) × 10(-15), k(Cl+CF3C(O)OCH3) = (6.28 ± 0.98) × 10(-14), k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.86 ± 0.41) × 10(-1...

  18. Nuclear viscosity of hot rotating 240Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, N. P.; Dioszegi, I.; Mazumdar, I.; Buda, A.; Morton, C. R.; Velkovska, J.; Beene, J. R.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The absolute γ-ray/fission multiplicities from hot rotating 240 Cf, populated at seven bombarding energies using the reaction 32 S+ 208 Pb, are reported. Statistical model calculations including nuclear dissipation have been performed to extract the dependence of the nuclear viscosity on temperature and/or nuclear deformation. The extracted nuclear dissipation coefficient is found to be independent of temperature. Large dissipation during the saddle to scission path provides a good fit to the γ-ray spectra. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. NAA using Cf-252 after preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyo, O.; Moebius, S.; Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) with thermal neutron using Cf-252 sources was applied to elemental analysis of elements in water samples. A high-resolution Ge(Li) detector was employed for gamma-radiation detection. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction were investigated after filtration. Preconcentration method by co-precipitation using iron (III) hydroxide and oxine were chosen for use. Elements which were considered to be able to detect in the present study are Al, As, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti, U, V and Zn

  20. Approaches for the generation of a covariance matrix for the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannhart, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief retrospective glance is cast at the situation, the evaluation of the Cf-252 neutron spectrum with a complete covariance matrix based on the results of integral experiments is proposed. The different steps already taken in such an evaluation and work in progress are reviewed. It is shown that special attention should be given to the normalization of the neutron spectrum which must be reflected in the covariance matrix. The result of the least-squares adjustment procedure applied can easily be combined with the results of direct spectrum measurements and should be regarded as the first step in a new evaluation of the Cf-252 fission-neutron spectrum. (author)

  1. Design, Construction, and Modeling of a 252Cf Neutron Irradiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake C. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron production methods are an integral part of research and analysis for an array of applications. This paper examines methods of neutron production, and the advantages of constructing a radioisotopic neutron irradiator assembly using 252Cf. Characteristic neutron behavior and cost-benefit comparative analysis between alternative modes of neutron production are also examined. The irradiator is described from initial conception to the finished design. MCNP modeling shows a total neutron flux of 3 × 105 n/(cm2·s in the irradiation chamber for a 25 μg source. Measurements of the gamma-ray and neutron dose rates near the external surface of the irradiator assembly are 120 μGy/h and 30 μSv/h, respectively, during irradiation. At completion of the project, total material, and labor costs remained below $50,000.

  2. Neutron gauging applications using a small 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of a small 252 Cf source, in the 3 to 4 μg range, for neutron gauging applications is described. Emphasis is placed on determination of low concentrations of moisture in homogeneous media, e.g., solvents, explosives, dried food products, etc. and on measurement of charge or fill weight of hydrogenous materials in sealed items, e.g., propellant in a cartridge case. Both moderation of fast neutrons and attenuation of thermalized neutrons have been explored for these applications. Parameters related to the attainment of optimum sensitivity for each method are discussed. Fast neutron moderation is superior for low level moisture measurement whereas thermal neutron attenuation is more sensitive for ''neutron weighing'' applications. Under optimum conditions, sensitivity for moisture measurement approaches 0.1 weight percent whereas ''neutron weighing'' can detect changes in hydrogeneous material content as little as a fraction of a gram. Examples are given for each technique. A number of different thermal neutron detectors are compared for neutron gauging measurements. A 6 LiI (Eu) scintillation detector is judged to be superior with regard to high thermal neutron detection efficiency and low fast neutron and gamma ray response. In this study, emphasis is placed on the use of simple, portable equipment easily adaptable to field or plant use and for on-line process or quality control. (U.S.)

  3. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  4. On the generation of a bubbly universe - A quantitative assessment of the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostriker, J. P.; Strassler, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A first attempt is made to calculate the properties of the matter distribution in a universe filled with overlapping bubbles produced by multiple explosions. Each spherical shell follows the cosmological Sedov-Taylor solution until it encounters another shell. Thereafter, mergers are allowed to occur in pairs on the basis of N-body results. At the final epoch, the matrix of overlapping shells is populated with 'galaxies' and the properties of slices through the numerically constructed cube compare well with CfA survey results for specified initial conditions. A statistic is found which measures the distance distribution from uniformly distributed points to the nearest galaxies on the projected plane which appears to provide a good measure of the bubbly character of the galaxy distribution. In a quantitative analysis of the CfA 'slice of the universe', a very good match is found between simulation and the real data for final average bubble radii of (13.5 + or - 1.5)/h Mpc with formal filling factor 1.0-1.5 or actual filling factor of 65-80 percent.

  5. Generation of a bubbly universe - a quantitative assessment of the CfA slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostriker, J.P.; Strassler, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A first attempt is made to calculate the properties of the matter distribution in a universe filled with overlapping bubbles produced by multiple explosions. Each spherical shell follows the cosmological Sedov-Taylor solution until it encounters another shell. Thereafter, mergers are allowed to occur in pairs on the basis of N-body results. At the final epoch, the matrix of overlapping shells is populated with 'galaxies' and the properties of slices through the numerically constructed cube compare well with CfA survey results for specified initial conditions. A statistic is found which measures the distance distribution from uniformly distributed points to the nearest galaxies on the projected plane which appears to provide a good measure of the bubbly character of the galaxy distribution. In a quantitative analysis of the CfA 'slice of the universe', a very good match is found between simulation and the real data for final average bubble radii of (13.5 + or - 1.5)/h Mpc with formal filling factor 1.0-1.5 or actual filling factor of 65-80 percent. 25 references

  6. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  7. Identification of distinct specificity determinants in resistance protein Cf-4 allows construction of a Cf-9 mutant that confers recognition of avirulence protein AVR4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Van der R.A.L.; Roth, R.; Wit, De P.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The tomato resistance genes Cf-4 and Cf-9 confer specific, hypersensitive response-associated recognition of Cladosporium carrying the avirulence genes Avr4 and Avr9, respectively. Cf-4 and Cf-9 encode type I transmembrane proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Compared with Cf-9,

  8. Photoionisation study of Xe.CF{sub 4} and Kr.CF{sub 4} van-der-Waals molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, V. A., E-mail: alekseev@va3474.spb.edu; Kevorkyants, R. [St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Nab., St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Garcia, G. A.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2016-05-14

    We report on photoionization studies of Xe.CF{sub 4} and Kr.CF{sub 4} van-der-Waals complexes produced in a supersonic expansion and detected using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The ionization potential of CF{sub 4} is larger than those of the Xe and Kr atoms and the ground state of the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ion correlates with Rg{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + CF{sub 4}. The onset of the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} signals was found to be only ∼0.2 eV below the Rg ionization potential. In agreement with experiment, complementary ab initio calculations show that vertical transitions originating from the potential minimum of the ground state of Rg.CF{sub 4} terminate at a part of the potential energy surfaces of Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +}, which are approximately 0.05 eV below the Rg{sup +} ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) + CF{sub 4} dissociation limit. In contrast to the neutral complexes, which are most stable in the face geometry, for the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ions, the calculations show that the minimum of the potential energy surface is in the vertex geometry. Experiments which have been performed only with Xe.CF{sub 4} revealed no Xe.CF{sub 4}{sup +} signal above the first ionization threshold of Xe, suggesting that the Rg.CF{sub 4}{sup +} ions are not stable above the first dissociation limit.

  9. CFTR mutation analysis and haplotype associations in CF patients☆

    OpenAIRE

    Cordovado, S.K.; Hendrix, M.; Greene, C.N.; Mochal, S.; Earley, M.C.; Farrell, P.M.; Kharrazi, M.; Hannon, W.H.; Mueller, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Most newborn screening (NBS) laboratories use second-tier molecular tests for cystic fibrosis (CF) using dried blood spots (DBS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s NBS Quality Assurance Program offers proficiency testing (PT) in DBS for CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection. Extensive molecular characterization on 76 CF patients, family members or screen positive newborns was performed for quality assurance. The coding, regulatory regions and por...

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  11. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFOCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Løffler; Østerstrøm, Freja From; Nielsen, Ole John

    2014-01-01

    FTIR smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + (CF 3)2CFOCH3) = (1.80 ± 0.42) × 10-13, k(Cl + (CF3)2CFOCHO) = (1.47 ± 0.56) × 10-14, and k(OH + (CF3) 2CFOCH3) = (1.55 ± 0.24) × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The chlorine-atom initiated oxidation of (CF3)2CFOCH3 in air in the absence of NOX r...

  12. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  13. Treatment of dry eye syndrome with orally administered CF101: data from a phase 2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Isaac; Garzozi, Hanna J; Barequet, Irina S; Segev, Fanni; Varssano, David; Sartani, Gil; Chetrit, Noa; Bakshi, Erez; Zadok, David; Tomkins, Oren; Litvin, Gilad; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fishman, Sari; Harpaz, Zivit; Farbstein, Motti; Yehuda, Sara Bar; Silverman, Michael H; Kerns, William D; Bristol, David R; Cohn, Ilan; Fishman, Pnina

    2010-07-01

    To explore the safety and efficacy of CF101, an A(3) adenosine receptor agonist, in patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome. Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Sixty-eight patients completed the study, 35 patients in the placebo group and 33 patients in the CF101 group. Patients were treated orally with either 1 mg CF101 pills or matching vehicle-filled placebo pills, given twice daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 2-week posttreatment observation. An improvement of more than 25% over baseline at week 12 in one of the following parameters: (1) tear break-up time (BUT); (2) superficial punctate keratitis assessed by fluorescein staining results; and (3) Schirmer tear test 1 results. Clinical laboratory safety tests, ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, electrocardiographic evaluations, vital sign measurements, and monitoring of adverse events. A statistically significant increase in the proportion of patients who achieved more than 25% improvement in the corneal staining and in the clearance of corneal staining was noted between the CF101-treated group and the placebo group. Treatment with CF101 resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the mean change from baseline at week 12 of the corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus (TM) height in the CF101-treated group. CF101 was well tolerated and exhibited an excellent safety profile with no serious adverse events. A statistically significant decrease from baseline was observed in the IOP of the CF101-treated group in comparison with the placebo group. CF101, given orally, induced a statistically significant improvement in the corneal staining and an improvement in the BUT and TM in patients with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome. The drug was very well tolerated. These data and the anti-inflammatory characteristic of CF101 support further study of the drug as a potential treatment for the signs and symptoms of dry

  14. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with NO at 295 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    Using a pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique and subsequent simulations of experimental NO2 and FNO absorption transients, rate constants for reaction between CF3O and CF3O2 radicals with NO were determined, CF3O2+NO-->CF3O+NO2 (3), CF3O+NO-->CF2O+FNO (5). k3 was derived to be (1.68+/-0.26)x10...

  15. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall. 46 refs

  16. The Study of the Composite Material Go/CF/PTFE Tribological Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the composite material Go/CF/PTFE tribological property was studied. The test of its mechanical property, and the fabrication of the filled PTEE composite material sample which is based on the technology of cold press molding and sinter molding proved that adding Go and CF moderately to the composite material was an efficient way to improve its mechanical property. Meanwhile the process of friction and wear trial and SEM analysis results of the micro-structure of wear pattern proved that the addition of the Go and CF tremendously improved the anti-wear property and that after the addition the plowing effect which took place on the material surface would turn into a kind of mixed wear effect that includes plowing effect and fatigue wear. Working as pinning and bridging, the Go which distributing uniformly in the matrix was able to improve the resistance and substantially resisted the crack propagation, therefore to a certain degree enhanced the intensity of composite material and prolong its lifespan.

  17. Pollutant removal performance of an integrated upflow-constructed wetland filled with haydites made of Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendong; Han, Yu; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Ke; Yue, Qiang; Bo, Longli; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the pollutants removal performance of an integrated upflow-constructed wetland (IUCW) system in a 1.5 years' continuous operation. The average concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 -N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent were 21.9, 1.47, 2.63, and 0.18 mg/L, respectively, which corresponded to 90.1%, 23.3%, 86.1%, and 97.2% removals from the raw water, respectively. The residual concentration of COD was 219 mg/L at start-up and decreased notably to 52.8 mg/L after 50 days of operation. NH 4 -N was difficult to remove because the average concentration of dissolved oxygen in the IUCW system was lower than 0.6 mg/L. In contrast, the residual concentrations of both TN and TP in the effluent were stable, with average removal rates as high as 89% and 99%, respectively, at start-up of the system. Changing the organic loading rates from 45.0 g/(m 2 ·day) to 20.0 or 60.0 g/(m 2 ·day) both inhibited the removal of TN. Further study showed that the removal of organic matter mainly occurred within 10-20 cm of the wetland cell. Considering its strong organic, nitrogen, and phosphate removal capacity, the IUCW system was determined to be effective in decentralized wastewater treatment.

  18. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  19. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  20. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  2. Estimation of the LET threshold of single event upset of microelectronics in experiments with Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.V.; Nymmik, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A method is proposed for analyzing single event upsets (SEU) in large scale integration circuits of random access memory (RAM) when exposed to Cf-252 fission fragments. The method makes is possible to find the RAM linear energy transfer (LET) threshold to be used for estimations of RAM SEU rates in space. The method is illustrated by analyzing experimental data for the 2 x 8 kbit CMOS/bulk RAM. (author)

  3. CF 2000 ECUMÊNICA: EPISÓDIO OU NOVA FASE DA CF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Cipriani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano 2000, sete igrejas cristãs, membros do Conselho Nacional de Igrejas Cristãs do Brasil (CONIC, surpreenderam a opinião pública brasileira colocando-se na contramão da competição cotidiana que caracteriza o anúncio do Evangelho no Brasil. Promoveram em conjunto uma Campanha da Fraternidade (CF criada e realizada há 36 anos pela CNBB. Isso tinha algo de incrível.

  4. An Integrated Loop Model of Corrective Feedback and Oral English Learning: A Case of International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The author in this study introduces an integrated corrective feedback (CF) loop to schematize the interplay between CF and independent practice in L2 oral English learning among advanced-level adult ESL students. The CF loop integrates insights from the Interaction, Output, and Noticing Hypotheses to show how CF can help or harm L2 learners'…

  5. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson

    2000-01-01

    We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved η=[23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I · V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: η=α·E + η 0 , α=0.8105, η 0 =22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75)

  7. System control for the modulated 252Cf source ''Shuffler''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, M.M.

    1975-06-01

    The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252 Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252 Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252 Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)

  8. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  9. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  10. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  11. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  12. Feeding response of Daphnia cf. similis to different concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Experiments showing that Daphnia can suppress cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes have been limited to cases ... Experimental Design, Sampling Method and Analysis ..... It may be also true in case of this study because high mortality of D. cf.

  13. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent

  14. Neutron total cross section measurements on 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, R.F.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron total cross section measurements were performed on a sample of 249 Cf (5.65 mg total weight) with the ORELA as a source of pulsed neutrons. The sample, the inverse thickness of which was 1542 barns/atom, consisted of 85.3% 249 Cf and 14.4% 249 Bk, and was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Analyses were also made of data from a thin sample (l/n = 17430) of 65% 249 Cf in the region of the large fission resonance at 0.7 eV. Fifty-five resonances in 249 Cf were observed and analyzed over the energy range 0.1 eV to 90 eV by use of an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained were used to determine the level spacing and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Thermal total cross section measurements were also performed. 5 figures, 3 tables

  15. Filling the concept with data: integrating data from different in vitro and in silico assays on skin sensitizers to explore the battery approach for animal-free skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients. Significant efforts are made to replace the current animal tests. It is widely recognized that this cannot be accomplished with a single in vitro test, but that rather the integration of results from different in vitro and in silico assays will be needed for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. This has been proposed as a theoretical scheme so far, but no attempts have been made to use experimental data to prove the validity of this concept. Here we thus try for the first time to fill this widely cited concept with data. To this aim, we integrate and report both novel and literature data on 116 chemicals of known skin sensitization potential on the following parameters: (1) peptide reactivity as a surrogate for protein binding, (2) induction of antioxidant/electrophile responsive element dependent luciferase activity as a cell-based assay; (3) Tissue Metabolism Simulator skin sensitization model in silico prediction; and (4) calculated octanol-water partition coefficient. The results of the in vitro assays were scaled into five classes from 0 to 4 to give an in vitro score and compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, which were also scaled from 0 to 4 (nonsensitizer/weak/moderate/strong/extreme). Different ways of evaluating these data have been assessed to rate the hazard of chemicals (Cooper statistics) and to also scale their potency. With the optimized model an overall accuracy for predicting sensitizers of 87.9% was obtained. There is a linear correlation between the LLNA score and the in vitro score. However, the correlation needs further improvement as there is still a relatively high variation in the in vitro score between chemicals belonging to the same sensitization potency class.

  16. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  17. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Raymond; Khan, Babar K; Raz, Assaf; Rotolo, Jimmy A; Wittekind, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC 90 ) value of ≤0.25 μg/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes , and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC 90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 μg/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Laboratory-scale shielded cell for 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Cargo, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    A shielded-cell facility for storing and handling remotely up to 2 milligram quantities of unencapsulated 252 Cf has been built in a radiochemistry laboratory at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Unique features of this facility are its compact bulk radiation shield of borated gypsum and transfer lines which permit the transport of fission product activity from 252 Cf fission sources within the cell to a mass separator and to a fast radiochemistry system in nearby rooms

  19. CF3SF5 : a ‘super’ greenhouse gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    One molecule of the anthropogenic pollutant trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (CF\\(_3\\)SF\\(_5\\)), an adduct of the CF\\(_3\\) and SF\\(_5\\) free radicals, causes more global warming than one molecule of any other greenhouse gas yet detected in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is, it has the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, and the value of its global warming potential is only exceeded by that of SF\\(_6\\). First, the greenhouse effect is described, the propertie...

  20. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Schuch, Raymond

    2017-05-02

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of <= 0.25 mu g/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 mu g/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component.

  1. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Schuch, Raymond; Khan, Babar Khalid; Raz, Assaf; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Wittekind, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of <= 0.25 mu g/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 mu g/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of 244Cm metal and 249Cf metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, D.K.; Parsons, T.C.; Edelstein, N.; Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-07-01

    The first magnetic susceptibility measurements made on the expanded fcc phase of 249 Cf metal are reported. Further measurements are needed on other Cf metal phases. Another measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of 244 Cm metal in a limited temperature range has been reported. The result does not agree with previously reported values. Further work is continuing on the synthesis of 244 Cm metal and 248 Cm metal and magnetic measurements on these samples. (auth)

  3. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon

    2009-01-01

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z ∼< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of ∼<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and ∼<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bravo, Iván; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana; Moreno, Elena

    2008-10-01

    The adverse environmental impacts of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Earth's ozone layer have focused attention on the effort to replace these compounds by nonchlorinated substitutes with environmental acceptability. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and fluorinated alcohols are currently being introduced in many applications for this purpose. Nevertheless, the presence of a great number of C-F bonds drives to atmospheric long-lived compounds with infrared absorption features. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge about lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWP) for these compounds in order to get a complete evaluation of their environmental impact. Tropospheric degradation is expected to be initiated mainly by OH reactions in the gas phase. Nevertheless, Cl atoms reaction may also be important since rate constants are generally larger than those of OH. In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2). Kinetic rate coefficients with Cl atoms have been measured using the discharge flow tube-mass spectrometric technique at 1 Torr of total pressure. The reactions of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) substitutes have been studied under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions in excess of the fluorinated compounds over Cl atoms. The temperature ranges were 266-333 and 298-353 K for reactions of HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively. The measured room temperature rate constants were k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) = (1.24 +/- 0.28) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)and k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH) = (8.35 +/- 1.63) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors are 2sigma + 10% to cover systematic errors). The Arrhenius expression for reaction 1 was k (1)(266-333 K) = (6.1 +/- 3.8) x 10(-13)exp[-(445 +/- 186)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k (2)(298-353 K) = (1.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12)exp[-(244 +/- 125)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors

  5. Modeling of silicon etching in CF sub 4 /O sub 2 and CF sub 4 /H sub 2 plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (US)); Venkatesan, S.P. (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (US))

    1990-07-01

    A one-dimensional radial flow reactor model that includes fairly detailed free radical gas-phase chemistry has been developed for the etching of silicon in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas. Attention has been restricted to transport and reaction of neutral species. The model equations were solved by orthogonal collocation. The sensitivities of the model predictions to flow rate, inlet gas composition, electron density, silicon loading, and other factors have been examined. The major loss path for fluorine atoms is different in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} systems, and this results in significant qualitative differences in the parametric sensitivities of the two systems.

  6. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  7. Decomposition of Potent Greenhouse Gases SF6, CF4 and SF5CF3 by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renxi; Wang Jingting; Cao Xu; Hou Huiqi

    2016-01-01

    For their distinguished global warming potential (GWP100) and long atmosphere lifespan, CF 4 , SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 were significant in the field of greenhouse gas research. The details of discharging character and the optimal parameter were discussed by using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor to decompose these potent greenhouse gases in this work. The results showed that SF 6 could be decomposed by 92% under the conditions of 5 min resident time and 3000 V applied voltage with the partial pressure of 2.0 kPa, 28.2 kPa, and 1.8 kPa for SF 6 , air and water vapor, respectively. 0.4 kPa CF 4 could be decomposed by 98.2% for 4 min resident time with 30 kPa Ar added. The decomposition of SF 5 CF 3 was much more effective than that of SF 6 and CF 4 and moreover, 1.3 kPa SF 5 CF 3 , discharged with 30 kPa O 2 , Ar and air, could not be detected when the resident time was 80 s, 40 s, and 120 s, respectively. All the results indicated that DBD was a feasible technique for the abatement of potent greenhouse gases. (paper)

  8. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  9. A restructuring of the CF/EDF packages for the MIDAS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.; Kim, K.R.; Kim, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    The CF and EDF packages, which allow the user to define the functions of variables in a database and the usage of an external data file, have been restructured for the MIDAS computer code. MIDAS is being developed as an integrated severe accident analysis code with a user-friendly graphical user interface and a modernized data structure. To restructure the code, the data transferring methods of the current MELCOR code are modified and then partially adopted into the CF/EDF packages. The data structure of the current MELCOR code using FORTRAN77 has a difficulty in grasping the meaning of the variables as pointers are used to define their addresses. New features of FORTRAN90 make it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type without pointers leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding of the code. Restructuring of the CF/EDF packages addressed in this paper includes a module development and subroutine modification. The verification has been done by comparing the results of the modified code with those of the existing code and the trends are almost the same to each other. Therefore the similar approach could be extended to the entire code package for code restructuring. It is expected that the code restructuring will accelerate the code's domestication thanks to a direct understanding of each variable and an easy implementation of the modified or newly developed models. (author)

  10. 235Cf anti ν discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ν for 235 Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ν and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of 235 Cf anti ν. It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the 235 Cf anti ν discrepancy. 22 references

  11. Etching properties of BLT films in CF4/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il

    2003-01-01

    CF 4 /Ar plasma mass content and etching rate behavior of BLT thin films were investigated in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor as functions of CF 4 /Ar gas mixing ratio, rf power, and dc bias voltage. The variation of relative volume densities for F and Ar atoms were measured by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The etching rate as functions of Ar content showed the maximum of 803 A/min at 80 % Ar addition into CF 4 plasma. The presence of maximum etch rate may be explained by the concurrence of two etching mechanisms such as physical sputtering and chemical reaction. The role of Ar ion bombardment includes destruction of metal (Bi, La, Ti)-O bonds as well as support of chemical reaction of metals with fluorine atoms

  12. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  13. CF3CH(ONO)CF3: Synthesis, IR spectrum, and use as OH radical source for kinetic and mechanistic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Ball, JC

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis, IR spectrum, and first-principles characterization of CF3CH(ONO)CF3 as well as its use as an OH radical source in kinetic and mechanistic studies are reported. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 exists in two conformers corresponding to rotation about the RCO-NO bond. The more prevalent trans conformer......C(O)CF3 and, by implication, OH radicals in 100% yield. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 photolysis is a convenient source of OH radicals in the studies of the yields of CO, CO2, HCHO, and HC(O)OH products which can be difficult to measure using more conventional OH radical sources (e.g., CH3ONO photolysis). CF3CH...

  14. Quenching the scintillation in CF4 Cherenkov gas radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, T.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Easo, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gibson, V.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Hunt, P.; Jones, C.R.; Lambert, R.W.; Matteuzzi, C.; Muheim, F.; Papanestis, A.; Perego, D.L.; Piedigrossi, D.; Plackett, R.; Powell, A.

    2015-01-01

    CF 4 is used as a Cherenkov gas radiator in one of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors at the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CF 4 is well known to have a high scintillation photon yield in the near and far VUV, UV and in the visible wavelength range. A large flux of scintillation photons in our photon detection acceptance between 200 and 800 nm could compromise the particle identification efficiency. We will show that this scintillation photon emission system can be effectively quenched, consistent with radiationless transitions, with no significant impact on the photons resulting from Cherenkov radiation

  15. When treating prostate cancer with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy the impact of bladder filling status on the volume and integral dose distribution of the target and critical organs should be kept in mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Li Yexiong; Guang Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: In prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), we tried to prospectively assess the impact of the filling status of bladder on the volume and the integral dose distribution to the target and surrounding critical organs. Methods: Ten patients with stage T1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer were studied. All patients received 3DCRT to the prostate and inferior seminal vesicle. One hour before CT simulation, the bladder was first voided, and then 400 ml of oral contrast solution was given at every half hour before the CT scan. Urethral catheterization was used for voiding or distending the bladder. When distending the bladder, 250-300 ml of contrast was injected into the bladder with the patient fixed at the supine position. Two sets of transverse images were taken for the whole pelvis in empty and full bladder. After the target and critical organs (bladder, rectum, pelvic small bowel, and femoral heads) were contoured, a treatment plan of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy was made using the CMS Focus-Xio treatment planning system. The volume and mean doses of CTV, PTV, rectum, bladder, femoral heads, and small bowel with the bladder empty and full were evaluated. The percentage of volume which received 50 Gy in the rectum and bladder, 30 Gy in the femoral heads, and the maximal dose to the pelvic small bowel were also assessed . The variability of volume and dose distribution in these targets or organs was compared between the empty and full bladder status. Results: Comparing to the bladder empty status, full bladder led to a mean increase of 499% in the bladder volume, (67±9) ml and (336±48) ml (P=0.000), respectively. No volume change was found in the CTV, PTV, rectum, femoral heads and pel- vic small bowel(P=0.153,0.501,0.929,0.771,0.081). The mean dose to the bladder in full status was only 35% of that in empty status, (1501±201 ) cGy and (4267±216) cGy(P =0.000), respectively. The mean dose to the pelvic small

  16. Measurement of the Specific Refractivities of CF4 and C2F6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to relate the measured fringe shift of an interferometer to density, the relation between density rho and refractive index n must be known. For gases where the refractive index is close to unity, this relation between density and refractive index is very closely approximated by (n - 1) = K rho where K is the specific refractivity, or the Gladstone-Dale constant. The specific refractivity, which is weakly dependent on wavelength and temperature, is readily available for a number of common test gases such as N2 and air. For more unique test gases such as CF4 and C2F6 for which refractive index data at optical wavelengths is not readily available, the constants can be estimated from the atomic refractivities of carbon and fluorine. In order to verify this estimation, a two-beam interferometer was used to experimentally determine the specific refractivities of CF4 and C2F6. This data was required for holographic interferometric measurements made at the Langley Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel. A Twyman-Green interferometer with a He-Ne laser light source of vacuum wavelength lambda equal to 633 nm was used to measure the constants. One beam of the two-beam interferometer passed through an optical cell of known inside length l which could be evacuated and slowly filled with the test gas to a density of 7.2 kg/cu m for CF4 or 5.7 kg/cu m for C2F6. If the refractive index (and hence density) is constant along the optical path through the cell, the fringe shift M and density change Delta rho are related M = 2Kl Delta rho/lambda for the double pass interferometer. Thus K can be determined by measuring the fringe shift as the density is changed. The output of a photodiode used to detect the fringe shift was recorded on a strip chart recorder. The rate of pressure increase of the test gas in the cell was controlled such that the fringes shifted at a rate of 0.5 to 1 fringe per sec. The pressure in the test cell was measured with a high accuracy quartz crystal pressure

  17. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure

  18. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.; Cachim, P.B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of disintegration half-life of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keliang; Liu Guoxing; Wang Sufang; Zheng Jiwen

    1991-01-01

    The follow-up measurements have been made by using a Si(Au) detector with small solid angle geometry for α disintegration of 252 Cf. The measured half-life of disintegration is 2.638 ± 0.009 year. This value is in accordance with other previous results

  1. Investigation of the characteristics of 252Cf-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Erik

    2004-12-01

    In the first chapter the characteristic behaviors of two Cf detectors have been investigated by performing pilot measurements. The detector with the stronger source gives an unstable signal with a low signal/noise ratio. Therefore this detector has not been further investigated. The ionization chamber reacts on both fission products and alpha decay. An energy experiment showed that there were large difficulties to separate those decays. A plastic scintillator, which reacts on both photons and neutrons, was used for neutron detection. Energy spectrums were performed and the result showed that it is difficult to set an energy threshold to separate the neutrons and the photons. The discrimination will rather be achieved by time of flight methods which is discussed under the second chapter in this thesis; Experimental results. An other experiment was done in order to investigate whether it is possible to detect any delayed components from the spontaneous fission of Cf. The result showed that delayed components existed. Either they are delayed neutrons from exited fission products, or it is some delay related to the charge collection in the Cf detector. Correlation measurements showed that few events are coincident. Only 50% of the signals from the plastic scintillator are correlated with the Cf source

  2. Neutron emission during acceleration of 252Cf fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batenkov, O.I.; Blinov, M.V.; Blinov, A.B.; Smirnov, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate neutron emission during acceleration of fission fragments in the process of spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. Experimental angular and energy distributions of neutrons are compared with the results of calculations of neutron evaporation during fragment acceleration. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs

  3. Generation of the ArCF22+ dication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lockyear, J. F.; Douglas, K.; Price, S. D.; Karwowska, M.; Fijalkowski, K. J.; Grochala, W.; Remeš, M.; Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    -, č. 1 (2010), s. 358-362 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : argon * dications * mass spectrometry * rare-gas compounds * superelectrophiles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface

  5. INAA using 252Cf neutron source at University of Pune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    The review presents the work done over last two decades on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) by our research group at University of Pune using 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron source. The technique has been applied in different fields viz. numismatics, industry, agriculture, ayurveda, environmental and health sciences and diffusion studies. A brief discussion of the work is presented in this article. (author)

  6. Characteristics of polyethylene-moderated 252Cf neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejnikov, V.E.; Beskrovnaya, L.G.; Florko, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polyethylene-moderated 252 Cf neutron sources were designed to produce neutron reference fields' spectra that simulate the spectra observed in the workplaces within nuclear reactors and accelerators. The paper describes the neutron sources and fields. Neutron spectra were calculated by Monte Carlo method and compared with experimental data

  7. 76 FR 27282 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-10E2A1; CF34-10E5, CF34-10E5A1; CF34-10E6...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for... Investigation of a General Electric Company (GE) CF34-10E turbofan engine experiencing high fan frame vibrations... likely to exist or develop in other products of the same type design. Proposed AD Requirements This...

  8. Gravitational clustering of galaxies in the CfA slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, P.; Saslaw, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The clustering properties of the Galaxies in the CfA slice have been analyzed by comparing the properties of the neighbor distributions to the predictions of gravitational clustering theory. The agreement is excellent and implies that the observed structures can be explained by gravitational effects alone and do not require exotic explanations

  9. Improving the care of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahsan Aftab; Nash, Edward F; Whitehouse, Joanna; Rashid, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Background The West Midlands Adult Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre based at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital provides care for adults with CF in the West Midlands. People with CF are prone to pulmonary exacerbations, which often require inpatient admission for intravenous antibiotics. We observed that the admission process was efficient during working hours (9:00–17:00, Monday–Friday) when the CF team are routinely available, but out-of-working hours, there were delays in these patients being clerked and receiving their first antibiotic dose. We were concerned that this was resulting in quality and potential safety issues by causing delays in starting treatment and prolonging hospital inpatient stays. We therefore undertook a quality improvement project (QIP) aimed at addressing these issues. An initial survey showed median time to clerk of 5 hours, with 60% of patients missing their first dose of antibiotics and mean length of stay of 16 days. Methods We applied the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle approach, with the first PDSA cycle involving raising awareness of the issue through education to doctors, nurses and patients. Results This led to a reduction of median time to clerk from 5 to 2 hours with 23% of patients missing their first antibiotic dose and mean length of stay reducing to 14 days. The second cycle involved introducing an admissions checklist and displaying education posters around the hospital, resulting in median time to clerk remaining at 2 hours but only 20% of patients missing their first antibiotic dose and the mean length of stay remaining at 14 days. Conclusion This QIP has improved the out-of-hours admissions process for adults with CF in our centre. We plan to review the longer term effects of the project including sustainability, effects on clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:28959778

  10. A data model of the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions (CF-1.6 with a software implementation (cf-python v2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hassell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The CF (Climate and Forecast metadata conventions are designed to promote the creation, processing, and sharing of climate and forecasting data using Network Common Data Form (netCDF files and libraries. The CF conventions provide a description of the physical meaning of data and of their spatial and temporal properties, but they depend on the netCDF file encoding which can currently only be fully understood and interpreted by someone familiar with the rules and relationships specified in the conventions documentation. To aid in development of CF-compliant software and to capture with a minimal set of elements all of the information contained in the CF conventions, we propose a formal data model for CF which is independent of netCDF and describes all possible CF-compliant data. Because such data will often be analysed and visualised using software based on other data models, we compare our CF data model with the ISO 19123 coverage model, the Open Geospatial Consortium CF netCDF standard, and the Unidata Common Data Model. To demonstrate that this CF data model can in fact be implemented, we present cf-python, a Python software library that conforms to the model and can manipulate any CF-compliant dataset.

