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Sample records for integral toxicity level

  1. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  2. Low-level toxicity of chemicals: No acceptable levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce P Lanphear

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 3 decades, in a series of studies on some of the most extensively studied toxic chemicals and pollutants, scientists have found that the amount of toxic chemical linked with the development of a disease or death-which is central to determining "safe" or "hazardous" levels-is proportionately greater at the lowest dose or levels of exposure. These results, which are contrary to the way the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other regulatory agencies assess the risk of chemicals, indicate that we have underestimated the impact of toxic chemicals on death and disease. If widely disseminated chemicals and pollutants-like radon, lead, airborne particles, asbestos, tobacco, and benzene-do not exhibit a threshold and are proportionately more toxic at the lowest levels of exposure, we will need to achieve near-zero exposures to protect public health.

  3. A systems-level approach for investigating organophosphorus pesticide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingbo; Wang, Jing; Ding, Yan; Liu, Baoyue; Xiao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    The full understanding of the single and joint toxicity of a variety of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is still unavailable, because of the extreme complex mechanism of action. This study established a systems-level approach based on systems toxicology to investigate OP pesticide toxicity by incorporating ADME/T properties, protein prediction, and network and pathway analysis. The results showed that most OP pesticides are highly toxic according to the ADME/T parameters, and can interact with significant receptor proteins to cooperatively lead to various diseases by the established OP pesticide -protein and protein-disease networks. Furthermore, the studies that multiple OP pesticides potentially act on the same receptor proteins and/or the functionally diverse proteins explained that multiple OP pesticides could mutually enhance toxicological synergy or additive on a molecular/systematic level. To the end, the integrated pathways revealed the mechanism of toxicity of the interaction of OP pesticides and elucidated the pathogenesis induced by OP pesticides. This study demonstrates a systems-level approach for investigating OP pesticide toxicity that can be further applied to risk assessments of various toxins, which is of significant interest to food security and environmental protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of Density Dependence and Concentration Response Models Provides an Ecologically Relevant Assessment of Populations Exposed to Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of toxic exposure on wildlife populations involves the integration of organism level effects measured in toxicity tests (e.g., chronic life cycle) and population models. These modeling exercises typically ignore density dependence, primarily because information on ...

  5. Integrated fate and toxicity assessment for site contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Finster, Molly; Douglas, R.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the fate and toxicity of environmental contaminants is essential to framing practical management decisions. Forms and bioavailable concentrations often change over time due to natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. For some sites, hundreds of contaminants may be of initial interest, and even small projects can involve a substantial number of contaminants. With multiple assessments common, attention to effectiveness and efficiency is important, and integrating fate and toxicity information provides a valuable way to focus the analyses. Fate assessments help identify what forms may be present where and when, while toxicity information indicates what health effects could result if people were exposed. The integration process is illustrated by an application for the Hanford site, to support long-term management decisions for the cesium and strontium capsules. Fate data, health-based benchmarks, and related toxicity information were effectively combined to indicate performance targets for chemicals and radionuclides identified for capsule leachate that could migrate to groundwater. More than 50 relevant benchmarks and toxicity context were identified for 15 of the 17 study contaminants; values for chronic drinking water exposure provided the common basis for selected indicators. For two chemicals, toxicity information was identified from the scientific literature to guide the performance targets. (authors)

  6. determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using brine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF TOXICITY LEVELS OF SOME SAVANNAH PLANTS. USING BRINE ... Adoum, O. A.. Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano – Nigeria. ... 1000, 100, and 10 µg/ml, respectively.

  7. Integrated at the neighbourhood level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putri, Prathiwi Widyatmi

    2017-01-01

    Cities in the Global South are generally vast due to urban sprawl. They are characterised by a varying level of density, and enclaves of informal settlements. Within this context, this article addresses the limits of large-scale and centralised water systems. It seeks to understand, qualitatively......-spatial characteristics of local communities can be accommodated. Smaller-scale development intervention also means stimulating creativity in planning and policy-making processes to address water-infrastructure needs at local levels and opens possibilities for integrating water-infrastructures with public space....... Such a decentralised approach matters to improve the overall socio-spatial quality of a neighbourhood, however it requires, in parallel, new institutional mechanisms to provide a coherent water and environmental management system at the urban level. This article argues for a synergy of two axes: the water sector...

  8. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  9. Correlation of BTEX levels and toxicity of condensate contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.; Hardisty, P.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of BTEX was determined for 60 groundwater samples collected from 6 gas plants in Western Canada, using conventional purge-and-trap GC/MS procedures. The gas plants were selected to cover different types of operations with different amine process chemicals employed for the sweetening of the raw sour-gas condensates. Aliquots of the ground water samples were subjected to toxicity screening tests, specifically, (a) bacterial luminescence (microtox); (b) daphnia mortality and (c) fathead minnow mortality. For the toxicity tests, sample handling procedures were developed to minimize the loss of volatile organics during the experiments. To account for possible losses, the levels of BTEX were monitored at the start and upon completion of these tests. The results indicated that the toxicity of the groundwater was in general, well correlated to the concentration of BTEX (primarily xylene). Approximately 5% of the samples, however, were observed to be toxic although the concentration of BTEX were below the method detection limit (1 microg/1). Thiophenic volatile organics were implicated for the latter. Based on the laboratory results, the remediation of BTEX is expected to correlate with the removal of the toxicity of the groundwater. These findings are of direct relevance to present technologies employed for remediation of ground water at the Sourgas plants

  10. Integrated ultrasonic/microbiological treatment of toxic and refractory pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, A. [Water Technology Center, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The elimination of environmental pollutants by biodegradation in many cases represents an efficient and reliable method, e.g. in waste waster treatment, treatment of solid wastes, and in the remediation of contaminated soil. Nevertheless, there are situations where biological treatment alone does not result in a successful elimination of the target pollutants. For example, the presence of toxic compounds, an insufficient period of adaptation or a low bioavailability of the pollutants hinder a rapid biodegradation. Physico-chemical techniques, e.g. sonochemical degradation, provide an alternative to eliminate pollutants that are poorly biodegradable. It is the aim of this paper to demonstrate the potential of integrated ultrasound/biodegradation processes in the light of the underlying mechanisms. Optimisation of sonication is discussed with respect to ultrasound frequency and pH of the aqueous phase. Examplarily, two successful combinations of the integrated process are presented: (i) Application of ultrasound to reduce the toxicity of chlorophenols and (ii) ultrasonic irradiation to increase mass transfer and biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  11. Lake level fluctuations boost toxic cyanobacterial "oligotrophic blooms".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Callieri

    Full Text Available Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena, a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D. lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C:P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D. lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  12. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.; Dranitsaris, P.; Baynes, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  14. Risk Levels of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Portuguese Recreational Freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese freshwater reservoirs are important socio-economic resources, namely for recreational use. National legislation concerning bathing waters does not include mandatory levels or guidelines for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. This is an issue of concern since cyanotoxin-based evidence is insufficient to change the law, and the collection of scientific evidence has been hampered by the lack of regulatory levels for cyanotoxins in bathing waters. In this work, we evaluate the profile of cyanobacteria and microcystins (MC in eight freshwater reservoirs from the center of Portugal, used for bathing/recreation, in order to determine the risk levels concerning toxic cyanobacteria occurrence. Three of the reservoirs did not pose a risk of MC contamination. However, two reservoirs presented a high risk in 7% of the samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for MC in bathing waters (above 20 µg/L. In the remaining three reservoirs, the risk concerning microcystins occurrence was low. However, they exhibited recurrent blooms and persistent contamination with MC up to 4 µg/L. Thus, the risk of exposure to MC and potential acute and/or chronic health outcomes should not be disregarded in these reservoirs. These results contribute to characterize the cyanobacterial blooms profile and to map the risk of toxic cyanobacteria and microcystins occurrence in Portuguese inland waters.

  15. Levels of macroelements and toxic elements in herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljev Željko A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 diverse herbal teas were examined, including: yarrow, basil, St.John’s wort, peppermint, horsetail, nettle, thyme, corn silk, hibiscus, marshmallow, chamomile, rosehip, heather and wild mint. The samples were prepared using the method of microwave digestion, and measurements were performed by the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Sb; atomic absorption spectrometry (Mg; emission flame photometry (Ca, K, Na and spectrophotometry (P. Intervals of variation (mg/kg for macroelements were: Ca (2738-35399; P (1545-6264; Mg (1647-7816; Na (293-10629 and K (9683-33985, and for toxic elements: Cd (0.014-0.645; Hg (<0.001- 0.017; Pb (0.064-1.340; As (0.030-0.544 and Sb (0.004-0.068. In the three samples (yarrow and two St.John’s wort samples measured cadmium concentration was higher than the maximum level for dried herbs, recommended by WHO. Ward's hierarchical clustering method was performed with the aim of grouping herbal teas by the amount of toxic elements. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  16. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  17. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi; Hadi asady; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Zahra zolghadr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discha...

  18. Evaluation of levels of select toxic metals in commonly used herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even at low concentrations or levels of exposure, toxic metals have also been reported to pose health risks to man. Aim: To ... Materials/Methods :Herbal medicines (n=8) were purchased from on-the-street vendors and evaluated for levels of five toxic metals (Lead, Nickel, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic).Analysis of toxic ...

  19. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  20. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  1. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  3. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  4. Determination of Levels of Essential and Toxic Heavy Metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace essential metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) and toxic heavy metals (Cd and Pb) in lentil samples collected from Dejen (East Gojjam), Boset (East Shewa) and Molale (North Shewa), Ethiopia, were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A wet digestion procedure, using mixtures of ...