  11. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  12. Relation between the CF2 radical and plasma density measured using LIF and cutoff probe in a CF4 inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon; Chung, Kwang-Hwa; Yoo, Yong-Shim

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the CF 2 radical was studied in a CF 4 inductively coupled plasma. The CF 2 radical was measured using a laser-induced fluorescence method. Absolute electron density was measured using a cutoff probe and the electron temperature was measured using a double probe to study the relationship between these electron properties and the CF 2 radical. To examine the relationship between them, the CF 2 radical and electron density were measured as a function of the rf power, which is a major external parameter influencing the electron density. As the rf power was increased, the CF 2 radical density increased in the range of low electron density, and then decreased beyond a critical electron density. The dependence of the CF 2 radical density on the electron density was theoretically analyzed with rate equations. The theoretical result was in good agreement with experiment

  13. Chemical consequences of radioactive decay. 1. Study of 249Cf ingrowth into crystalline 249BkBr3: a new crystalline phase of CfBr3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.P.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Ensor, D.D.; Fellows, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and x-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to a study of the ingrowth of californium-249 by β - decay of berkelium-249 in crystalline 249 BkBr 3 . It was found that the Cf daughter grows in with the same oxidation state and crystal structure as the parent. Thus, six-coordinate BkBr 3 (AlCl 3 -type monoclinic structure) generates six-coordinate CfBr 3 , and eight-coordinate BkBr 3 (PuBr 3 -type orthorhombic structure) generates eight-coordinate CfBr 3 , a previously unknown form of CfBr 3 . It was also found that the daughter Cf(III) in the BkBr 3 parent compound can be reduced to Cf(II) by treatment with H 2 , as it can in pure CfBr 3 . 5 figures

  14. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  15. [Early aseptic loosening of the CF 30 femoral stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanda, M; Havlícek, V; Hudec, J

    2007-02-01

    The CF 30 stem in combination with a cementless acetabulum was used at the First Department of Orthopedic Surgery in Brno in the years 1994 to 1995. From the second year following implantation, aseptic stem loosening was recorded. In order to find explanation of this early loosening, the authors, in cooperation with the Institute of Solid Mechanics, Mechatronics and Biomechanics, carried out the stress-strain analysis in a model system. Eighty patients (31 men and 49 women) received a cemented CF30 femoral component in 1994. Of them, 16 patients underwent revision arthroplasty, three died of causes unrelated to the surgery, and four were lost to follow-up. The final clinical and radiographic check-up was carried out in 2001. The results of a comprehensive examination were available in 57 patients with a CF30 stem. The patients were evaluated on the basis of the Harris hip score and anteroposterior radiographs of the hip. X-ray films obtained immediately after surgery and those taken at regular intervals during follow-up were compared. The following characteristics were noted: translucent lines in individual zones along the stem at the cement-bone interface; osteolysis, i. e., non-linear translucent areas, at least 5 mm long, at the cement-bone interface; and subsidence of the femoral component, i. e., migration of the stem distal to the tip of the greater trochanter. The CF 30 stem survival curve showed that aseptic stem loosening occurred from post-implantation year 2, and increased during the following years. At 6 years and 6 months, a total of 16 patients underwent revision surgery, involving reimplantation in 14 and implant removal in 2 patients. Potential causes of aseptic loosening: Polyethylene wear.However, no acetabular loosening was found in this group, although acetabular components are reported to become loose more often than femoral components. By comparison of the stem survival curves for Poldi and CF 30 stems it appeared that, at 6 years and 6 months

  16. Better building of valley fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1980-03-01

    Current US regulations for building valley fills or head of hollow fills to hold excess spoil resulting from contour mining are meeting with considerable opposition, particularly from operators in steep-slope areas. An alternative method has been submitted to the Office of Surface Mining by Virgina. Known as the zoned concept method, it has already been used successfully in building water-holding dams and coal refuse embankments on sloping terrain. The ways in which drainage and seepage are managed are described.

  17. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  18. Antibiotic therapy for stable non-CF bronchiectasis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaellegaard, Katrine; Sin, Melda Dönmez; Browatzki, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatments for stable non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis (BE). Systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was done. Twenty-six studies (1.898 patients) fulfilled......, exacerbations and QoL, whereas studies on aztreonam revealed no significant clinical improvements in the outcomes of interest, including exacerbation rate. Adverse events, including bronchospasm, have been reported in association with tobramycin and aztreonam. Several antibiotic treatment regimens have been...... shown to improve QoL and exacerbation rate, whereas findings regarding sputum production, lung function and admissions have been conflicting. Evidence-based treatment algorithms for antibiotic treatment of stable non-CF BE will have to await large-scale, long-term controlled studies....

  19. Evaluation of mass distribution data from 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    2003-01-01

    The mass distribution data of 252 Cf spontaneous fission were evaluated based on 7 sets of available experimental data. The measured data were corrected for the standards and γ intensity used by using the new evaluated ones. The errors were made necessary adjusting. The evaluated experimental data were fitted with spline function without any restriction and with symmetric restriction. These two sets of fit data were recommended as reference data of the mass distribution of 252 Cf spontaneous fission. The errors of the recommended data were considerably reduced comparing with the measured ones. The light and heavy peaks are not completely symmetric. Also there are fine structures on the right side of the light peak at A=109-111 and left side of the heavy peak at A=137-139. These should be paid attention and studied further. (author)

  20. A survey of uses and users of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Alexander, C.W.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Californium-252, which is one of the transuranium-element isotopes being produced in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has found many applications in service to industry and medicine. As a neutron source, 252 Cf is unique in providing a highly concentrated and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. Over the past 22 years, 252 Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, to neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, to startup sources for nuclear reactors, to fission activation assay for quality control and safeguards of all commercial nuclear fuel, and to many other beneficial uses, some of which are now poised for further growth. The extensive exploitation of this highly specialized product has been made possible through 252 Sales/Loan programs sponsored by the US DOE Office of Nuclear Materials Production, initially at the Savannah River Laboratory and now at ORNL

  1. Experimental ion mobility measurements in Xe-CF4 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, A. F. V.; Kaja, M. A.; Escada, J.; Santos, M. A. G.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P. N. B.; Santos, F. P.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Conde, C. A. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of the ion mobility measurements made in gaseous mixtures of xenon with carbon tetrafluoride (Xe-CF4) for pressures ranging from 6 to 10 Torr (8-10.6 mbar) and for low reduced electric fields in the 10 to 25 Td range (2.4-6.1 kVṡcm‑1ṡbar‑1), at room temperature. The time-of-arrival spectra revealed one or two peaks depending on the gas relative abundances, which were attributed to CF3+ and to Xe2+ ions. However, for Xe concentrations above 60%, only one peak remains (Xe2+). The reduced mobilities obtained from the peak centroid of the time-of-arrival spectra are presented for Xe concentrations in the 5%-95% range.

  2. Effective source size as related to 252Cf neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Nobuo; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Tachikawa, Noboru; Nojiri, Toshiaki.

    1977-01-01

    The effective source size in 252 Cf thermal neutron radiography, relating to its geometrical unsharpness in image formation, is experimentally studied. A neutron radiographic system consists of a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source, water moderator and divergent cadmium lined collimator. Thermal neutron image detection is performed with using a LiF scintillator and a high speed X-ray film to employ direct exposure method. The modulation transfer function, used for describing image quality, is derived from radiographic image corresponding to a cadmium plate with sharp edge. The modulation transfer function for the system is expressed by the product of the function for both geometrical and inherent unsharpness, and allows isolation of geometrical unsharpness as related to the effective size of the thermal neutron source. It is found to be 80 -- 90% of the collimator inlet diameter. (auth.)

  3. Reactor production of 252Cf and transcurium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Halperin, J.; Walker, R.L.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium are currently produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and recovered in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). All the isotopes are used for research. In addition, 252 Cf, 253 Es, and 255 Fm have been considered or are used for industrial or medical applications. ORNL is the sole producer of these transcurium isotopes in the western world. A wide range of actinide samples were irradiated in special test assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate the usefulness of the two-group flux model for transmutations in the special assemblies with an eventual goal of determining the feasibility of producing macro amounts of transcurium isotopes in the FFTF. Preliminary results from the production of 254g Es from 252 Cf will be discussed. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Shielding experiments in different materials with 252Cf neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Marathe, P.K.; Pal, Rupali; Jayalakshmi, V.; Chourasiya, G.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate shielding for neutron sources can be determined using analytical method or by actually measuring the attenuation for the target configuration. This paper describes the measurement of Half Value Thickness (HVT), Tenth Value Thickness (TVT), Σ values for four different shielding materials, using a standard 252 Cf neutron source and comparing with the values calculated using an empirical relationship. BF 3 based REM-counter is used for measurement of neutron dose equivalent, against different thickness of the shielding material. The experimental HVT and S values are in good agreement with the calculated values. From this study, it is concluded that, among the four materials studied, high density polyethylene (HDPE) is best suitable for the shielding of a 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH-: Kinetics, products, and mechanism of gas-phase reaction with OH radicals, and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Zhang, Ni; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Chen, Liang; Quan, Hengdao; Mizukado, Junji

    2018-04-01

    The rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- with OH radicals were determined by a relative rate method between 253 and 328 K. The rate constant k1 at 298 K was measured to be (1.08 ± 0.04) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, and the Arrhenius expression was k1 = (3.72 ± 0.14) × 10-13 exp [(-370 ± 12)/T]. The atmospheric lifetime of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- was calculated to be 107 d. The products and mechanism for the reaction of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CH=CH- with OH radicals were also investigated. CO, CO2, and COF2 were identified as the main carbon-containing products following the OH-initiated reaction. Moreover, the radiative efficiency (RE) was determined to be 0.143 W m-2 ppb-1, and the global warming potentials (GWPs) for 20, 100, and 500 yr were 54, 15, and 4, respectively. The photochemical ozone creation potential of the title compound was estimated to be 1.3.

  6. A pneumatic transfer system for special form 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form 252 Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of 252 Cf with masses up to 150 microg by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the 252 Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those 252 Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole

  7. Mass spectrometry with ionization induced by 252Cf fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoev, A.A.; Artaev, V.B.

    1991-01-01

    The review deals with mass-spectrometry with ionization induced by 252 Cf fission fragments. Equipment and technique of the analysis, analytic possibilities of the method are considered. The method permits to determine molecular masses of large nonvolatile biological molecules. The method is practically nondestructive, it possesses a high resolution over the depth and surface, which permits to use it for the analysis of surface of semiconductors, dielectrics, catalysts, for the study of formation kinetics of complex unstable molecules on the surface

  8. Fatty acyltranferases in serum in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielenski, J.; Newman, L.J.; Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A.

    1987-01-01

    Studies on serum and gastrointestinal secretion from CF patient is suggest that defective accumulation of mucus in gastrointestinal tract and excessive amount of a protease resistant peptides in serum are related to the abnormal activity of enzymes responsible for fatty acylation of proteins. Here, the authors investigated the fatty acyltransferase activities in serum of normal and CF patients. A 15μl of serum was mixed with 0.85 nmol [ 14 C]palmitoyl CoA, 200μg of serine and threonine and incubated at 37 0 C for 30 min. The incubates were immediately frozen, dried extracted with C/M and chromatographed in chloroform/methanol/water. The incorporation of [ 14 C]palmitate was determined using linear radioscanner and authoradiography. The results of HPTLC revealed that CF serum in addition of ACAT and LCAT contained enzymes responsible for the transfer of [ 14 C]palmitate to monoacylphosphoglycerides, and serine and threonine. In normal serum the formation of a small amount of palmitoyl serine and palmitoyl threonine was also observed but the acylation of monoacylphosphoglycerides was not detectable. The authors conclude that in cystic fibrosis the abnormal fatty acyltransferases are responsible for the occurrence of protease resistant glycoprotein, unusual peptides in serum and possibly for the modification of membrane proteins and lipids

  9. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  10. Reproductive Toxicity Screen of Trifluoroiodomethane (CF31) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodd, Darol

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine and evaluate the potential for CF3I to produce reproductive toxicity and to provide additional information on the effect of CF3I exposure on the thyroid...

  11. Matrix photoionization and radiolysis of the fluorobromomethanes. Infrared spectra and photochemistry of CFBr2+, CF2Br+, CF3+, and the parent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, F.T.; Andrews, L.

    1978-01-01

    The molecules CFBr 3 , CF 2 Br 2 , CF 3 Br, and C-13 enriched CF 3 Br have been subjected to matrix radiolysis and argon resonance photoionization during condensation with excess argon at 15 K. Infrared spectra showed stable and free radical products and new absorptions due to charged species. The molecular ion bands exhibited different behavior on filtered high-pressure mercury arc photolysis. Absorptions reduced by 220 to 1000-nm light are assigned to CFBr 2 + , CF 2 Br + , and CF 3 + ; other bands destroyed by photolysis are assigned to the parent cations. Li and Na atom reactions with the fluorobromomethane molecules confirmed the identification of the CFBr 2 and CF 2 Br free radicals. Other product bands destroyed by mercury arc light, some of which were generated upon photolysis of the sodium-fluorobromomethane samples, are assigned to molecular anions. 5 figures, 6 tables

  12. 76 FR 68634 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... ``(c) This AD applies to * * * and CF6-80A3 turbofan engines with left-hand links * * *.'' to ``(c) This AD applies to * * * and CF6-80A3 turbofan engines, including engines marked on the engine data...

  13. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  14. Examination of the discharge mechanism of Li/CF(x) cells: Comparison of the electrochemical reduction mechanisms of PTFE and (CF(x))n by lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxam, Carl C.; Margalit, N.

    1991-01-01

    Swelling of (CF(x))(sub n) electrodes in commercial Li/(CF(x))(sub n) cells presents a limiting factor in cell design optimization. Examination of cathodes from such cells, after discharge, reveals a relation between cell operating temperatures and cathode swelling. Attempts to explain the swelling using the prevailing model for the cathode reaction have failed. A more suitable reaction mechanism is proposed based on the observed behavior of (CF(x))(sub n) electrodes on discharge and a comparison of the reaction products of (CF(x))(sub n) and polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) with lithium amalgams. The proposed mechanism is in agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  15. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  16. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  17. Transport coefficients of liquid CF4 and SF6 computed by molecular dynamics using polycenter Lennard-Jones potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheisel, C.

    1989-01-01

    For several liquid states of CF4 and SF4, the shear and the bulk viscosity as well as the thermal conductivity were determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. Lennard-Jones four- and six-center pair potentials were applied, and the method of constraints was chosen for the MD. The computed Green-Kubo integrands show a steep time decay, and no particular longtime behavior occurs. The molecule number dependence of the results is found to be small, and 3×105 integration steps allow an accuracy of about 10% for the shear viscosity and the thermal conductivity coefficient. Comparison with experimental data shows a fair agreement for CF4, while for SF6 the transport coefficients fall below the experimental ones by about 30%.

  18. Transport coefficients of liquid CF4 and SF6 computed by molecular dynamics using polycenter Lennard-Jones potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoheisel, C.

    1989-01-01

    For several liquid states of CF 4 and SF 6 , the shear and the bulk viscosity as well as the thermal conductivity were determined by equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. Lennard-Jones four- and six-center pair potentials were applied, and the method of constraints were chosen for the MD. The computed Green-Kubo integrands show a steep time decay, and no particular longtime behavior occurs. The molecule number dependence of the results is found to be small, and 3 x 10 5 integration steps allow an accuracy of about 10% for the shear viscosity and the thermal conductivity coefficient. Comparison with experimental data shows a fair agreement for CF 4 , while for SF 6 the transport coefficients fall below the experimental ones by about 30%

  19. Neutron activation analysis detection limits using 252Cf sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPrete, D.P.; Sigg, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed a neutron activation analysis (NAA) facility several decades ago using low-flux 252 Cf neutron sources. Through this time, the facility has addressed areas of applied interest in managing the Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications are unique because of the site's operating history and its chemical-processing facilities. Because sensitivity needs for many applications are not severe, they can be accomplished using an ∼6-mg 252 Cf NAA facility. The SRTC 252 Cf facility continues to support applied research programs at SRTC as well as other SRS programs for environmental and waste management customers. Samples analyzed by NAA include organic compounds, metal alloys, sediments, site process solutions, and many other materials. Numerous radiochemical analyses also rely on the facility for production of short-lived tracers, yielding by activation of carriers and small-scale isotope production for separation methods testing. These applications are more fully reviewed in Ref. 1. Although the flux [approximately2 x 10 7 n/cm 2 ·s] is low relative to reactor facilities, more than 40 elements can be detected at low and sub-part-per-million levels. Detection limits provided by the facility are adequate for many analytical projects. Other multielement analysis methods, particularly inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, can now provide sensitivities on dissolved samples that are often better than those available by NAA using low-flux isotopic sources. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, (a) it is a more cost-effective choice when its sensitivity is adequate than methods that require digestion and (b) it eliminates uncertainties that can be introduced by digestion processes

  20. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  1. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  2. Role of excited CF3CFHO radicals in the atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Fracheboud, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    with Oz, CF3CFHO + O-2 --> CF3C(O)F + HO2, and decomposition via C-C bond scission, CF3CFHO + M --> CS3 + HC(O)F + M. CF3CFHO radicals were produced by two different reactions: either via the self-reaction of CF3CFHO2 radicals or via the CF3CFHO2 + NO reaction. It was found that decomposition was much...

  3. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  4. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  5. Industrial hygiene survey. CF Chemicals, Inc., Bartow, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at CF Chemicals, Bartow, Florida on August 9-12, 1976 as part of a study of the phosphate industry. A description is given of the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs. During the study, 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. The results came within the OSHA standards except for two fluoride samples

  6. GeoCF - Smart Power Maps - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Chris [GeoCF LLC, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-12-21

    GeoCF has greatly enhanced the utility-scale solar siting platform, Smart Power Maps, through the help of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office. It is now available for the entire country and includes an improved user interface and additional layers such as topology, soils, comprehensive floodplains, parcels, imagery, wells, pipelines, and more. As well, users can now draw and save maps and perform drastically improved and more relevant hydrological, transmission, and financial analyzes. Smart Power Maps has played a pivotal role in supporting the development of otherwise unknown or hard to locate ideal locations for large solar farms in the United States.

  7. Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Delin; Yu Baosheng; Yuan Hanrong; Liu Tong; Zhang Jin; Su Zongdi; Yan Shiwei; Wang Cuilan; Zhang Jingshang

    1992-01-01

    A complete set of neutron nuclear data from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV in ENDF/B-6 format has been evaluated for 249 Cf based on measured data, systematics predications and model theory calculations. The evaluated quantities are the total, elastic and inelastic scattering, fission, capture, (n,2n), (n,3n) reaction cross sections, the resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, the angular and energy distributions of emitted neutrons and the average number of neutrons emitted per fission. The numerical data are available in ENDF/B-6 format

  8. Californium oxygen system for 1.50 < O/Cf < 1.72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Haire, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The californium-oxygen system was studied as a function of temperature, oxygen pressure, and stoichiometry by manometric and x-ray diffraction methods. The results establish rhombohedral Cf 7 O 12 as the stable compound obtained by heating Cf 2 O 3 in air. The isobaric oxidation-reduction cycles Cf 2 O 3 → Cf 7 O 12 → Cf 2 O 3 , observed in constant rate of heating (cooling) experiments, occur with large hysteresis. A close parallel to other fluorite related lanthanide and actinide oxide systems is established. (auth)

  9. Geomechanical investigations for the designing of cemented filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, P.

    1980-05-15

    Laboratory and in situ investigations have led to the identification of the main geomechanical parameters that condition the stability of the cemented fill in the Gavorrano pyrite mine (Tuscany, Italy); such parameters were used for working out a satisfactory mining method. The pyrite is mined with the descending horizontal slice method with integral cemented filling which is obtained by throwing a mixture of limestone aggregates and cement into the mined voids. The laboratory geomechanical investigations carried out on fill samples have pointed out that the physical and mechanical characteristics are highly variable and this is essentially due to the fact that the fill is cast into place by compressed air. In particular, it was pointed out that the strength depends upon the cement content and upon the porosity according to a power law. The in situ measurements of the convergence between the roof and the floor, and the load measurements pointed out the considerable importance of the horizontal and vertical joints that cross the fill mass and that are inevitably brought about by a discontinuity of the fill. The results of the study made it possible to adopt an acceptable geomechanical behaviour model of the fill. On the basis of this model the mining pattern was deeply modified, the width and the height of the slices were considerably enlarged and thus the output was improved.

  10. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster cf. planci

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2015-03-20

    Population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) represent one of the most significant biological disturbances on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Here, we combine 15 published and 11 newly isolated polymorphic microsatellite markers from the coral-eating starfish, A. cf. planci and describe their integration into four multiplex PCRs. All markers were polymorphic with a mean of 11.7 ± 1.9 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.619 ± 0.049 SE across 195 genotyped individuals from the Great Barrier Reef. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating the population dynamics of crown-of-thorns starfish and the initiation and spread of population outbreaks.

  11. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster cf. planci

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Al-Salamah, Manalle; Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) represent one of the most significant biological disturbances on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Here, we combine 15 published and 11 newly isolated polymorphic microsatellite markers from the coral-eating starfish, A. cf. planci and describe their integration into four multiplex PCRs. All markers were polymorphic with a mean of 11.7 ± 1.9 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.619 ± 0.049 SE across 195 genotyped individuals from the Great Barrier Reef. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating the population dynamics of crown-of-thorns starfish and the initiation and spread of population outbreaks.

  12. A 252Cf based nondestructive assay system for fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Crane, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    A modulated 252 Cf source assay system 'Shuffler' based on fast-or-thermal-neutron interrogation combined with delayed-neutron counting has been developed for the assay of fissile material. The 252 Cf neutron source is repetitively transferred from the interrogation position to a shielded position while the delayed neutrons are counted in a high efficiency 3 He neutron well-counter. For samples containing plutonium, this well-counter is also used in the passive coincidence mode to assay the effective 240 Pu content. The design of an optimized neutron tailoring assembly for fast-neutron interrogation using a Monte Carlo Neutron Computer Code is described. The Shuffler system has been applied to the assay of fuel pellets, inventory samples, irradiated fuel and plutonium mixed-oxide fuel. The system can assay samples with fissile contents from a few milligrams up to several kilograms using thermal-neutron interrogation for the low mass samples and fast-neutron interrogation for the high mass samples. Samples containing 235 U- 238 U, or 233 U-Th, or UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel mixtures have been assayed with the Shuffler system. (Auth.)

  13. Physical and biological dosimetries of Cf-252 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hisao; Wada, Tadashi; Dokiya, Takushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1986-01-01

    Recently Cf-252 sources containing 300 μg have become available in a size identical to 1 Ci of Cs-137 and with the use of remotely controlled afterloading apparatus, safe therapy with little exposure to the therapist is now possible. Radiation leakage from the Cf-252 apparatus and from the treatment room was measured with REM-meter and it was possible to reduce the leakage from the treatment room to less than 1 mrem/h (gamma rays) and 0.5 mrem/h (neutrons). Measurement of fast neutrons was made with a twin chamber composed of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a carbon ionization chamber. The neutron dose in air and the absorbed dose in tissue equivalent water tank were measured, which showed that in air, neutrons were 70% and photons were 30% of dose. In water, greater distances from the source, neutrons attenuate and gamma rays increase in dose. The results of studies on the skin reaction of mice and sperm cleavage delay time of sea urchins indicated that the RBE ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 using the high dose rate system. Neutrons are remarkably affected by a time factor. With the use of high dose rate sources, the dose rate has become higher, but the overall time has been extended through dose fractionation and it was considered advisable to employ an RBE of 3-4 in these studies. (Auth.)

  14. Stochastic tracking of infection in a CF lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zarei

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT scan are the two ubiquitous imaging sources that physicians use to diagnose patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF or any other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Unfortunately the cost constraints limit the frequent usage of these medical imaging procedures. In addition, even though both CT scan and MRI provide mesoscopic details of a lung, in order to obtain microscopic information a very high resolution is required. Neither MRI nor CT scans provide micro level information about the location of infection in a binary tree structure the binary tree structure of the human lung. In this paper we present an algorithm that enhances the current imaging results by providing estimated micro level information concerning the location of the infection. The estimate is based on a calculation of the distribution of possible mucus blockages consistent with available information using an offline Metropolis-Hastings algorithm in combination with a real-time interpolation scheme. When supplemented with growth rates for the pockets of mucus, the algorithm can also be used to estimate how lung functionality as manifested in spirometric tests will change in patients with CF or COPD.

  15. Measurements of gamma-ray dose from a moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Griffith, R.V.; Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma-ray dose fraction from a moderated 252 Cf source was determined by using three types of dosimetry systems. Measurements were carried out in air at a distance of 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere (50 cm from the source which is at the center of the sphere) to the geometrical center of each detector. The moderating sphere is 0.8-mm-thick stainless steel shell filled with D 2 O and covered with 0.5 mm of cadmium. Measurements were also carried out with instruments and dosimeters positioned at the surface of a 40 cm x 40 cm x 15 cm plexiglass irradiation phantom whose front surface was also 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere. A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionization chambers and a TE proportional counter (TEPC) were used to measure tissue dose, from which the neutron dose equivalent was computed. The ratio of gamma-ray dose to the neutron dose equivalent was determined by using a relatively neutron-insensitive Geiger-Mueller (GM) counter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, the event-size spectrum measured by the TEPC was also used to compute the gamma-ray dose fraction. The average value for the ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron dose equivalent was found to be 0.18 with an uncertainty of about +-18%

  16. Insights into the degradation of (CF3)2CHOCH3 and its oxidative product (CF3)2CHOCHO & the formation and catalytic degradation of organic nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng-Yang; Jia, Zi-Man; Pan, Xiu-Mei

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a systematic investigation of the atmospheric oxidation mechanism of (CF3)2CXOCH3 and their oxidative products (CF3)2CXOCHO (X = H, F) initiated by OH radical or Cl atom is performed by density functional theory. This study reveals that the introduction of NO and O2 promotes the formation of organic nitrates, which are hygroscopic and are inclined to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and can affect the air quality. The rate constants of the individual reactions are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. One of the intriguing findings of this work is that the peroxynitrite of (CF3)2CHOCH2OONO formed from the subsequent reactions of (CF3)2CHOCH3 is more favorable to isomerize to organic nitrate (CF3)2CHOCH2ONO2 than to dissociate into alkoxy radical (CF3)2CHOCH2O and NO2 because of the lower energy barrier of isomerization. The second significant observation is that the organic nitrate can be degraded more favorably with the presence of NH3, CH3NH2, and CH3NHCH3 than its naked decomposition reaction (CF3)2CHOCH2ONO2→(CF3)2CHOCHO + HONO. The ammonium salt, a vital part of haze, is harmful to human health and can be formed in the existence of the NH3, CH3NH2, and CH3NHCH3. In addition, the toxic substance of peroxyalkyl nitrate (CF3)2CHOC(O)ONO2 which can reduce the visibility of the atmosphere is produced as the primary subsequent oxidation product of (CF3)2CHOCHO in a NO-rich environment. The main species detected experimentally are confirmed by this study. The computational results are crucial to risk assessment and pollution prevention of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  17. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  18. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkov, Svetlana; Tadić, Ivana; Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnović, Dušanka

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF). The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1) had the lowest score (average value 2.98), while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2) had the highest score (average value 3.15). The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8), which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively) among the all evaluated competencies. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  19. Hard-to-fill vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2010-09-29

    Skills for Health has launched a set of resources to help healthcare employers tackle hard-to-fill entry-level vacancies and provide sustainable employment for local unemployed people. The Sector Employability Toolkit aims to reduce recruitment and retention costs for entry-level posts and repare people for employment through pre-job training programmes, and support employers to develop local partnerships to gain access to wider pools of candidates and funding streams.

  20. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a {sup 252}Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a {sup 252} Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the {sup 252} Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments.

  1. Development of the neutron reference calibration field using a 252Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Kanai, K.; Tsujimura, N.

    2002-01-01

    The authors developed the neutron reference calibration fields using a 252 Cf standard source surrounded with PMMA moderators at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development (JNC), Tokai Works. The moderators are co-axial, hollow cylinders made of lead-contained PMMA with a thickness of 13.5, 35.0, 59.5 and 77.0mm, and the 252 Cf source is guided to the geometric center of moderators by the pneumatic system. These fields can provide the moderated neutron spectra very similar to those encountered around the globe-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed oxide) fuel. The neutron energy spectrum at the reference calibration point was evaluated from the calculations by MCNP4B and the measurements by the INS-type Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer and the hydrogen-filled proportional counters. The calculated neutron spectra were in good agreements with the measured ones. These fields were characterized in terms of the neutron fluence rate, spectral composition and ambient dose equivalent rate, and have served for the response-characterization of various neutron survey instruments

  2. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  3. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  4. Selection and specification criteria for fills for cut-and-fill mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E. G.

    1980-05-15

    Because of significant differences in placement and loading conditions, the ideal fill material for a cut-and-fill operation has different characteristics to those for a fill for a filled open stoping operation. The differing requirements of the two mining operations must be understood and accounted for in establishing fill selection and specification criteria. Within the paper, aspects of the particular requirements of cut-and-fill mining are analyzed and related to the specific fill tests and properties required. Emphasis is placed upon the role of fill in ground support, though this cannot be isolated from overall fill performance. Where appropriate, test data are introduced and areas requiring continuing research highlighted.

  5. Average cross sections for the 252Cf neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezso, Z.; Csikai, J.

    1977-01-01

    A number of average cross sections have been measured for 252 Cf neutrons in (n, γ), (n,p), (n,2n), (n,α) reactions by the activation method and for fission by fission chamber. Cross sections have been determined for 19 elements and 45 reactions. The (n,γ) cross section values lie in the interval from 0.3 to 200 mb. The data as a function of target neutron number increases up to about N=60 with minimum near to dosed shells. The values lie between 0.3 mb and 113 mb. These cross sections decrease significantly with increasing the threshold energy. The values are below 20 mb. The data do not exceed 10 mb. Average (n,p) cross sections as a function of the threshold energy and average fission cross sections as a function of Zsup(4/3)/A are shown. The results obtained are summarized in tables

  6. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor, k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily determined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables

  7. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Nonell, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Tiang, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248 Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios in the 248 Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  8. Non-invasive assessment of exercise performance in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: is there a CF specific muscle defect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Mark; Narang, Indra; Edwards, Liz; Bush, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Peripheral muscle dysfunction is increasingly recognized as complicating respiratory disease, but this is difficult to measure non-invasively. Can skeletal muscle function and efficiency be measured during exercise non-invasively using respiratory mass spectrometry (RMS); and is the known exercise dysfunction in cystic fibrosis (CF) children related in part to a disease specific defect of skeletal muscle, or a non-specific manifestation of chronic airway infection and inflammation. Calculations of effective pulmonary blood flow and stroke volume, blood oxygen content and oxygen dispatch from the lungs, skeletal muscle oxygen extraction and consumption, anerobic threshold and capacity, and gross, net and work efficiency in 106 controls and 36 children (18 CF) with bronchiectasis, all aged from 8 to 17 years. Normal values for control subjects are tabulated. CF and non-CF bronchiectatic subjects had similar physiology, and skeletal muscle abnormalities could not be detected. Reduced oxygen dispatch from the lungs, due to an inability to raise stroke volume, without an increase in functional residual capacity was the major factor in reduced exercise ability. Non-invasive RMS can be used to determine skeletal muscle function in children. The changes observed in CF subjects were very similar to non-CF bronchiectatic subjects and thus a CF specific defect was not demonstrated.

  9. Actinide production in 136Xe bombardments of 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from 136 Xe bombardments of 249 Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these 136 Xe + 249 Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the 136 Xe + 248 Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Brachytherapy of carcinoma of vulva with 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Sinkevicius, V.; Drulia, E.; Kurtinaitis, J.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty patients with carcinoma of vulva were treated with interstitial neutron radiotherapy with 252 Cf. Age of patients was from 32 to 83 years. Stage I was in I patient, stage II - in 12, stage III was in 10 patients. The diagnosis of vulvar cancer was made for the first time in 11 cases, 19 patients had recurrences after the initial treatment. Most of these patients also received external irradiation for cancer of vulva and bilateral inguinal sites with a single fraction dose of 2 Gy to a total dose 30-50 Gy. Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes were irradiated additionally to 60 Gy with reduced field of irradiation. When radiotherapy was used repeatedly interstitial brachytherapy comprised the major part of irradiation dose or the therapy was used alone delivering 35-55 iGy. We used 252 Cf sources with increased activity at the ends 20-30 mm long. A number of inserted sources varied from 2 to 10, irradiation dose rate from 20.3 to 236.7 cGy/h, time of irradiation from 10.2 to 12. hours, RBE from 4.6 to 6.33. Special template device made it possible to implant sources in strictly pre-set geometry. Analysis of survival of patients showed that 2 years survival was 66%, 3 years - 60%, and 5 years survival was 49%. In two cases necrotic epithelitis developed with following radiation ulcer which were cured in 3-4 months. Clinical data showed great effectiveness of interstitial neutron therapy having in mind that 19 patients were treated for recurrences of vulvar cancer after previuos treatment

  11. 30 CFR 817.72 - Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.72 Disposal of excess spoil: Valley fill/head-of-hollow fills.... Uncontrolled surface drainage may not be directed over the outslope of the fill. (2) Runoff from areas above the fill and runoff from the surface of the fill shall be diverted into stabilized diversion channels...

  12. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  13. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  14. Copper-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylazidation of Alkynes: Efficient Access to CF3-Substituted Azirines and Aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Na; Chen, Pinhong; Ye, Jinxing; Liu, Guosheng

    2015-08-03

    A novel method for convenient access to CF3-containing azirines has been developed, and involves a copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylazidation of alkynes and a photocatalyzed rearrangement. Both terminal and internal alkynes are compatible with the mild reaction conditions, thus delivering the CF3-containing azirines in moderate to good yields. The azirines can be converted into various CF3-substituted aziridines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Assessment of CF lung disease using motion corrected PROPELLER MRI: a comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi [General Hospital Ca' Foncello, Radiology Department, Treviso (Italy); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Pulmonology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Radiology, Rome (Italy); Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni [General Hospital Ca' Foncello, Radiology Department, Treviso (Italy); Spronk, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ros, Mirco [Ca' Foncello Hospital, Pediatrics, Treviso (Italy); Fraioli, Francesco [University College London (UCL), Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Quattrucci, Serena [University of Rome Sapienza, Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Assael, M.B. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Verona, Verona CF Center, Verona (Italy); Pomerri, Fabio [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Pulmonology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To date, PROPELLER MRI, a breathing-motion-insensitive technique, has not been assessed for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We compared this technique to CT for assessing CF lung disease in children and adults. Thirty-eight stable CF patients (median 21 years, range 6-51 years, 22 female) underwent MRI and CT on the same day. Study protocol included respiratory-triggered PROPELLER MRI and volumetric CT end-inspiratory and -expiratory acquisitions. Two observers scored the images using the CF-MRI and CF-CT systems. Scores were compared with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus CT were calculated. MRI sensitivity for detecting severe CF bronchiectasis was 0.33 (CI 0.09-0.57), while specificity was 100 % (CI 0.88-1). ICCs for bronchiectasis and trapped air were as follows: MRI-bronchiectasis (0.79); CT-bronchiectasis (0.85); MRI-trapped air (0.51); CT-trapped air (0.87). Bland-Altman plots showed an MRI tendency to overestimate the severity of bronchiectasis in mild CF disease and underestimate bronchiectasis in severe disease. Motion correction in PROPELLER MRI does not improve assessment of CF lung disease compared to CT. However, the good inter- and intra-observer agreement and the high specificity suggest that MRI might play a role in the short-term follow-up of CF lung disease (i.e. pulmonary exacerbations). (orig.)

  16. Radiation ulcers in patients with cancer of the torgue after 252Cf therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galantseva, G.F.; Guseva, L.I.; Plichko, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Interstitial therapy with 252 Cf was conducted for 57 patients with cancer of the tongue. It was established that clinical course of radiation tungue ulcers after interstitial therapy with 252 Cf doesn't differ sufficiently from the course of radiation injuries, occurring after γ-radiation application. Radiation ulcers are often observed in patients after the treatment of recurrent and residual tumors with 252 Cf (in 33% of patients); the ulcers appeared in 15% of cases in patients after the treatment of initial ulcers tumors. Conservative treatment provide the cure of radiation tongUe ulcers after interstitial therapy with 252 Cf

  17. Radiation ulcers in patients with cancer of the tongue after /sup 252/Cf therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galantseva, G.F.; Guseva, L.I.; Plichko, V.I. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    1984-01-01

    Interstitial therapy with /sup 252/Cf was conducted for 57 patients with cancer of the tongue. It was established that clinical course of radiation tungue ulcers after interstitial therapy with /sup 252/Cf doesn't differ sufficiently from the course of radiation injuries, occurring after ..gamma..-radiation application. Radiation ulcers are often observed in patients after the treatment of recurrent and residual tumors with /sup 252/Cf (in 33% of patients); the ulcers appeared in 15% of cases in patients after the treatment of initial ulcers tumors. Conservative treatment provide the cure of radiation tongue ulcers after interstitial therapy with /sup 252/Cf.

  18. Rate constants for the reaction of CF3O radicals with hydrocarbons at 298 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, C.; Treacy, J.; Sidebottom, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Rate constant ratios of the reactions of CF3O radicals with a number of hydrocarbons have been determined at 298 +/- 2 K and atmospheric pressure using a relative rate method. Using a previously determined value k(CF30 + C2H6) = 1.2 x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 these rate constant ratios provide...... estimates of the rate constants: k(CF3O + CH4) = (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-14), k(CF3O + c-C3H6) = (3.6 +/- 0.2) x 10(-13), k(CF3O + C3H8) = (4.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12), k(CF3O + (CH3)3CH) = (7.2 +/- 0.5) x 10(-12), k(CF3O + C2H4) = (3.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-11) and k(CF3O + C6H6) = (3.6 +/- 0.1) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule-1 s......-1. The importance of the reactions of CF3O radicals with hydrocarbons under atmospheric conditions is discussed....

  19. Reactions of CF3O radicals with selected alkenes and aromatics under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, C.; Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J.

    1994-01-01

    Rate data for the reactions of CF3O radicals with alkenes and aromatic compounds have been determined at 298 K using a relative rate method. The data are analyzed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships, and their importance to the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O discussed.......Rate data for the reactions of CF3O radicals with alkenes and aromatic compounds have been determined at 298 K using a relative rate method. The data are analyzed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships, and their importance to the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O discussed....

  20. Assessment of CF lung disease using motion corrected PROPELLER MRI: a comparison with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo; Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni; Spronk, Sandra; Ros, Mirco; Fraioli, Francesco; Quattrucci, Serena; Assael, M.B.; Pomerri, Fabio; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, PROPELLER MRI, a breathing-motion-insensitive technique, has not been assessed for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We compared this technique to CT for assessing CF lung disease in children and adults. Thirty-eight stable CF patients (median 21 years, range 6-51 years, 22 female) underwent MRI and CT on the same day. Study protocol included respiratory-triggered PROPELLER MRI and volumetric CT end-inspiratory and -expiratory acquisitions. Two observers scored the images using the CF-MRI and CF-CT systems. Scores were compared with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus CT were calculated. MRI sensitivity for detecting severe CF bronchiectasis was 0.33 (CI 0.09-0.57), while specificity was 100 % (CI 0.88-1). ICCs for bronchiectasis and trapped air were as follows: MRI-bronchiectasis (0.79); CT-bronchiectasis (0.85); MRI-trapped air (0.51); CT-trapped air (0.87). Bland-Altman plots showed an MRI tendency to overestimate the severity of bronchiectasis in mild CF disease and underestimate bronchiectasis in severe disease. Motion correction in PROPELLER MRI does not improve assessment of CF lung disease compared to CT. However, the good inter- and intra-observer agreement and the high specificity suggest that MRI might play a role in the short-term follow-up of CF lung disease (i.e. pulmonary exacerbations). (orig.)

  1. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  2. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  3. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  4. 7 CFR 58.923 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.923 Section 58.923 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.923 Filling containers. (a) The filling of small containers with product shall be done in a sanitary manner. The containers shall not contaminate or detract from the quality of the product in any way...

  5. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily detemined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments oriented toward particular applications including dynamic experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables

  6. Gender differences in cocaine pharmacokinetics in CF-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Thomas; Turkall, Rita; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed S

    2005-01-15

    Hepatocellular damage is thought to occur as a result of cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cocaine to norcocaine (NC), a precursor of the hepatotoxic nitrosonium ion. However, this damage occurs only in male mice, with females exhibiting minimal biochemical and histological signs of hepatocellular stress. The objective of this study was to determine the plasma time course and tissue disposition of cocaine and its metabolites to further investigate the role that metabolism may play in the gender difference observed. Male and female CF-1 mice were orally administered 20mg/kg cocaine hydrochloride once daily for 7 days. Blood samples were withdrawn at various time points post-injection and analyzed for cocaine and its metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE), norcocaine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and ecgonine (E). In addition, tissue concentrations of cocaine and its metabolites were determined in liver, heart, brain, and kidney tissue. The results demonstrated that the plasma elimination half-life of cocaine is nearly three times longer in males versus females. Non-hepatotoxic hydrolysis metabolites BE, EME, and E were higher in female tissues while norcocaine was detected in tissues of male animals only. This study revealed that differences in cocaine pharmacokinetics and the resultant differences in the biodisposition of cocaine and its metabolites in tissues contribute to the mechanism of gender difference seen in cocaine hepatotoxicity.

  7. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n=1-3): Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation initiated by Cl atoms and OH radicals, IR spectra, and global warmin potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Wallington, TJ

    2004-01-01

    Smog chambers equipped with FTIR spectrometers were used to study the Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n = 1-3) in 720 +/- 20 Torr of air at 296 +/- 3 K. Relative rate techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3) (3.7 +/- 10.7) x 10(-13) and k......(OH + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3) = (2.9 +/- 0.5) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) leading to an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 2 years for CH3O(CF2CF2O),CH3. The Cl initiated oxidation of CH3O(CF2CF2O),CH3 in air diluent gives CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)C(O)H in a yield which is indistinguishable from 100 Further...... oxidation leads to the diformate, H(O)CO(CF2CF2O)(n)C(O)H. A rate constant of k(Cl + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CHO) = (1.81 +/- 0.36) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s-1 was determined. Quantitative infrared spectra for CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n = 1-3) were recorded and used to estimate halocarbon global warming potentials...

  9. Review of fill mining technology in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. H.; Hedley, D. G.F.

    1980-05-15

    The Canadian mining industry has a long history of being in the fore-front in developing new technology in underground hardrock mines. Examples include the development of hydraulic and cemented fills, undercut-and-fill, mechanized cut-and-fill, post pillar, vertical retreat and blasthole mining methods. The evolution of this technology is briefly described in an historical review. Backfill serves many functions, although it is generally considered in terms of its support capabilities. These functions, mainly related to the mining method used, are evaluated in regard to regional support, pillar support, fill roof, working floor, dilution control and waste disposal. With the advent of blasthole and vertical retreat methods for pillar recovery operations, the freestanding height of backfill walls has assumed greater importance. Consequently, more attention is being given to what fill properties are required to achieve fill wall exposures up to 25 m wide by 90 m high. With the large increases in energy costs, alternatives to partially replace Portland cement in fill are being examined. The validation of mining concepts and the interaction of backfill is perhaps best evaluated by in-situ measurements. Examples are given of stress, deformation and fill pressure measurements in longitudinal cut-and-fill, post pillar mining and blasthole stoping with delayed fill which were taken in several mines in Canada. Finally, the overall design procedure used in deciding mining method, stope and pillar dimensions, sequence of extraction, fill properties and support systems at a new mine is described.

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1NTOC-2CF5A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1NTOC-2CF5A 1NTO 2CF5 C A ----MRAVRLVEIGKPLSLQEIGVPKPKGPQVLIKVEAA...1NTO C 1NTOC VNPWQ-GEGNC C 1NTOC MYKLR-RLNAV ...Chain> 1NTO C 1NTOC RKASL-DPTKT C 1NTOC EAAKR-AGADY

  11. The nonhospital costs of care of patients with CF in The Netherlands: Results of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Wildhagen (Mark); J.B. Verheij (Joke); J.G. Verzijl; J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); W.H. Bakker (Willem); H.B. Hilderink; L.P. ten Kate; T. Tijmstra; L. Kooij (Loes); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractCystic fibrosis (CF) causes a relatively high medical consumption. A large part of the treatment takes place at home. Because data regarding nonhospital care are lacking, we wished to determine the costs of care of patients with CF outside the hospital. A questionnaire was sent to 73

  12. The nonhospital costs of care of patients with CF in The Netherlands : Results of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhagen, MF; Verheij, JBGM; Verzijl, JG; Gerritsen, J; Bakker, W; Hilderink, HBM; tenKate, LP; Tijmstra, T; Kooij, L; Habbema, JDF

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes a relatively high medical consumption, A large part of the treatment takes place at home, Because data regarding nonhospital care are lacking, we wished to determine the costs of care of patients with CF outside the hospital. A questionnaire was sent to 73 patients with

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CF5B-1RTCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CF5B-1RTCA 1CF5 1RTC B A --------DVNFDLSTATAKTYTKFIEDFRATL-PFSHK...A 211 1RTC A 1RTCA...ain> 1RTC A 1RTCA SALYYYSTGGTQLPT...pdbChain> 1RTCA MRTRIRYNRRSA HHHHHH 1RTCA AYFFH-PDNQE

  14. Highly preferential association of NonF508del CF mutations with the M470 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, B M; Bonizzato, A; Bombieri, C; Pompei, F; Gabaldo, M; Ciccacci, C; Begnini, A; Holubova, A; Zorzi, P; Piskackova, T; Macek, M; Castellani, C; Modiano, G; Pignatti, P F

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of previous findings on random individuals, we hypothesized a preferential association of CF causing mutations with the M allele of the M470V polymorphic site of the CFTR gene. We have determined the M/V-CF mutation haplotype in a series of 201 North East Italian and 73 Czech CF patients who were not F508del homozygotes, as F508del was already known to be fully associated with the M allele. Out of 358 not F508del CF genes, 84 carried the V allele and 274 the less common M allele. In the N-E Italian population, MM subjects have a risk of carrying a CF causing mutation 6.9x greater than VV subjects when F508del is excluded and 15.4x when F508del is included. In the Czech population a similar, although less pronounced, association is observed. Besides the possible biological significance of this association, the possibility of exploiting it for a pilot screening program has been explored in a local North East Italian population for which CF patients were characterized for their CF mutation. General M470V genotyping followed by common CF mutation screening limited to couples in which each partner carries at least one M allele would need testing only 39% of the couples, which contribute 89% of the total risk, with a cost benefit.

  15. What Makes Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Persist in the Lungs of CF Patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H.; Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke

    2015-01-01

    The most important problem for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the airway infections responsible for the gradually decreasing lung function as the infections persist. We have investigated properties that may be involved in persistence of P. aeruginosa (PA) in the lungs of young CF children by co...

  16. Neutron Spectra, Fluence and Dose Rates from Bare and Moderated Cf-252 Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A new, stronger 252Cf source (serial number SR-CF-3050-OR) was obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2014 to supplement the existing 252Cf sources which had significantly decayed. A new instrument positioning track system was designed and installed by Hopewell Designs, Inc. in 2011. The neutron field from the new, stronger 252Cf source in the modified calibration environment needed to be characterized as well as the modified neutron fields produced by the new source and seven different neutron moderators. Comprehensive information about our 252Cf source, its origin, production, and isotopic content and decay characteristics needed to be compiled as well. This technical report is intended to address these issues.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3O radicals: Reaction with H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Schneider, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented that CF3O radicals react with H2O in the gas phase at 296 K to give CF3OH and OH radicals. This reaction is calculated to be exothermic by 1.7 kcal mol-I implying a surprisingly strong CF3O-H bond energy of 120 +/- 3 kcal mol-1. Results from a relative rate experimental study...... suggest that the rate constant for the reaction of CF3O radicals with H2O lies in the range (0.2-4.0) X 10(-17) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O radicals are discussed....

  18. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An etchant-free and moderate surface pre-treatment process was studied. • Citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid were selected as modification agents. • High adhesive nickel coating on cuprammonium fabric was obtained. • The electromagnetic parameters were evaluated from the experimental data. - Abstract: Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  19. The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J.

    1997-12-01

    This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly

  20. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF] is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis. To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo, we established either a CF-producing (CF+ recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF− recipient in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF− recipient. While rescue of the CF− mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro, no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo. This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo. In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF− recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, similar to that previously observed in serum.

  1. Filling and Wetting Transitions at Grooved Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 44 (2013), s. 445006 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density-functional * theory * capillary Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013

  2. Operation feedback of hydrogen filling station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregassame, S.; Barral, K.; Allidieres, L.; Charbonneau, T.; Lacombe, Y.

    2004-01-01

    One of the technical challenges of hydrogen technology is the development of hydrogen infrastructures which satisfy either safety requirements and reliability of filling processes. AIR LIQUIDE realized an hydrogen filling station in Sassenage (France) operational since September 2003. This station is able to fill 3 buses a day up to 350bar by equilibrium with high pressure buffers. In parallel with commercial stations, the group wanted to create a testing ground in real conditions running with several objectives: validate on a full scale bench a simulation tool able to predict the temperature of both gas and cylinder's materials during filling processes; define the best filling procedures in order to reach mass, temperature and filling time targets; analyse the temperature distribution and evolution inside the cylinder; get a general knowledge about hydrogen stations from safety and reliability point of view; operate the first full scale refuelling station in France. The station is also up-graded for 700bar filling from either a liquid hydrogen source or a gas booster, with cold filling possibility. This paper presents the results concerning 350bar filling : thermal effects, optimal filling procedures and influence of parameters such as climatic conditions are discussed. (author)

  3. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  4. Dielectric-filled radiofrequency linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Pogue, E W [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current, high brightness electron beam accelerators promise to open up dramatic new applications. Linear induction accelerators are currently viewed as the appropriate technology for these applications. A concept by Humphries and Hwang may permit radiofrequency accelerators to fulfill the same functions with greater simplicity and enhanced flexibility. This concept involves the replacement of vacuum rf cavities with dielectric filled ones. Simple analysis indicates that the resonant frequencies are reduced by a factor of ({epsilon}{sub 0}/{epsilon}){sup 1/2} while the stored energy is increased by {epsilon}/{epsilon}{sub 0}. For a high dielectric constant like water, this factor can approach 80. A series of numerical calculations of simple pill-box cavities was performed. Eigenfunctions and resonant frequencies for a full system configuration, including dielectric material, vacuum beamline, and a ceramic window separating the two have been computed. These calculations are compared with the results of a small experimental cavity which have been constructed and operated. Low power tests show excellent agreement. (author). 4 figs., 8 refs.

  5. Absolute number density and kinetic analysis of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} molecules in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Sergey

    2010-04-26

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the mid InfraRed spectral range (IR-TDLAS) has been applied to investigate the behaviour of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} species produced in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (13.56 MHz CCP). This experimental technique was shown to be suitable for temporally resolved measurements of the absolute number density of the target molecules in the studied fluorocarbon discharges. The temporal resolution of about 20..40 ms typically achieved in the standard data acquisition mode (''stream mode'') was sufficient for the real-time measurements of CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, but not of CF whose kinetics was observed to be much faster. Therefore, a more sophisticated approach (''burst mode'') providing a temporal resolution of 0.94 ms was established and successfully applied to CF density measurements. In order to enable the TDLAS measurements of the target species, preliminary investigations on their spectroscopic data had been carried out. In particular, pure C{sub 2}F{sub 4} has been produced in laboratory by means of vacuum thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of polytetrafluoroethylene and used as a reference gas. Therefore, an absorption structure consisting of several overlapping C{sub 2}F{sub 4} lines around 1337.11 cm{sup -1} was selected and carefully calibrated, which provided the first absolute measurements of the species by means of the applied experimental technique. The absolute number density traces measured for CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} in the studied pulsed plasmas were then analysed, in which two differential balance equations were proposed for each of the species to describe their behaviour during both ''plasma on'' and ''plasma off'' phases. Analytical solutions of the balance equations were used to fit the experimental data and hence to deduce important information on the

  6. Absolute number density and kinetic analysis of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} molecules in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Sergey

    2010-04-26

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the mid InfraRed spectral range (IR-TDLAS) has been applied to investigate the behaviour of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} species produced in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (13.56 MHz CCP). This experimental technique was shown to be suitable for temporally resolved measurements of the absolute number density of the target molecules in the studied fluorocarbon discharges. The temporal resolution of about 20..40 ms typically achieved in the standard data acquisition mode (''stream mode'') was sufficient for the real-time measurements of CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, but not of CF whose kinetics was observed to be much faster. Therefore, a more sophisticated approach (''burst mode'') providing a temporal resolution of 0.94 ms was established and successfully applied to CF density measurements. In order to enable the TDLAS measurements of the target species, preliminary investigations on their spectroscopic data had been carried out. In particular, pure C{sub 2}F{sub 4} has been produced in laboratory by means of vacuum thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of polytetrafluoroethylene and used as a reference gas. Therefore, an absorption structure consisting of several overlapping C{sub 2}F{sub 4} lines around 1337.11 cm{sup -1} was selected and carefully calibrated, which provided the first absolute measurements of the species by means of the applied experimental technique. The absolute number density traces measured for CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} in the studied pulsed plasmas were then analysed, in which two differential balance equations were proposed for each of the species to describe their behaviour during both ''plasma on'' and ''plasma off'' phases. Analytical solutions of the balance equations were used to fit the experimental data and hence to deduce important information on the kinetics of the studied molecules. In particular, during the ''plasma off'' phase

  7. Quality of life in children with CF: Psychometrics and relations with stress and mealtime behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Modi, Avani C; Filigno, Stephanie S; Brannon, Erin E; Chamberlin, Leigh Ann; Stark, Lori J; Powers, Scott W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) with toddlers and preschool-aged children. Clinically relevant relations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL), stress, and mealtime behaviors have not been examined. It was hypothesized that problematic mealtime behaviors and increased stress would be negatively associated with HRQOL. Parents of 73 children (2-6 years) with CF completed questionnaires assessing their children's generic (PedsQL) and CF-specific HRQOL, parenting and CF-specific stress, and mealtime behaviors. CFQ-R Physical, Eating, and Respiratory HRQOL subscales had acceptable to strong reliability (alphas = 0.73-0.86); other scales approached acceptable reliability. Lower CF-specific stress was associated with higher CFQ-R Eating HRQOL (B = -0.84; P < 0.05) scores. Fewer eating problems were associated with higher CFQ-R Eating (B = -1.17; P < 0.0001) and Weight HRQOL (B = -0.78; P < 0.01) scores. As hypothesized, problematic eating and higher CF-specific stress was associated with lower CF-specific HRQOL. The CFQ-R has promise for use in young children with CF, but will need to be modified to exchange items not relevant to preschoolers with items that are more relevant to this age group. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dynamic subcriticality measurements using the CF neutron noise method: Videotape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Johnson, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The capability to measure the subcriticality for a multiplying system with k-effective values as low as 0.3 was demonstrated for measurement times of approximately 10 s; the measured k-effective values obtained do not depend on the speed with which the solution height is changed or on whether the tank is filling or draining. As in previous experiments, the low-frequency ratios of spectral densities are all that are needed to obtain the k-effective value. This method's effectiveness for systems where conditions are changing with time as demonstrated, probably exceeds the dynamic requirements for most nuclear fuel plant processing applications. The calculated k-effective values using the KENO code and Hansen-Roach cross-sections compare well with the experimental values. Before the dynamic capability of the method can be considered fully explored, additional dynamic experiments are required for other geometries and fuel concentrations.

  9. Iron filled carbon nanostructures from different precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Bachmatiuk, A.; Ruemmeli, M.H.; Gemming, T.; Kalenczuk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present a study on the synthesis of different nanostructures with one single-step in situ filling (encapsulation) via carbon vapor deposition (CVD). Ferrocene, acetylferrocene and iron (II) nitrate as iron precursors were explored. The application of each of these compounds resulted in different carbon nanomaterials such as: iron filled multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a low filling ratio (Fe-MWCNT), iron filled nanocapsules and unfilled MWCNT. The as-produced samples were purified by high temperature annealing and acid treatment. The purified materials were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  10. Characterization of Low Density Glass Filled Epoxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quesenberry, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the experimental determination and modeling of several thermophysical and mechanical properties of glass filled epoxy composite systems for potential use as electronic potting compounds...

  11. Automated box/drum waste assay (252Cf shuffler) through the material access and accountability boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Bjork, C.W.; Bourret, S.C.; Polk, P.J.; Schneider, C.J.; Studley, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, a shuffler waste-assay system has been made a part of material access and accountability boundary (MAAB). A 252 Cf Pass-Thru shuffler integrated with a conveyor handling system, will process box or drum waste across the MAAB. This automated system will significantly reduce personnel operating costs because security forces will not be required at the MAAB during waste transfer. Further, the system eliminates the chance of a mix-up between measured and nonmeasured waste. This Pass-Thru shuffler is to be installed in the Westinghouse Savannah River Company 321M facility to screen waste boxes and drums for 235 U. An automated conveyor will load waste containers into the shuffler, and upon verification, will transfer the containers across the MAAB. Verification will consist of a weight measurement followed by active neutron interrogation. Containers that pass low-level waste criteria will be conveyed to an accumulator section outside the MAAB. If a container fails to meet the waste criteria, it will be rejected and sent back to the load station for manual inspection and repackaging

  12. Gamma-ray multiplicity distribution in ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kliman, J [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, L [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hamilton, J H [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kormicki, J [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Ramayya, A V [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Hwang, J K [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Luo, Y X [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Fong, D [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Gore, P [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Akopian, G M Ter; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rodin, A M; Fomichev, A S; Popeko, G S; Daniel, A V [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rasmussen, J O; Macchiavelli, A O [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cole, J D [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2002-12-01

    From multiparameter data obtained at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the integral characteristics of the prompt {gamma}-ray emission were extracted for tripartition of {sup 252}Cf with He, Be and C being the third light charged particle. We used multifold {gamma}-ray coincidence spectra for the determination of {gamma}-ray multiplicities assuming a Gaussian distribution for {gamma}-ray multiplicity. The multiplicity distribution characteristics, i.e. mean multiplicity and its dispersion were obtained by minimizing with respect to the calculated values of probabilities of multifold {gamma}-ray coincidences using a combinatoric method. Comparison with the known experimental data from binary fission was made. Further, we investigated dependencies of the mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity on the kinetic energy of the light charged particle. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity for He ternary fission is found to increase rapidly with increasing kinetic energy of He in the region less than 11 MeV and then decrease slowly with increasing kinetic energy of He. The anomalous behaviour of {gamma}-ray emission is discussed. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity was determined for the first time for Be and C ternary fission. For Be, the {gamma}-ray multiplicity as a function of kinetic energy was obtained as well.

  13. Petrographic and geochemical analyisis for determination of provenance of the Slovenj Gradec Miocene Basin fill (Western Central Paratethys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančič, Kristina; Trajanova, Mirka; Skaberne, Dragomir; Šmuc, Andrej

    2017-04-01

    The Slovenj Gradec Basin (SGB) is located in northern Slovenia between eastern margin of the Northern Karavanke and the western Pohorje Mts. Structurally, it belongs to Eastern Alps. It is filled with Miocene clastic sediments. Modal composition of sandstones was determined on thin sections by point-counter and presented with the QFL and QmFLt diagrams. Their geochemical composition was determined by classical method and by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Based on petrography, sedimentary fill of the SGB consists mostly of lithic grains and quartz, derived from metamorphic and carbonate rocks. Locally, fragments of granitoids occur. Binder consists of carbonate, subordinately quartz cement, and carbonate matrix. Recycled orogen (lithic and transitional recycled) provenance of the grains was determined. Geochemical composition shows that: - Sandstones from the SGB belong to the fields of shale, wacke, litharenite, arkose and subarkose (Pettijohn, 1972). - In the ternary diagram of weathering trends (cf. Nesbitt & Young 1984), the samples group near the CaO+Na2OAl2O3 conjunctive. Calculated minimum CIA (Fedo et al., 1995) is 40.06, indicating that the source rocks were not subjected to considerable weathering. - According to discriminant function (cf. Roser & Korsch, 1988) all samples from SGB originate from quartzose sedimentary rocks. - For determination of tectonic setting of source rocks (Verma & Armstrong-Altrin, 2013) the studied samples plot in the field of collision zone. - In the multidimensional discriminant function diagram for the discrimination of active and passive margin after Verma and Armstrong (2016), the samples plot into the field of passive margin. The data indicate that source rocks of the SGB sedimentary fill were derived from Eastern Alps and Southern Alps. It is suggested that SGB was detached from the Styrian and Mura-Zala Basins in the course of the Pohorje Mts. oblique transpressive uplift during the late Miocene to Pliocene

  14. Determinants of health-related quality of life in polish patients with CF - adolescents' and parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawska-Kowalczyk, Urszula; Sands, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    1. Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). 2. Evaluation of HRQOL in children with CF from the parents' perspective. 3. Evaluation of the relationship between HRQOL and both medical and psychosocial factors. Health-related quality of life was measured with the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised. Seventy patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 14-18 years completed the version for adolescents and adults (CFQ-R 14⁺ and 70 parents of children aged 6-13 years filled out the version for parents (CFQ-R 6-13). Scores ranged from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better quality of life. Disease severity was assessed by lung function test, nutritional status, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and type of CFTR gene mutation. Social indices i.e. the patient's school attendance and the parent's work status were collected. In the adolescents' opinion, Eating problems and Digestive functioning got the highest rate, whereas Vitality, Treatment burden, Health perceptions and Weight got the lowest. Boys estimated their Physical functioning significantly higher than girls. When evaluating their children's quality of life, parents granted the highest score to Physical, Respiratory and Digestive functioning and the lowest results were attributed to Treatment burden. Nutritional status and lung function impairment turned out to be predictors of some other domains but not psychosocial ones. The chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had an influence on several quality of life areas from the parents' perspective. School attendance had a significant impact on many aspects of the adolescents' functioning. 1. The study revealed that the health-related quality of life of CF children and adolescents is moderately good. 2. Digestive functioning was one of the highest scored domains, while Treatment burden was one of the lowest, according to both the adolescents' and the parents' perception. 3. The potential impact of

  15. Hydrophobic treatment on polymethylmethacrylate surface by nanosecond-pulse DBDs in CF4 at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qing; Xu, Jiayu; Yang, Wenjin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increase in hydrophobicity on PMMA is achieved after the DBD treatment in CF 4 , and the water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after treatment. • Nanosecond-pulse DBD is used for the surface treatment and the power density is about 114.8 mW/cm 2 . • The effects of applied voltage, CF 4 flow, and time on plasma treatment are investigated. • Plasma treatment causes morphological change, significantly increases the roughness of the surface, and introduces fluorine-containing groups into the polymethylmethacrylate surface. • Hydrophobic behavior of the treated PMMA surface is slightly affected by the aging effect. - Abstract: Nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can provide non-thermal plasmas with extremely high energy and high density, which can result in a series of complicated physical and chemical reactions in the surface treatment of polymers. Therefore, in this paper, hydrophobic treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is conducted by nanosecond-pulse DBD in carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) at atmospheric pressure. Investigations on surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the DBD treatment in CF 4 are conducted with the contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The effects of the applied voltage, CF 4 flow rate, and treatment time on the hydrophobic modification are studied. Results show that the contact angles of the treated PMMA surface increases with the applied voltage, and it could be greatly affected by the CF 4 flow rate and the treatment time. The water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after the treatment. Furthermore, both surface morphology and chemical composition of the PMMA samples are changed. Both the increase of the surface roughness and the occurrence of fluorine-containing functional groups on the PMMA surface treated by DBD in CF 4 lead to the hydrophobicity

  16. Brome isotope selective control of CF3Br molecule clustering by IR laser radiation in gas-dynamic expansion of CF3Br - Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatin, V. M.; Lokhman, V. N.; Makarov, G. N.; Ogurok, N.-D. D.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of research on the experimental control of CF3Br molecule clustering under gas-dynamic expansion of the CF3Br - Ar mixture at a nozzle exit by using IR laser radiation. A cw CO2 laser is used for exciting molecules and clusters in the beam and a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer with laser UV ionisation of particles for their detection. The parameters of the gas above the nozzle are determined (compositions and pressure) at which intensive molecule clustering occurs. It is found that in the case of the CF3Br gas without carrier when the pressure P0 above the nozzle does not exceed 4 atm, molecular clusters actually are not generated in the beam. If the gas mixture of CF3Br with argon is used at a pressure ratio 1 : N, where N >= 3, and the total pressure above the nozzle is P0 >= 2 atm, then there occurs molecule clustering. We study the dependences of the efficiency of suppressing the molecule clustering on parameters of the exciting pulse, gas parameters above the nozzle, and on a distance of the molecule irradiation zone from the nozzle exit section. It is shown that in the case of resonant vibrational excitation of gas-dynamically cooled CF3Br molecules at the nozzle exit one can realise isotope-selective suppression of molecule clustering with respect to bromine isotopes. With the CF3Br - Ar mixtures having the pressure ratio 1 : 3 and 1 : 15, the enrichment factors obtained with respect to bromine isotopes are kenr ≈ 1.05 ± 0.005 and kenr ≈ 1.06 ± 0.007, respectively, under jet irradiation by laser emission in the 9R(30) line (1084.635 cm-1). The results obtained let us assume that this method can be used to control clustering of molecules comprising heavy element isotopes, which have a small isotopic shift in IR absorption spectra.