  5. Integrated scientific data bases review on asulacrine and associated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Attia; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Wu, Zimei; Wang, Guangji; Sun, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Asulacrine (ASL), a weakly basic and highly lipophilic drug was synthesized in 1980's in cancer research laboratory of Auckland by modifications to the acridine portion of amsacrine on 3-, 4- and 5-substitution patterns. In contrast to its precursor amsacrine (m-AMSA), ASL was effective not only against leukemia and Lewis lung tumor system but also a wide variety of solid tumor. Its metabolic pathway is not same to amsacrine hence different side effects, hepatotoxicity and excretion was observed. Asulacrine is under phase II clinical trials and has showed promising results but its toxicity especially phlebitis is stumbling block in its clinical implementation. This review is an effort to give a possible clue, based on scientifically proven results, to the researchers to solve the mystery of associated toxicity, phlebitis. Review covers the available literature on asulacrine and other acridine derivatives regarding pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, quantitative structure activity relationship and toxicology via electronic search using scientific databases like PubMed and others. To date, all abstracts and full-text articles were discussed and analyzed. The tabulated comparisons and circuitry mechanism of ASL are the added features of the review which give a complete understanding of hidden aspects of possible route cause of associated toxicity, the phlebitis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation and modeling of the parameters affecting fluoride toxicity level in aquatic environments by bioassay method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shamsollahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride exists in various forms in nature and water resources. , The rising level of fluoride in water resources due to discharge of industrial effluents can cause toxicity in aquatic organisms. To prevent toxicity, it is necessary to determine maximum fluoride toxicity as well as effluent discharge limits. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum fluoride toxicity and the factors affecting fluoride toxicity to provide a model in order to determine the effluent discharge limits. Methods: Daphnia magna bioassay in the absence of confounding factors was used to determine the maximum level of fluoride toxicity. Then, bioassay was repeated in the presence of the confounding factors (hardness, temperature and exposure time to determine their effects. Results: In the absence of intervening factors, fluoride LC50 levels determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours exposure were 4.9, 46.5 and 38.7 mg/l, respectively.. Also, the influence of confounding factors on LC50 values was reported significant by Minitab software. Conclusion: Increasing the water hardness reduced fluoride toxicity, and increasing the water temperature and exposure time increased fluoride toxicity in aquatic environments. Therefore, while determining the wastewater discharge limit in terms of fluoride concentration, it is essential to take the effect of confounding factors on fluoride toxicity into account in order to prevent toxicity in the open water resources.

  8. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  9. Mechanisms and manifestations of toxic actions at the bone tissue level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The principal abnormalities determined by toxic at the bone level are: osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis or osteopetrosis. The principal toxics having a noxiousness at the bone level are: the fluorine, the phosphorus, the lead, the bismuth, the cadmium and the strontium. The strontium 90 has an important radioactivity that gives at the bone level osteosarcomas or at low doses, leukemoid reactions and marrow angiosarcoma. (N.C.)

  10. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of toxicity of class-based organic chemicals to algae and fish based on discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Tai, Hong W; Yu, Yang; Wen, Yang; Wang, Xiao H; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity data to fish and algae were used to investigate excess toxicity between species. Results show that chemicals exhibiting excess toxicity to fish also show excess toxicity to algae for most of the compounds. This indicates that they share the same mode of action between species. Similar relationships between logKOW and toxicities to fish and algae for baseline and less inert compounds suggest that they have similar critical body residues in the two species. Differences in excess toxicity for some compounds suggest that there is a difference of physiological structure and metabolism between fish and algae. Some reactive compounds (e.g. polyamines) exhibit greater toxic effects for algae than those for fish because of relatively low bio-uptake potential of these hydrophilic compounds in fish as compared with that in algae. Esters exhibiting greater toxicity in fish than that in algae indicate that metabolism can affect the discrimination of excess toxicity from baseline level. Algae growth inhibition is a very good surrogate for fish lethality. This is not only because overall toxicity sensitivity to algae is greater than that to fish, but also the excess toxicity calculated from algal toxicity can better reflect reactivity of compounds with target molecules than fish toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Levels of Some Selected (Essential-Mn, Zn and Toxic-Al, Sb) Metals in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish were dissected, blood samples were obtained and the tissues were digested with standard methodsand assayed for levels of manganese, zinc, aluminum and antimony using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results obtained showed that the mean concentration of the elements ...

  13. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  14. Plasma citrulline levels predict intestinal toxicity in patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Kotek, Ayse; Arslan, Gungor; Topkan, Erkan (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)), E-mail: hcemonal@hotmail.com; Unal, Birsel (Dept. of Biochemistry, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)); Yavuz, Aydin; Yavuz, Melek (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Akdeniz Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey))

    2011-11-15

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) for abdominal and pelvic malignancies often causes severe small bowel toxicity. Citrulline concentrations are known to decrease with intestinal failure. We thus evaluated the feasibility of plasma citrulline levels in predicting radiation-induced intestinal toxicity. Material and methods. Fifty-three patients (36 prostate cancer, 17 endometrial cancer) who received 45 Gy pelvic RT using conventional fractionation were prospectively evaluated. Patients with prostate cancer received an additional 25-30.6 Gy conformal boost. Plasma citrulline levels were assessed on day 0, mid- (week 3) and post-RT (week 8), and four months post-RT. Dose-volume histogram, citrulline concentration changes, and weekly intestinal toxicity scores were analyzed. Results. Mean age was 63 years (range: 43-81 years) and mean baseline citrulline concentration was 38.0 +- 10.1 mumol/l. Citrulline concentrations were significantly reduced at week 3 (27.4 +- 5.9 mumol/l; p < 0.0001), treatment end (29.9 +- 8.8 mumol/l; p < 0.0001), and four months post-treatment (34.3 +- 12.1; p 0.01). The following factor pairs were significantly positively correlated: Citrulline concentration/mean bowel dose during, end of treatment, and four months post-RT; dose-volume parameters/citrulline change groups; cumulative mean radiation dose/intestinal toxicity at end and four months post-RT; citrulline changes/intestinal toxicity during and end of RT. Citrulline concentration changes significantly differed during treatment according to RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p < 0.0001). Although the citrulline changes differed significantly within RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p = 0.003), the difference between Grade 0 and Grade 1 did not differ significantly at the end of the treatment. At four months after RT, no significant differences were apparent. Conclusion. Citrulline-based assessment scores are objective and should be considered in measuring radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

  15. Five Levels of Curriculum Integration Defined, Refined, and Described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Donna H.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a description of five levels of curriculum integration at the middle level, specifically: departmentalization, reinforcement, complementary or shared units, webbed, and integrated themes. Discusses curriculum integration in relation to preservice and inservice programs, common planning time, team composition, time issues, and…

  16. Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: Their relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Antonio F.; Parrón, Tesifón; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.; Requena, Mar; Alarcón, Raquel; López-Guarnido, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures can be independent, dose addition or interaction. ► Metabolic interactions involve inhibition or induction of detoxifying enzymes. ► Organophosphates can potentiate pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine toxicity. ► Synergism occurs when two active pesticides elicit greater than additive toxicity. ► Endocrine disruptors have the potential for additivity rather than synergism. - Abstract: Pesticides almost always occur in mixtures with other ones. The toxicological effects of low-dose pesticide mixtures on the human health are largely unknown, although there are growing concerns about their safety. The combined toxicological effects of two or more components of a pesticide mixture can take one of three forms: independent, dose addition or interaction. Not all mixtures of pesticides with similar chemical structures produce additive effects; thus, if they act on multiple sites their mixtures may produce different toxic effects. The additive approach also fails when evaluating mixtures that involve a secondary chemical that changes the toxicokinetics of the pesticide as a result of its increased activation or decreased detoxification, which is followed by an enhanced or reduced toxicity, respectively. This review addresses a number of toxicological interactions of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level. Examples of such interactions include the postulated mechanisms for the potentiation of pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine herbicides toxicity by organophosphates; how the toxicity of some organophosphates can be potentiated by other organophosphates or by previous exposure to organochlorines; the synergism between pyrethroid and carbamate compounds and the antagonism between triazine herbicides and prochloraz. Particular interactions are also addressed, such as those of pesticides acting as endocrine disruptors, the cumulative toxicity of organophosphates and organochlorines resulting in estrogenic effects and the

  17. Integrating Strategic Marketing on an Institutional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S.

    1998-01-01

    Higher education differs from other service enterprises in its social responsibility and the context for decision making. An integrated marketing strategy based on the identified positioning of the institution plays a crucial role in successful enrollment and long-term institutional development. Marketing can make a significant contribution to…

  18. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  19. Comparison of Toxicities to Vibrio fischeri and Fish Based on Discrimination of Excess Toxicity from Baseline Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao H.; Yu, Yang; Huang, Tao; Qin, Wei C.; Su, Li M.; Zhao, Yuan H.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the relationship of toxicities between species play an important role in the understanding of toxic mechanisms to environmental organisms. In this paper, the toxicity data of 949 chemicals to fish and 1470 chemicals to V. fischeri were used to investigate the modes of action (MOAs) between species. The results show that although there is a positive interspecies correlation, the relationship is poor. Analysis on the excess toxicity calculated from toxic ratios (TR) shows that many chemicals have close toxicities and share the same MOAs between the two species. Linear relationships between the toxicities and octanol/water partition coefficient (log KOW) for baseline and less inert compounds indicate that the internal critical concentrations (CBRs) approach a constant both to fish and V. fischeri for neutral hydrophobic compounds. These compounds share the same toxic mechanisms and bio-uptake processes between species. On the other hand, some hydrophilic compounds exhibit different toxic effects with greatly different log TR values between V. fischeri and fish species. These hydrophilic compounds were identified as reactive MOAs to V. fischeri, but not to fish. The interspecies correlation is improved by adding a hydrophobic descriptor into the correlation equation. This indicates that the differences in the toxic ratios between fish and V. fischeri for these hydrophilic compounds can be partly attributed to the differences of bioconcentration between the two species, rather than the differences of reactivity with the target macromolecules. These hydrophilic compounds may more easily pass through the cell membrane of V. fischeri than the gill and skin of fish, react with the target macromolecules and exhibit excess toxicity. The compounds with log KOW > 7 exhibiting very low toxicity (log TR toxicity and MOAs. PMID:26901437