  17. Clostridium difficile carriage in adult cystic fibrosis (CF); implications for patients with CF and the potential for transmission of nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D G; Harrison, M J; Fleming, C; McCarthy, M; Shortt, C; Sulaiman, I; Murphy, D M; Eustace, J A; Shanahan, F; Hill, C; Stanton, C; Rea, M C; Ross, R P; Plant, B J

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant. C. difficile was detected in 50% (30/60) of patients with CF by culturing for the bacteria. C. difficile toxin was detected in 63% (19/30) of C. difficile-positive stool samples. All toxin-positive stool samples contained toxigenic C. difficile strains harbouring toxin genes, tcdA and tcdB. Despite the presence of C. difficile and its toxin in patient stool, no acute gastrointestinal symptoms were reported. Ribotyping of C. difficile strains revealed 16 distinct ribotypes (RT), 11 of which are known to be disease-causing including the hyper-virulent RT078. Additionally, strains RT002, RT014, and RT015, which are common in non-CF nosocomial infection were described. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, fusidic acid and rifampicin. No correlation was observed between carriage of C. difficile or any characteristics of isolated strains and any recorded clinical parameters or treatment received. We demonstrate a high prevalence of hypervirulent, toxigenic strains of C. difficile in asymptomatic patients with CF. This highlights the potential role of asymptomatic patients with CF in nosocomial transmission of C. difficile. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Calculation of piping loads due to filling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swidersky, Harald; Thiele, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Filling procedures in piping systems are usually not load cases that are studied by fluid dynamic and structure dynamic analyses with respect to the integrity of pipes and supports. Although, their frequency is higher than that of postulated accidental transients, therefore they have to be considered for fatigue analyses. The piping and support loads due to filling procedures are caused by the density differences if the transported fluids, for instance in flows with the transport of gas bubbles. The impact duration of the momentum forces is defined by the flow velocity and the length of discontinuities in the piping segments. Filling procedures end very often with a shock pressure, caused by the impact and decelerating of the fluid front at smaller cross sections. The suitability of the thermally hydraulics program RELAP/MOD3.3 for the calculation of realistic loads from filling procedures was studied, the results compared with experimental data. It is shown that dependent on the discretization level the loads are partial significantly underestimated.

  19. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Park, Jung Cheol; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan; Pae, Yong Tak; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Yun Won [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the structural integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. In addition to the thermally aged specimens the specimens associated with {delta}-phase degradation are prepared. After the specimens are maintained for 20 min, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs. at 700 .deg. C, respectively. which is in the range of {delta}-phase degradation, all specimens are cooled in water. The impact energy variations are measured for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C, respectively, through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The characteristics of the fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue tests are investigated using both aged and virgin specimens. Also fractured surfaces of the specimen are observed using the scanning electronic microscopy. J-R curve and J{sub IC} of the aged and virgin specimens are found J{sub IC} in order to predict the critical flaw size and fatigue life.

  20. 7 CFR 58.730 - Filling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling containers. 58.730 Section 58.730 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.730 Filling containers. Hot fluid cheese from the cookers may be held in hotwells or hoppers... shall effectively measure the desired amount of product into the pouch or container in a sanitary manner...

  1. Selective filling of Photonic Crystal Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Noordegraaf, Danny; Sørensen, Thorkild

    2005-01-01

    A model for calculating the time necessary for filling one or more specific holes in a photonic crystal fibre is made. This model is verified for water, and its enabling potential is illustrated by a polymer application. Selective filling of the core in an air-guide photonic crystal fibre...

  2. Raman spectra of filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.M.; Behera, S.N.; Sarangi, S.N.; Entel, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Raman spectra of a metallic carbon nanotube filled with atoms or molecules have been investigated theoretically. It is found that there will be a three way splitting of the main Raman lines due to the interaction of the nanotube phonon with the collective excitations (plasmons) of the conduction electrons of the nanotube as well as its coupling with the phonon of the filling material. The positions and relative strengths of these Raman peaks depend on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction, phonon frequency of the filling atom and the strength of interaction of the nanotube phonon and the phonon of the filling atoms. Careful experimental studies of the Raman spectra of filled nanotubes should show these three peaks. It is also shown that in a semiconducting nanotube the Raman line will split into two and should be observed experimentally

  3. A study of the valence shell photoelectron and photoabsorption spectra of CF3SF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D M P; Shaw, D A; Walker, I C; McEwen, I J; Apra, E; Guest, M F

    2005-01-01

    The outer valence shell photoelectron spectrum of CF 3 SF 5 has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Synchrotron radiation has been used to record angle-resolved outer valence shell photoelectron spectra of CF 3 SF 5 in the photon energy range 18-60 eV. These spectra have allowed photoelectron asymmetry parameters and branching ratios to be derived. The Outer Valence Green's Function approach has been employed to calculate the molecular orbital configuration and associated binding energies. A charge distribution analysis has also been obtained. Assignments have been proposed for the peaks observed in the photoelectron spectrum. The absolute photoabsorption cross section of CF 3 SF 5 has been measured from threshold to 40 eV, and strongly resembles that of SF 6 . Assignments, involving intravalence transitions, have been proposed for some of the principal features appearing in the photoabsorption spectrum of CF 3 SF 5

  4. Thinning and functionalization of few-layer graphene sheets by CF4 plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2012-05-24

    Structural changes of few-layer graphene sheets induced by CF4 plasma treatment are studied by optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, together with theoretical simulation. Experimental results suggest a thickness reduction of few-layer graphene sheets subjected to prolonged CF4 plasma treatment while plasma treatment with short time only leads to fluorine functionalization on the surface layer by formation of covalent bonds. Raman spectra reveal an increase in disorder by physical disruption of the graphene lattice as well as functionalization during the plasma treatment. The F/CF3 adsorption and the lattice distortion produced are proved by theoretical simulation using density functional theory, which also predicts p-type doping and Dirac cone splitting in CF4 plasma-treated graphene sheets that may have potential in future graphene-based micro/nanodevices.

  5. Yields of fission products produced by thermal-neutron fission of 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute yields have been determined for 107 gamma rays emitted in the decay of 97 fission products representing 54 mass chains created during thermal-neutron fission of 249 Cf. These results include 14 mass chains for which no prior yield data exist. Using a Ge(Li) detector, spectra were obtained of gamma rays emanating from a 0.4 μg sample of 249 Cf between 45 s and 0.4 yr after very short irradiations of the 249 Cf by thermal neutrons. On the basis of measured gamma-ray yields and known nuclear data, total chain mass yields and relative uncertainties were obtained for 51 masses between 89 and 156. The absolute overall normalization uncertainty is approx.8%. The measured A-chain cumulative yields make up 77% of the total light mass (A 249 Cf

  6. Testing Moderating Detection Systems with 252Cf-Based Reference Neutron Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, Nolan E.; Sweezy, Jeremy; Sauber, Jeremiah S.; Vaughn, David; Cook, Andrew; Tays, Jeff; Ro, Tae-Ik

    2001-01-01

    Calibration measurements were carried out on a probe designed to measure ambient dose equivalent in accordance with ICRP Pub 60 recommendations. It consists of a cylindrical 3 He proportional counter surrounded by a 25-cm-diameter spherical polyethylene moderator. Its neutron response is optimized for dose rate measurements of neutrons between thermal energies and 20 MeV. The instrument was used to measure the dose rate in four separate neutron fields: unmoderated 252 Cf, D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf, polyethylene-moderated 252 Cf, and WEP neutron howitzer with 252 Cf at its center. Dose equivalent measurements were performed at source-detector centerline distances from 50 to 200 cm. The ratio of air-scatter- and room-return-corrected ambient dose equivalent rates to ambient dose equivalent rates calculated with the code MCNP are tabulated

  7. Properties of CF/PA6 friction spun hybrid yarns for textile reinforced thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, MMB; Nitsche, S.; Abdkader, A.; Cherif, Ch

    2017-10-01

    Due to their excellent strength, rigidity and damping properties as well as low weight, carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRC) are widely being used for load bearing structures. On the other hand, with an increased demand und usage of CFRCs, effective methods to re-use waste carbon fibre (CF) materials, which are recoverable either from the process scraps or from the end-of-life components are attracting increased attention. In this paper, hybrid yarns consisting of staple CF and polyamide 6 (PA 6) are manufactured on a DREF-3000 friction spinning machine with various machine parameters such as spinning drum speed and suction air pressure. The relationship between different textile physical properties of the hybrid yarns, such as tensile strength and elongation with different spinning parameters and CF content of hybrid yarn is investigated. Furthermore, the tensile properties of uni-directional (UD) composites manufactured from the developed hybrid yarn shows 80% of the UD composite strength made from CF filament yarn.

  8. Dosimetric evaluation of 252Cf beam for use in radiobiology studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Takeoka, S.; Tsujimura, T.; Kuroda, T.; Kawami, M.; Sawada, S.

    1988-01-01

    This report provides reliable tissue kerma in free air data by characterising the 252 Cf irradiating system and by comparing three dosimetry methods, paired chambers (ICRU 1977, 1978), Fricke and thermoluminescence dosemeter. (author)

  9. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Helmut; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Till, Lisa M; Kashyap, Purna C; Patel, Robin; Dunny, Gary M

    2018-02-13

    Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF]) is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo , we established either a CF-producing (CF+) recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF- recipient) in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF- recipient. While rescue of the CF- mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro , no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants) steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF- recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, similar to that previously observed in serum. IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer is a major factor in the biology of Enterococcus faecalis , an important nosocomial pathogen. Previous studies showing efficient conjugative plasmid transfer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of experimental animals did

  10. Filling Transitions in Acute and Open Wedges.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 5 (2015), s. 052401 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) EP/J009636/1; EPSRC(GB) EP/I019111/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : wetting transitions * wedges * density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014

  11. Atmospheric chemistry of Z- and E-CF3CH=CHCF3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Andersen, Simone Thirstrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    radicals. The atmospheric lifetimes of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 are estimated as 27 and 67 days, respectively. IR absorption cross sections are reported and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 for the 100 year time horizon...

  12. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Olga; Guallar, Carles; Andree, Karl B; Diogène, Jorge; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25pg. PLTX eqcell(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron scattering cross sections for SF6 and SF5CF3 at intermediate and high energies (100-10000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limao-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; Oller, J.C.; Munoz, A.; Perez, J.M.; Vinodkumar, M.; Garcia, G.; Mason, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    A modified experimental apparatus with improved angular resolution and stability has been used to measure the total electron scattering cross sections for SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 in the energy range of 100-5000 eV. A detailed analysis of the experimental error sources is provided. The experimental results are compared with integral elastic and inelastic cross sections calculated using the independent atom model approximation and a modified single-center additivity rule for electron energies ranging from 1 to 10,000 eV. The accuracy of these approximations method is discussed through a comparison with the experimental results. Previous cross-sectional data for SF 6 are compared with the present theoretical and experimental results. For SF 5 CF 3 , we present the first electron scattering cross-sectional data for the 100-10,000 eV energy range, as well as the first empirical determination of the molecular polarizability

  14. OligoG CF-5/20 normalizes cystic fibrosis mucus by chelating calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Recktenwald, Christian V; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Meiss, Lauren N; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Philip D; Dessen, Arne; Myrset, Astrid Hilde; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the guluronate (G) rich alginate OligoG CF-5/20 (OligoG) could detach cystic fibrosis (CF) mucus by calcium chelation, which is also required for normal mucin unfolding. Since bicarbonate secretion is impaired in CF, leading to insufficient mucin unfolding and thereby attached mucus, and since bicarbonate has the ability to bind calcium, we hypothesized that the calcium chelating property of OligoG would lead to detachment of CF mucus. Indeed, OligoG could compete with the N-terminus of the MUC2 mucin for calcium binding as shown by microscale thermophoresis. Further, effects on mucus thickness and attachment induced by OligoG and other alginate fractions of different length and composition were evaluated in explants of CF mouse ileum mounted in horizontal Ussing-type chambers. OligoG at 1.5% caused effective detachment of CF mucus and the most potent alginate fraction tested, the poly-G fraction of about 12 residues, had similar potency compared to OligoG whereas mannuronate-rich (M) polymers had minimal effect. In conclusion, OligoG binds calcium with appropriate affinity without any overt harmful effect on the tissue and can be exploited for treating mucus stagnation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    -filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

  16. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicer, Olga [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Guallar, Carles [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); IFREMER, DYNECO-PELAGOS Centre de Brest, Pointe du Diable BP70, 29280 Plouzane (France); Andree, Karl B.; Diogène, Jorge [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita, E-mail: margarita.fernandez@irta.cat [IRTA, Carretera de Poble Nou, km 5.5, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25 pg. PLTX eq cell{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Presence of a single Ostreopsis genotype in confirmed through qPCR. • Temperature confirmed as the most

  17. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  18. PERVAPORATION USING ADSORBENT-FILLED MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membranes containing selective fillers, such as zeolites and activated carbon, can improve the separation by pervaporation. Applications of adsorbent-filled membranes in pervaporation have been demonstrated by a number of studies. These applications include removal of organic co...

  19. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  20. Inspection of CF188 composite flight control surfaces with neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.J.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Mullin, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    At the Royal Military College of Canada's SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, a neutron radiography facility has been designed and installed using a small (20kWth), pool-type research reactor called the SLOWPOKE-2 (Safe Low Power c(K)ritical Experiment) as the neutron source. Since then, the research has continued along two fronts: developing applications and improving the quality of the neutron beam. The most interesting applications investigated to date has been the inspection of various metal ceramic composites and the inspection of the composite flight control surfaces of some of the CF188 Hornet aircraft. As part of the determination of the integrity of the aircraft, it was decided to inspect an aircraft with the highest flight house using both X- and neutron radiography. The neutron radiography and, to a lesser extent, X-radiography inspections completed at McClellan AFB revealed 93 anomalies. After returning to Canada, the component with the greatest structural significance, namely the right hand rudder from the vertical stabilizer, was removed from the aircraft and put through a rigorous program of numerous NDT inspections, including X-radiography (film and real-time), eddy current, ultrasonics (through transmission and pitch-catch), infrared thermography, and neutron radiography. Therefore, of all the techniques investigated, only through transmission ultrasonics and neutron radiography were able to identify large areas of hydration. However, only neutron radiography could identify the small areas of moisture and hydration. Given the structural significance of the flight control surfaces in modern fighter aircraft, even the smallest amounts of hydration could potentially lead to catastrophic results

  1. The effect of CF4 addition on Ru etching with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il

    2003-01-01

    Ru thin films were etched in CF 4 /O 2 plasma using an ICP (inductively coupled plasma etching) system. The etch rate of Ru thin films was examined as a function of gas mixing ratio. The maximum etch rate of Ru thin films was 168 nm/min at a CF 4 /O 2 gas mixing ratio of 10 %. The selectivity of Ru over SiO 2 was 1.3. From the OES (optical emission spectroscopy), the optical emission intensity of the O radical had a maximum value at 10 % of CF 4 gas concentration and decrease with further addition of CF 4 gas. From XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, Ru-F bonds by the chemical reaction of Ru and F appeared in the surface of the etched Ru thin film in CF 4 /O 2 chemistry. RuF 3-4 compounds were suggested as a surface passivation layer that reduces the chemical reactions between Ru and O radicals. In a FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) micrograph, we had an almost perpendicular taper angle of 89 .deg.

  2. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Craig Hardie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF. Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  3. Instrument for detecting gas bubbles in sodium filled pipework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, D

    1973-08-01

    An instrument employing an electromagnetic sensor is described. Gas bubbles down to 0.5 mm diameter can be detected in sodium filled pipework of 1 in. nominal bore at temperatures up to 400 deg C. Installation of the sensing head involves no break in the integrity of the pipework. Facilities to enable bubble size discrimination, bubble counting and timing pulse generation are provided in the signal processing unit. Initial operating experience has been gained on a sodium loop used for gas entrainment studies. (auth)

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CFHCF2OCF3 and CF3CFHCF2OCF2H: Reaction with Cl atoms and OH radicals, degradation mechanism, and global warming potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, TJ; Hurley, MD; Nielsen, OJ

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CF3CFHCF2OCF3) = (4.09 +/- 0.42) x 10(-17), k(OH + CF3CFHCF2OCF3) = (1.43 +/- 0.28) x 10(-15), k(Cl + CF3CFHCF2OCF2H) = (6.89 +/- 1.29) x 10(-17), and k(OH + CF3CFHCF2OCF2H) = (1.79 +/- 0.34) x 10(-15) cm(3) mol...... respectively. The 100-year time horizon global warming potentials of CF3CFHCF2OCF3 and CF3CFHCF2OCF2H relative to CO2 are 4530 and 4340. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of hydrofluoroethers....

  5. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  6. Mini-guts in a dish: Perspectives of adult Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients and parents of young CF patients on organoid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Sarah N; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Noordhoek, Jacquelien; Gulmans, Vincent; van der Ent, Cornelis K; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2018-03-06

    Organoid technology enables the cultivation of human tissues in a dish. Its precision medicine potential could revolutionize the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) field. We provide a first thematic exploration of the patient perspective on organoid technology to set the further research agenda, which is necessary for responsible development of this ethically challenging technology. 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews with 14 Dutch adult CF patients and 12 parents of young CF patients to examine their experiences, opinions, and attitudes regarding organoid technology. Four themes emerged: (1) Respondents express a close as well as a distant relationship to organoids; (2) the open-endedness of organoid technology sparks hopes and concerns, (3) commercial use evokes cautiousness. (4) Respondents mention the importance of sound consent procedures, long-term patient engagement, responsible stewardship, and stringent conditions for commercial use. The precision medicine potential of organoid technology can only be realized if the patient perspective is taken adequately into account. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dielectric Properties of SiCf/PyC/SiC Composites After Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huihui; ZHOU Wancheng; LUO Fa; QING Yuchang; CHEN Malin; LI Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites with a 0.15mm thick pyrocarbon interphase (notedas SiCf/PyC/SiC) were prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). The SiCf/PyC/SiC were oxidized in air at 950℃ for 50h. The dielectric properties after this high temperature oxidation were investigated in X-band from room temperature (RT) to 700℃. Results suggested that:e' of the SiCf/PyC/SiC after oxidation increased at first then de-creased with temperature elevating;e" increased with temperature raising in the temperature range studied.

  8. A Phase I/II Protocol Using 252Cf for the Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Mahajan; Mark J. Rivard; Evelyn R. Nunez; David E. Wazer

    2000-01-01

    For this clinical study, external photon beam irradiation will be given in a standard fashion with intravenous cisplatinum (CDDP) every week as a radiosensitizing agent. We will incorporate 252 Cf as the brachytherapy source replacing 192 Ir, theoretically improving patient outcomes with its lack of cell cycle and oxygen dependence, and a therapeutic ratio possibly greater than unity. Local tumor control and control of systemic disease are potentially feasible using 252 Cf to initially debulk and destroy local bulky tumor with CDDP and X rays to enhance treatment efficacy and treat minimal microscopic and distant micrometastases. The initial 22 Cf dose will be 1 Gy per weekly fraction with 0.25-Gy increments toward a 2.5-Gy limit. Patients will be stratified according to their stage, toxicities and outcomes will be monitored closely, and the study will be halted if undo morbidities are noted

  9. MoO3 trapping layers with CF4 plasma treatment in flash memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chuyan Haur; Chen, Hsiang; Chen, Su-Zhien; Chen, Chian Yu; Lo, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chun Han

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MoO 3 -based flash memories have been fabricated. • CF4 plasma treatment could enhance good memory performance. • Material analyses confirm that plasma treatment eliminated defects. • Fluorine atoms might fix the dangling bonds. - Abstract: In this research, we used MoO 3 with CF 4 plasma treatment as charge trapping layer in metal-oxide-high-k -oxide-Si-type memory. We analyzed material properties and electrical characteristics with multiple analyses. The plasma treatment could increase the trapping density, reduce the leakage current, expand band gap, and passivate the defect to enhance the memory performance. The MoO 3 charge trapping layer memory with suitable CF 4 plasma treatment is promising for future nonvolatile memory applications

  10. Additive Manufacturing of PLA and CF/PLA Binding Layer Specimens via Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou; Dong, Rongmei; Ding, Xuebing; Duan, Xiaoxi

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most popular additive manufacturing techniques, fused deposition modeling (FDM) is successfully applied in aerospace, automotive, architecture, and other fields to fabricate thermoplastic parts. Unfortunately, as a result of the limited nature of the mechanical properties and mass in raw materials, there is a pressing need to improve mechanical properties and reduce weight for FDM parts. Therefore, this paper presents an experiment of a special polylactic acid (PLA) and carbon fiber (CF)/PLA-laminated experimental specimen fabricated using the FDM process. The mechanical properties and mass analysis of the new composites for the PLA and CF/PLA binding layer specimen are investigated experimentally. Through the experimental analysis, one can conclude that the mass of laminated specimen is lighter than the CF/PLA specimen, and the tensile and flexural mechanical properties are higher than the pure PLA specimen.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE ISOESPINTANOL AISLADO DE Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EVALUATION OF ISOESPINTANOL ISOLATED FROM Oxandra cf. xylopioides (ANNONACEAE ON Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. SMITH (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Alberto Rojano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto biocida del isoespintanol extraído de Oxandra cf. xylopioides sobre el gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda. El isoespintanol fue usado a concentraciones de 100 300 900 y 2700 ppm y aplicado por inmersión de hojas de maíz evaluando sobre larvas del segundo instar. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24, 48 y 72 horas y se calculó la DL50 y DL90; el análisis de mortalidad demostró que el isoespintanol tiene un efecto tóxico, siendo la dosis de 2700 ppm la que presenta mayor mortalidad. Se determinó una DL50 de 147,07 ppm y una DL90 de 1394 ppm a las 48 horas postratamiento. Estos resultados permitirán avanzar en el estudio y aplicación de insecticidas biológicos para el manejo integrado de plagas.The biocide effect of isoespintanol extracted from Oxandra cf xylopioides was evaluated on the corn earworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Isoespintanol at concentrations of 100 300 900 and 2700 ppm was applied by foliar immersion of maize leaves and it was evaluated on larvae of the second instar. Percentage of mortality at 24, 48 and 72 hours was determined and calculated its DL50 and DL90; the mortality analysis demonstrated that compound has toxic effects, being the dose 2700 ppm the one that presented great mortality. A dose DL50 of 147.07 ppm and a DL90 of 1394 ppm to the 48 hours postreatment was determined. These results will allow to advance in the study and application of biological insecticides directed to the integrated handling of plagues.

  12. Topological materials discovery using electron filling constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru; Po, Hoi Chun; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Nodal semimetals are classes of topological materials that have nodal-point or nodal-line Fermi surfaces, which give them novel transport and topological properties. Despite being highly sought after, there are currently very few experimental realizations, and identifying new materials candidates has mainly relied on exhaustive database searches. Here we show how recent studies on the interplay between electron filling and nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries can guide the search for filling-enforced nodal semimetals. We recast the previously derived constraints on the allowed band-insulator fillings in any space group into a new form, which enables effective screening of materials candidates based solely on their space group, electron count in the formula unit, and multiplicity of the formula unit. This criterion greatly reduces the computation load for discovering topological materials in a database of previously synthesized compounds. As a demonstration, we focus on a few selected nonsymmorphic space groups which are predicted to host filling-enforced Dirac semimetals. Of the more than 30,000 entires listed, our filling criterion alone eliminates 96% of the entries before they are passed on for further analysis. We discover a handful of candidates from this guided search; among them, the monoclinic crystal Ca2Pt2Ga is particularly promising.

  13. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  14. Improving the support characteristics of hydraulic fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corson, D. R.; Dorman, K. R.; Sprute, R. H.

    1980-05-15

    Extensive laboratory and field testing has defined the physical properties of hydraulic fill. Effect of void ratio on percolation rate has been quantified, and tests were developed to estimate waterflow through fill material in a given state underground. Beneficial effect on fill's support capability through addition of cement alone or in conjunction with vibratory compaction has been investigated. Two separate field studies in operating cut-and-fill mines measured vein-wall deformation and loads imposed on backfilled stopes. Technology has been developed that will effectively and efficiently dewater and densify ultra-fine-grained slurries typical of metal mine hydraulic backfill. At least two operators are using this electrokinetic technique to dewater slimes collected in underground sumps or impoundments. This technique opens up the possibility of using the total unclassified tailings product as a hydraulic backfill. Theoretical enhancement of ground support and rock-burst control through improved support capability will be tested in a full-scale mine stope installation. Both a horizontal layer and a vertical column of high modulus fill will be placed in an attempt to reduce stope wall closure, support more ground pressure, and lessen rock-burst occurrence.

  15. Impact of enzymatic digestion on bacterial community composition in CF airway samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kayla M; Wagner, Brandie D; Robertson, Charles E; Johnson, Emily J; Zemanick, Edith T; Harris, J Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Staphylococcus, an important bacterial group in cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to evaluate the effect of enzymatic digestion (EnzD) prior to DNA extraction on bacterial communities identified in sputum and oropharyngeal swab (OP) samples from patients with CF. DNA from 81 samples (39 sputum and 42 OP) collected from 63 patients with CF was extracted in duplicate with and without EnzD. Bacterial communities were determined by rRNA gene sequencing, and measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) was used to assess differences at the community level and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to compare relative abundance (RA) of individual genera for paired samples with and without EnzD. Shannon Diversity Index (alpha-diversity) decreased in sputum and OP samples with the use of EnzD. Larger shifts in community composition were observed for OP samples (beta-diversity, measured by Morisita-Horn), whereas less change in communities was observed for sputum samples. The use of EnzD with OP swabs resulted in significant increase in RA for the genera Gemella ( p  microbial community composition. We show that the application of EnzD to CF airway samples, particularly OP swabs, results in differences in microbial communities detected by sequencing. Use of EnzD can result in large changes in bacterial community composition, and is particularly useful for detection of Staphylococcus in CF OP samples. The enhanced identification of Staphylococcus aureus is a strong indication to utilize EnzD in studies that use OP swabs to monitor CF airway communities.

  16. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

  17. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community.

  18. Calculation of loading on pipes during filling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Thomas; Swidersky, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Filling processes in pipe systems do normally not belong to load design cases for which the integrity of pipelines and their mountings are verified with fluid- and structure-dynamic analysis. However, their frequency of occurrence is several times higher than those of the postulated incident-induced transients. That is why they have to be taken into consideration within fatigue analysis. The loading on pipes or rather on their mountings during filling processes originates from differences in the density of the transported fluids, e.g. at transport of gas slugs within water flow. The exposure time of the flow momentum force is fixed by the height of the flow velocity and by the length of discontinuities in the pipeline sections. Filling procedures frequently end with a pressure surge which was caused by the impingement and decelaration of the water plug at orifices in pipe systems. The calculation of such processes with 1D fluid-dynamic or rather thermal-hydraulic programs requires an idealization of the real form of the two phase flow or respectively of the two phase interface. In the past, several two phase flow regime maps were developed and implemented in codes for this. In this paper, the applicability of the thermo-hydraulic program RELAP5/MOD3.3 which is established in nuclear engineering is examined in order to calculate realistic loads from plug flows during the filling processes. For this, post-test calculations of experiments have been performed and the results have been compared with the experimental results as well as with the classical analytical approach according to Joukowsky. The comparison shows that, dependent on the discretization, the calculated loads are indeed partly underestimated, though the calculation results according to the Joukowsky-approach lie above the measurements. (orig.)

  19. Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming

    2012-01-01

    The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)

  20. Development of a Time Projection Chamber using CF4 gas for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Kametani, S.; Kajihara, F.; Gunji, T.; Kurihara, N.; Oda, S.X.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype Time Projection Chamber (TPC) using pure CF 4 gas was developed for possible use in heavy ion experiments. Basic characteristics such as gain, drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion and attenuation length of produced electrons were measured with the TPC. At an electric field of 900V/cm, the drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion for 1cm drift were obtained as 10cm/μs and 60μm, respectively. The relatively large gain fluctuation is explained to be due to the electron attachment process in CF 4 . These characteristics are encouraging for the measurement of the charged particle trajectories under high multiplicity conditions at RHIC

  1. Hidden Broad Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CfA and 12micron Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hien D.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12micron samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Polarized (hidden) broad line regions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several new cases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) are reported. The 12micron S2 sample shows a significantly higher incidence of HBLR (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting that the latter may be incomplete in hidden AGNs. Compared to the non-HBLR S2s, the H...

  2. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  3. Quenching the scintillation in CF{sub 4} Cherenkov gas radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); D' Ambrosio, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Easo, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Eisenhardt, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Forty, R.; Frei, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gys, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Harnew, N.; Hunt, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jones, C.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lambert, R.W. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics and VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Matteuzzi, C. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Muheim, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Perego, D.L. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Piedigrossi, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Plackett, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Powell, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-11

    CF{sub 4} is used as a Cherenkov gas radiator in one of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors at the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CF{sub 4} is well known to have a high scintillation photon yield in the near and far VUV, UV and in the visible wavelength range. A large flux of scintillation photons in our photon detection acceptance between 200 and 800 nm could compromise the particle identification efficiency. We will show that this scintillation photon emission system can be effectively quenched, consistent with radiationless transitions, with no significant impact on the photons resulting from Cherenkov radiation.

  4. Design of a setup for {sup 252}Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hei, Daqian [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Zhuang, Haocheng [Xi’an Middle School of Shanxi Province, Xi’an 710000 (China); Jia, Wenbao, E-mail: jiawenbao@163.com [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China); Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 252}Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg {sup 252}Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  5. Cascade filtration (CF) with the Haemonetics MCS+: a new technical adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bo, A; De Luigi, M C; Bruni, R; Stura, P; Sanfilippo, B; Varinelli, I

    2001-03-01

    CF was introduced in clinical medicine in 1980. Up to now, exclusively two-vein procedures have been carried out with some limitations to expansion of this technique. In this report we describe the very first application of single-needle CF carried out with Haemonetics MCS + apparatus. Twenty procedures were completed without any untoward effect in patients suffering from TTP, post-hepatitic cryoblobulinemia, familial hypercholesterolemia and acute Guillan-Barrè Syndrome. From 1 to 4 sessions were carried out per patient with the expected laboratory and clinical results. The only limit is the procedure time that averages 231 +/- 48 min., approximately 40% longer than two needle procedures.

  6. Experimental study of CF4 conical theta pinch plasma expanding into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrow, P.D.; Nasiruddin, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Langmuir probe, photodiode, and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) measurements have been made on a pulsed CF 4 conical theta pinch plasma. A cloud of CF 4 gas was puffed into a conical theta pinch coil, converted to plasma, and propelled into the vacuum region ahead of the expanding gas cloud. At a position 67 cm away from the conical theta pinch coil, the plasma arrived in separate packets that were about 20 μs in duration. The average drift velocity of these packets corresponded to an energy of about 3 eV. The OMA measurements showed that the second packet contained neutral atomic fluorine as well as charged particles

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SNe II light curves & spectra from the CfA (Hicken+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, M.; Friedman, A. S.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Esquerdo, G.; Matheson, T.; Modjaz, M.; Rest, A.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    Since all of the optical photometry reported here was produced as part of the CfA3 and CfA4 processing campaigns, see Hicken+ (2009, J/ApJ/700/331) and Hicken+ (2012, J/ApJS/200/12) for greater details on the instruments, observations, photometry pipeline, calibration, and host-galaxy subtraction used to create the CfA SN II light curves. (8 data files).

  8. Do pre-school lung ventilation scans predict outcome by 6 years of age in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF)?

    OpenAIRE

    Yahia, R; Viviani, L; Carr, S; Bush, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Progressive respiratory disease accounts for most of the mortality and morbidity in CF. Identification of early lung disease is imperative to recognise young patients who are at high risk of developing future lung damage. The London CF collaboration has shown that infant pulmonary function at one and at two years is essentially normal, and one year HRCT has mild abnormalities only, so new markers need to be identified. We have used ventilation scans (VS) at the CF ...

  9. Fissure fillings from Finnsjoen and Studsvik Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.-L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1982-12-01

    Samples were taken from cores and collected at different levels. The bedrock at Finnsjoen is a Svecokarelian granite-granodiorite, the most frequent mineral in the fissures being calcite. The water from boreholes have a mean S 18 O value of -12 per thousand and saturated by calcite. Isotopically three different groups of calcite have been distinguished. Ages of 29+-13x10 3 years to 79+-25x10 3 years were estimated. Two generations of quartz were recognized the minerals prehnite and lanmontite were found Most fissure filling materials have cation exchange capacities. The bedrock at Studsvik is a Svecokarelian gneiss of sedimentary type which is migmatized with calcite and chlorite as fissure filling minerals. Most fissure fillings are thin and simple Claby minerals of smectite type are also frequent. (G.B.)