  20. LEVEL OF TOXICITY WATER AREA «TULENIY» AS A RESULT OF BIOASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sokolsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the toxicity of marine waters area " tuleniy ".Location. Area " tuleniy ".Methods. Determining the level of toxicity of marine waters area "seal" method for biological testing was conducted according tothe guidelines approved by the Ministry of natural resources (guidance on the definition of ..., 2002; Dolzhenko, 1978. Guide prepared by the Center for Russian register of hydraulic structures and the state water cadastre of the MNR of Russia jointly with specialists of the Institute Committee of Russia and the UNION of ecological problems of the Ministry of Ukraine. The basis of the proposed system of marine toxicity biotests based on the results of generalization of experimental research based on the problem of pollution of water bodies and numerous literature data, making it possible to identify features of the response of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups to toxic impurities of different nature and origin. Experimental studies were conducted on the culture of marine unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum on planktonic crustacea Acartia tonsa, the larvae of the chironomid Chironomus gr.salinarius and juvenile guppies Poecillia reticulata Peters.Results. Comparative analysis of the results of research from 2001 to 2006 showed no acute toxic effect on the test object zooplankton and phytoplanton.Main conclusions. Throughout the study period (2001-2003, 2005-2006, you must allocate the spring of 2002, when it was recorded,the average of the lowest five years of research, the level of toxicity of water for the analyzed area.Considering the results of biological testing of the surveyed area by periods, it should be noted that the average level of toxicity of the waters did not undergo significant changes and were on the same level, not exceeding 17,6% (table. 1. According to the classification shown in table 2, the water in the surveyed area is assessed as "non-toxic".

  1. Assessing toxic levels of hydrocarbons on microbial degrader communities in vadose zone fill soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, T.H.; Long, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Authentic fill samples were collected from the vadose zone at a highway travel plaza. The contamination at the site is a combination of gasoline, diesel, and waste oil resulting from leaking underground storage tanks. Microbial assessments including plate counts and specific-degrader enumerations were performed to establish the presence of degrader microbial communities, and thus bioremediation potential. Contaminant levels were estimated in samples by quantifying headspace VOCs in collection jars. Physical soil characteristics including soil grain size distribution and moisture content were measured to evaluate the potential ecological variables that would affect implementation of a bioremediation technology. Toxicity screening using the Microtox trademark acute toxicity assay was used to compare the level of toxicity present among samples. These analyses were used to assess the potential for using in situ bioventing remediation to clean-up the leaking underground storage tank spill study site. High contaminant levels appear to have exerted a toxic effect and resulted in smaller total microbial community sizes in highly contaminated areas (thousands of ppmv) of the site. Microtox trademark EC50 results generally corroborated with the trends of the enumeration experiments. Microbial characterization results indicate that in situ bioremediation would be possible at the study site. Soil heterogeneity appears to pose the greatest challenges to the design and implementation of bioremediation at this site

  2. Assessment of the toxicity level of an industrial eco-system for its hazardous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is an agricultural country, yet it is facing a serious threat due to the shortage of water resources and degradation of the agricultural land by the pollution of industrial effluents. A limited number of the current industries are equipped with proper operating treatment plants. Generally, the untreated effluents are disposed off to the open environment which is used for irrigation purposes. Therefore, vegetables and crops grown around the industrial areas is a major potential source of metal poisoning which pose a serious risk to the general public. Hence, study of the toxicity level in vegetables and crops is highly desirable. In this regard, systematic studies have been carried out to determine concentration levels of toxic elements in the samples of vegetables, crops, effluents and soil collected from the industrial areas of the Faisalabad. After processing, these samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric techniques. The highest concentrations of toxic metals were observed for As (2.73 ± 0.34) in cabbage, Cd (1.5 ± 0.1), Ni (5.1 ± 0.9) and Pb (4.3 ± 0.2) in corn, Co (0.65 ± 0.02), and Sb (0.09 ± 0.01) in carrot, Cr (9.63 ± 1.3), Mn (46.5 ± 4.2) and Se (1.03 ± 0.1) in millet, Cu (11.3 ± 1.1) in tomato vegetables and crop samples. Although, the observed toxicity levels in vegetables and crop samples were higher than those grown in non-industrial areas, yet these toxicity levels are within the safe recommended limits. (author)

  3. Plasma citrulline levels predict intestinal toxicity in patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Cem; Kotek, Ayse; Arslan, Gungor; Topkan, Erkan; Unal, Birsel; Yavuz, Aydin; Yavuz, Melek

    2011-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) for abdominal and pelvic malignancies often causes severe small bowel toxicity. Citrulline concentrations are known to decrease with intestinal failure. We thus evaluated the feasibility of plasma citrulline levels in predicting radiation-induced intestinal toxicity. Material and methods. Fifty-three patients (36 prostate cancer, 17 endometrial cancer) who received 45 Gy pelvic RT using conventional fractionation were prospectively evaluated. Patients with prostate cancer received an additional 25-30.6 Gy conformal boost. Plasma citrulline levels were assessed on day 0, mid- (week 3) and post-RT (week 8), and four months post-RT. Dose-volume histogram, citrulline concentration changes, and weekly intestinal toxicity scores were analyzed. Results. Mean age was 63 years (range: 43-81 years) and mean baseline citrulline concentration was 38.0 ± 10.1 μmol/l. Citrulline concentrations were significantly reduced at week 3 (27.4 ± 5.9 μmol/l; p < 0.0001), treatment end (29.9 ± 8.8 μmol/l; p < 0.0001), and four months post-treatment (34.3 ± 12.1; p 0.01). The following factor pairs were significantly positively correlated: Citrulline concentration/mean bowel dose during, end of treatment, and four months post-RT; dose-volume parameters/citrulline change groups; cumulative mean radiation dose/intestinal toxicity at end and four months post-RT; citrulline changes/intestinal toxicity during and end of RT. Citrulline concentration changes significantly differed during treatment according to RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p < 0.0001). Although the citrulline changes differed significantly within RTOG intestinal toxicity grades (p = 0.003), the difference between Grade 0 and Grade 1 did not differ significantly at the end of the treatment. At four months after RT, no significant differences were apparent. Conclusion. Citrulline-based assessment scores are objective and should be considered in measuring radiation-induced intestinal toxicity

  4. Effects of crude kerosene on testosterone levels, aggression and toxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel W. Njoroge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of crude kerosene as a dietary supplement in boarding schools has been a common practice in east Africa and other countries for many years, with the belief of it reducing the sex drive (libido at the pubertal stage. There is however no scientific basis for this belief. The present study aimed at using a rat animal model to investigate the effects of crude kerosene on serum testosterone levels, aggression and its possible toxic effects. Fifteen male albino rats of approximately similar age and average weights were put into three groups of five animals each; the control group (placebo, low kerosene dose (10 μl/day group and high kerosene dose (300 μl/day group. ELISA was used to determine the serum testosterone levels. During treatment, changes in aggression were observed and noted. Liver toxicity was determined using enzyme assays, total protein and albumin while renal toxicity was monitored using serum creatinine levels. A full hemogram was conducted to determine hematological effects. Various tissue biopsies were obtained and examined using histopathological techniques for evidence of toxicity. Contrary to the common belief, our findings showed an overall increase of serum testosterone levels of up to 66% in the low dose and 75% in the high dose groups, with an increasing trend by the end of the study. The high dose group showed significantly increased levels of white blood cells (WBC (p = 0.036, red blood cells (RBC (p = 0.025, hematocrit (HCT (p = 0.03, red cell distribution width (p = 0.028 and platelets (p = 0.017. The histological results of the stomach indicated chronic gastritis.

  5. An integrated multi-label classifier with chemical-chemical interactions for prediction of chemical toxicity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Lei; Pan, Xiaoyong

    2018-05-31

    Chemical toxicity effect is one of the major reasons for declining candidate drugs. Detecting the toxicity effects of all chemicals can accelerate the procedures of drug discovery. However, it is time-consuming and expensive to identify the toxicity effects of a given chemical through traditional experiments. Designing quick, reliable and non-animal-involved computational methods is an alternative way. In this study, a novel integrated multi-label classifier was proposed. First, based on five types of chemical-chemical interactions retrieved from STITCH, each of which is derived from one aspect of chemicals, five individual classifiers were built. Then, several integrated classifiers were built by integrating some or all individual classifiers. By testing the integrated classifiers on a dataset with chemicals and their toxicity effects in Accelrys Toxicity database and non-toxic chemicals with their performance evaluated by jackknife test, an optimal integrated classifier was selected as the proposed classifier, which provided quite high prediction accuracies and wide applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halton, D M

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC{sub LO}, LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 50} levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LC LO , LC 10 and LC 50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Avoiding toxic levels of essential minerals: a forgotten factor in deer diet preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Olguín, Augusto; Miranda, María; García, Andrés; Martínez, Alberto; Cassinello, Jorge; Miguel, Valentín; Gallego, Laureano

    2015-01-01

    Ungulates select diets with high energy, protein, and sodium contents. However, it is scarcely known the influence of essential minerals other than Na in diet preferences. Moreover, almost no information is available about the possible influence of toxic levels of essential minerals on avoidance of certain plant species. The aim of this research was to test the relative importance of mineral content of plants in diet selection by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in an annual basis. We determined mineral, protein and ash content in 35 common Mediterranean plant species (the most common ones in the study area). These plant species were previously classified as preferred and non-preferred. We found that deer preferred plants with low contents of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Cu, Sr and Zn. The model obtained was greatly accurate identifying the preferred plant species (91.3% of correct assignments). After a detailed analysis of these minerals (considering deficiencies and toxicity levels both in preferred and non-preferred plants) we suggest that the avoidance of excessive sulphur in diet (i.e., selection for plants with low sulphur content) seems to override the maximization for other nutrients. Low sulphur content seems to be a forgotten factor with certain relevance for explaining diet selection in deer. Recent studies in livestock support this conclusion, which is highlighted here for the first time in diet selection by a wild large herbivore. Our results suggest that future studies should also take into account the toxicity levels of minerals as potential drivers of preferences.