  10. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  11. Element analysis of the eutardigrades Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Nilsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Semi-terrestrial tardigrades are well-known for their tolerance to a variety of environmental extremes, including desiccation, freezing and radiation. Despite several attempts to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind the resilience of tardigrades, it is still unknown how these animals are able to maintain the integrity of their cellular components under severe stress. Quantitative or qualitative changes in molecular compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins are expected, and have been the main line of research towards understanding the tolerance of tardigrades. In radiation tolerant bacteria, a tolerance mechanism based on manganese has been proposed. We evaluate this hypothesis in tardigrades and provide the first data on element composition in desiccated and non-desiccated specimens of two eutardigrade species, Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum. A focused 2 MeV proton microbeam was utilised to determine the elemental content, distributions and concentrations, using the ion beam analytical technique particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. The presence of six elements – phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron – were confirmed in all tardigrade specimens, at levels up to a few mg g–1. However, manganese was found in less than 10% of the analysed specimens, and in low amounts, thus our study provides no evidence for the manganese hypothesis. We also show that the distributions and/or concentrations of some elements differ between the two species as well as between the dehydrated and hydrated state. In particular, very low levels of iron were found in dehydrated M. cf. asiaticum. Our analysis shows that the PIXE technique is a useful tool for investigating questions on the distribution of elements both in dehydrated and hydrated tardigrades.

  12. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  13. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  14. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  15. Final Technical Report for grant entitled "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozerov, Oleg V [Texas A& M University; Ozerov, Oleg V.

    2014-01-16

    We became interested in developing new methods for hydrodefluorination (HDF) and other types of C-F bond conversion in polyfluoroalkanes under mild conditions. We were attracted to an approach to C-F activation, where the key C-F cleavage proceeds by a Lewis acid abstraction of fluoride rather than a redox event. The efforts during the previous period were aimed at a) advancing the HDF reactivity with improvement in scope and catalyst longevity; b) extending C-F activation beyond HDF; c) generating insight about the elementary steps of the reaction and potential intermediates.

  16. Understanding of safety monitoring in clinical trials by individuals with CF or their parents: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern-Goldberger, Andrew S; Hessels, Amanda J; Saiman, Lisa; Quittell, Lynne M

    2018-03-14

    Recruiting both pediatric and adult participants for clinical trials in CF is currently of paramount importance as numerous new therapies are being developed. However, recruitment is challenging as parents of children with CF and adults with CF cite safety concerns as a principal barrier to enrollment. In conjunction with the CF Foundation (CFF) Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), a pilot brochure was developed to inform patients and parents of the multiple levels of safety monitoring; the CFF simultaneously created an infographic representing the safety monitoring process. This study explores the attitudes and beliefs of CF patients and families regarding safety monitoring and clinical trial participation, and elicits feedback regarding the educational materials. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a pre-tested interview guide and audio-recorded during routine CF clinic visits. Participants included 5 parents of children with CF quotations: attitudes toward clinical trials, safety values, conceptualizing the safety monitoring process, and priorities for delivery of patient education. Participant feedback was used to revise the pilot brochure; text was shortened, unfamiliar words clarified (e.g., "pipeline"), abbreviations eliminated, and redundancy avoided. Qualitative analysis of CF patient and family interviews provided insights into barriers to participation in clinical trials, safety concerns, perspectives on safety monitoring and educational priorities. We plan a multicenter study to determine if the revised brochure reduces knowledge, attitude and practice barriers regarding participation in CF clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Poisson processes and a Bessel function integral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steutel, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The probability of winning a simple game of competing Poisson processes turns out to be equal to the well-known Bessel function integral J(x, y) (cf. Y. L. Luke, Integrals of Bessel Functions, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962). Several properties of J, some of which seem to be new, follow quite easily

  18. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  19. Prompt neutron energy spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Boykov, G.S.; Vitenko, V.A.

    1985-06-01

    The prompt neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 has been measured in 0.01-10 MeV region by the time-of-flight technique using a fast ionization chamber with U-235 layers as the neutron detector. Numerical data for the spectrum are presented, with an error file. (author)

  20. Reversible pH-dependent activation/inactivation of CF(1-ATPase of spinach chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Khomochkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the reverse pH-dependent regulation of the enzymatic activity of the catalytic part of ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14 of chloroplast – coupling factor CF1. It was shown that the short-term incubation of isolated CF1 in the media with pH 4.5 or 3.5 leads to inactivation of Ca2+-ATPase, which is rapidly (t1/2 ~ 1 min restored in the medium containing 0.5-10 mM bicarbonate at pH 7.8. After acid treatment, the rate of Mg2+-ATPase reaction was also stimulated in the presence of 1 mM bicarbonate (рН 7.8; 37 °С. The increase in Ca2+– and Mg2+-АТР activity of CF1 associated with the addition of NaHCO3 solution was completely eliminated after the introduction of 50 mM acetazolamide – a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. The obtained results suggest the existence of the bound bicarbonate in the CF1 structure, which apparently participates in proton transfer.

  1. Assessment of Analytic Morphograph CF-1 manufactured by Kent Laboratory Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    An addendum is presented covering the assessment of an Analytic Morphograph CF-1 which incorporates the design modifications which arose out of the initial assessment in the main DHSS report. The assessment, made at Booth Hall Children's Hospital, evaluated modifications including X-ray field size adjustment, improved patient supports, operator's protective screen, film screens and grid and film marking. (U.K.)

  2. Stereoselective Oxidation of Thiacalix[4]arenes with the NaNO3/CF3COOH System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhoták, P.; Morávek, J.; Šmejkal, T.; Stibor, I.; Sýkora, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 39 (2003), s. 7333-7336 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0926 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : selective oxidation * metal-ions * upper rim Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2003

  3. CF60 Concrete Composition Design and Application on Fudiankou Xijiang Super Large Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Mei; Wen, Sen Yuan; Chen, Jun Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Guangxi Wuzhou City Ring Road Fudiankou Xijiang super large bridge CF60 concrete is a new multi-phase composite high-performance concrete, this paper for the Fudiankou Xijiang bridge structure and characteristics of the project, in accordance with the principle of local materials and technical specification requirements, combined with the site conditions of CF60 engineering high performance concrete component materials, proportion and the technical performance, quantify the main physical and mechanical performance index. Analysis main influencing factors of the technical indicators, reasonable adjustment of concrete mix design parameters, and the use of technical means of admixture and multi-function composite admixture of concrete, obtain the optimal proportion of good work, process, mechanical properties stability and durability of engineering properties, recommend and verification of concrete mix; to explore the CF60 high performance concrete Soil in the Fudiankou Xijiang bridge application technology, detection and tracking the quality of concrete construction, concrete structure during the construction of the key technology and control points is proposed, evaluation of CF60 high performance concrete in the actual engineering application effect and benefit to ensure engineering quality of bridge structure and service life, and super long span bridge engineering construction to provide basis and reference.

  4. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CF6 jet engine performance improvement program. Task 1: Feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic engine improvement concepts selected for subsequent development include: (1) fan improvement; (2) short core exhaust; (3) HP turbine aerodynamic improvement; (4) HP turbine roundness control; (5) HP turbine active clearance control; and (6) cabin air recirculation. The fuel savings for the selected engine modification concepts for the CF6 fleet are estimated.

  6. Group Representation of the Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S.; Miller, K. A. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (N-1), Nuclear Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos(United States)

    2011-12-15

    We review the spectral representation used for the prompt fission neutron spectrum of 252Cf in the International Organization for Standardization document ISO 8529-1. We find corrections to Table A.2, the discrete group structure form, of this report are needed. We describe the approach to generating replacement values and provide a new tabulation.

  7. PRAGMA-CF. A quantitative structural lung disease CT outcome in young children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenow, Tim; Oudraad, Merel C.J.; Murray, Conor P.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Chest computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for demonstrating cystic fibrosis (CF) airways disease. However, there are no standardised outcome measures appropriate for children under 6 years. OBJECTIVES: We developed the Perth-Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for ...

  8. Application of modular neutron spectrometer to measure neutron spectra from fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zelazny, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The neutron spectrometer MONA (Modular Neutron Array) and its test has been described. The spectrometers consist of eight BC-501A liquid scintillator detectors of BICRON which allow one to distinguish between the pulses from gamma quanta and neutrons using pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method. The electronic equipment for the PSD and the test result using the 252 Cf radioactive source are presented

  9. Determination of kinetics parameters using stochastic methods in a 252Cf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    Safety analysis and control system design of nuclear systems require the knowledge of neutron kinetics related parameters like effective delayed neutron fraction, neutron lifetime, time between neutron generations and subcriticality margins. Many methods, deterministic and stochastic, are being used, some since the beginning of nuclear power, to measure these important parameters. The method based on the use of the 252 Cf neutron source has been under intense study at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both experimentally and theoretically, during the last years. The increasing demand for this isotope in industrial and medical applications and new designs of advanced high flux reactors to produce it make the isotope available as neutron source (only few micrograms are necessary). A thin layer of 252 Cf is deposited in one of the electrodes of a fission chamber which produces pulses each time the 252 Cf disintegrates via α or spontaneous fission decay; the smaller pulses associated with the α decay can be easily discriminated with the important result that we known the time when v/sub c/ neutrons are injected into the system (number of neutrons per fission of 252 Cf). Thus, a small (few cm 3 ) and nonintrusive device can be used as a random pulsed neutron source with known natural properties that do no depend on biases associated with more complex interrogating devices like accelerators. This paper presents a general formalism that relates the kinetics parameters with stochastic descriptors that naturally appear because of the random nature of the production and transport of neutrons

  10. New frameshift CF mutation 3729delAinsTCT in a Tunisian cystic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. New frameshift CF mutation 3729delAinsTCT in a Tunisian cystic fibrosis patient. Sondess Hadj Fredj Monia Boudaya Sabrine Oueslati Safa Sahnoun Chaima Sahli Hajer Siala Khedija Boussetta Amina Bibi Taieb Messaoud. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 April ...

  11. Core Facility of the Juelich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE - CF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, J.; Troemel, S.

    2017-12-01

    A multiple and holistic multi-sensor monitoring of clouds and precipitation processes is a challenging but promising task in the meteorological community. Instrument synergies offer detailed views in microphysical and dynamical developments of clouds. Since 2017 The the Juelich Observatory for Cloud Evolution (JOYCE) is transformed into a Core Facility (JOYCE - CF). JOYCE - CF offers multiple long-term remote sensing observations of the atmosphere, develops an easy access to all observations and invites scientists word wide to exploit the existing data base for their research but also to complement JOYCE-CF with additional long-term or campaign instrumentation. The major instrumentation contains a twin set of two polarimetric X-band radars, a microwave profiler, two cloud radars, an infrared spectrometer, a Doppler lidar and two ceilometers. JOYCE - CF offers easy and open access to database and high quality calibrated observations of all instruments. E.g. the two polarimetric X-band radars which are located in 50 km distance are calibrated using the self-consistency method, frequently repeated vertical pointing measurements as well as instrument synergy with co-located micro-rain radar and distrometer measurements. The presentation gives insights into calibration procedures, the standardized operation procedures and recent synergistic research exploiting our radars operating at three different frequencies.

  12. Cloning and characterization of ATP synthase CF1 α gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATP synthase CF1 α subunit protein is a key enzyme for energy metabolism in plant kingdom, and plays an important role in multiple cell processes. In this study, the complete atpA gene (accession no. JN247444) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction ...

  13. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D.; DeJong, Pim A.; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M.; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R 2 = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  14. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  15. An evaluation of the spontaneous fission prompt neutron spectrum of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojkov, G.S.; Yurevich, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of the spontaneous fission prompt neutron spectrum of 252 Cf from 1 keV to 20 MeV is described. Variance-covariance matrices for a number of recent experimental data sets were constructed and used to evaluate the neutron spectrum following a Bayesian procedure. The evaluated spectrum is compared with various experimental and theoretical representations. (author)

  16. Analysis of geological material and especially ores by means of a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrandon, J.N.; Borderie, B.; Melky, S.; Halfon, J.; Marce, A.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were made on the possibilities for analysis by 252 Cf activation in the earth sciences and mining research. The results obtained show that while 252 Cf activation can only resolve certain very specific geochemical research problems, it does allow the exact and rapid determination of numerous elements whose ores are of great economic importance such as fluorine, titanium, vanadium, manganese, copper, antimony, barium, and tungsten. The utilization of activation analysis methods in the earth sciences is not a recent phenomenon. It has generally been limited to the analysis of traces in relatively small volumes by means of irradiation in nuclear reactors. Traditional neutron sources were little used and were not very applicable. The development of 252 Cf isotopic sources emitting more intense neutron fluxes make it possible to consider carrying out more sensitive determinations without making use of a nuclear reactor. In addition, this technique can be adapted for in situ analysis in mines and mine borings. Our work which is centered upon the possibilities of instrumental laboratory analyses of geological materials through 252 Cf activation is oriented in two principal directions: the study of the experimental sensitivities of the various elements in different rocks with the usual compositions; and the study of the possibilities for routine ore analyses

  17. Thinning and functionalization of few-layer graphene sheets by CF4 plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Cao, Ronggen; Cheng, Yingchun; Ding, Fei; Huang, Gaoshan; Mei, Yongfeng; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    of the graphene lattice as well as functionalization during the plasma treatment. The F/CF3 adsorption and the lattice distortion produced are proved by theoretical simulation using density functional theory, which also predicts p-type doping and Dirac cone

  18. Fluorocarbon polymer formation, characterization, and reduction in polycrystalline-silicon etching with CF4-added plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Songlin; Sun Zhiwen; Chen Arthur; Qian Xueyu; Podlesnik, Dragan

    2001-01-01

    Addition of CF 4 into HBr-based plasma for polycrystalline-silicon gate etching reduces the deposition of an etch byproduct, silicon oxide, onto the chamber wall but tends to generate organic polymer. In this work, a detailed study has been carried out to analyze the mechanism of polymerization and to characterize the polymer composition and quantity. The study has shown that the polymer formation is due to the F-radical depletion by H atoms dissociated from HBr. The composition of the polymer changes significantly with CF 4 concentration in the gas feed, and the polymer deposition rate depends on CF 4 % and other process conditions such as source power, bias power, and pressure. Surface temperature also affects the polymer deposition rate. Adding O 2 into the plasma can clean the organic polymer, but the O 2 amount has to be well controlled in order to prevent the formation of silicon oxide. Based on a series of tests to evaluate polymer deposition and oxide cleaning with O 2 addition, an optimized process regime in terms of O 2 -to-CF 4 ratio has been identified to simultaneously suppress the polymer and oxide deposition so that the etch process becomes self-cleaning

  19. The Degradation Behavior of SiCf/SiO2 Composites in High-Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Cao, Feng; Qing, Wang; Peng, Zhi-hang; Wang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    SiCf/SiO2 composites had been fabricated efficiently by Sol-Gel method. The oxidation behavior, thermal shock property and ablation behavior of SiCf/SiO2 composites was investigated. SiCf/SiO2 composites showed higher oxidation resistance in oxidation atmosphere, the flexural strength retention ratio was larger than 90.00%. After 1300 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 97.00%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 92.60%, while after 1500 °C thermal shock, the mass retention ratio was 95.37%, and the flexural strength retention ratio was 83.34%. After 15 s ablation, the mass loss rate was 0.049 g/s and recession loss rate was 0.067 mm/s. The SiO2 matrix was melted in priority and becomes loosen and porous. With the ablation going on, the oxides were washed away by the shearing action of the oxyacetylene flame. The evaporation of SiO2 took away large amount of heat, which is also beneficial to the protection for SiCf/SiO2 composites.

  20. The reaction of CF2Cl2 with gas-phase hydrated electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lengyel, J.; van der Linde, Ch.; Fárník, Michal; Beyer, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 34 (2016), s. 23910-23915 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08937S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : NEGATIVE-ION FORMATION * INFRARED RADIATIVE DISSOCIATION * POLAR MOLECULE COLLISIONS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  1. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  2. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  3. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  4. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  5. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  6. Banach spaces that realize minimal fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednov, B. B.; Borodin, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    It is proved that a real Banach space realizes minimal fillings for all its finite subsets (a shortest network spanning a fixed finite subset always exists and has the minimum possible length) if and only if it is a predual of L 1 . The spaces L 1 are characterized in terms of Steiner points (medians). Bibliography: 25 titles. (paper)

  7. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  8. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  9. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi

  10. Safety Distances for hydrogen filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, A. J. C. M.; Kooi, E. S.

    2005-07-01

    In the Netherlands there is a growing interest in using natural gas as a transport fuel. The most important drivers behind this development are formed by poor inner city air quality and the decision to close several LPG filling stations. Dwellings are not allowed within the safety distances of 45 or 110 meters from the tanker filling point of these LPG stations, depending on the capacity of the station. Another driver is global warming. We are carrying out a study on station supply, compression, storage and filling for natural gas stations, and a similar, simultaneous study on hydrogen as a followup to our risk analysis for the hydrogen filling station in Amsterdam. Here, three buses drive on hydrogen as part of the European CUTE project. Driving on natural gas is an important step in the transition to cars on hydrogen. This study was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment to advise on external safety aspects of future hydrogen filling stations. According to Dutch law homes may not be built within an individual risk contour of 10-6 per year of a dangerous object, such as a plant with hazardous materials or a filling station. An individual risk contour of 10-6 is represented by a line around a dangerous object that connects locations with an individual risk level of 10-6 per year. An individual 'located' within this contour line has a chance of one per million per year or more to be killed as a result of an accident caused by this object. The longest distance between the object and such a contour is called a 'safety distance'. A study on safety distances is now in progress for different kinds of hydrogen filling stations (e. g. gaseous and liquid hydrogen) and for different capacities, such as big, medium and small stations. The focus is on different kinds of hydrogen production and the hydrogen supply of the filling station. To decide on the design and supply of the hydrogen station, we examined the

  11. Space-Time Water-Filling for Composite MIMO Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the ergodic capacity and channel outage probability for a composite MIMO channel model, which includes both fast fading and shadowing effects. The ergodic capacity and exact channel outage probability with space-time water-filling can be evaluated through numerical integrations, which can be further simplified by using approximated empirical eigenvalue and maximal eigenvalue distribution of MIMO fading channels. We also compare the performance of space-time water-filling with spatial water-filling. For MIMO channels with small shadowing effects, spatial water-filling performs very close to space-time water-filling in terms of ergodic capacity. For MIMO channels with large shadowing effects, however, space-time water-filling achieves significantly higher capacity per antenna than spatial water-filling at low to moderate SNR regimes, but with a much higher channel outage probability. We show that the analytical capacity and outage probability results agree very well with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  13. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen by the benthic toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauzein, Cécile; Couet, Douglas; Blasco, Thierry; Lemée, Rodolphe

    2017-05-01

    Environmental factors that shape dynamics of benthic toxic blooms are largely unknown. In particular, for the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata, the importance of the availability of nutrients and the contribution of the inorganic and organic pools to growth need to be quantified in marine coastal environments. The present study aimed at characterizing N-uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic sources by O. cf. ovata cells, using the 15 N-labelling technique. Experiments were conducted taking into account potential interactions between nutrient uptake systems as well as variations with the diel cycle. Uptake abilities of O. cf. ovata were parameterized for ammonium (NH 4 + ), nitrate (NO 3 - ) and N-urea, from the estimation of kinetic and inhibition parameters. In the range of 0 to 10μmolNL -1 , kinetic curves showed a clear preference pattern following the ranking NH 4 + >NO 3 - >N-urea, where the preferential uptake of NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was accentuated by an inhibitory effect of NH 4 + concentration on NO 3 - uptake capabilities. Conversely, under high nutrient concentrations, the preference for NH 4 + relative to NO 3 - was largely reduced, probably because of the existence of a low-affinity high capacity inducible NO 3 - uptake system. Ability to take up nutrients in darkness could not be defined as a competitive advantage for O. cf. ovata. Species competitiveness can also be defined from nutrient uptake kinetic parameters. A strong affinity for NH 4 + was observed for O. cf. ovata cells that may partly explain the success of this toxic species during the summer season in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-mer (France). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth retardation and reduced growth hormone secretion in cystic fibrosis. Clinical observations from three CF centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, D'Orazio; Padoan, Rita; Blau, Hannah; Marostica, Anna; Fuoti, Maurizio; Volpi, Sonia; Pilotta, Alba; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh M

    2013-03-01

    Growth delay in cystic fibrosis is frequent and is usually the result of several interacting causes. It most often derives from severe respiratory impairment and severe malabsorption. There are however patients whose clinical condition is not severe enough to be held accountable for this phenomenon. We aimed at describing patients who showed growth delay, who were not affected by severe pulmonary disease or malabsorption and who, when tested, showed a reduced GH secretion after stimulation with conventional agents. We noticed a disproportionately large prevalence of growth hormone (GH) release deficit (GHRD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We examined all patients under our care in the period 2006-11, who were older than 5 and younger than 16 years old. We focussed on those who fell below the 3rd height percentile, or whose growth during the previous 18 months faltered by >2SD, and who did not present clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive. These patients were subjected to standard GH provocative tests. Out of 285 who matched the age criterion, 33 patients also matched the height percentile criterion. While 15/33 suffered clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive, 18/33 underwent GH release provocative tests and 12/18 showed a release deficit. We conclude that impaired GH secretion is more frequent among CF patients compared to the prevalence of GH deficiency in the general population and that GH release impairment may be an independent cause of growth delay in CF. Our findings are in agreement with recent studies that have described low GH levels in CF piglets and in neonates with CF [1]. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  16. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  17. 3D printing cybersecurity: detecting and preventing attacks that seek to weaken a printed object by changing fill level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Prior work by Zeltmann, et al. has demonstrated the impact of small defects and other irregularities on the structural integrity of 3D printed objects. It posited that such defects could be introduced intentionally. The current work looks at the impact of changing the fill level on object structural integrity. It considers whether the existence of an appropriate level of fill can be determined through visible light imagery-based assessment of a 3D printed object. A technique for assessing the quality and sufficiency of quantity of 3D printed fill material is presented. It is assessed experimentally and results are presented and analyzed.

  18. Corrosion of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (CF-AMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shruti

    The first objective of this research is to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of continuous reinforced aluminum matrix composites (CF-AMCs). The materials used for this research were alumina (Al2O3) and nickel (Ni) coated carbon (C) fibers reinforced AMCs. The major focus is to identify the correlation between atmospheric parameters and the corrosion rates of CF-AMCs in the multitude of microclimates and environments in Hawai'i. The micro-structures of CF-AMCs were obtained to correlate the microstructures with their corrosion performances. Also electrochemical polarization experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explain the corrosion mechanism of CF-AMCs. In addition, CF-AMCs were exposed to seven different test sites for three exposure periods. The various climatic conditions like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall (RF), time of wetness (TOW), chloride (Cl- ) and sulfate (SO42-) deposition rate, and pH were monitored for three exposure period. Likewise, mass losses of CF-AMCs at each test site for three exposure periods were determined. The microstructure of the CF-AMCS showed that Al/C/50f MMCs contained a Ni-rich phase in the matrix, indicating that the Ni coating on the C fiber dissolved in the matrix. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al-2wt% Cu/Al 2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al-2wt%-T6 monolith were rich in Cu and Fe. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al 7075-T6 monolith also contained traces of Mg, Zn, Ni, and Si. Electrochemical polarization experiment indicated that the Al/Al 2O3/50f Al-2wt% Cu/Al2O3/50f-T6 and Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC showed similar corrosion trends as their respective monoliths pure Al, Al-2wt%-T6 and Al 7075-T6 in both aerated and deaerated condition. Al2O3 fiber, being an insulator, did not have a great effect on the polarization behavior of the composites. Al/C/50f MMCs corroded at a much faster rate as compared to pure Al monolith due to the galvanic effect between C and Al

  19. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level m...

  20. Implications of the recent D-T μCF experiments at RIKEN-RAL and near-future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Ishida, K.; Nakamura, S.N.; Kawamura, N.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes physics implications obtained through the recent experimental results on D-T μCF at RIKEN-RAL. Smaller sticking and larger cycling rates in solid/liquid D-T mixture than the theoretical predictions were observed, suggesting needs of further theoretical understandings. Some possible future directions in D-T μCF experiments are also described

  1. TEA CO2 laser-induced reaction of CH3NO2 with CF2HCl: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and CH3NO2 molecules as well as UV absorption of CF2 radicals are carried out to elucidate ... nitromethane and H2 under high fluence conditions 10, bright visible ... CF2HCl was monitored by gas chromatography and FTIR spectrometry.

  2. Environmental Fatigue Behaviors of CF8M Stainless Steel in 310 .deg. C Deoxygenated Water - Effects of Hydrogen and Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hun; Cho, Pyungyeon; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Soon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    The effects of environment and microstructure on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of CF8M stainless steels containing 11% of ferrites were investigated in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water environment. The reduction of LCF life of CF8M in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water was smaller than 316LN stainless steels. Based on the microstructure and fatigue surface analyses, it was confirmed that the hydrogen induced cracking contributed to the reduction in LCF life for CF8M as well as for 316LN. However, many secondary cracks were found on the boundaries of ferrite phases in CF8M, which effectively reduced the stress concentration at the crack tip. Because of the reduced stress concentration, the accelerated fatigue crack growth by hydrogen induced cracking was less significant, which resulted in the smaller environmental effects for CF8M than 316LN in a 310 .deg. C deoxygenated water.

  3. Separation of 248Cm (III) from 252Cf (III) and its use in time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic (TRFS) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.S.; Nair, A.G.C.; Gujar, R.B.; Jain, A.; Tomar, B.S.; Godbole, S.V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The present report gives a description of the methodology for the separation of 248 Cm(III) from decayed 252 Cf (III) waste solution. The waste solution was first assayed for 252 Cf content by neutron counting using a neutron well coincidence counter. The sample was subjected to the chemical separation of 248 Cm (III) from 252 Cf (III) following anion and cation exchange chromatography. The alpha spectrum of the separated curium fraction showed peaks due to 246 Cm and 248 Cm while the corresponding alpha spectrum of californium fraction showed 249,250,251,252 Cf. The gamma ray abundances of 249 Cf were determined with respect to its gamma rays of 387 keV and the data agreed well with that in literature. Separated Cm(III) was further characterized by recording its time resolved fluorescence spectrum (TRFS) in aqueous medium. (author)

  4. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  5. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  6. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    to the prospects of improving the structural quality, working environment, productivity, and architectural appearance. However, especially in vertical applications there is a great unused potential. Controlling the casting process is important in many different industries such as the metal, plastic, and food...... the framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is applied to simulate the homogeneous form filling characteristics, i.e. the form filling ability and flow patterns, taking into account the rheological properties and casting technique. It is assumed that the rheological properties of SCC follow...... dimensions. For the heterogeneous flow phenomena, this project focusses on the assessment of blocking, which is of special interest in relation to high quality and complicated structures with a dense reinforcement configuration. A phenomenological micro-mechanical model has been developed, which introduces...

  7. Evaluation of the BioVigilant IMD-A, a novel optical spectroscopy technology for the continuous and real-time environmental monitoring of viable and nonviable particles. Part II. Case studies in environmental monitoring during aseptic filling, intervention assessments, and glove integrity testing in manufacturing isolators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael J; Walsh, Michael R; Shrake, Jerry L; Dukes, Randall E; Hill, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the BioVigilant IMD-A, a real-time and continuous monitoring technology based on optical spectroscopy, to simultaneously and instantaneously detect, size, and enumerate both viable and nonviable particles in a variety of filling and transfer isolator environments during an aseptic fill, transfer of sterilized components, and filling interventions. Continuous monitoring of three separate isolators for more than 16 h and representing more than 28 m3 of air per isolator (under static conditions) yielded a mean viable particle count of zero (0) per cubic meter. Although the mean count per cubic meter was zero, the detection of very low levels of single viable particles was randomly observed in each of these sampling runs. No viable particles were detected during the manual transfer of sterilized components from transfer isolators into a filling isolator, and similar results were observed during an aseptic fill, a filling needle change-out procedure, and during disassembly, movement, and reassembly of a vibrating stopper bowl. During the continuous monitoring of a sample transfer port and a simulated mousehole, no viable particles were detected; however, when the sampling probe was inserted beyond the isolator-room interface, the IMD-A instantaneously detected and enumerated both viable and nonviable particles originating from the surrounding room. Data from glove pinhole studies showed no viable particles being observed, although significant viable particles were immediately detected when the gloves were removed and a bare hand was allowed to introduce microorganisms into the isolator. The IMD-A technology offers the industry an unprecedented advantage over growth-based bioaerosol samplers for monitoring the state of microbiological control in pharmaceutical manufacturing environments, and represents significant progress toward the acceptance of microbiology process analytical technology solutions for the industry.

  8. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  9. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  10. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  11. The partially filled viscous ring damper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfriend, K. T.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of a spinning satellite with a partially filled viscous ring damper is investigated. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, the nutation-synchronous mode and spin-synchronous mode. From an approximate solution of the equations of motion a time constant is obtained for each mode. From a consideration of the fluid dynamics several methods are developed for determining the damping constant.

  12. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  13. Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps

    KAUST Repository

    Beydoun, Wafik B.

    2015-09-01

    After receiving an outstanding response to its inaugural workshop in 2013, SEG once again achieved great success with its 2015 SEG Middle East Workshop, “Full-waveform inversion: Filling the gaps,” which took place 30 March–1 April 2015 in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The workshop was organized by SEG, and its partner sponsors were Saudi Aramco (gold sponsor), ExxonMobil, and CGG. Read More: http://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/tle34091106.1

  14. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  15. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Iida

    Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  16. Impact of enzymatic digestion on bacterial community composition in CF airway samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. Williamson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Staphylococcus, an important bacterial group in cystic fibrosis (CF. We sought to evaluate the effect of enzymatic digestion (EnzD prior to DNA extraction on bacterial communities identified in sputum and oropharyngeal swab (OP samples from patients with CF. Methods DNA from 81 samples (39 sputum and 42 OP collected from 63 patients with CF was extracted in duplicate with and without EnzD. Bacterial communities were determined by rRNA gene sequencing, and measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA was used to assess differences at the community level and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to compare relative abundance (RA of individual genera for paired samples with and without EnzD. Results Shannon Diversity Index (alpha-diversity decreased in sputum and OP samples with the use of EnzD. Larger shifts in community composition were observed for OP samples (beta-diversity, measured by Morisita-Horn, whereas less change in communities was observed for sputum samples. The use of EnzD with OP swabs resulted in significant increase in RA for the genera Gemella (p < 0.01, Streptococcus (p < 0.01, and Rothia (p < 0.01. Staphylococcus (p < 0.01 was the only genus with a significant increase in RA from sputum, whereas the following genera decreased in RA with EnzD: Veillonella (p < 0.01, Granulicatella (p < 0.01, Prevotella (p < 0.01, and Gemella (p = 0.02. In OP samples, higher RA of Gram-positive taxa was associated with larger changes in microbial community composition. Discussion We show that the application of EnzD to CF airway samples, particularly OP swabs, results in differences in microbial communities detected by sequencing. Use of EnzD can result in large changes in bacterial community composition, and is particularly useful for detection of Staphylococcus in CF OP

  17. Boron filled siloxane polymers for radiation shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouriau, Andrea; Robison, Tom; Shonrock, Clinton; Simmonds, Steve; Cox, Brad; Pacheco, Adam; Cady, Carl

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate changes to structure-property relationships of 10B filled siloxane-based polymers when exposed to nuclear reactor radiation. Highly filled polysiloxanes were synthesized with the intent of fabricating materials that could shield high neutron fluences. The newly formulated materials consisted of cross-linked poly-diphenyl-methylsiloxane filled with natural boron and carbon nanofibers. This polymer was chosen because of its good thermal and chemical stabilities, as well as resistance to ionizing radiation thanks to the presence of aromatic groups in the siloxane backbone. Highly isotopically enriched 10B filler was used to provide an efficient neutron radiation shield, and carbon nanofibers were added to improve mechanical strength. This novel polymeric material was exposed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Labs to five different neutron/gamma fluxes consisting of very high neutron fluences within very short time periods. Thermocouples placed on the specimens recorded in-situ temperature changes during radiation exposure, which agreed well with those obtained from our MCNP simulations. Changes in the microstructural, thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM, DSC, TGA, FT-IR NMR, solvent swelling, and uniaxial compressive load measurements. Our results demonstrate that these newly formulated materials are well-suitable to be used in applications that require exposure to different types of ionizing conditions that take place simultaneously.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  19. Chlorination-promoted skeletal transformation of IPR C76 discovered via trifluoromethylation under the formation of non-IPR C76(CF3)nFm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Nadezhda B; Brotsman, Victor A; Markov, Vitaliy Yu; Kemnitz, Erhard; Troyanov, Sergey I

    2018-05-22

    High-temperature chlorination of an Isolated-Pentagon Rule (IPR) D2-C76 fullerene followed by high-temperature trifluoromethylation of non-IPR C76 chlorides with CF3I unexpectedly resulted in a series of non-IPR C76(CF3)nFm compounds. X-ray diffraction study with the use of synchrotron radiation revealed the mixed CF3/F structures of non-classical, non-IPR C76(CF3)14, C76(CF3)14F2, and C76(CF3)16F6.

  20. Effects of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A F; Contins, Mariana; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2018-04-01

    Blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata have been recorded with increasing frequency, intensity and geographic distribution. This dinoflagellate produces potent toxins that may cause mortality of marine invertebrates. Adults of sea urchins are commonly affected by O. cf. ovata exposure with evidence of spines loss and high mortality during periods of high dinoflagellate abundances. Here, we report on the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate O. cf. ovata on fertilization and early development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, a key ecological herbivore. Lytechinus variegatus eggs and sperm were experimentally exposed to different concentrations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata (4, 40, 400, and 4000 cells ml -1 ) to test the hypothesis that fertilization success, embryonic and larval development of the sea urchin are negatively affected by the toxic dinoflagellate even at low abundances. Reduced fertilization, developmental failures, embryo and larval mortality, and occurrence of abnormal offspring were evident after exposure to O. cf. ovata. Fertilization decreased when gametes were exposed to high O. cf. ovata abundances (400 and 4000 cells ml -1 ), but just the exposure to the highest abundance significantly reduced fertilization success. Sea urchin early development was affected by O. cf. ovata in a dose-dependent way, high dinoflagellate abundances fully inhibited the early development of L. variegatus. Ostreopsis cf. ovata significantly increased the mortality of sea urchin eggs and embryos in the first hours of exposure (∼1-3 h), regardless of dinoflagellate abundance. Abundances of 400 and 4000 O. cf. ovata cells ml -1 induced significantly higher mortality on sea urchin initial stages in the first hours, and no egg or embryo was found in these treatments after 18 h of incubation. The early echinopluteus larva was only reached in the control and in treatments with low Ostreopsis cf. ovata abundances (4 and 40 cells ml -1 ). The

  1. Optimization of in situ prompt gamma-ray analysis using a HPGe-252Cf probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien Chung; Jiunnhsing Chao

    1991-01-01

    Application of in situ measurements by the neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) technique to geochemical analysis and mineral survey have been investigated. An in situ survey of water pollutants by PGAA techniques was first proposed in the authors' previous study, where a 2.7-μg 252 Cf neutron source used in connection with a gamma-ray detecting system to determine water pollutants was described. In this paper the authors describe a modified detection probe designed and constructed to look for the optimum conditions of various-intensity 252 Cf neutron sources in measurement of some elements in lake water. Detecting efficiencies at high-energy regions and detection limits for elements commonly found in polluted lakes were evaluated and predicted to investigate the potential application of the probe for in situ measurements

  2. Dispersions and correlations of the distributions of products of 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidyakin, G.S.; Vyrodov, V.N.; Gurevich, I.I.; Kirillov, B.F.; Kozlov, Y.V.; Martem'yanov, V.P.; Sukhotin, S.V.; Tarasenkov, V.G.; Khakimov, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    We report the results of two experiments on study of the dispersions and correlations of the distributions of products of the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. In each experiment about 10 8 fissions were recorded with simultaneous measurement of the number of neutrons produced and in one case the fragment kinetic energy and in the other case the energy of the prompt #betta# rays. The quantities obtained were the probabilities of production of a given number of neutrons per fission, the dispersions of the distributions of the number of neutrons produced and of the fragment kinetic energy, and the dependence of the average #betta#-ray energy and the average fragment kinetic energy on the number of neutrons produced. A calculation is made of the spectrum of the total energy carried away by fragments and neutrons, and its dispersion is determined. An estimate of the total energy release in the 252 Cf fission process is made

  3. Molecular weight determination of bisbenzyl-isoquinoline alkaloids by 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Hiroi, Tomoko; Kouyama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masashi; Yago, Nagasumi; Nakamura, Iwao

    1995-01-01

    Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha have been used for various clinical purposes and recently reevaluated as stimulators of interleukin secretion in tissues. We analyzed molecular stuctures of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids by determining their molecular weights using the 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS). The spectra were accumulated for 500 000 fission events. The acceleration voltage used here was 15 kV. Samples were analyzed using nitrocellulose-coated sample targets. Of the 5 alkaloids studied here, cepharanthine gave a main peak of molecular weight of 606.1 for the theoretical molecular weight of 606.7. The other minor peaks were considered to be demethylated fragment ions. 252 Cf-PDMS should be quite useful in studying structure, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of various drugs with extremely low coefficients of variation. (author)

  4. 77 K Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of Modified CF8M Stainless Steel Castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R. P.; Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Heitzenroeder, P. J.; Nelson, B. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX) is the first of a new class of stellarators. The modular superconducting coils in the NCSX have complex geometry that are manufactured on cast stainless steel (modified CF8M) winding forms. Although CF8M castings have been used before at cryogenic temperature there is limited data available for their mechanical properties at low temperatures. The fatigue life behavior of the cast material is vital thus a test program to generate data on representative material has been conducted. Fatigue test specimens have been obtained from key locations within prototype winding forms to determine the 77 K fatigue crack growth rate. The testing has successfully developed a representative database that ensures confident design. The measured crack growth rates are analyzed in terms of the Paris law parameters and the crack growth properties are related to the materials microstructure

  5. Frequency spectrum analysis of 252Cf neutron source based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Deling; Li Pengcheng

    2011-01-01

    The frequency spectrum analysis of 252 Cf Neutron source is an extremely important method in nuclear stochastic signal processing. Focused on the special '0' and '1' structure of neutron pulse series, this paper proposes a fast-correlation algorithm to improve the computational rate of the spectrum analysis system. And the multi-core processor technology is employed as well as multi-threaded programming techniques of LabVIEW to construct frequency spectrum analysis system of 252 Cf neutron source based on LabVIEW. It not only obtains the auto-correlation and cross correlation results, but also auto-power spectrum,cross-power spectrum and ratio of spectral density. The results show that: analysis tools based on LabVIEW improve the fast auto-correlation and cross correlation code operating efficiency about by 25% to 35%, also verify the feasibility of using LabVIEW for spectrum analysis. (authors)

  6. IRAS galaxies and the large-scale structure in the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Postman, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies in the first CfA slice are compared. The IRAS galaxies are generally less clustered than optical ones, but their distribution is essentially identical to that of late-type optical galaxies. The discrepancy between the clustering properties of the IRAS and optical samples in the CfA slice region is found to be entirely due to the paucity of IRAS galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster. The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies, both late and early types, outside the dense core of the Coma cluster are entirely consistent with each other. This conflicts with the prediction of the linear biasing scenario.

  7. Trifluoroethylation of Alkynes: Synthesis of Allylic-CF3 Compounds by Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geum-bee Roh; Naeem Iqbal; Eun Jin Cho

    2016-01-01

    Two types of allylic trifluoromethylated compounds were synthesized by reacting alkynes with CF3CH2I using visible-light photocatalysis.Subtle differences in the catalytic system controlled the selectivity of iodotrifluoroethylation and hydrotrifluoroethylation.The iodotrifluoroethylated products were obtained in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3]C12 and TMEDA in CH3CN under visible-light irradiation,whereas hydrotrifluoroethylated products were synthesized usingfac-[Ir(ppy)3] and a mixture of DBU and K2CO3 in DMF.The iodotrifluoroethylation reaction worked particularly well,even at gram-scale,and the synthetic utility of iodotrifluoroethylated products was proved by their coupling reactions,providing complex CF3-containing products.

  8. Determining {sup 252}Cf source strength by absolute passive neutron correlation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6166 (United States); Henzlova, D., E-mail: henzlova@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    Physically small, lightly encapsulated, radionuclide sources containing {sup 252}Cf are widely used for a vast variety of industrial, medical, educational and research applications requiring a convenient source of neutrons. For many quantitative applications, such as detector efficiency calibrations, the absolute strength of the neutron emission is needed. In this work we show how, by using a neutron multiplicity counter the neutron emission rate can be obtained with high accuracy. This provides an independent and alternative way to create reference sources in-house for laboratories such as ours engaged in international safeguards metrology. The method makes use of the unique and well known properties of the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission system and applies advanced neutron correlation counting methods. We lay out the foundation of the method and demonstrate it experimentally. We show that accuracy comparable to the best methods currently used by national bodies to certify neutron source strengths is possible.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3COOH. Kinetics of the reaction with OH radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, T.E.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two different experimental techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reaction of OH radicals with trifluoroacetic acid, CF3COOH. Using a pulse radiolysis absolute rate technique, rate constants at 315 and 348 K were determined to be (1.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(-13) and (1.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(-13) cm3...... molecule-1 s-1, respectively. Using a long path-length FTIR relative rate technique a rate constant of (1.7 +/- 0.5) x 10(-13) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was obtained at 296 K. In the atmosphere, reaction with OH radicals in the gas phase is estimated to account for 10%-20% of the loss of CF3COOH. The major fate...

  10. Etching of anode wire deposits with CF4/isobutane (80:20) avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, R.; Henderson, R.S.; Faszer, W.; Salomon, M.

    1990-11-01

    An ionization exposure of 0.5 coulombs per cm of wire in a gas mixture of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) is shown to reverse anode wire damage in single-wire chambers. Several chambers aged in argon/ethane (50:50) and argon/ethane/ethanol (50:50:0.2) and having pulse height reductions of 25-30% have recovered pulse heights and currents to greater than 98% of their initial values. Inspection of the anode wires indicates that the thick deposits caused by the exposure in argon/ethane have been removed. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals only a thin residual layer containing primarily carbon and oxygen. This etching ability of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) avalanches may explain the extremely good ageing characteristics previously reported for this mixture. (Author) (13 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.)

  11. Etching of anode wire deposits with CF4/isobutane (80:20) avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, R.; Henderson, R.S.; Faszer, W.; Salomon, M.

    1991-01-01

    An ionization exposure of 0.5 C per cm of wire in a gas mixture of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) is shown to reverse anode wire damage in single-wire chambers. Several chambers aged in argon/ethane (50:50) and argon/ethane/ethanol (50:50:0.2) and having pulse height reduction of 25-30% have recovered pulse heights and currents to greater than 98% of their initial values. Inspection of the anode wires indicates that the thick deposits caused by the exposure in argon/ethane have been removed. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals only a thin residual layer containing primarily carbon and oxygen. This etching ability of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) avalanches may explain the extremely good ageing characteristics previously reported for this mixture. (orig.)

  12. The application of n-γ discrimination in 252Cf spontaneous neutron TOF spectra measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haojun; Zhang Yi; Li Jiansheng; Jin Yu; Wang Jie; Li Chunyuan

    2004-01-01

    The BC501 scintillator is used as a fast neutron detector. The effect that the pulse rise time method was used to discriminate γ from 252 Cf spontaneous neutron TOF spectra is studied in the experiment. A pulse rise time separation spectra of γ and 252 Cf spontaneous neuron upon 1 MeV is obtained, the n-γ separation function reaches to 4.6. When the result of pulse rise time separation coincides with the time-of-flight spectra in which the neutron energy is upon 0.5 MeV, 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, comparing with the anticoincidence, γ was eliminated 99.90% at least. (authors)

  13. Cf-252 neutron brachytherapy: an advance for bulky localized cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and radiobiogical basis as well as the rationale for neutron brachytherapy, using Cf-252, in human cancer therapy is reviewed. Cf-252 brachytherapy represents an economical and effective form of neutron radiotherapy that is readily and safely applied clinically. It can be used anywhere in the world without unusual personnel, equipment or facilities, or prohibitive expenses or maintenance costs. Used on bulky head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, brain and appendage cancers, it overcomes hypoxic radioresistance and produces remarkable rates of tumor clearance. It is easily combined with photon radiotherapy and in proper schedules and doses, it can control advanced but still localized regional cancers to produce tumor cure. It will clear the local manifestations of recurrent or metastatic tumors or advanced stages of primary tumors and therefore in conjunction with other adjuvant therapies offers much more effective tumor control and palliation than present conventional therapy. (Auth.)

  14. Strength of SiCf-SiCm composite tube under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Kirill; Jacobsen, George M.; Alva, Luis; Truesdale, Nathaniel; Deck, Christian P.; Huang, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    The authors report mechanical strength of nuclear grade silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiCf-SiCm) tubing under several different stress states. The composite tubing was fabricated via a Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) process, and is being evaluated for accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding. Several experimental techniques were applied including uniaxial tension, elastomer insert burst test, open and closed end hydraulic bladder burst test, and torsion test. These tests provided critical stress and strain values at proportional limit and at ultimate failure points. Full field strain measurements using digital image correlation (DIC) were obtained in order to acquire quantitative information on localized deformation during application of stress. Based on the test results, a failure map was constructed for the SiCf-SiCm composites.

  15. Solution Structure of an Antifreeze Protein CfAFP-501 from Choristoneura fumiferana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Congmin; Guo Xianrong; Jia Zongchao; Xia Bin; Jin Changwen

    2005-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are widely employed by various organisms as part of their overwintering survival strategy. AFPs have the unique ability to suppress the freezing point of aqueous solution and inhibit ice recrystallization through binding to the ice seed crystals and restricting their growth. The solution structure of CfAFP-501 from spruce budworm has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Our result demonstrates that CfAFP-501 retains its rigid and highly regular structure in solution. Overall, the solution structure is similar to the crystal structure except the N- and C-terminal regions. NMR spin-relaxation experiments further indicate the overall rigidity of the protein and identify a collection of residues with greater flexibilities. Furthermore, Pro91 shows a cis conformation in solution instead of the trans conformation determined in the crystal structure

  16. Cf-252 based neutron radiography using real-time image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Koiso, Manabu; Yamaji, Akihiro; Iwata, Hideki; Kihara, Yoshitaka; Sano, Shigeru; Murata, Yutaka

    2001-01-01

    For compact Cf-252 based neutron radiography, a real-time image processing system by particle counting technique has been developed. The electronic imaging system consists of a supersensitive imaging camera, a real-time corrector, a real-time binary converter, a real-time calculator for centroid, a display monitor and a computer. Three types of accumulated NR image; ordinary, binary and centroid images, can be observed during a measurement. Accumulated NR images were taken by the centroid mode, the binary mode and ordinary mode using of Cf-252 neutron source and those images were compared. The centroid mode presented the sharpest image and its statistical characteristics followed the Poisson distribution, while the ordinary mode showed the smoothest image as the averaging effect by particle bright spots with distributed brightness was most dominant. (author)

  17. Power spectral density measurements with 252Cf for a light water moderated research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.T.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method of determining the reactivity of far subcritical systems from neutron noise power spectral density measurements with 252 Cf has previously been tested in fast reactor critical assemblies: a mockup of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor and a uranium metal sphere. Calculations indicated that this measurement was feasible for a pressurized water reactor (PWR). In order to evaluate the ability to perform these measurements with moderated reactors which have long prompt neutron lifetimes, measurements were performed with a small plate-type research reactor whose neutron lifetime (57 microseconds) was about a factor of three longer than that of a PWR and approx. 50% longer than that of a boiling water reactor. The results of the first measurements of power spectral densities with 252 Cf for a water moderated reactor are presented

  18. Test and evaluation results of the 252Cf shuffler at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    The 252 Cf Shuffler, a nondestructive assay instrument employing californium neutron source irradiation and delayed-neutron counting, was developed for measuring 235 U content of scrap and waste items generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor fuel fabrication facility. The scrap and waste items include high-purity uranium-aluminum alloy ingots as well as pieces of castings, saw and lathe chips from machining operations, low-purity items such as oxides of uranium or uranium intermixed with flux materials found in recovery operations, and materials not recoverable at SRP such as floor sweepings or residues from the uranium scrap recovery operation. The uranium contains about 60% 235 U with the remaining isotopes being 236 U, 238 U, and 234 U in descending order. The test and evaluation at SRP concluded that the accuracy, safety, reliability, and ease of use made the 252 Cf Shuffler a suitable instrument for routine use in an industrial, production-oriented plant

  19. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf Standard and IRDF-2002 Reference Neutron Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f. and reference 235U(nth,f neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm IRDFF-1.03 in the 252Cf standard spontaneous fission spectrum; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f. IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF-2002 collection. The ISNF facility was re-simulated to remove unphysical oscillations in the spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reproduce reasonably well the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  20. Mean density and two-point correlation function for the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of large-scale inhomogeneities on the determination of the mean number density and the two-point spatial correlation function were investigated for two complete slices of the extension of the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) redshift survey (de Lapparent et al., 1986). It was found that the mean galaxy number density for the two strips is uncertain by 25 percent, more so than previously estimated. The large uncertainty in the mean density introduces substantial uncertainty in the determination of the two-point correlation function, particularly at large scale; thus, for the 12-deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, the amplitude of the correlation function at intermediate scales is uncertain by a factor of 2. The large uncertainties in the correlation functions might reflect the lack of a fair sample. 45 references

  1. A proposal of parameter to predict biaxial fatigue life for CF8M cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joong Cheul; Kwon, Jae Do

    2005-01-01

    Biaxial low cycle fatigue test was carried out to predict fatigue life under combined axial-torsional loading condition which is that of in-phase and out-of-phase for CF8M cast stainless steels. Fatemi Socie(FS) parameter which is based on critical plane approach is not only one of methods but also the best method that can predict fatigue life under biaxial loading condition. But the result showed that, biaxial fatigue life prediction by using FS parameter with several different parameters for the CF8M cast stainless steels is not conservative but best results. So in this present research, we proposed new fatigue life prediction parameter considering effective shear stress instead of FS parameter which considers the maximum normal stress acting on maximum shear strain and its effectiveness was verified

  2. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Viesti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged 252 Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20×25 cm 2 , the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. - Highlights: ► Tagged 252 Cf source setup. ► Material recognition and sample imaging with measurements of gamma ray and neutron transmission. ► Material identification via energy dependent neutron and gamma ray transmission measurements. ► Identification of layered material. ► Effects due to the sample thickness on the above identification techniques

  3. Assessment of Analytic Morphograph CF-1 manufactured by Kent Laboratory Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    DHSS assessment reports, prepared by St Lawrence Hospital, Chepstow and the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street are presented for the Analytic Morphograph CF-1. This machine converts the central principle of morphanalysis - the Fixed Relations Theory - into clinical practice by producing radiographs and photographs of the human head which are universally related in three dimensions. Both technical and clinical aspects of the equipment's performance are examined. (U.K.)

  4. Methods for Cf-252 cervix cancer therapy and treatment planning for GYN malignancies in Lexington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.; Yoneda, J.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical physics methods and treatment planning techniques used in both the external beam and brachytherapy treatment of GYN malignancies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Specific description of the departmental implant suite and brachytherapy procedures are included. The optimization of brachytherapy applicator placement, source arrangement, and normal and tumor total dose and dose distributions are presented. Quality assurance protocols for teletherapy and brachytherapy and patient and staff safety procedures with Cf-252 are discussed

  5. Burnout and gate rupture of power MOS transistors with fission fragments of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin; Chen Xiaohua; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang

    2000-01-01

    A study to determine the single event burnout (SEB) and single event gate rupture (SEGR) sensitivities of power MOSFET devices is carried out by exposure to fission fragments from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism are presented. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and effect of external capacitors and limited resistors

  6. Full Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters Including CF & DF Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan Dehnavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    converter. As a space vector modulation for DF mode has already been proposed by authors. This paper proposes a full space vector modulation (SVM) for both CF and DF modes. Also practical methods are presented for SVM proposed. In addition a special SVM is proposed that offers minimum total harmonic...... distortion (THD) in DF mode. The performance of the proposed SVM is verified by simulation results....

  7. Redshifts for a sample of fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Wegner, G. A.; Hamwey, R.; Boley, F.; Geller, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 93 of the 94 galaxies in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog with the value of m(B/01) between 15.5 and 15.7 and with right ascension alpha between 8(h) and 17(h) and declination delta between 29 and 30 deg. This region is within the one covered by the first slice of the CfA (Center for Astrophysics) survey. The galaxies reinforce features already visible in the earlier survey.

  8. Caregiver burden and vocational participation among parents of adolescents with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Luca; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Catastini, Paola; Colombo, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) require parents to make significant lifestyle changes to accommodate their children's treatments. We examined the impact of CF-related caregiving on parents' occupational adjustment and labor supply in terms of organizational changes, presenteeism, and absenteeism. Nineteen Italian CF referral centers joined the LINFA group. We enrolled 168 adolescents with the disease and their parents (n = 225) in a cross-sectional survey research. Patients and their parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (child: SF-12, satisfaction with life, MRC Dyspnea scale; parent: caregiver burden scale, short depression-happiness scale, self-rated health, socio-demographic factors). A pediatrician recorded clinical information (pulmonary exacerbations, CF-related complications, treatment, BMI percentile, Fev1 %). Patients mean age was 16 ± 2.6 and mean BMI percentile was 42.1 ± 29.1; 92 patients (55%) had FEV1 % > 80. Mean parents' age was 45.9 ± 5.9 years, and 59% were women; 75% of women and 24% of men reported to be the primary caregiver. Only 12% had a graduate or post-graduate degree and 56.4% were employed. Approximately 34% of parents reported short depression-happiness scale scores suggestive of clinical depression. Higher caregiving strain was associated with increased likelihood of changing job, work shift schedule, or giving up career opportunities in order to fulfill their caregiving role and increased productivity losses due to family leaves and presenteeism. Caregiving burden is a relevant and frequent issue among parents of adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis. We showed that the humanistic and vocational impact of caring for young patients with the disease is striking and demands health-care and welfare supportive actions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sensitivity of various thermoluminescent, radiophotoluminescent and photographic detectors to neutrons emitted by a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Frantisek; Medioni, Roger; Chapuis, A.; Portal, Guy.

    1975-07-01

    The specific sensitivity of various thermoluminescent, radiophotoluminescent and photographic detectors to the neutron spectrum of a 252 Cf source was measured and the effect of the size and composition of the containers in which they might be put was investigated. PB33 radiophotoluminescent glasses, radiothermoluminescent alumina and calcium sulfate were less sensitive to fission neutrons whereas photographic emulsions were more sensitive. The former should be used for γ detection in mixed fields of photons and fission neutrons [fr

  10. A new cytotoxic sterol methoxymethyl ether from a deep water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Kelly-Borges, M; Longley, R E

    1996-02-01

    24(R)-Methyl-5 alpha-cholest-7-enyl 3 beta-methoxymethyl ether (1), a new sterol ether, has been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi. Compound 1 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 tumor cell line with an IC50 of 2.3 micrograms/mL. The isolation and structure elucidation of 1 by NMR spectroscopy is described.

  11. Viability of neutron brachytherapy technique using Cf252 for tumors of salivary glands therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Lidia M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Gland salivary tumors, although uncommon, present significant characteristics such as distant metastasis, recurrence and average survive of five year for treated patients. Those tumors presents low response to a conventional radiotherapy, photon and electron therapy; thus, this modality is associated with surgery. Fast neutron therapy has been presented better results in controlling the local tumor in comparison with conventional radiotherapy. Brachytherapy with Cf-252 presents an alternative treatment for tumors. Those radiotherapy technique are discussed and analyzed. (author)

  12. Correlation studies of neutron multiplicities in the 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, I.D.; Dmitriev, V.D.; Kovalenko, S.S.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Malkin, L.Z.; Petrzhak, K.A.; Petrov, B.F.; Shpakov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Correlations between the numbers of neutrons emitted by the 252 Cf spontaneous fission fragments have been studied as a function of the fragment mass and total kinetic energy. Behaviour of the neutron number dispersions and covariances was studied for the region of symmetric fission. Parameters of the complementary fragment excitation energy distribution (mean values, dispersions, covariances) were determined. Various factors describing correlations between the complementary fragment excitation energies are considered

  13. Fresnel zone plate imaging of a 252Cf spontaneous fission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Hessel, K.R.

    1976-11-01

    The feasibility of coded aperture imaging for nuclear fuel motion monitoring is shown using Cf 252 spontaneous fission source. The theory of coded aperture imaging for Fresnel zone plate apertures is presented and design considerations for zone plate construction are discussed. Actual images are obtained which demonstrate a transverse resolution of 1.7 mm and a tomographic resolution of 1.5 millimeters. The capability of obtaining images through 12.7 mm of stainless steel is also shown

  14. Cavity air flow behavior during filling in microinjection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    Process monitoring of microinjection molding (μ-IM) is of crucial importance in understanding the effects of different parameter settings on the process, especially on its performance and consistency with regard to parts' quality. Quality factors related to mold cavity air evacuation can provide...... valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental setup is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a microelectromechanical system gas sensor...... the effects of process parameters on cavity air evacuation, and the influence of air evacuation on the part flow length. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  15. Rotational relaxation of CF+(X1Σ) in collision with He(1S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Alpizar, O.; Inostroza, N.; Castro Palacio, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    The carbon monofluoride cation (CF+) has been detected recently in Galactic and extragalactic regions. Therefore, excitation rate coefficients of this molecule in collision with He and H2 are necessary for a correct interpretation of the astronomical observations. The main goal of this work is to study the collision of CF+ with He in full dimensionality at the close-coupling level and to report a large set of rotational rate coefficients. New ab initio interaction energies at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pv5z level of theory were computed, and a three-dimensional potential energy surface was represented using a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Close-coupling scattering calculations were performed at collisional energies up to 1600 cm-1 in the ground vibrational state. The vibrational quenching cross-sections were found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the pure rotational cross-sections. Also, the collisional rate coefficients were reported for the lowest 20 rotational states of CF+ and an even propensity rule was found to be in action only for j > 4. Finally, the hyperfine rate coefficients were explored. These data can be useful for the determination of the interstellar conditions where this molecule has been detected.

  16. Decision Making about Risk of Infection by Young Adults with CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people with cystic fibrosis (CF are asked to avoid a number of environments associated with increased infection risk, but in practice they need to balance this with competing priorities such as building and sustaining relationships with friends and family. This study explored the process by which young people make these decisions. Mixed methods were used: a vignette study presenting choices around engaging in activities involving a degree of infection risk and a thematic analysis of participant's accounts of their decision making. The eight participants chose to engage in high risk behaviours in 59% of the choices. All participants chose to engage in at least one risky behavior, though this was less likely when the risk was significant. Thematic analysis revealed large areas of misunderstanding and lack of knowledge, leading to some potentially worrying misconceptions about the nature of infections and risk. Young people with CF are not currently making informed decisions around activities that involve increased risk of infection, and there is an urgent need for CF teams to address this in information provision.

  17. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  18. Phase stability in thermally-aged CASS CF8 under heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei, E-mail: mli@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Miller, Michael K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thermally-aged CF8 was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions at 400 °C. • Atom probe tomography revealed a strong dose dependence of G-phase precipitates. • Phase separation of α and α′ in ferrite was reduced after irradiation. - Abstract: The stability of the microstructure of a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS), before and after heavy ion irradiation, was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT). A CF8 ferrite–austenite duplex alloy was thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h. After this treatment, APT revealed nanometer-sized G-phase precipitates and Fe-rich α and Cr-enriched α′ phase separated regions in the ferrite. The thermally-aged CF8 specimen was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions to a fluence of 1.88 × 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} at 400 °C. After irradiation, APT analysis revealed a strong spatial/dose dependence of the G-phase precipitates and the α–α′ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite. For the G-phase precipitates, the number density increased and the mean size decreased with increasing dose, and the particle size distribution changed considerably under irradiation. The inverse coarsening process can be described by recoil resolution. The amplitude of the α–α′ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite was apparently reduced after heavy ion irradiation.

  19. Cracking behavior of thermally aged and irradiated CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: Yiren_Chen@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Alexandreanu, B.; Chen, W.-Y.; Natesan, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Z.; Yang, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rao, A.S. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the combined effect of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the cracking behavior of CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel, crack growth rate (CGR) and fracture toughness J-R curve tests were carried out on compact-tension specimens in high-purity water with low dissolved oxygen. Both unaged and thermally aged specimens were irradiated at ∼320 °C to 0.08 dpa. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h apparently had no effect on the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking behavior in the test environment. The cracking susceptibility of CF-8 was not elevated significantly by neutron irradiation at 0.08 dpa. Transgranular cleavage-like cracking was the main fracture mode during the CGR tests, and a brittle morphology of delta ferrite was often seen on the fracture surfaces at the end of CGR tests. The fracture toughness J-R curve tests showed that both thermal aging and neutron irradiation can induce significant embrittlement. The loss of fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation was more pronounced in the unaged than aged specimens. After neutron irradiation, the fracture toughness values of the unaged and aged specimens were reduced to a similar level. G-phase precipitates were observed in the aged and irradiated specimens with or without prior aging. The similar microstructural changes resulting from thermal aging and irradiation suggest a common microstructural mechanism of inducing embrittlement in CF-8.

  20. Use of the Endophytic Fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica and Its Volatiles as Bio-Control Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orna Liarzi

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture.

  1. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  2. Time domain measurements for fast metal assemblies with /sup 252/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J T

    1975-06-01

    Time correlation measurements between the pulses from an ionization counter containing a /sup 252/Cf neutron source, which provided the initiators of fission chains in a neutron multiplying assembly and from sensors that detected particles from the fission chains are reviewed for fast uranium or plutonium metal assemblies. Comparisons are made between the correlated count rate from a /sup 252/Cf measurement and that from both one and two-detector Rossi-..cap alpha.. measurements. The assemblies studied were (1) unmoderated and polyethylene-moderated uranium (93 wt percent /sup 235/U) cylinders with masses from 12 to 160 kg; prompt neutron decay constants from 3 to 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 8/ sec/sup -1/ and (2) unmoderated plutonium spheres and parts of spheres with plutonium masses from 2.2 to 16 kg with /sup 240/Pu contents of 4.5 to 20.1 at. percent. Measurements with a delayed critical uranium metal sphere determined the effective delayed neutron fraction and served as the basis for verification of the theory of the /sup 252/Cf measurement method in the time domain within a few per cent. (auth)

  3. Energy and angular distributions of neutrons from 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.A.; Sidorov, L.V.; Vasil'eva, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Some results from a first series of measurements of energy and angular distributions of neutrons from 252 Cf spontaneous fission using a spectrometer with high neutron detection efficiency, i.e. a 4π neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, were already presented. Subsequently, a second series of measurements was performed using a more sophisticated technique. For this second series, we used a more intense 252 Cf layer (25,000 spontaneous fissions per second). The angular resolution was improved by a factor of 2-3 by combining the hexahedral counter modules, placed at the same angle with respect to the direction of motion of the fragments, in new panoramic counters. The neutron counters were calibrated against the average 252 Cf neutron spectrum at several positions of the axis of the fragment detector with respect to the neutron counters. In the spectrum measurements and calibration work, the scattered neutron background was not determined theoretically, as in the first series of measurements, but experimentally using four extra scintillation counters with scatter cones; the counters were set up at 60 deg., 80 deg., 100 deg., and 120 deg. to the direction of separation of the fragments

  4. A technique for temperature mapping in fluorocarbon plasmas using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A 2 Σ + -X 2 Π(1,0) were used to determine two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF 4 plasmas. Measured rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with the gas temperature due to the long chemical lifetime of CF relative to the collision rate. Experiments were performed in the capacitively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference rf reference cell at pressures from 26.7 Pa (200 mTorr) to 107 Pa (800 mTorr) and powers of 10 to 30 W deposited in the plasma. Temperatures, which ranged from 273±15 K to 480±15 K, were fairly axially symmetric and increased with pressure and power. All plasmas were coolest near the electrodes, which provided a substantial sink for heat in the plasma. Highest temperatures were found at a radial position near the edge of the electrodes. The strong temperature gradients observed in the plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients. The effects of water-cooling the electrodes and the presence of a silicon wafer on temperature were also measured

  5. Critical parameters and saturated density of trifluoroiodomethane (CF{sub 3}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y.Y.; Shi, L.; Zhu, M.S.; Han, L.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    1999-05-01

    The vapor-liquid coexistence curve of trifluoroiodomethane (CF{sub 3}I) was measured by visual observation of the meniscus disappearance in an optical cell. Thirty-two saturated density data points were obtained along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve between 384.5 and 2024.9 kg/m{sup 3} in the temperature range from 301.02 K to the critical temperature. The experimental uncertainties in temperature and density were estimated to be within {+-}10 mK and {+-}0.5%, respectively. Measurements near the critical point were used to determine the critical temperature T{sub c} = 396.44 {+-} 0.01 K and the critical density {rho}{sub c} = 868 {+-} 3 kg/m{sup 3} for trifluoroiodomethane (CF{sub 3}I) on the basis of the meniscus disappearing level as well as the intensity of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure {rho}{sub c} = 3.953 {+-} 0.005 MPa was extrapolated from the existing vapor pressure equation proposed previously using the present {Tc} value. The critical exponent, {beta}, was also determined, and correlations of the saturated liquid and saturated vapor densities of CF{sub 3}I were developed.

  6. Kr and Xe isotopes from spontaneous fission of 248Cm and 250Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1980-01-01

    Relative yields of Kr and Xe isotopes from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 250 Cf have been determined mass spectrometrically. The yields are as follows: 83 Kr/ 84 Kr/ 85 Kr/ 86 Kr = 0.223/0.458/0.596/ identical 1.00 and 0.306/0.582/0.793/ identical 1.00; 131 Xe/ 134 Xe/ 136 Xe = 0.486/0.819/1.075 identical 1.00 and 0.343/0.506/0.851/ identical 1.00 from 248 Cm and 250 Cf, respectively. The Xe yields from 248 Cm agree with an earlier determination by Leich et al. Neither of these yield patterns matches that of fissiogenic Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites and hence 248 Cm and 250 Cf are ruled out as progenitors of the meteoritic Kr and Xe. In general, none of the spontaneously fissioning nuclides of actinide elements can be identified as a possible progenitor. Even the mixtures of actinides, including a combination of 248 Cm and 250 Cm, are unsuitable. The origin of anomalous Kr and Xe in carbonaceous chondrites must then be traced either to the spontaneous fission of a superheavy element or to peculiarities in specific nucleosynthetic reactions. (orig.)