  9. Do oral aluminium phosphate binders cause accumulation of aluminium to toxic levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Norman B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminium (Al toxicity was frequent in the 1980s in patients ingesting Al containing phosphate binders (Alucaps whilst having HD using water potentially contaminated with Al. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of Al toxicity in HD patients receiving Alucaps but never exposed to contaminated dialysate water. Methods HD patients only treated with Reverse Osmosis(RO treated dialysis water with either current or past exposure to Alucaps were given standardised DFO tests. Post-DFO serum Al level > 3.0 μmol/L was defined to indicate toxic loads based on previous bone biopsy studies. Results 39 patients (34 anuric were studied. Mean dose of Alucap was 3.5 capsules/d over 23.0 months. Pre-DFO Al levels were > 1.0 μmol/L in only 2 patients and none were > 3.0 μmol/L. No patients had a post DFO Al levels > 3.0 μmol/L. There were no correlations between the serum Al concentrations (pre-, post- or the incremental rise after DFO administration and the total amount of Al ingested. No patients had unexplained EPO resistance or biochemical evidence of adynamic bone. Conclusions Although this is a small study, oral aluminium exposure was considerable. Yet no patients undergoing HD with RO treated water had evidence of Al toxicity despite doses equivalent to 3.5 capsules of Alucap for 2 years. The relationship between the DFO-Al results and the total amount of Al ingested was weak (R2 = 0.07 and not statistically significant. In an era of financial prudence, and in view of the recognised risk of excess calcium loading in dialysis patients, perhaps we should re-evaluate the risk of using Al-based phosphate binders in HD patients who remain uric.

  10. Technology Integration Support Levels for In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mable Evans

    2017-01-01

    In-service teachers across the globe are expected to integrate technology in their respective instructional content area. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of in-service teachers concerning building-level support for technology integration. Participants in the study were asked to participate in semi-structured…

  11. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J B; Mitchell, I J [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Baral, M; Bradstreet, J [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Geis, E; Ingram, J; Hensley, A; Zappia, I; Gehn, E; Mitchell, K [Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599 (United States); Newmark, S [Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711 (United States); Rubin, R A [Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413 (United States); Bradstreet, J [International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); El-Dahrn, J M [Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  12. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  13. An integrated approach to improved toxicity prediction for the safety assessment during preclinical drug development using Hep G2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, Fozia; Niklas, Jens; Mueller-Vieira, Ursula; Heinzle, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate safety assessment of compounds is extremely important in the preclinical development of drugs especially when hepatotoxicty is in question. Multiparameter and time resolved assays are expected to greatly improve the prediction of toxicity by assessing complex mechanisms of toxicity. An integrated approach is presented in which Hep G2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes are compared in frequently used cytotoxicity assays for parent compound toxicity. The interassay variability was determined. The cytotoxicity assays were also compared with a reliable alternative time resolved respirometric assay. The set of training compounds consisted of well known hepatotoxins; amiodarone, carbamazepine, clozapine, diclofenac, tacrine, troglitazone and verapamil. The sensitivity of both cell systems in each tested assay was determined. Results show that careful selection of assay parameters and inclusion of a kinetic time resolved assay improves prediction for non-metabolism mediated toxicity using Hep G2 cells as indicated by a sensitivity ratio of 1. The drugs with EC 50 values 100 μM or lower were considered toxic. The difference in the sensitivity of the two cell systems to carbamazepine which causes toxicity via reactive metabolites emphasizes the importance of human cell based in-vitro assays. Using the described system, primary rat hepatocytes do not offer advantage over the Hep G2 cells in parent compound toxicity evaluation. Moreover, respiration method is non invasive, highly sensitive and allows following the time course of toxicity. Respiration assay could serve as early indicator of changes that subsequently lead to toxicity.

  14. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic chemicals were released and how the 2015 TRI data compare to data from previous years. This dataset reports US state, county, large aquatic ecosystem, metro/micropolitan statistical area, and facility level statistics from 2015 TRI releases, including information on: number of 2015 TRI facilities in the geographic area and their releases (total, water, air, land); population information, including populations living within 1 mile of TRI facilities (total, minority, in poverty); and Risk Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model related pounds, toxicity-weighted pounds, and RSEI score. The source of administrative boundary data is the 2013 cartographic boundary shapefiles. Location of facilities is provided by EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS). Large Aquatic Ecosystems boundaries were dissolved from the hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America (November 2002), and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America.

  15. Effect of nutritional state on Hsp60 levels in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, C E; Baumgartner, T A; Newman, J W; Wolfe, M F; Tjeerdema, R S

    2002-11-13

    The nutritional state of an organism can affect the results of toxicity testing. Here we exemplified this fact by examining the effect of nutritional deprivation on heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) production in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis following exposure to two proven inducers of hsp60, a water-accommodated fraction of crude oil (WAF) and a dispersed oil preparation (DO). Both DO and WAF exposures of unfed rotifers resulted in significantly greater hsp60 levels than that of fed DO and WAF exposed rotifers at 8 h: 870 and 3100% of control, respectively. Results clearly demonstrate that a poor nutritional state potentiates stress protein induction upon exposure to water-soluble petroleum products. It is therefore critical to define the organismal nutritional status when reporting toxic responses. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.

    2007-01-01

    Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated

  17. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Dominique A; Butler, Victoria J; Argouarch, Andrea R; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kao, Aimee W

    2015-06-24

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359315-14$15.00/0.

  18. Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of the acetaminophen toxicity in liver microfluidic biochip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Matthieu Prot

    Full Text Available Microfluidic bioartificial organs allow the reproduction of in vivo-like properties such as cell culture in a 3D dynamical micro environment. In this work, we established a method and a protocol for performing a toxicogenomic analysis of HepG2/C3A cultivated in a microfluidic biochip. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have shown the induction of the NRF2 pathway and the related drug metabolism pathways when the HepG2/C3A cells were cultivated in the biochip. The induction of those pathways in the biochip enhanced the metabolism of the N-acetyl-p-aminophenol drug (acetaminophen-APAP when compared to Petri cultures. Thus, we observed 50% growth inhibition of cell proliferation at 1 mM in the biochip, which appeared similar to human plasmatic toxic concentrations reported at 2 mM. The metabolic signature of APAP toxicity in the biochip showed similar biomarkers as those reported in vivo, such as the calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism and reorganization of the cytoskeleton, at the transcriptome and proteome levels (which was not the case in Petri dishes. These results demonstrate a specific molecular signature for acetaminophen at transcriptomic and proteomic levels closed to situations found in vivo. Interestingly, a common component of the signature of the APAP molecule was identified in Petri and biochip cultures via the perturbations of the DNA replication and cell cycle. These findings provide an important insight into the use of microfluidic biochips as new tools in biomarker research in pharmaceutical drug studies and predictive toxicity investigations.

  19. The social neuroscience and the theory of integrative levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Morales, Raquel; Delgado-García, José María

    2015-01-01

    The theory of integrative levels provides a general description of the evolution of matter through successive orders of complexity and integration. Along its development, material forms pass through different levels of organization, such as physical, chemical, biological or sociological. The appearance of novel structures and dynamics during this process of development of matter in complex systems has been called emergence. Social neuroscience (SN), an interdisciplinary field that aims to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and biological levels of organization, has affirmed the necessity for including social context as an essential element to understand the human behavior. To do this, SN proposes a multilevel integrative approach by means of three principles: multiple determinism, nonadditive determinism and reciprocal determinism. These theoretical principles seem to share the basic tenets of the theory of integrative levels but, in this paper, we aim to reveal the differences among both doctrines. First, SN asserts that combination of neural and social variables can produce emergent phenomena that would not be predictable from a neuroscientific or social psychological analysis alone; SN also suggests that to achieve a complete understanding of social structures we should use an integrative analysis that encompasses levels of organization ranging from the genetic level to the social one; finally, SN establishes that there can be mutual influences between biological and social factors in determining behavior, accepting, therefore, a double influence, upward from biology to social level, and downward, from social level to biology. In contrast, following the theory of integrative levels, emergent phenomena are not produced by the combination of variables from two levels, but by the increment of complexity at one level. In addition, the social behavior and structures might be

  20. The social neuroscience and the theory of integrative levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eBello-Morales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of integrative levels provides a general description of the evolution of matter through successive orders of complexity and integration. Along its development, material forms pass through different levels of organization, such as physical, chemical, biological or sociological. The appearance of novel structures and dynamics during this process of development of matter in complex systems has been called emergence. Social neuroscience (SN, an interdisciplinary field that aims to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and biological levels of organization, has affirmed the necessity for including social context as an essential element to understand the human behavior. To do this, SN proposes a multilevel integrative approach by means of three principles: multiple determinism, nonadditive determinism and reciprocal determinism. These theoretical principles seem to share the basic tenets of the theory of integrative levels but, in this paper, we aim to reveal the differences among both doctrines.First, SN asserts that combination of neural and social variables can produce emergent phenomena that would not be predictable from a neuroscientific or social psychological analysis alone; SN also suggests that to achieve a complete understanding of social structures we should use an integrative analysis that encompasses levels of organization ranging from the genetic level to the social one; finally, SN establishes that there can be mutual influences between biological and social factors in determining behavior, accepting, therefore, a double influence, upward from biology to social level, and downward, from social level to biology.In contrast, following the theory of integrative levels, emergent phenomena are not produced by the combination of variables from two levels, but by the increment of complexity at one level. In addition, the social behavior and

  1. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Yu

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2 can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy.