  7. CF2 represses Actin 88F gene expression and maintains filament balance during indirect flight muscle development in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Gajewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The zinc finger protein CF2 is a characterized activator of muscle structural genes in the body wall muscles of the Drosophila larva. To investigate the function of CF2 in the indirect flight muscle (IFM, we examined the phenotypes of flies bearing five homozygous viable mutations. The gross structure of the IFM was not affected, but the stronger hypomorphic alleles caused an increase of up to 1.5X in the diameter of the myofibrils. This size increase did not cause any disruption of the hexameric arrangement of thick and thin filaments. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the transcription of several structural genes. Ectopic overexpression of CF2 in the developing IFM disrupts muscle formation. While our results indicate a role for CF2 as a direct negative regulator of the thin filament protein gene Actin 88F (Act88F, effects on levels of transcripts of myosin heavy chain (mhc appear to be indirect. This role is in direct contrast to that described in the larval muscles, where CF2 activates structural gene expression. The variation in myofibril phenotypes of CF2 mutants suggest the CF2 may have separate functions in fine-tuning expression of structural genes to insure proper filament stoichiometry, and monitoring and/or controlling the final myofibril size.

  8. The psychometric properties of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and Respiratory Symptoms in CF tool in cystic fibrosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nathan; Stiller, Kathy; Rowe, Hilary; Holland, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    There are few tools to quantify the impact of cough in cystic fibrosis (CF). The psychometric properties of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and Respiratory Symptoms in CF (ReS-CF) tool were investigated in adults with CF. Validity and reliability were assessed in clinically stable participants who completed the questionnaires twice, along with the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised (CFQ-R). Responsiveness was assessed by change in questionnaires following treatment for an acute respiratory exacerbation. Correlations between the LCQ and CFQ-R respiratory domain were moderate (n=59, r s =0.78, p<0.001). Correlations between ReS-CF and CFQ-R respiratory domain were fair (r s =-0.50, p<0.001). The LCQ total score was repeatable (ICC 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.96, n=50). In those reporting improvement in symptoms following treatment (n=36), LCQ total score had a mean change of 4.6 (SD 3.7) and effect size of 1.2. The LCQ and ReS-CF appear to be valid, reliable and responsive in CF. www.anzctr.org.au: ACTRN12615000262505. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CF═CH2 and (Z)-CF3CF═CHF: Cl and NO3 rate coefficients, Cl reaction product yields, and thermochemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Lazarou, Yannis G; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Burkholder, James B

    2011-01-20

    Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms and NO(3) radicals with 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, CF(3)CF═CH(2) (HFO-1234yf), and 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene, (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF (HFO-1225ye), are reported. Cl-atom rate coefficients were measured in the fall-off region as a function of temperature (220-380 K) and pressure (50-630 Torr; N(2), O(2), and synthetic air) using a relative rate method. The measured rate coefficients are well represented by the fall-off parameters k(0)(T) = 6.5 × 10(-28) (T/300)(-6.9) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞)(T) = 7.7 × 10(-11) (T/300)(-0.65) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for CF(3)CF═CH(2) and k(0)(T) = 3 × 10(-27) (T/300)(-6.5) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞)(T) = 4.15 × 10(-11) (T/300)(-0.5) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for (Z)-CF(3)C═CHF with F(c) = 0.6. Reaction product yields were measured in the presence of O(2) to be (98 ± 7)% for CF(3)C(O)F and (61 ± 4)% for HC(O)Cl in the CF(3)CF═CH(2) reaction and (108 ± 8)% for CF(3)C(O)F and (112 ± 8)% for HC(O)F in the (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF reaction, where the quoted uncertainties are 2σ (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors. NO(3) reaction rate coefficients were determined using absolute and relative rate methods. Absolute measurements yielded upper limits for both reactions between 233 and 353 K, while the relative rate measurements yielded k(3)(295 K) = (2.6 ± 0.25) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(4)(295 K) = (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10(-18) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF, respectively. The Cl-atom reaction with CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF leads to decreases in their atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials and formation of a chlorine-containing product, HC(O)Cl, for CF(3)CF═CH(2). The NO(3) reaction has been shown to have a negligible impact on the atmospheric lifetimes of CF(3)CF═CH(2) and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF. The energetics for the reaction of Cl, NO(3), and OH with CF

  10. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fissure fillings from Gideaa, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.; Larsson, S.Aa.

    1983-08-01

    The most frequent fissure filling minerals at Gideaa are calcite, chlorite, pyrite, laumontite, stilbite, smectite, quartz and epidote. Potentially young minerals, i.e. minerals which can be formed during present conditions, are smectite, calcite and quartz, Equilibrium calculations show that these minerals can be stable in the water analysed from Gideaa. In borehole Gi 2, the water exhibits a greater equilibrium with existing minerals in the fissures than water from Gi 4. This is due to the recharge of the water in Gi 4 and discharge of the water in Gi 2. When carbonate saturated water penetrated through the bedrock, calcite precipitated within the more superficial portions of the rock. However, both calcite and zeolite fissures fillings are associated with certain zones in the drill holes. A large number of fractures can be concluded to be of post-Jotnian age. Stilbite, calcite and smectite are associated with these fractures. Laumontite can also be assumed to belong here. The dolerites in the area exhibit a high fracture frequency but a relatively low hydraulic conductivity. This is due to the fact that smectite is very prevalent in the dolerite fractures, Several generations of fracturefilling minerals (above all calcite) have been found in a single fracture. Stable isotope analyses of fissure filling calcites indicate that there are three different groups of calcite. Most of the calcites could not have been precipitated from water of present-day isotope composition at Gideaa, whereas recent calcite may be found in one of the groups. Another group of calcite was precipitated during hydro-thermal conditions.(author)

  12. The effect of tube filling on the electronic properties of Fe filled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella C.; Chimowa, George; Franklyn, Paul J.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Coville, Neil J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: HRTEM image of a twisted CNT filled with a bent single crystal of Fe. Insets from top to bottom show the power spectra of the corresponding regions, indicating the twisting of the Fe lattice. Inset in the top right shows the relative angling of the lattice fringes to accommodate the twisting of the Fe. Highlights: ► Synthesis of Fe filled CNTs with Fe content varying from 3 to 35%. ► TEM analysis indicates that Fe in the tubes is in contact with the CNTs. ► TEM analysis reveals that α-Fe crystallizes after CNT formation. ► Temperature dependent electronic transport measurements performed. ► Conductivity varies with the % Fe filling in the CNTs. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes filled with Fe nanostructures (Fe-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection method in a 1-stage horizontal CVD furnace and a bubbling method in a 2-stage horizontal CVD reactor. Fe-CNTs were obtained through the pyrolysis of a mixture of dichlorobenzene and ferrocene in 5%H 2 /Ar. Metal impurities from the Fe-CNTs were removed using 1 M HCl solution. CNTs filled with crystalline Fe nanoparticles, nanorods and nanowires were obtained using these procedures. An intimate interaction between the Fe and the CNT was established by HRTEM studies. The α-Fe phase was observed to be the most dominant fraction found in the synthesized Fe-CNTs. The Fe 2 O 3 residue obtained from the TGA analysis revealed the amount of Fe filled inside the CNTs and this ranged between 3 and 31% by mass after purification. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the temperature range between 2.5 and 100 K for an entangled network of Fe-CNTs was measured. An increase in conductivity due to the increased Fe filling inside the CNTs with increased temperature was observed. The observed temperature dependence was explained in terms of variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. A transition from Efros–Shklovskii behavior at low % Fe filling of the CNTs to Mott 3D VRH behavior at

  13. High energy {gamma} emission in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf; Emission {gamma} de grande energie dans la fission spontanee de {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badimon, C.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T.P.; Pedemay, G. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Gautherin, C.; Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Thiesen, Ch. [Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee, CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Belier, G.; Meot, M.V. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Astier, A.; Ducroux, L.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N. [Inst.de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-06-01

    The prompt {gamma} emission in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is characterized by an energy spectrum which extends up to 20 MeV. It was established that the spectrum presents in the neighbourhood of symmetric fission an intensity bump in the 3-8 MeV {gamma} energy interval. The origin of this phenomenon is still not well understood, so that it was found interesting to carry out new measurements. The spectrum of the {gamma} rays emitted in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf has been measurement in the EUROGAM II multidetector using photovoltaic cells to detect fragments. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the {gamma} yield enhancement which appears for mass fragment ratio near 132/120. This enhancement was found to be composed of two peaks located at 4 MeV and 5.5 MeV respectively. The results obtained confirm the intensity bound in the 3-8 MeV region but this augmentation reaches the maximum when the heavy fragment is near the mass 132. Beyond mass 140 the phenomenon diminish and the {gamma} spectrum regains the behaviour expected for a statistic emission. The additional structure at 5.5 MeV does not vary with excitation energy while the excitation function of the 4 MeV structure is more structured and presents a maximum when the excitation energy is near 8 MeV. It is likely that all or part of this observed phenomenon is due to a particular excitation mode of this isotope associated for instance with a low energy dipole resonance. A theoretical study of this collective effect is under way 3 refs.

  14. Multiple scattering theory for space filling potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.; Brown, R.G.; Nesbet, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple scattering theory (MST) provides an efficient technique for solving the wave equation for the special case of muffin-tin potentials. Here MST is extended to treat space filling non-muffin tin potentials and its validity, accuracy and efficiency are tested by application of the two dimensional empty lattice test. For this test it is found that the traditional formulation of MST does not coverage as the number of partial waves is increased. A simple modification of MST, however, allows this problem to be solved exactly and efficiently. 15 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  16. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Leonhardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Ferromagnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissker, Uhland; Hampel, Silke; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) filled with ferromagnetic metals like iron, cobalt or nickel are new and very interesting nanostructured materials with a number of unique properties. In this paper we give an overview about different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for their synthesis and discuss the influence of selected growth parameters. In addition we evaluate possible growth mechanisms involved in their formation. Moreover we show their identified structural and magnetic properties. On the basis of these properties we present different application possibilities. Some selected examples reveal the high potential of these materials in the field of medicine and nanotechnology. PMID:28883334

  18. Le déficit de filles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    de la population est une tendance plus récente. C. Le déficit de filles. Le déséquilibre du ratio hommes-femmes en Inde. D. R. O. I. T. S. D. E. S. F. E. M. M. E. S. E. T. P. A. R. T. IC. I. P. A. T. IO. N. C. I. T. O. Y. E. N. N. E. CENTRE DE. RECHERCHES. POUR LE. DÉVELOPPEMENT. INTERNATIONAL. CRDI : Jason Taylor ...

  19. Evaluation of Flowable Fill Surface Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    general, traditional flowable fill is a low- viscosity , grout-like, cementitious blend commonly composed of portland cement, fine aggregate, and water...93.7 45.0 19.6 % Finer No. 200 7.0 0.5 9.1 % Gravel 2.2 0.0 56.1 % Sand 90.8 99.5 34.8 % Silt 3.2 < 0.5 6.8 % Clay 3.8 < 0.5 2.3 Fineness Modulus

  20. A pilot trial on safety and efficacy of erythrocyte-mediated steroid treatment in CF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella S

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neutrophil inflammation of the respiratory tract tissues plays a key role in the pathogenesis and in prognosis of cystic fibrosis (CF. It is evident that an anti-inflammatory therapy represents an important step in the treatment of CF patients. Corticosteroids and ibuprofen have been proven to slow down the impairment of the pulmonary function in CF patients but their use is limited by the frequency of adverse events. A novel strategy for delivering low doses of steroids for long periods through the infusion of autologous erythrocytes loaded with dexamethasone has been recently set up. A recent study suggested the feasibility of therapy with low doses of corticosteroids delivered through engineered erythrocytes in CF patients. This study presents a further analysis of safety and efficacy of this therapy. Methods The treatment group was not randomised and the assignment was based on the patient's consent. Patients entered the study if they had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 Results Nine patients in the experimental group received the treatment once a month for a period of 24 month. Patients did not develop diabetes, cataract, or hypertension, or other typical side effects of steroid treatment during the follow up period. There was a constant improvement of FEV1 in patients undergoing the experimental treatment compared to a gradual decrease of the same parameter in the standard therapy group (P = 0.04. The average of clinic and radiological indexes did not vary. The number of infective relapses that have required antibiotic intravenous therapy was not different in the two groups, although the average of these episodes was slightly higher in the experimental therapy group. Conclusion Intraerythrocyte corticosteroid treatment may stabilize the respiratory function in CF patients but is often considered too invasive by patients. The results obtained by our study may help planning an experimental, controlled

  1. Familial concordance of phenotype and microbial variation among siblings with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Elie; Aviram, Micha; Yahav, Yaakov; Rivlin, Joseph; Blau, Hanna; Bentur, Lea; Avital, Avraham; Villa, Yael; Schwartz, Shepard; Kerem, Batsheva; Kerem, Eitan

    2004-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) is influenced by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype. However, variable courses of the disease were demonstrated among patients with identical genotypes. Since siblings share identical CFTR mutations and environmental factors, they can serve as a model to assess the effect of modifier genes on disease expression, and also to evaluate cross-infection. The aim of this study was to compare disease expression among siblings with CF. All sibling pairs treated at 7 CF centers in Israel were included in the study. Data were collected from patients' medical charts. Fifty families with at least 2 siblings were identified. As expected, the second-born sibling was diagnosed at an earlier age compared to the first-born. The mode of CF presentation at diagnosis showed significant familial concordance. In the families where the first sibling presented with gastrointestinal manifestations, 79% of the second siblings also presented with gastrointestinal manifestations. When gastrointestinal manifestations were absent in the first sibling, only 12% of the second siblings presented with gastrointestinal manifestations (P sibling presented with respiratory symptoms, 60% of the second siblings presented with the similar symptoms. However, when the first sibling presented without respiratory symptoms, only 12% of the second siblings presented with respiratory symptoms (P sibling had MI, 8 (80%) of the subsequent siblings had MI. On the other hand, in the 39 families where the first-born sibling did not have MI, only 2 (5%) subsequent siblings had MI (P siblings. P. aeruginosa grew from sputum in 89% of our study patients. When P. aeruginosa was isolated from the first-born patient, 91% of the second siblings were also positive for P. aeruginosa, whereas when the initial sibling was not a carrier of P. aeruginosa, only 50% of subsequent siblings were positive (P sibling than in the first for the two

  2. The CF-CIRC study: a French collaborative study to assess the accuracy of Cystic Fibrosis diagnosis in neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellon Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein, which acts as a chloride channel after activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. Newborn screening programs for CF usually consist of an immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT assay, followed when IRT is elevated by testing for a panel of CF-causing mutations. Some children, however, may have persistent hypertrypsinogenemia, only one or no identified CFTR gene mutation, and sweat chloride concentrations close to normal values. In vivo demonstration of abnormal CFTR protein function would be an important diagnostic aid in this situation. Measurements of transepithelial nasal potential differences (NPD in adults accurately characterize CFTR-related ion transport. The aim of the present study is to establish reference values for NPD measurements for healthy children and those with CF aged 3 months to 3 years, the age range of most difficult-to-diagnose patients with suspected CF. The ultimate goal of our study is to validate NPD testing as a diagnostic tool for children with borderline results in neonatal screening. Methods/Design We adapted the standard NPD protocol for young children, designed a special catheter for them, used a slower perfusion rate, and shortened the protocol to include only measurement of basal PD, transepithelial sodium (Na+ transport in response to the Na+ channel inhibitor amiloride, and CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl- secretion in response to isoproterenol, a β-agonist in a Cl- free solution. The study will include 20 children with CF and 20 healthy control children. CF children will be included only if they carry 2 CF-causing mutations in the CFTR gene or have sweat chloride concentrations > 60 mEq/L or both. The healthy children will be recruited among the siblings of the CF patients, after verification that they do not carry the familial mutation. Discussion A preliminary study of 3 adult control

  3. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP4B for an optimal shielding design of a 252 Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2001-01-01

    This study aim to investigate an optimum shielding design against neutrons and gamma-rays from a source of 252 Cf, using Monte Carlo simulation. The shielding materials studied were: borated polyethylene, borated-lead polyethylene and stainless steel. The Monte Carlo code MCNP, version 4B, was used to design shielding for 252 Cf based neutron irradiator systems. By normalizing the dose equivalent rate values presented to the neutron production rate of the source, the resulting calculations are independents of the intensity of actual 252 Cf source. The results shown what the total dose equivalent rates were reduced significantly by the shielding system optimization. (author)

  4. Etching characteristic and mechanism of BST thin films using inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasma with additive CF4 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwan-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    BST thin films were etched with inductively coupled CF 4 /(Cl 2 +Ar) plasmas. The maximum etch rate of the BST thin films was 53.6 nm/min for a 10% CF 4 to the Cl 2 /Ar gas mixture at RF power of 700 W, DC bias of -150 V, and chamber pressure of 2 Pa. Small addition of CF 4 to the Cl 2 /Ar mixture increased chemical effect. Consequently, the increased chemical effect caused the increase in the etch rate of the BST thin films. To clarify the etching mechanism, the surface reaction of the BST thin films was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  5. Hydrophobic treatment on polymethylmethacrylate surface by nanosecond-pulse DBDs in CF{sub 4} at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Yang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003 (China); Xu, Jiayu [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wenjin [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Increase in hydrophobicity on PMMA is achieved after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4}, and the water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after treatment. • Nanosecond-pulse DBD is used for the surface treatment and the power density is about 114.8 mW/cm{sup 2}. • The effects of applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow, and time on plasma treatment are investigated. • Plasma treatment causes morphological change, significantly increases the roughness of the surface, and introduces fluorine-containing groups into the polymethylmethacrylate surface. • Hydrophobic behavior of the treated PMMA surface is slightly affected by the aging effect. - Abstract: Nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can provide non-thermal plasmas with extremely high energy and high density, which can result in a series of complicated physical and chemical reactions in the surface treatment of polymers. Therefore, in this paper, hydrophobic treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is conducted by nanosecond-pulse DBD in carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) at atmospheric pressure. Investigations on surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4} are conducted with the contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The effects of the applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow rate, and treatment time on the hydrophobic modification are studied. Results show that the contact angles of the treated PMMA surface increases with the applied voltage, and it could be greatly affected by the CF{sub 4} flow rate and the treatment time. The water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after the treatment. Furthermore, both surface morphology and chemical composition of the PMMA samples are changed. Both the increase of the surface roughness and the occurrence of fluorine-containing functional groups on the PMMA surface treated by DBD in CF

  6. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: luciaff@usc.es; Gomez, F. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pena, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zapata, M. [Dpto. de Fisica de Particulas, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago, Campus Sur S/N, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-05-10

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a {approx}20 deg. C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27x10{sup -2}K{sup -1} for an operation electric field of 1.67x10{sup 6}Vm{sup -1} has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  7. Fissure fillings from the Klipperaas study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Klipperaas study site is located within the Smaaland-Vaermland granitoid belt in southern Sweden. The area investigated can be subdivided into blocks with different hydraulic character and fracture frequency of the rocks. A fissure filling, study has been carried out within the area. This includes identification of the minerals, mineral frequency, textures within the fissures and isotope analyses of calcites. Four generation of fissure fillings, within the time space c. 1600 M.a. to present, has been distinguished. These are 1) quartz; 2) epidote + muscovite and adularia + hematite; 3) calcite + chlorite +/hematite; 4) calcite, clay minerals and Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is observed that the surface water affect the uppermost part of the bedrock resulting in calcite dissolution, break down of pyrite and precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide. It is also obvious from the fracture calcite frequency that calcite dissolution is more intensive close to and within the fracture zones. There, Fe-oxyhydroxide can be found down to at least 400 m depth. This gives valuable information about the physic-chemical character of the groundwater within the bedrock. Several fracture zones have been reactivated. It is also suspected that relatively late movements have taken place causing crushing of the rock and only a slight cementation of the crushed material is visible. Some of the fracture zones correspond to mafic dikes. These zones exhibit lower hydraulic conductivity than other zones due to fracture sealing by clay minerals but also by chlorite and calcite. (author)

  8. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  9. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH = CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nilsson, E. J. K.; Nielsen, O. J.

    2008-01-01

    spectrum of t-CF3CH = CHCl is reported. The atmospheric lifetime of t-CF3CH = CHCl is determined by reaction with OH radicals and is approximately 26 days. The global warming potential of t-CF3CH = CHCl is approximately 7 for a 100-year time horizon. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a. Kinetic and mechanistic study of the CF3CFHO2 + NO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, T.E.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.

    1994-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis system was used to study the kinetics of the reaction of CF3CFHO2 with NO2. By monitoring the rate of the decay of NO2 using its absorption at 400 nm the reaction rate constant was determined to be k = (5.0 +/- 0.5) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A long path length Fourier......-transform infrared technique was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of the product CF3CFHO2NO2. At 296 K in the presence of 700 Torr of air, decomposition of CF3CFHO2NO2 was rapid (greater than 90% decomposition within 3 min). The results are discussed in the context of atmospheric chemistry of CF3CFH2...

  13. Decorporation of 241Am and 252Cf by Ca-DTPA from rat, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Retention and mobilization by Ca-DTPA of 241 Am and 252 Cf from rats, Syrian and Chinese hamsters are compared. Previous observations of a much longer residence time of actinides in hamsters liver than in rat liver are confirmed. Identical dose-effect functions were obtained for skeleton of rats and Syrian hamsters whereas 252 Cf removal from Chinese hamster skeleton was lower. The mobilization of 241 Am was lower than that of 252 Cf. With regard to species differences, qualitatively similar results were obtained for 241 Am as for 252 Cf. The results will be discussed with regard to the reduction by DTPA treatment of radiation risk in animal species with different biological half times of actinides in their livers. In this connection, attention will be paid to the usefulness of long-term DTPA treatment

  14. Suppression of interfacial reaction for HfO2 on silicon by pre-CF4 plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.S.; Wu, W.C.; Chao, T.S.; Chen, J.H.; Wang, J.C.; Tay, L.-L.; Rowell, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, the effects of pre-CF 4 plasma treatment on Si for sputtered HfO 2 gate dielectrics are investigated. The significant fluorine was incorporated at the HfO 2 /Si substrate interface for a sample with the CF 4 plasma pretreatment. The Hf silicide was suppressed and Hf-F bonding was observed for the CF 4 plasma pretreated sample. Compared with the as-deposited sample, the effective oxide thickness was much reduced for the pre-CF 4 plasma treated sample due to the elimination of the interfacial layer between HfO 2 and Si substrate. These improved characteristics of the HfO 2 gate dielectrics can be explained in terms of the fluorine atoms blocking oxygen diffusion through the HfO 2 film into the Si substrate

  15. Dry etching of new phase-change material Al1.3Sb3Te in CF4/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Rao Feng; Liu Bo; Peng Cheng; Zhou Xilin; Yao Dongning; Guo Xiaohui; Song Sannian; Wang Liangyong; Cheng Yan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Feng Songlin

    2012-01-01

    The dry etching characteristic of Al 1.3 Sb 3 Te film was investigated by using a CF 4 /Ar gas mixture. The experimental control parameters were gas flow rate into the chamber, CF 4 /Ar ratio, the O 2 addition, the chamber background pressure, and the incident RF power applied to the lower electrode. The total flow rate was 50 sccm and the behavior of etch rate of Al 1.3 Sb 3 Te thin films was investigated as a function of the CF 4 /Ar ratio, the O 2 addition, the chamber background pressure, and the incident RF power. Then the parameters were optimized. The fast etch rate was up to 70.8 nm/min and a smooth surface was achieved using optimized etching parameters of CF 4 concentration of 4%, power of 300 W and pressure of 80 mTorr.

  16. Cooperative effect of silver in copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides using Me3SiCF3

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2011-06-13

    An effective model of cooperative effect of silver for the coppercatalyzed trifluoromethylation of activated and unactivated aryl iodides to trifluoromethylated arenes using Me3SiCF3 was achieved with a broad substrate scope. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Calculation of dose distribution for 252Cf fission neutron source in tissue equivalent phantoms using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Gang; Guo Yong; Luo Yisheng; Zhang Wenzhong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To provide useful parameters for neutron radiotherapy, the author presents results of a Monte Carlo simulation study investigating the dosimetric characteristics of linear 252 Cf fission neutron sources. Methods: A 252 Cf fission source and tissue equivalent phantom were modeled. The dose of neutron and gamma radiations were calculated using Monte Carlo Code. Results: The dose of neutron and gamma at several positions for 252 Cf in the phantom made of equivalent materials to water, blood, muscle, skin, bone and lung were calculated. Conclusion: The results by Monte Carlo methods were compared with the data by measurement and references. According to the calculation, the method using water phantom to simulate local tissues such as muscle, blood and skin is reasonable for the calculation and measurements of dose distribution for 252 Cf

  18. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  19. 33 CFR 183.564 - Fuel tank fill system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tank fill system. 183.564...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.564 Fuel tank fill system. (a) Each fuel fill opening must be located so that a gasoline overflow of up to five...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-65 - Filling density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling density. 98.25-65 Section 98.25-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... § 98.25-65 Filling density. (a) The filling density, or the percent ratio of the liquefied gas that may...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-50 - Filling and discharge pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with a secondary remote control of a type acceptable to the Commandant. (c) The excess flow, internal... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filling and discharge pipes. 98.25-50 Section 98.25-50... § 98.25-50 Filling and discharge pipes. (a) Filling connections shall be provided with one of the...

  3. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of dust at some selected fuel filling stations in Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrifa, C. G.

    2011-07-01

    Heavy metal contaminated dust particles of fuel filling stations can be re-suspended into the ambient air and serve as a source of atmospheric pollution since the fine particles are aerodynamic and have longer life time in ambient air. This can cause ill-health effect on the fuel attendants and residents within the neighbourhood especially infants and the aged who are more vulnerable. In spite of this, not much research has been done on heavy metal contamination of dust at fuel filling stations. In this study, 55 dust samples were collected from six fuel filling stations in the Ga-East district and Accra Metropolitan assembly, both in Accra, in order to assess the levels of contamination of heavy metals; their possible sources and the human health risk associated with them. The dust samples were divided into two parts with one part sieved into four fractions using metric mesh sizes 500 µm, 200µm, 100µm and 45 µm, and pulverised. Total concentrations of heavy metals (Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb) were determined in the dust samples using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The pollution indices; enrichment factors (EF), index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) were used to identify possible levels of pollution from anthropogenic sources. The possible sources of metals were also identified with principal component analysis. Noncancer effect of children and adults due to exposure to dust from these fuel filling stations were also estimated. For the three fuelling areas, the average concentrations of V, Cr, Ni and Cu exceeded the acceptable values in common soil in the <45 µm fraction. The average concentration of Zn however exceeded the acceptable value only at the mixed-fuel fuelling area whereas the average concentration of Pb was within the acceptable value for all three fuelling areas. The dust samples showed moderate to significant enrichments for V, Cu, Br

  4. Haloacyl complexes of boron, [(CF3)3BC(O)Hal]- (Hal=F, Cl, Br, I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finze, Maik; Bernhardt, Eduard; Willner, Helge; Lehmann, Christian W

    2005-11-04

    The haloacyltris(trifluoromethyl)borate anions [(CF3)3BC(O)Hal]- (Hal=F, Cl, Br, I) have been synthesized by reacting (CF3)3BCO with either MHal (M=K, Cs; Hal=F) in SO2 or MHal (M=[nBu4N]+, [Et4N]+, [Ph4P]+; Hal=Cl, Br, I) in dichloromethane. Metathesis reactions of the fluoroacyl complex with Me3SiHal (Hal=Cl, Br, I) led to the formation of its higher homologues. The thermal stabilities of the haloacyltris(trifluoromethyl)borates decrease from the fluorine to the iodine derivative. The chemical reactivities decrease in the same order as demonstrated by a series of selected reactions. The new [(CF3)3BC(O)Hal]- (Hal=F, Cl, Br) salts are used as starting materials in the syntheses of novel compounds that contain the (CF3)3B-C fragment. All borate anions [(CF3)3BC(O)Hal]- (Hal=F, Cl, Br, I) have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy (11B, 13C, 17O, 19F) and vibrational spectroscopy. [PPh4][(CF3)3BC(O)Br] crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c (no. 13) and the bond parameters are compared with those of (CF3)3BCO and K[(CF3)3BC(O)F]. The interpretation of the spectroscopic and structural data are supported by DFT calculations [B3LYP/6-311+G(d)].

  5. Present status of SiCf/SiC composites as low-activation structural materials of fusion reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Katoh, Y.; Hasegawa, A.; Noda, T.

    2001-01-01

    The outline of research subjects on SiCf/SiC composites to apply to the structural components of fusion reactors are described and present status on material development of SiCf/SiC composites in Japan is reviewed. Irradiation experiments of the composites using fission reactors conducted by international collaborations to clarify their radiation response and to optimize the fabrication processes are introduced. (author)

  6. Wall-shaped hohlraum influence on symmetry and energetics in gas-filled hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassin, Veronique; Philippe, Franck; Laffite, Stephane; Videau, Laurent; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Villette, Bruno; Stemmler, Philippe; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Peche, Emilie; Reneaume, Benoit; Thessieux, Christian

    2008-11-01

    On the way to the LMJ completion, achieving ignition with 40 quads in a 2-cone configuration will be attempted as a first step. Theoretical investigation of a rugby-shaped hohlraum shows energetics optimization and a better symmetry control compared to a cylindrical hohlraum [1]. We recently conducted experiments on the Omega laser facility with 3 different wall-shaped methane-filled hohlraum configurations. We present here the experimental results. Energetics benefits are shown for reduced wall area hohlraums. The wall-shaped hohlraum influence on time-dependent radiation symmetry is also discussed. For the 3 gas-filled hohlraums configurations, we compare the foamball early-time radiographs, the D2Ar-filled capsule time-integrated images and the core self-emission images. [1] M. Vandenboomgaerde, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 065004 (2007).

  7. A magnetically tunable non-Bragg defect mode in a corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Fan, Ya-Xian; Liu, Huan; Han, Xu; Lu, Wen-Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    A magnetically tunable, non-Bragg defect mode (NBDM) was created in the terahertz frequency range by inserting a defect in the middle of a periodically corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals (LCs). In the periodic waveguide, non-Bragg gaps beyond the Bragg ones, which appear in the transmission spectra, are created by different transverse mode resonances. The transmission spectra of the waveguide containing a defect showed that a defect mode was present inside the non-Bragg gap. The NBDM has quite different features compared to the Bragg defect mode, which includes more complex, high-order guided wave modes. In our study, we filled the corrugated waveguide with LCs to realize the tunability of the NBDM. The simulated results showed that the NBDM in a corrugated waveguide filled with LCs can be used in filters, sensors, switches, and other terahertz integrated devices.

  8. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  9. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  10. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  11. Internal Accident Report: fill it out!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to report all accidents, near-misses and dangerous situations so that they can be avoided in the future.   Reporting these events allows the relevant services to take appropriate action and implement corrective and preventive measures. It should be noted that the routing of the internal accident report was recently changed to make sure that the people who need to know are informed. Without information, corrective action is not possible. Without corrective action, there is a risk that the events will recur. As soon as you experience or see something amiss, fill out an internal accident report! If you have any questions the HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Contact us at safety-general@cern.ch. The HSE Unit

  12. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d≈15μm). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed

  13. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  14. Investigations on the Manufacturing and Mechanical Properties of Spun Yarns Made from Staple CF for Thermoset Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mir Mohammad Badrul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of investigations carried out to produce yarns consisting of staple carbon fiber (CF obtained from process waste for the manufacturing of composites suitable especially for thermoset applications. For this purpose, a comparative analysis is done on processability between 100% staple CF and 60 weight% staple CF mixed with 40 weight% PVA fibers in carding, drawing and spinning process. The hybrid yarns are produced by varying twist level. The PVA fibers of the hybrid yarn are then dissolved using hot water treatment. The mechanical properties of yarns consisting of 100% staple CF and hybrid yarns consisting of staple CF and PVA before and after hot water treatment are investigated. Furthermore, test specimen is also prepared by impregnating 100% staple CF yarn and the hybrid yarns (after the dissolving of PVA with epoxy resin. The results of the tensile test of the yarns in consolidated state reveals that the hybrid yarn produced with 80 T/m after hot water treatment exhibits approximately 75% of the tensile strength of virgin filament tow, and it is expected that the hybrid yarns can be applied for the manufacturing of thermoset based composites for load bearing structures.

  15. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  16. Determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale dependence of multiplicity in three jet events

    CERN Document Server

    Gary, J W

    2000-01-01

    I examine the determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale evolution of particle multiplicity in e+e- three jet events. I fit an analytic expression for the multiplicity in three jet events to event samples generated with QCD multihadronic event generators. I demonstrate that a one parameter fit of CA/CF yields the expected result CA/CF=2.25 in the limit of asymptotically large energies if energy conservation is included in the calculation. In contrast, a two parameter fit of CA/CF and a constant offset to the gluon jet multiplicity, proposed in a recent study, does not yield CA/CF=2.25 in this limit. I apply the one parameter fit method to recently published data of the DELPHI experiment at LEP and determine the effective value of CA/CF from this technique, at the finite energy of the Z0 boson, to be 1.74+-0.03+-0.10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  17. The impact of social constraints and sense of coherence on the psychological adjustment of adolescents and young adults with CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya L. Beinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the medical understanding of Cystic Fibrosis (CF has dramatically improved, however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the psychological adjustment of families coping with CF. We examined the utility of the Social Cognitive Processing (SCP Model in understanding the interactions of parents and young people with CF. We also examined the relationship between social constraints, a key construct in the SCP model, sense of coherence (SOC and other psychological adjustment indicators for young people with CF. Participants comprised 49 individuals with CF, aged 16–25, recruited through state-based CF organisations in Australia. The results indicated that participant ratings of difficulties with communication (social constraints were positively associated with ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress and negatively related to ratings of positive affect and seeing life challenges as predictable, manageable and meaningful (SOC. Ratings of SOC were also positively related to ratings of positive affect and negatively related to ratings of depression, anxiety and stress. A significant mediating effect of SOC was also identified in the relationships between social constraints and positive affect and social constraints and stress. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Dosimetric analysis of BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - coupled to 252Cf brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Samia F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of brain tumors is increasing in world population; however, the treatments employed in this type of tumor have a high rate of failure and in some cases have been considered palliative, depending on histology and staging of tumor. Its necessary to achieve the control tumor dose without the spread irradiation cause damage in the brain, affecting patient neurological function. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a technique that achieves this; nevertheless, other techniques that can be used on the brain tumor control must be developed, in order to guarantee lower dose on health surroundings tissues other techniques must be developing. The 252 Cf brachytherapy applied to brain tumors has already been suggested, showing promising results in comparison to photon source, since the active source is placed into the tumor, providing greater dose deposition, while more distant regions are spared. BNCT - Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - is another technique that is in developing to brain tumors control, showing theoretical superiority on the rules of conventional treatments, due to a selective irradiation of neoplasics cells, after the patient receives a borate compound infusion and be subjected to a epithermal neutrons beam. This work presents dosimetric studies of the coupling techniques: BNCT with 252 Cf brachytherapy, conducted through computer simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and well discretized voxel model of human head, which was incorporated a representative Glioblastoma Multiform tumor. The dosimetric results from MCNP5 code were exported to SISCODES program, which generated isodose curves representing absorbed dose rate in the brain. Isodose curves, neutron fluency, and dose components from BNCT and 252 Cf brachytherapy are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Validating criticality calculations for spent fuel with 252Cf-source-driven noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Krass, A.W.; Valentine, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The 252 Cf-Source-driven noise analysis method can be used for measuring the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k of arrays of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This type of measurement provides a parameter that is directly related to the criticality state of arrays of LWR fuel. Measurements of this parameter can verify the criticality safety margins of spent LWR fuel configurations and thus could be a means of obtaining the information to justify burnup credit for spent LWR transportation/storage casks. The practicality of a measurement depends on the ability to install the hardware required to perform the measurement. Source chambers containing the 252 Cf at the required source intensity for this application have been constructed and have operated successfully for ∼10 years and can be fabricated to fit into control rod guide tubes of PWR fuel elements. Fission counters especially developed for spent-fuel measurements are available that would allow measurements of a special 3 x 3 spent fuel array and a typical burnup credit rail cask with spent fuel in unborated water. Adding a moderator around these fission counters would allow measurements with the typical burnup credit rail cask with borated water and the special 3 x 3 array with borated water. The recent work of Ficaro on modifying the KENO Va code to calculate by the Monte Carlo method the time sequences of pulses at two detectors near a fissile assembly from the fission chain multiplication process, initiated by a 252 Cf source in the assembly allows a direct computer calculation of the noise analysis data from this measurement method

  20. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, 233 U, 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs

  1. α-decay chain and associated cluster emission from neutron deficient 237Cf nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Deepika; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the α-decay chain of 237 Cf nucleus, which has been observed in the 3n evaporation channel when the semi-magic projectile 36 S strikes on 204 Pbv nucleus. The calculations are carried out by using preformed cluster model (PCM), with choices of spherical and quadruple deformation with in cold optimum orientation approach. The calculated half-lives of α-decay chain find relatively in nice agreement with experimental data for the deformed fragmentation approach. Along with α emission, the possibility of heavier clusters is also worked out and corresponding half-lives are predicted. (author)

  2. IMPROVED DARK ENERGY CONSTRAINTS FROM ∼100 NEW CfA SUPERNOVA TYPE Ia LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Blondin, Stephane; Jha, Saurabh; Kelly, Patrick L.; Rest, Armin

    2009-01-01

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013 +0.066 -0.068 (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R V = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R V = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 V = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R V ∼ 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2σ, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  3. Fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: from CF4 plasma chemistry to surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, Claudia; Scardamaglia, Mattia; Colomer, Jean-François; Verdini, Alberto; Floreano, Luca; Snyders, Rony; Bittencourt, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT) is correlated to the CF 4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region) on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface. The samples suffer a limited ageing effect, with a small loss of fluorine functionalities after two weeks in ambient conditions.

  4. Fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: from CF4 plasma chemistry to surface functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Struzzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT is correlated to the CF4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface. The samples suffer a limited ageing effect, with a small loss of fluorine functionalities after two weeks in ambient conditions.

  5. Investigation of the far asymmetric region in 252Cf(sf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    1997-01-01

    A twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used to measure the fission fragment mass, kinetic-energy and angular correlations for 252 Cf(sf). In total 2.5 x 10 8 events were collected. The focus was in the far asymmetric mass region, where enhancements in the yield had been found earlier. It could be shown, that these findings are due to false events, coming from either close geometries not properly taking into account the angular-dependent energy loss in the sample and backing, from a too large angular cone selected in case of studies employing ionization chambers, or even from poor target qualities. (orig.)

  6. Multipurpose containers for the transport of nuclear material: The example of transport flask CF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrini, G.F.; Borgia, M.G.

    1989-03-01

    The present paper summarizes the design and licensing activity carried out in the frame work of an ENEA working group which was set up with the aim of developing transport flasks for radioactive and non radioactive dangerous materials. In particular the nuclear design of the multipurpose transport flask CF6 is described. The paper was presented at the seminar on 'Nuclear wastes and transport of radioactive materials' held in Bologna on June 4th and 5th 1987 under the aegis of the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna. (author)

  7. Identification of G-phase in aged cast CF 8 type stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, J.; Miller, M.K.; Brenner, S.S.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The microstructure of as-cast and aged CF 8 type stainless steel, used for the primary coolant pipes in pressurized light-water nuclear reactors, is being studied by analytical electron microscopy (AEM) and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). The phase transformations of the ferrite (approx. 19 vol % of the duplex structure) that occur after aging at 673 K for 7500 h are described by Miller et al. The present work deals with the identification of G-phase (prototype compound Ni 16 Ti 6 Si 7 ) observed in the ferrite of aged material. 2 references, 3 figures

  8. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  9. New isomeric states in 152,154,156Nd produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautherin, C.; Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Phan, X.H.; Theisen, C.; Belier, G.; Girod, M.; Meot, V.; Peru, S.; Astier, A.; Ducroux, L.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.

    1998-01-01

    Isomeric states have been observed in fission-fragments produced by spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. These states are found in neutron rich nuclei of different structure and deformations. About 50 isomeric nuclei have been observed using coincidences between γ-rays identified in EUROGAM II and fission fragments detected in photovoltaic cells (SAPhIR). Lifetimes in the range from 20 ns to 2μs have been measured. Presented calculations based on HFB+D1S force on new measured isomeric states in the 152,154,156 Nd show evidence for K-isomers. (orig.)

  10. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato, L; Caldogno, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Pino, F; Sajo-Bohus, L; Viesti, G

    2013-03-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged (252)Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20 × 25 cm(2), the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  12. Cuspal Flexure and Extent of Cure of a Bulk-fill Flowable Base Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, A V; Braxton, A D; Ahmad, W; Tantbirojn, D; Simon, J F; Versluis, A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate a bulk-fill flowable base composite (Surefil SDR Flow) in terms of cuspal flexure and cure when used in incremental or bulk techniques. Mesio-occluso-distal cavities (4 mm deep, 4 mm wide) were prepared in 24 extracted molars. The slot-shaped cavities were etched, bonded, and restored in 1) two 2-mm increments Esthet-X HD (control), 2) two 2-mm increments Surefil SDR Flow, or 3) 4-mm bulk Surefil SDR Flow (N=8). The teeth were digitized after preparation (baseline) and restoration and were precisely aligned to calculate cuspal flexure. Restored teeth were placed in fuchsin dye for 16 hours to determine occlusal bond integrity from dye penetration. Extent of cure was assessed by hardness at 0.5-mm increments through the restoration depth. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (α=0.05). Surefil SDR Flow, either incrementally or bulk filled, demonstrated significantly less cuspal flexure than Esthet-X HD. Dye penetration was less than 3% of cavity wall height and was not statistically different among groups. The hardness of Surefil SDR Flow did not change throughout the depth for both incrementally and bulk filled restorations; the hardness of Esthet-X HD was statistically significantly lower at the bottom of each increment than at the top. Filling in bulk or increments made no significant difference in marginal bond quality or cuspal flexure for the bulk-fill composite. However, the bulk-fill composite caused less cuspal flexure than the incrementally placed conventional composite. The bulk-fill composite cured all the way through (4 mm), whereas the conventional composite had lower cure at the bottom of each increment.

  13. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  14. Alkali metal and ammonium fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates M'[ M''3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3], where M' = Li, Na, K, NH4, Rb, or Cs and M'' = Ni or Co. Synthesis and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, D. S.; Morozov, I. V.; Boltalin, A. I.; Karpova, E. V.; Glazunova, T. Yu.; Troyanov, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    A series of fluoro(trifluoroacetato)metallates were synthesized by crystallization from solutions in trifluoroacetic acid containing nickel(II) or cobalt(II) nitrate hydrates and alkali metal or ammonium fluorides: Li[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3](CF3COOH)3 ( I), M'[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3] ( M' = Na ( II), NH4 ( IV), Rb ( V), and Cs ( VI)), NH4[Co3(μ3-F) (CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3] ( III), and Cs[Ni3(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3](CF3COOH)0.5 ( VII). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All structures contain triangular trinuclear complex anions [ M 3″(μ3-F)(CF3COO)6(CF3COOH)3]- ( M″ = Ni, Co) structurally similar to trinuclear 3d metal oxo carboxylate complexes. The three-coordinated F atom is located at the center of the triangle formed by Ni(II) or Co(II) atoms. The metal atoms are linked in pairs by six bridging trifluoroacetate groups located above and below the plane of the [ M″3 F] triangle. The oxygen atoms of the axial CF3COOH molecules complete the coordination environment of M″ atoms to an octahedron.

  15. The first finding of Ostrea cf. puelchana (Bivalvia living as epibiont on Callinectes exasperates (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Felipe Barbosa Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epibiosis of Ostrea cf. puelchana on Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, 1856, both collected from the estuary of the Paraíba River, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The basibiont crab was captured using a trap installed in mangrove area at a depth of about 2 meters. The oyster was closely attached to the left side of dorsal carapace covering most of the epibranchial, mesobranchial and metabranchial regions. Possible advantages and disadvantages for both the epibiont and the basibiont are discussed. We believe that young O. cf. puelchana may avoid a variety of potential predators due to the considerable movement capacity of C. exasperatus and may also serve as a small protective shield for the basibiont. However, the oyster, which is a bivalve with an epifaunal lifestyle, is likely to be negatively affected, mainly due to burrowing activity of the crab. This is the first record of epibiosis between bivalves of the genus Ostrea Linnaeus, 1758 and crabs of the genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860.

  16. 100 mg 251Cf activation analysis facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 252 Cf Activation Analysis Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is used routinely for multielement analyses of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples (e.g., metal alloys, fly ash and other airborne particles, rocks, and aqueous and nonaqueous solutions). An automated absolute activation analysis technique, developed to use neutron transport codes to calculate multienergy group neutron spectra and fluxes, converts counting data directly into elemental concentrations expressed in parts per million. The facility contains four sources of 252 Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. A pneumatic ''rabbit'' system permits automatic irradiation/decay/counting regimes to be performed unattended on up to 100 samples. Detection sensitivities of less than or equal to 400 ppb natural uranium and less than or equal to 0.5 nCi/g for 239 Pu are observed. Detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined. Over 40 elements are detectable at the one part per million level or less. Overall accuracies of +- 10 percent are observed for most elements. (auth)

  17. Neutron dose rate for {sup 252} Cf AT source in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The AAPM TG-43 modified protocol was used for the calculation of the neutron dose rate of {sup 252}Cf sources for two tissue substitute materials, five normal tissues and six tumours. The {sup 252}Cf AT source model was simulated using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code in spherical geometry for the following factors: a) neutron air kerma strength conversion factor, b) dose rate constant, c) radial dose function, d) geometry factor, e) anisotropy function and f) neutron dose rate. The calculated dose rate in water at 1 cm and 90 degrees from the source long axis, using the Watt fission spectrum, was D{sub n}(r{sub 0}, {theta}{sub 0})= 1.9160 cGy/h-{mu}g. When this value is compared with Rivard et al. calculation using MCNP4B code, 1.8730 cGy/h-{mu}g, a difference of 2.30% is obtained. The results for the reference neutron dose rate in other media show how small variations in the elemental composition between the tissues and malignant tumours, produce variations in the neutron dose rate up to 12.25%. (Author)

  18. Simultaneous investigation of fission fragments and neutrons in 252Cf(s,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Knitter, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The gridded twin ion chamber developed at CBNM is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the fission fragments of 252 Cf in an advantageous 4π-geometry. Together with a neutron time-of-flight detector this experimental arrangement permits to measure the correlation between neutron emission, fragment angle, mass and energy in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. With the present experimental set-up a mass resolution for fission fragments of 0.5 a.m.u., an angular resolution of Δcosθ = 0.05 and a timing resolution of 0.7 ns FWHM were observed. Preliminary evaluations of the raw experimental data are presented for the fission fragment mass distribution, the average total kinetic energy and their variance as function of mass, the angular distribution between fragments and neutrons, the number of neutrons emitted per fragment as function of fragment mass, the average neutron emission energies as function of mass, and the prompt fission neutron spectrum averaged over all fragments. (author)

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  20. Levels of 250Cf populated in the decay of 250Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uecke, J.W.

    1975-06-01

    The nuclide 250 Bk undergoes β-decay with a half-life of 3.2 h to 13.1 y 250 Cf. A study is undertaken of the excited states in 250 Cf populated by 250 Bk decay which results from the α-decay of 276d 254 Es. The general features of published level schemes for these nuclei are consistent with predictions of the Nilsson and collective models; however, there remain many undiscovered transitions and ambiguous or uncertain level assignments. In an attempt to confirm predictions of current theoretical models which account for nuclear level assignments in this nucleus, these gamma transitions and their levels have been studied. Twenty-eight new γ-rays were determined. The decay of 250 Bk is investigated primarily by high resolution gamma-ray singles spectrometry and supported in part by two-parameter gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry. The equipment, comprised of a Ge(HP) and a large volume Ge(Li) detector, a 4096-channel two-parameter analyzer, and a PDP-8/e computer system, permitted significant improvement in sensitivity and accuracy over previous investigations on this nucleus. (11 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  1. Fission dynamics of 240Cf* formed in 34,36S induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the entrance channel effects in the decay of Compound nucleus 240Cf* formed in 34S+206Pb and 36S+204Pb reactions by using energy density dependent nuclear proximity potential in the framework of dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM. At different excitation energies, the fragmentation potential and preformation probability of decaying fragments are almost identical for both the entrance channels, which seem to suggest that decay is independent of its formation and entrance channel excitation energy. It is also observed that, with inclusion of deformation effects upto quadrupole within the optimum orientation approach, the fragmentation path governing potential energy surfaces gets modified significantly. Beside this, the fission mass distribution of Cf* isotopes is also investigated. The calculated fission cross-sections using SIII force for both the channels find nice agreement with the available experimental data for deformed choice of fragments, except at higher energies. In addition to this, the comparative analysis with Blocki based nuclear attraction is also worked out. It is observed that Blocki proximity potential accounts well for the CN decay at all energies whereas the use of EDF based nuclear potential suggests the presence of some non-compound nucleus process (such as quasi-fission (qf at higher energies.

  2. Development of neutron induced prompt γ-ray spectroscopy system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Joon; Song, Byung-Chul; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2003-01-01

    For the design and set-up of neutron induced prompt γ-ray spectroscopy system using 252 Cf neutron source, the effects of shielding and moderator materials have been examined. The 252 Cf source being used for TLD badge calibration in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was utilized for this preliminary experiment. The γ-ray background and prompt γ-ray spectrum of the sample containing Cl were measured using HPGe (GMX 69% relative efficiency) located at the inside of the system connected to notebook PC at the outside of the system (about 20 meter distance). The background activities of neutron and γ-rays were measured with neutron survey meter as well as γ-ray survey meters, respectively and the system was designed to minimize the activities. Prompt γ-ray spectrum was measured using γ-γ coincident system for reduce the background and the continuum spectrum. The optimum system was designed and set up using the experimental data obtained

  3. Correlated spins of complementary fragment pairs in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. G.; Simpson, G. S.; Billowes, J.; Dagnall, P. J.; Durell, J. L.; Freeman, S. J.; Leddy, M.; Phillips, W. R.; Roach, A. A.; Smith, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the γ-ray decay of low-lying excited states in fragments produced in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf has revealed a significant correlation between the angles of emission of the 2 1 + →0 1 + transitions of complementary fragment pairs. Calculations of the amount of dealignment that is needed to reproduce the measured a 2 values, and a comparison with the results of previous fragment-γ angular distribution measurements, suggests that at scission there may be significant population of m≠0 substates associated with the projection of the fragment spin vector on the fission axis. Fragments from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm emit 2 1 + →0 1 + γ rays that show markedly reduced interfragment correlations, suggesting that either a larger role is played by the relative angular momentum of the fragments, or that the dealignment introduced by the neutron emission and statistical γ decay to the 2 1 + state is larger in 248 Cm than 252 Cf fission. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. An absolute measurement of 252Cf prompt fission neutron spectrum at low energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajtai, A.; Dyachenko, P.P.; Kutzaeva, L.S.; Kononov, V.N.; Androsenko, P.A.; Androsenko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt neutron energy spectrum at low energies (25 keV 252 Cf spontaneous fission has been measured with a time-of-flight technique on a 30 cm flight-path. Ionization chamber and lithium-glass were used as fission fragment and neutron detectors, respectively. Lithium glasses of NE-912 (containing 6 Li) and of NE-913 (containing 7 Li) 45 mm in diameter and 9.5 mm in thickness have been employed alternatively, for the registration of fission neutrons and gammas. For the correct determination of the multiscattering effects - the main difficulty of the low energy neutron spectrum measurements - a special geometry for the neutron detector was used. Special attention was paid also to the determination of the absolute efficiency of the neutron detector. The real response function of the spectrometer was determined by a Monte-Carlo calculation. The scattering material content of the ionization chamber containing a 252 Cf source was minimized. As a result of this measurement a prompt fission neutron spectrum of Maxwell type with a T=1.42 MeV parameter was obtained at this low energy range. We did not find any neutron excess or irregularities over the Maxwellian. (author)

  5. Electron-beam irradiation effects on mechanical properties of PEEK/CF composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao

    1989-01-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced composite (PEEK/CF) using polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as a matrix material was prepared and electron-beam irradiation effects on the mechanical properties at low and high temperatures were studied. The flexural strength and modulus of the unirradiated PEEK/CF were almost the same as those of carbon fibre-reinforced composites with epoxide resin. The mechanical properties at room temperature were little affected by irradiation up to 180 MGy, but in the test at 77K the strength of the specimens irradiated over 100 MGy was slightly decreased. The mechanical properties of the unirradiated specimen decreased with increasing testing temperature, but the high-temperature properties were improved by irradiation, i.e. the strength measured at 413K for the specimen irradiated with 120 MGy almost reached the value for the unirradiated specimen measured at room temperature. It was apparent from the viscoelastic measurement that the improvement of mechanical properties at high temperature resulted from the high-temperature shift of the glass transition of the matrix PEEK caused by radiation-induced cross-linking. (author)

  6. Angular momenta of fission fragments in the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Morhac, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hamilton, J.H.; Kormicki, J.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Luo, Y.X.; Fong, D.; Gore, P. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics, Nashville, TN (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Rodin, A.M.; Fomichev, A.S.; Popeko, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Daniel, A.V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R.; Cole, J.D.

    2005-06-01

    For the first time, average angular momenta of the ternary fission fragments {sup 100,102}Zr, {sup 106}Mo, {sup 144,146}Ba and {sup 138,140,142}Xe from the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf were obtained from relative intensities of prompt {gamma}-ray transitions with the use of the statistical model calculation. Average values of the angular momenta were compared with the corresponding values for the same fission fragments from the binary fission of {sup 252}Cf. Results indicate the presence of a decreasing trend in the average values of angular momenta induced in ternary fission fragments compared to the same binary fission fragments. On the average, the total angular momentum extracted for ternary fission fragments is {proportional_to}1.4{Dirac_h} lower than in binary fission. Consequently, results indicate that the mechanism of the ternary {alpha}-particles emission may directly effect an induction of angular momenta of fission fragments, and possible scenarios of such mechanisms are discussed. Further, the dependence of the angular momenta of {sup 106}Mo and {sup 140}Xe on the number of emitted neutrons from correlated pairs of primary fragments was obtained also showing a decreasing dependence of average angular momenta with increasing number of emitted neutrons. Consequences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Feasibility of subcriticality and NDA measurements for spent fuel by frequency analysis techniques with 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.; Mattingly, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The 252 Cf-source-driven frequency analysis method can be used for measuring the subcritical neutron multiplication factor of arrays of LWR fuel and as little as a single PWR fuel assembly. These measurements can be used to verify the criticality safety margins of spent LWR fuel configurations and thus could be a means of obtaining the information to justify burnup credit for spent LWR transportation/storage casks. In addition, the data can be used to validate calculational methods for criticality safety. These measurements provide parameters that have a higher sensitivity to changes in fissile mass than neutron multiplication factor and thus serve as a better test of calculational methods. The analysis have also shown that measurement of the cross power spectral density (CPSD) between detectors on one side of a single fuel assembly and an internal or external 252 Cf source driving the fission chain multiplication process can be used for nondestructive assay of fissile mass along the length of the assembly. This CPSD is a smooth function of fissile mass and does not depend on the varying inherent source in the fuel assembly and thus is ideal for fissile mass assay

  8. Subcriticality determination by a new time-domain correlation experiment with a 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishina, K.; Yamane, Y.; Ishiguro, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Suzaki, T.; Kobayahi, I.

    1985-01-01

    As a candidate for the on-site subcriticality-monitoring method, a new time-domain correlation experiment is proposed. Hinted by the Cf-252 detector method of Mihalczo, three covariances are taken between the count of three detectors; namely an ionization chamber with Cf-252 coating, and two He-3 proportional counters. A ratio Q is formed from the three quantities such that it does not depend either on detector efficiencies or counting gate duration T, and then related to reactivity. A formulation is given deriving a theoretical expression for this Q, with the effect of higher spatial modes included. Experiments were carried out with a loading at Tank-type Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, which is a slightly-enriched, and light-water moderated system. With fundamental mode approximation adopted in the data processing, reasonable agreements are observed between the present method and the reactivity scale that has been calibrated by water-level variety. The possibility of the present method is to be investigated further beyond the range of 7$ reported

  9. Calculation of neutron spectra for a 252Cf transport cask using ANISN running on a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.; Akin, B.P.; Lemley, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron spectra have been calculated using the ANISN one-dimensional discrete ordinates code for the case of a 152 Cf source in a transport cask of a particular design. All computations were done on personal computers (PCs) (mostly 486 models) with the ANISN-ORNL (486 version) computer code. With a source of 252 Cf fission neutrons, the neutron flux spectrum in the cask cannot be characterized as open-quotes moderated.close quotes Concern about an appropriate choice for the cross-section data set has led to a comparison, for this application, of three different cross-section libraries: DABL, HILO, and BUGLE-80. Although the cross-section sets were not originally designed for PC use, the libraries have been successfully employed for PC computations. Work with yet another data library, BUGLE-93, is incomplete at this stage. From neutron flux spectra on the surface of the cask, personnel dosimetric quantities (such as dose equivalent) have been determined for the DABL, HILO, and BUGLE-80 ANISN calculations

  10. Half-metallic ferromagnetic features in d{sup 0} quaternary-Heusler compounds KCaCF and KCaCCl: A first-principles description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiangtao [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Dong, Shengjie [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Lu, Yi-Lin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhao, Hui [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Feng, Liefeng, E-mail: fengliefeng@tju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Wang, L.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloys KCaCF and KCaCCl have been analyzed by means of first-principles calculations on the basis of density functional theory. We found that type-3 structure is the most stable configuration where C occupies (0, 0, 0) site, K (0.25, 0.25, 0.25), F/Cl (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), and Ca (0.75, 0.75, 0.75). Type-1 arrangement is the metastable structure in which K, Ca, C, and X occupy (0, 0, 0), (0.25, 0.25, 0.25), (0.5, 0.5, 0.5), and (0.75, 0.75, 0.75) sites, respectively. Both of them are half metals with equilibrium volume. The spin polarization is predominantly from C 2p states. With the variation of the lattice constant, spin-gapless semiconducting characteristic is achieved for type-1 KCaCCl as volume increases. - Highlights: • KCaCX (X=F and Cl) alloys with quaternary-Heusler structure were designed. • They exhibit a half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior at equilibrium lattice parameter. • The spin polarization is mainly from the partially-filled p state and p-d interaction. • KCaCCl can become spin-gapless semiconductor with the variation of lattice parameter.

  11. Creep and Oxidation Behavior of Modified CF8C-Plus with W, Cu, Ni, and Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures of modified CF8C-Plus (Fe-19Cr-12Ni-0.4W-3.8Mn-0.2Mo-0.6Nb-0.5Si-0.9C) with W and Cu (CF8CPWCu) and CF8CPWCu enhanced with 21Cr + 15Ni or 22Cr + 17.5Ni were characterized in the as-cast condition and after creep testing. When imaged at lower magnifications, the as-cast microstructure was similar among all three alloys as they all contained a Nb-rich interdendritic phase and Mn-based inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of nanoscale Cu-rich nanoprecipitates distributed uniformly throughout the matrix of CF8CPWCu, whereas in CF8CPWCu22/17, Cu precipitates were found primarily at the grain boundaries. The presence of these nanoscale Cu-rich particles, in addition to W-rich Cr23C6, nanoscale Nb carbides, and Z-phase (Nb2Cr2N2), improved the creep strength of the CF8CPWCu steel. Modification of CF8CPWCu with Cr and Ni contents slightly decreased the creep strength but significantly improved the oxidation behavior at 1073 K (800 °C). In particular, the addition of 22Cr and 17.5Ni strongly enhanced the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel resulting in a 100 degrees or greater temperature improvement, and this composition provided the best balance between improving both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.

  12. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  13. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during CF pulmonary exacerbation: trends and biomarker correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, A H; Nymon, A B; Ashare, A

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone produced by the liver that governs anabolism and influences immune cell function. Because treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE) often improves body weight and lung function, we questioned whether serum IGF-1 trends were emblematic of these responses. Initially, we compared serum levels between healthy adults with CF and controls of similar age. We then measured serum IGF-1 throughout the CFPE cycle. We also investigated correlations among IGF-1 and other serum biomarkers during CFPE. Anthopometric, spirometric, and demographic data were collected. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were measured by ELISA. CF subjects in their usual state of health had lower serum IGF-1 levels than controls. Serum IGF-1 concentrations fell significantly from baseline at the beginning of CFPE. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics was associated with significant improvement in serum IGF-1 levels, body mass index (BMI), and percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 %). At early and late CFPE, serum IGF-1 was directly correlated with FEV1 %, serum iron, hemoglobin concentration, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) and indirectly correlated with alpha-1-antitrypsin. This study not only supports the paradigm that CF is characterized by IGF-1 deficiency but also that trends in lung function, nutritional status, and serum IGF-1 are related. Improvements in all three parameters after antibiotics for CFPE likely highlight the connection between lung function and nutritional status in CF. Close correlations among IGF-1 and iron-related hematologic parameters suggest that IGF-1 may participate in CF iron homeostasis, another process that is known to be influenced by CFPE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. RBE of Cf-252 neutrons as determined by its lethal, mutagenic, and cytogenetic effects on human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki

    1989-01-01

    To assess the biological effects of neutrons, a man-made spontaneously fissioning isotope, Cf-252, is useful as an experimental model to obtain basic biological data on mixed radiation of gamma-rays and neutrons. The paper describes the lethal effect of Cf-252 radiation on human skin fibroblasts, its lethal and mutagenic effect on HeLa MR cells, and the micronuclei inducing effect on human peripheral lymphocytes. Dose-survival responses of three fibroblast cell strains exposed to Cf-252 radiation are measured. Individual difference is larger than the experimental fluctuation. D 10 values of each strain are obtained from the linear model and linear-quadratic model. Though the dose rate of X-ray is higher than that of Cf-252 radiations, the mean value of RBE(n+γ) is simply obtained as 1.86+0.31 (RBE:relative biological effectiveness). RBE(n) of Cf-252 neutrons to high-dose-rate X-rays is 2.29. After X-ray irradiation, the survival curve of HeLa MR cells gives an extrapolation number of 3.6. It is 1.3 after Cf-252 irradiation. At 50% survival, RBE(n+γ) and RBE(n) are 2.05 and 2.6, respectively. At 10% survival they are 2.05 and 2.6. The mutation frequencies after X-ray irradiation showed a significant non-linear increase with dose. Those after Cf-252 irradiation increase linearly with dose. (N.K.)

  15. Influence of Intermolecular Forces at Critical-point Wedge Filling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, A.O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2016), s. 040801 ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12291S Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) EP/L0205641/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : narrow pores * fluids * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  16. Mechanistic study on the fluorination of K[B(CN)4] with ClF enabling the high yield and large scale synthesis of K[B(CF3)4] and K[(CF3)3BCN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Eduard; Finze, Maik; Willner, Helge

    2011-10-17

    The fluorination of K[B(CN)(4)] with ClF is studied by millimolar test reactions in aHF and CH(2)Cl(2) solution and by subsequent identification of intermediates such as B-CF═NCl, B-CF(2)-NCl(2), and B-CF(3) species as well as NCl(3) by (19)F, (11)B NMR, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. At first one cyano group of K[B(CN)(4)] is converted fast into a CF(3) group, and with increasing fluorination the reaction becomes slower and several intermediates could be observed. On the basis of these results, a synthesis was developed for K[B(CF(3))(4)] on a 0.2 molar scale by treatment of K[B(CN)(4)] diluted in aHF with ClF. The course of the reactions was followed by (i) monitoring the vapor pressure inside the reactor, (ii) observing the heat dissipation during ClF uptake, and (iii) measuring the volume of the released nitrogen gas. Since the fluorination of the last cyano group proceeds very slowly, the selective synthesis of K[(CF(3))(3)BCN] on a 0.2 molar scale is possible, as well. The analysis of the mechanisms, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the fluorination reactions is supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  17. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  18. Ultrastructure of the protonephridia of larval Rugiloricus cf. cauliculus, male Armorloricus elegans, and female Nanaloricus mysticus (Loricifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2007-04-01

    The protonephridial system of several Loricifera was studied by transmission electron microscopy. A larval specimen of Rugiloricus cf. cauliculus possesses two protonephridia, which are "capped" frontally by a compact mass of still undifferentiated gonadal cells. Each protonephridium consists of four monociliary terminal cells and four canal cells with a diplosome but no cilia. Because of incomplete series of sections and unsatisfactory fixation, the outleading cell(s) could not be detected. In a male specimen of Armorloricus elegans, each gonad contains two protonephridia that open into the gonadal lumen. Each protonephridium consists of two monociliary terminal cells, each forming a filter, two nonciliated canal cells, and two nephroporus cells. The protonephridial lumina of the latter cells fuse to one common lumen, which unites with the gonadal lumen. Preliminary observations on the protonephridia of a female Nanaloricus mysticus reveal a more complicated arrangement of interdigitating terminal and canal cells. One or two terminal cells form their own individual filter or four cells form a common compound filter. The cilium of the terminal cells of all species investigated are surrounded by a palisade of nine microvilli that support the filter barrier made of an extracellular matrix. An additional filter diaphragm could be traced between the pores in the cell wall of each terminal cell of A. elegans. The urogenital system of the Loricifera differs from that of the Priapulida in that the protonephridia of the former are completely integrated into the gonad, whereas the excretory organs of the latter open into the urogenital duct caudally of the gonads. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  20. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.