  2. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  3. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  4. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to biokinetics to identify cell stress response pathways induced by cisplatin. The human renal proximal tubular cell line RPTEC/TERT1 was treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin (0.5 and 2 μM) in a daily repeat dose treating regime for up to 14 days. Biokinetic analysis showed that cisplatin was taken up from the basolateral compartment, transported to the apical compartment, and accumulated in cells over time. This is in line with basolateral uptake of cisplatin via organic cation transporter 2 and bioactivation via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase located on the apical side of proximal tubular cells. Cisplatin affected several pathways including, p53 signalling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial processes, mTOR and AMPK signalling. In addition, we identified novel pathways changed by cisplatin, including eIF2 signalling, actin nucleation via the ARP/WASP complex and regulation of cell polarization. In conclusion, using an integrated omic approach together with biokinetics we have identified both novel and established mechanisms of cisplatin toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland's most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings

  6. Processed fruit juice ready to drink: screening acute toxicity at the cellular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Leal da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute toxicity at the cellular level of processed juice ready for consumption Orange and Grape flavors, produced by five companies with significant influence on the food market of South American countries, especially in Brazil. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, directly with marketed liquid preparations. Based on the results, it was found that fruit juices, of all companies considered, promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristems at the exposure time of 24 hours and resulted in at both exposure times, statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and chromosomal breaks. Therefore, under the study conditions, all juice samples analyzed were cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic to root meristem cells. These results indicate that such beverages have relevant potential to cause cellular disorders and, thus, need to be evaluated more fully in more complex test systems, as those in rodents, and then establish specific toxicity at the cellular level of these juices and ensure the well-being of those who consume them.

  7. Towards an interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of integrated and integrative thinking within organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schörger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is located within the context of corporate reporting and is relevant for the agenda of sustainability and sustainable development. The specific context for this study is the South African mining industry, within which three units in the form of three companies, were chosen to provide a coherent case for this study. The sample for the analysis is based on the integrated reports of these companies for the years 2012 and 2013. This gives this research a total sample size of six reports. Based on the research findings an initial interpretive measurement framework to assess the levels of capital integration has been theorised which enables the various stakeholders of an organisation to assess the integrated and integrative thinking capabilities. The level of integration is represented as a maturity scale on which integrated thinking is associated with the lower levels, while integrative thinking is attributed to higher levels of maturity. In the elaborated framework, integrated thinking is perceived as being a prerequisite for integrative thinking. The practical implication of this study is that it provides a potential measurement framework for various organisational stakeholders, including investors, to assess the thinking capabilities that are more likely to lead to long term financial stability and sustainability. The value of this research study is that it provides an initial step towards measuring the level of integrated and integrative thinking capabilities within organisations where no such measurement framework currently exists. The limitations and implications of this research study are that the interpretive measurement framework represents merely an initial step and an ongoing working hypothesis which requires further research to develop its maturity and usefulness.

  8. Integrated survey on toxic effects of lindane on neotropical fish: Corydoras paleatus and Jenynsia multidentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Silvia F.; Cazenave, Jimena; Monferran, Magdalena V.; Frede, Silvia; Wunderlin, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the effect of lindane on fish experimentally exposed to lindane. Sublethal toxicity was assessed through (a) changes in histopathology; (b) the activity of GST in different organs; and (c) bioaccumulation in exposed fish. We present a survey on toxic effects of lindane at these three levels, proposing a sequence of dose-dependent effects. Physiological damage was reversible at lowest doses, but severe at the highest, including damage consistent with fibrosis in liver and karyolitic nucleus in brain of both studied species. Exposure of Jenynsia multidentata above 6 μg L -1 caused activation a GST in liver and gills, followed by inhibition at 75 μg L -1 . Interestingly, the bioaccumulation rate was suddenly increased when GST was inhibited. Corydoras paleatus exposed to 6.0 μg L -1 lindane did not present significant changes in GST activity; however, enzymatic inhibition was observed above 25 μg L -1 . The bioaccumulation rate in C. paleatus remained constant throughout the experiments. All in all, these results evidence that C. paleatus is more sensitive to lindane than J. multidentata. - We observed an inverse correlation between GST activity and bioaccumulation in exposed fish, showing a severe increase of bioaccumulation and damages upon inhibition of GST

  9. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  10. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  11. Temporal integration of loudness as a function of level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren; Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Absolute thresholds were measured for 5-, 30-, and 200-ms stimuli using an adaptive, forced choice procedure. Temporal integration of loudness for these durations was also measured for a 1-kHz tone and for broadband noises over a range of 5-80 dB SL (noise) and 5-90 dB SL (tones). Results show...... that temporal integration (defined as the level difference between equally loud 5- and 200-ms stimuli) varies non-monotonically with level. The temporal integration is about 10-12 dB near threshold, increases to 18-19 dB when the 5-ms signal is about 56 dB SPL (tone) and 76 dB SPL (noise), decreases again...... that the growth of loudness may, at least in part, be consistent with the nonlinear input/output function of the basilar membrane....

  12. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  13. ICT Integration Level of Mathematics Tutors of Colleges of Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICT Integration Level of Mathematics Tutors of Colleges of Education in Ghana. ... International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... The study used a developmental research design which is a disciplined inquiry conducted in the context of the development of a product or programme for the purpose of ...

  14. Integrating working level monitor EML Type TF-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latner, N.; Watnick, S.; Graveson, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A time-integrating working level radiation monitor is described. The purpose of the instrument is the evaluation of the alpha emission from radon and its daughter products. It has been designed to be virtually silent in operation, making it suitable for residential studies

  15. Vertical Integration at Junior and Intermediate Levels. School Research Newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in Sweden in vertically integrated classes in compulsory schools, especially at junior high school and intermediate grade levels. This development is supported in various ways by the curriculum, partly because it puts more emphasis than previous curricula on the occurrence of teaching…

  16. Metabolic response to low-level toxicant exposure in a novel renal tubule epithelial cell system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, James Keith; Athersuch, Toby James; Cavill, Rachel; Radford, Robert; Slattery, Craig; Jennings, Paul; McMorrow, Tara; Ryan, Michael P; Ebbels, Timothy Mark David; Keun, Hector Charles

    Toxicity testing is vital to protect human health from exposure to toxic chemicals in the environment. Furthermore, combining novel cellular models with molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics can add new insight into the molecular basis of toxicity and provide a rich source of

  17. Comparing probabilistic and descriptive analyses of time–dose–toxicity relationship for determining no-observed-adverse-effect level in drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Berges, Aliénor; Sahota, Tarjinder; Ambery, Claire; Osborne, Jan; Smith, Randall; Hénin, Emilie; Chen, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a drug defined from animal studies is important for inferring a maximal safe dose in human. However, several issues are associated with its concept, determination and application. It is confined to the actual doses used in the study; becomes lower with increasing sample size or dose levels; and reflects the risk level seen in the experiment rather than what may be relevant for human. We explored a pharmacometric approach in an attempt to address these issues. We first used simulation to examine the behaviour of the NOAEL values as determined by current common practice; and then fitted the probability of toxicity as a function of treatment duration and dose to data collected from all applicable toxicology studies of a test compound. Our investigation was in the context of an irreversible toxicity that is detected at the end of the study. Simulations illustrated NOAEL's dependency on experimental factors such as dose and sample size, as well as the underlying uncertainty. Modelling the probability as a continuous function of treatment duration and dose simultaneously to data from multiple studies allowed the estimation of the dose, along with its confidence interval, for a maximal risk level that might be deemed as acceptable for human. The model-based data integration also reconciled between-study inconsistency and explicitly provided maximised estimation confidence. Such alternative NOAEL determination method should be explored for its more efficient data use, more quantifiable insight to toxic doses, and the potential for more relevant animal-to-human translation. - Highlights: • Simulations revealed issues with NOAEL concept, determination and application. • Probabilistic modelling was used to address these issues. • The model integrated time-dose-toxicity data from multiple studies. • The approach uses data efficiently and may allow more meaningful human translation.

  18. Comparing probabilistic and descriptive analyses of time–dose–toxicity relationship for determining no-observed-adverse-effect level in drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Berges, Aliénor; Sahota, Tarjinder; Ambery, Claire [Clinical Pharmacology Modelling and Simulation, GlaxoSmithKline, 1 Iron Bridge Road, Uxbridge, UB11 1BT London (United Kingdom); Osborne, Jan [Non-Clinical Safety Projects, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Smith, Randall [Computational Toxicology, GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Merion (United States); Hénin, Emilie [UMR 5558 Laboratoire Biométrie et de Biologie Evolutive, Equipe EMET (Evaluation et Modélisation des Effets Thérapeutiques), Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Service de Pharmacologie Clinique et Essais Thérapeutiques, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Chen, Chao, E-mail: chao.c.chen@gsk.com [Clinical Pharmacology Modelling and Simulation, GlaxoSmithKline, 1 Iron Bridge Road, Uxbridge, UB11 1BT London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of a drug defined from animal studies is important for inferring a maximal safe dose in human. However, several issues are associated with its concept, determination and application. It is confined to the actual doses used in the study; becomes lower with increasing sample size or dose levels; and reflects the risk level seen in the experiment rather than what may be relevant for human. We explored a pharmacometric approach in an attempt to address these issues. We first used simulation to examine the behaviour of the NOAEL values as determined by current common practice; and then fitted the probability of toxicity as a function of treatment duration and dose to data collected from all applicable toxicology studies of a test compound. Our investigation was in the context of an irreversible toxicity that is detected at the end of the study. Simulations illustrated NOAEL's dependency on experimental factors such as dose and sample size, as well as the underlying uncertainty. Modelling the probability as a continuous function of treatment duration and dose simultaneously to data from multiple studies allowed the estimation of the dose, along with its confidence interval, for a maximal risk level that might be deemed as acceptable for human. The model-based data integration also reconciled between-study inconsistency and explicitly provided maximised estimation confidence. Such alternative NOAEL determination method should be explored for its more efficient data use, more quantifiable insight to toxic doses, and the potential for more relevant animal-to-human translation. - Highlights: • Simulations revealed issues with NOAEL concept, determination and application. • Probabilistic modelling was used to address these issues. • The model integrated time-dose-toxicity data from multiple studies. • The approach uses data efficiently and may allow more meaningful human translation.

  19. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  20. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  1. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  2. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - Part A: Development and comparison of two methodological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losso, Chiara; Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi; De Salvador, Davide; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2010-01-01

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. - Two toxicity indices were set up and compared to integrate toxicity data from a battery of bioassays for the Venice lagoon.

  3. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - Part A: Development and comparison of two methodological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losso, Chiara, E-mail: closso@unive.i [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); De Salvador, Davide [Physics Department, Padova University, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi [Environmental Sciences Department, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. - Two toxicity indices were set up and compared to integrate toxicity data from a battery of bioassays for the Venice lagoon.

  4. The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.

  5. Application of a novel integrated toxicity testing strategy incorporating "3R" principles of animal research to evaluate the safety of a new agrochemical sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Claire; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Saghir, Shakil; Marty, Sue; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Billington, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Plant protection products (PPPs) and the active substance(s) contained within them are rigorously and comprehensively tested prior to registration to ensure that human health is not impacted by their use. In recent years, there has been a widespread drive to have more relevant testing strategies (e.g., ILSI/HESI-ACSA and new EU Directives), which also take account of animal welfare, including the 3R (replacement, refinement, and reduction) principles. The toxicity potential of one such new active substance, sulfoxaflor, a sulfoximine insecticide (CAS #946578-00-3), was evaluated utilizing innovative testing strategies comprising: (1) an integrated testing scheme to optimize information obtained from as few animals as possible (i.e., 3R principles) through modifications of standard protocols, such as enhanced palatability study design, to include molecular endpoints, additional neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity parameters in a subchronic toxicity study, and combining multiple test guidelines into one study protocol; (2) generation of toxicokinetic data across dose levels, sexes, study durations, species, strains and life stages, without using satellite animals, which was a first for PPP development, and (3) addition of prospective mode of action (MoA) endpoints within repeat dose toxicity studies as well as proactive inclusion of specific MoA studies as an integral part of the development program. These novel approaches to generate key data early in the safety evaluation program facilitated informed decision-making on the need for additional studies and contributed to a more relevant human health risk assessment. This supplement also contains papers which describe in more detail the approach taken to establish the MoA and human relevance framework related to toxicities elicited by sulfoxaflor in the mammalian toxicology studies: developmental toxicity in rats mediated via the fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ( Ellis-Hutchings et al. 2014 ); liver

  6. Integrative study of the mean sea level and its components

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, Nicolas; Paul, Frank; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the most recent results of global mean sea level variations over the satellite altimetry era (starting in the early 1990s) and associated contributions, such as glaciers and ice sheets mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and land water storage changes. Sea level is one of the best indicators of global climate changes as it integrates the response of several components of the climate system to external forcing factors (including anthropogenic forcing) and internal climate variability. Providing long, accurate records of the sea level at global and regional scales and of the various components causing sea level changes is of crucial importance to improve our understanding of climate processes at work and to validate the climate models used for future projections. The Climate Change Initiative project of the European Space Agency has provided a first attempt to produce consistent and continuous space-based records for several climate parameters observable from space, among them sea level. Th...

  7. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Altenburger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    communities in a concentration-dependent relationship. In conclusion, multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry has considerable potentials in multispecies and multiparameter assessment of toxic effects on community level in terms of (1) a combined and rapid evaluation of structural and functional parameters in parallel, (2) screening of trends over time, (3) observing effects in replication and (4) being non-destructive. The approach therefore provides a perspective for a better understanding of community-level effects as species interactions in terms of PICT and therefore a higher ecological realism in risk assessment of toxicants

  8. Community-level microalgal toxicity assessment by multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Mechthild.Schmitt@ufz.de; Altenburger, Rolf [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-01-20

    communities in a concentration-dependent relationship. In conclusion, multiwavelength-excitation PAM fluorometry has considerable potentials in multispecies and multiparameter assessment of toxic effects on community level in terms of (1) a combined and rapid evaluation of structural and functional parameters in parallel, (2) screening of trends over time, (3) observing effects in replication and (4) being non-destructive. The approach therefore provides a perspective for a better understanding of community-level effects as species interactions in terms of PICT and therefore a higher ecological realism in risk assessment of toxicants.

  9. Manganese toxicity in pasture legumes. II. Effects of pH and molybdenum levels in the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, N V; Andrew, C S; Wilson, G L

    1971-06-01

    The effects of pH and Mo levels in the growing media on Mn toxicity were investigated for white clover and five tropical pasture legume species. In solution culture, high Mo supply did not influence Mn toxicity. However, in two species, it caused Mo toxicity. High solution pH intensified Mn toxicity in white clover, probably by way of uptake. The effects of Ca and P on Mn toxicity reported in a previous paper, were not greatly influenced by solution pH. In the soil, Mo application greatly increased dry matter yield of white clover grown on soils high in exchangeable Mn. This effect was more easily attributed to an influence on N metabolism of the legume plant than on Mn toxicity. Measured soil pH was found to have little influence on the level of exchangeable Mn in the soil. However the larger pH changes in small soil pockets, resulting from non-uniform incorporation of chemicals in the soil, might have a more important effect on this fraction of soil Mn. 31 references, 7 tables.

  10. Control of aliphatic halogenated DBP precursors with multiple drinking water treatment processes: Formation potential and integrated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated. The results showed that the multiple drinking water treatment processes had superior performance in removing organic/inorganic precursors and reducing the formation of a range of halogenated DBPs. Therein, ozonation significantly removed bromide and iodide, and thus reduced the formation of brominated and iodinated DBPs. The removal of organic carbon and nitrogen precursors by the conventional treatment processes was substantially improved by O 3 -BAC advanced treatment, and thus prevented the formation of chlorinated C-DBPs and N-DBPs. However, BAC filtration leads to the increased formation of brominated C-DBPs and N-DBPs due to the increase of bromide/DOC and bromide/DON. After the whole multiple treatment processes, the rank order for integrated toxic risk values caused by these halogenated DBPs was haloacetonitriles (HANs)≫haloacetamides (HAMs)>haloacetic acids (HAAs)>trihalomethanes (THMs)>halonitromethanes (HNMs)≫I-DBPs (I-HAMs and I-THMs). I-DBPs failed to cause high integrated toxic risk because of their very low FPs. The significant higher integrated toxic risk value caused by HANs than other halogenated DBPs cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. System-level Modeling of Wireless Integrated Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Hansen, Knud; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks have emerged as a promising infrastructure for a new generation of monitoring and tracking applications. In order to efficiently utilize the extremely limited resources of wireless sensor nodes, accurate modeling of the key aspects of wireless sensor networks...... is necessary so that system-level design decisions can be made about the hardware and the software (applications and real-time operating system) architecture of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based abstract modeling framework that enables system-level modeling of sensor network behavior...... by modeling the applications, real-time operating system, sensors, processor, and radio transceiver at the sensor node level and environmental phenomena, including radio signal propagation, at the sensor network level. We demonstrate the potential of our modeling framework by simulating and analyzing a small...

  12. The integral biologically effective dose to predict brain stem toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Souhami, Luis; Pla, Conrado; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Caron, Jean-Louis; Olivier, Andre; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a parameter for use during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning to aid in the determination of the appropriate treatment volume and fractionation regimen that will minimize risk of late damage to normal tissue. Materials and Methods: We have used the linear quadratic model to assess the biologically effective dose at the periphery of stereotactic radiotherapy treatment volumes that impinge on the brain stem. This paper reports a retrospective study of 77 patients with malignant and benign intracranial lesions, treated between 1987 and 1995, with the dynamic rotation technique in 6 fractions over a period of 2 weeks, to a total dose of 42 Gy prescribed at the 90% isodose surface. From differential dose-volume histograms, we evaluated biologically effective dose-volume histograms and obtained an integral biologically-effective dose (IBED) in each case. Results: Of the 77 patients in the study, 36 had target volumes positioned so that the brain stem received more than 1% of the prescribed dose, and 4 of these, all treated for meningioma, developed serious late damage involving the brain stem. Other than type of lesion, the only significant variable was the volume of brain stem exposed. An analysis of the IBEDs received by these 36 patients shows evidence of a threshold value for late damage to the brain stem consistent with similar thresholds that have been determined for external beam radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have introduced a new parameter, the IBED, that may be used to represent the fractional effective dose to structures such as the brain stem that are partially irradiated with stereotactic dose distributions. The IBED is easily calculated prior to treatment and may be used to determine appropriate treatment volumes and fractionation regimens minimizing possible toxicity to normal tissue

  13. From organizational integration to clinical integration: analysis of the path between one level of integration to another using official documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandza, Matey; Gagnon, Dominique; Carrier, Sébastien; Belzile, Louise; Demers, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Services’ integration comprises organizational, normative, economic, informational and clinical dimensions. Since 2004, the province of Quebec has devoted significant efforts to unify the governance of the main health and social care organizations of its various territories. Notwithstanding the uniformity of the national plan’s prescription, the territorial integration modalities greatly vary across the province. Theory This research is based upon a conceptual model of integration that comprises six components: inter-organizational partnership, case management, standardized assessment, a single entry point, a standardized service planning tool and a shared clinical file. Methods We conducted an embedded case study in six contrasted sites in terms of their level of integration. All documents prescribing the implementation of integration were retrieved and analyzed. Results and conclusions The analyzed documents demonstrate a growing local appropriation of the current integrative reform. Interestingly however, no link seems to exist between the quality of local prescriptions and the level of integration achieved in each site. This finding leads us to hypothesize that the variable quality of the operational accompaniment offered to implement these prescriptions is a variable in play.

  14. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  15. Integrated software system for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worku, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the continually changing and uncertain world of low level waste management, many generators in the US are faced with the prospect of having to store their waste on site for the indefinite future. This consequently increases the set of tasks performed by the generators in the areas of packaging, characterizing, classifying, screening (if a set of acceptance criteria applies), and managing the inventory for the duration of onsite storage. When disposal sites become available, it is expected that the work will require re-evaluating the waste packages, including possible re-processing, re-packaging, or re-classifying in preparation for shipment for disposal under the regulatory requirements of the time. In this day and age, when there is wide use of computers and computer literacy is at high levels, an important waste management tool would be an integrated software system that aids waste management personnel in conducting these tasks quickly and accurately. It has become evident that such an integrated radwaste management software system offers great benefits to radwaste generators both in the US and other countries. This paper discusses one such approach to integrated radwaste management utilizing some globally accepted radiological assessment software applications

  16. Understanding interannual, decadal level variability in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity in the Gulf of Maine: The HAB Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Couture, Darcie A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; Keafer, Bruce A.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Richlen, Mindy L.; Hickey, J. Michael; Solow, Andrew R.

    2014-05-01

    A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978-2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions - eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series. These metrics were combined into a simple HAB Index that provides a single measure of annual toxin severity across each region. The three toxin metrics, as well as the HAB Index that integrates them, reveal significant variability in overall toxicity between individual years as well as long-term, decadal patterns or regimes. Based on different conceptual models of the system, we considered three trend formulations to characterize the long-term patterns in the Index - a three-phase (mean-shift) model, a linear two-phase model, and a pulse-decline model. The first represents a “regime shift” or multiple equilibria formulation as might occur with alternating periods of sustained high and low cyst abundance or favorable and unfavorable growth conditions, the second depicts a scenario of more gradual transitions in cyst abundance or growth conditions of vegetative cells, and the third characterizes a ”sawtooth” pattern in which upward shifts in toxicity are associated with major cyst recruitment events, followed by a gradual but continuous decline until the next pulse. The fitted models were compared using both residual sum of squares and Akaike's Information Criterion. There were some differences between model fits, but none consistently gave a better fit than the

  17. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K.S.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ 25 PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m −3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ 25 PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  18. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  19. Development of an Integrated Toxicity Assessment System for use in Operational Deployment and Materials Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geiss, Kevin T

    2006-01-01

    ... mission degradation, morbidity and mortality. In addition to NBC concerns, there are issues in many current military settings for exposures to toxic industrial chemicals or materials (TICs or TIMs...

  20. Integrated analysis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) toxicity in isoprenoid-producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Kevin W; Thompson, Mitchell; Kim, Joonhoon

    2018-01-01

    evidence that IPP can be transported by E. coli, findings that might be broadly relevant for the study of isoprenoid biosynthesis. Finally, we discover that IPP accumulation leads to the formation of ApppI, a nucleotide analog of IPP that may contribute to observed toxicity phenotypes. This comprehensive...... assessment of IPP stress suggests potential strategies for the alleviation of prenyl diphosphate toxicity and highlights possible engineering targets for improved IPP flux and high titer isoprenoid production....

  1. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  2. Amendment in phosphorus levels moderate the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L. as assayed by antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayantan, D; Shardendu

    2013-09-01

    Chromium (Z=24), a d-block element, is a potent carcinogen, whereas phosphorus is an essential and limiting nutrient for the plant growth and development. This study undertakes the role of phosphorus in moderating the chromium toxicity in Raphanus sativus L., as both of them compete with each other during the uptake process. Two-factor complete randomized experiment (5 chromium × 5 phosphorus concentrations) was conducted for twenty eight days in green house. The individuals of R. sativus were grown in pots supplied with all essential nutrients. The toxic effects of chromium and the moderation of toxicity due to phosphorus amendment were determined as accumulation of chromium, nitrogen, phosphorus in root tissues and their effects were also examined in the changes in biomass, chlorophyll and antioxidant enzyme levels. Cr and N accumulation were almost doubled at the highest concentration of Cr supply, without any P amendment, whereas at the highest P concentration (125 mM), the accumulation was reduced to almost half. A significant reduction in toxic effects of Cr was determined as there was three-fold increase in total chlorophyll and biomass at the highest P amendment. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were analyzed at various levels of Cr each amended with five levels of P. It was observed that at highest level of P amendment, the reduction percentage in toxicity was 33, 44, 39 and 44, correspondingly. Conclusively, the phosphorus amendment moderates the toxicity caused by the supplied chromium in R. sativus. This finding can be utilized to develop a novel technology for the amelioration of chromium stressed fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated metabonomics analysis of the size-response relationship of silica nanoparticles-induced toxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Yu; Zhao, Qinqin; Jin, Tingting; Xiao, Shun; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the underlying properties-dependent interactions of nanostructures with biological systems is essential to nanotoxicological research. This study investigates the relationship between particle size and toxicity, and further reveals the mechanism of injury, using silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm (SP30, SP70, and SP300) as model materials. The biochemical compositions of liver tissues and serum of mice treated with SP30, SP70, and SP300 were analyzed by integrated metabonomics analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and in combination with pattern recognition approaches. Histopathological examinations and serum biochemical analysis were simultaneously performed. The toxicity induced by three different sizes of SP mainly involved hepatocytic necrosis, increased serum aminotransferase, and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the toxic effects of SP were dose-dependent for each particle size. The doses of SP30, SP70, and SP300 that were toxic to the liver were 10, 40, and 200 mg kg - 1, respectively. In this study, surface area has a greater effect than particle number on the toxicity of SP30, SP70, and SP300 in the liver. The disturbances in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism may be attributable to the hepatotoxicity induced by SP. In addition, no major differences were found in the response of biological systems caused by the different SP sizes among the metabolite profiles. The results suggest that not only nano-sized but also submicro-sized SP can cause similar extents of liver injury, which is dependent on the exposure dose, and the mechanism of toxicity may be almost the same.

  4. Integrated metabonomics analysis of the size-response relationship of silica nanoparticles-induced toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaoyan; Tian Yu; Zhao Qinqin; Jin Tingting; Xiao Shun; Fan Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the underlying properties-dependent interactions of nanostructures with biological systems is essential to nanotoxicological research. This study investigates the relationship between particle size and toxicity, and further reveals the mechanism of injury, using silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm (SP30, SP70, and SP300) as model materials. The biochemical compositions of liver tissues and serum of mice treated with SP30, SP70, and SP300 were analyzed by integrated metabonomics analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and in combination with pattern recognition approaches. Histopathological examinations and serum biochemical analysis were simultaneously performed. The toxicity induced by three different sizes of SP mainly involved hepatocytic necrosis, increased serum aminotransferase, and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the toxic effects of SP were dose-dependent for each particle size. The doses of SP30, SP70, and SP300 that were toxic to the liver were 10, 40, and 200 mg kg -1 , respectively. In this study, surface area has a greater effect than particle number on the toxicity of SP30, SP70, and SP300 in the liver. The disturbances in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism may be attributable to the hepatotoxicity induced by SP. In addition, no major differences were found in the response of biological systems caused by the different SP sizes among the metabolite profiles. The results suggest that not only nano-sized but also submicro-sized SP can cause similar extents of liver injury, which is dependent on the exposure dose, and the mechanism of toxicity may be almost the same.

  5. Integrated metabonomics analysis of the size-response relationship of silica nanoparticles-induced toxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xiaoyan; Tian Yu; Zhao Qinqin; Jin Tingting; Xiao Shun; Fan Xiaohui, E-mail: fanxh@zju.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2011-02-04

    Understanding the underlying properties-dependent interactions of nanostructures with biological systems is essential to nanotoxicological research. This study investigates the relationship between particle size and toxicity, and further reveals the mechanism of injury, using silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm (SP30, SP70, and SP300) as model materials. The biochemical compositions of liver tissues and serum of mice treated with SP30, SP70, and SP300 were analyzed by integrated metabonomics analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and in combination with pattern recognition approaches. Histopathological examinations and serum biochemical analysis were simultaneously performed. The toxicity induced by three different sizes of SP mainly involved hepatocytic necrosis, increased serum aminotransferase, and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, the toxic effects of SP were dose-dependent for each particle size. The doses of SP30, SP70, and SP300 that were toxic to the liver were 10, 40, and 200 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. In this study, surface area has a greater effect than particle number on the toxicity of SP30, SP70, and SP300 in the liver. The disturbances in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism may be attributable to the hepatotoxicity induced by SP. In addition, no major differences were found in the response of biological systems caused by the different SP sizes among the metabolite profiles. The results suggest that not only nano-sized but also submicro-sized SP can cause similar extents of liver injury, which is dependent on the exposure dose, and the mechanism of toxicity may be almost the same.

  6. An integrated approach for multi-level sample size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, M.S.; Teichmann, T.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Inspection procedures involving the sampling of items in a population often require steps of increasingly sensitive measurements, with correspondingly smaller sample sizes; these are referred to as multilevel sampling schemes. In the case of nuclear safeguards inspections verifying that there has been no diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), these procedures have been examined often and increasingly complex algorithms have been developed to implement them. The aim in this paper is to provide an integrated approach, and, in so doing, to describe a systematic, consistent method that proceeds logically from level to level with increasing accuracy. The authors emphasize that the methods discussed are generally consistent with those presented in the references mentioned, and yield comparable results when the error models are the same. However, because of its systematic, integrated approach the proposed method elucidates the conceptual understanding of what goes on, and, in many cases, simplifies the calculations. In nuclear safeguards inspections, an important aspect of verifying nuclear items to detect any possible diversion of nuclear fissile materials is the sampling of such items at various levels of sensitivity. The first step usually is sampling by ''attributes'' involving measurements of relatively low accuracy, followed by further levels of sampling involving greater accuracy. This process is discussed in some detail in the references given; also, the nomenclature is described. Here, the authors outline a coordinated step-by-step procedure for achieving such multilevel sampling, and they develop the relationships between the accuracy of measurement and the sample size required at each stage, i.e., at the various levels. The logic of the underlying procedures is carefully elucidated; the calculations involved and their implications, are clearly described, and the process is put in a form that allows systematic generalization

  7. Comparison of costs of integrating working level devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    For the purpose of deciding upon the method for making routine field measurements of radon and radon daughter products there are primarily two factors to be taken into consideration: how well the various methods measure the parameter of interest and how much they cost. For the purpose of measuring the annual average working level within a structure there are available basically two devices: the integrating air sampler and track etch film. The cost and manpower requirements for each of these two devices are discussed

  8. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  9. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  10. Safflower oil: an integrated assessment of phytochemistry, antiulcerogenic activity, and rodent and environmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber Toma

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcers are a significant medical problem and the development of complications lead to significant mortality rates worldwide. In Brazil, Carthamus tinctorius L., Asteraceae, seeds essential oil, the safflower oil, is currently used as a thermogenic compound and as treatment for problems related to the cardiovascular system. In this study, by Raman spectroscopy, it was shown that oleic and linoleic acids are the compounds present in higher concentrations in the safflower oil. We demonstrated that safflower oil (750 mg/kg, p.o. decrease the ulcerogenic lesions in mice after the administration of hydrochloric acid-ethanol. The gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in mice treated with cholinomimetics were treated with four different doses of safflower oil, of which, the dose of 187.5 mg/kg (p.o. showed significant antiulcerogenic properties (**p < 0.01. Moreover, the safflower oil at doses of 187.5 mg/kg (i.d. increased the pH levels, gastric volume (**p < 0.01 and gastric mucus production (***p < 0.001, and decreased the total gastric acid secretion (***p < 0.001. The acute toxicity tests showed that safflower oil (5.000 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on mortality or any other physiological parameter. Ecotoxicological tests performed using Daphnia similis showed an EC50 at 223.17 mg/l, and therefore safflower oil can be considered “non-toxic” based on the directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances by European legislation. These results indicate that the antiulcer activity of Safflower oil may be due to cytoprotective effects, which serve as support for new scientific studies related to this pathology.

  11. Tolerance and toxicity levels of boron in mung bean (vigna radiata (l.) wilczek) cultivars at early growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, A.; Mahmood, S.; Akhtar, S.; Malik, S.A.; Bashir, N.

    2011-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity has been recognized as a serious problem in arid and semi arid regions of the world. This study was aimed to determine critical levels of B by studying phenotypic variation for B-tolerance/ toxicity at the germination and seedling stage in three mung bean (Vigna radiata) cultivars; M-6, M-8 and 96009. Boron levels ranging from 0-20 ppm were applied using Boric acid. Germination, growth and photosynthetic attributes were significantly (p<0.001) influenced by varying B levels. However, the cultivars were significantly invariable for germination, seedling height and leaf number. B levels (5-10 ppm) appeared to be nutritionally critical whereas, 15-20 ppm induced B toxicity. The toxicity was expressed in terms of reduction in plant's growth as well as by visible symptoms which included chlorosis and necrosis of the foliage. The present study also demonstrated variation in B tolerance at the seedling stage in these cultivars. Among the tested cultivars, M-6 and M-8 exhibited better growth responses as compared with 96009. Fresh biomass and shoot: root ratio appeared to serve as selection criteria for B tolerance. The study further suggested screening of cultivars/ accessions on a large scale to explore more diversity of traits as well as the use of biochemical markers for mechanistic understanding of B tolerance. (author)

  12. INTEGRATED MECHANISMS FOR APROACHING PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iLDIKO iOAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated mechanisms for approaching priority environmentalissues at global level. At global level, there are considered priorityenvironmental issues two interdependent processes that are essential for thesupport the processes that provide living conditions and wellbeing for the entirehumankind: climate change and loss of biodiversity. Payments of ecosystemservices became already well-known and applied economic instruments, althoughthere are still many uncertainties in the knowledge of eco-economic interdependencies.The paper discusses these aspects in the first part highlighting advantagesand disadvantages, while in the second part there is analyzed an integratedprogram of the United Nations, which was designed for making progress towardboth climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The REDD program – Reduction ofEmissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation – is addressed to developingcountries and it started in 2008. Based on assessment reports we will try toformulate a number of conclusions regarding the program’s effectiveness.

  13. Improving the Level and Quality of Ethics Review in Chinese Medicine and Integrative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Bin; Li, En-Chang

    2018-04-01

    Three features of ethics review in Chinese medicine (CM) and integrative medicine (IM) were put forward in this paper. It is consistent with the principles of ethical review in Western medicine; it has to be compliant with the laws of CM and IM; emphasis should be laid on the review of clinical practice facts and experience. Three problems were pointed out. The characteristics of CM and IM are not distinctive enough, operation procedures need to be refined and effectiveness remains to be improved. Based on the mentioned above, seven measures were proposed to improve the level and quality of ethics review in CM and IM, including better brand awareness, considerable tolerance, treatment based on disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation, scientific review and toxicity and side effects of CM, perfection of the ethics review system, reasonable procedures of ethics review and more specialized ethics review workers.

  14. Sensitivity of screening-level toxicity tests using soils from a former petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Bureau, J.; Roy, Y.; Allen, B.; Robidoux, P.Y.; Soucy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors tested five composite soil samples from a former refinery. The samples included a reference soil (Mineral Oil and Grease, MO and G < 40 ppm), thermally-treated soil, biotreated soil, and two untreated soils. They evaluated toxicity using the earthworm E. foetida, lettuce, cress, barley, Microtox, green algae, fathead minnow, and D. magna. The endpoints measured were lethality, seed germination, root elongation, growth, and bioluminescence. Toxicity, as measured by the number of positive responses, increased as follows: biotreated soil < untreated soil No. 1 < reference soil < thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2. The biotreated soil generated only one positive response, whereas the thermally-treated soil and untreated soil No. 2 generated five positive responses. The most sensitive and discriminant terrestrial endpoint was lettuce root elongation which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was barley seed germination for which no toxicity was detected. The most sensitive and discriminant aquatic endpoint was green algae growth which responded to untreated soil No. 1, thermally-treated soil, and reference soil. The least sensitive was D. magna for which no toxicity was detected. Overall, soil and aqueous extract toxicity was spotty and no consistent patterns emerged to differentiate the five soils. Biotreatment significantly reduced the effects of the contamination. Aqueous toxicity was measured in the reference soil, probably because of the presence of unknown dissolved compounds in the aqueous extract. Finally, clear differences in sensitivity existed among the test species

  15. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, J.H.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure

  16. Inhalation toxicity of indoor air pollutants in Drosophila melanogaster using integrated transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Jeong; Liu, Yuedan; Kwak, Gyu-Suk; Heo, Muyoung; Song, Kyung Seuk; Chung, Yun Doo; Chon, Tae-Soo; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-06-01

    We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules. We conducted a toxicity test using mutants of the representative genes in these pathways to explore the toxicological consequences of alterations of these pathways. Furthermore, extensive computational behavior analysis showed that exposure to either toluene or formaldehyde reduced most of the behavioral parameters of both wild-type and mutants. Interestingly, behavioral alteration caused by toluene or formaldehyde exposure was most severe in the p38b mutant, suggesting that the defects in the p38 pathway underlie behavioral alteration. Overall, the results indicate that exposure to toluene and formaldehyde via inhalation causes severe toxicity in Drosophila, by inducing significant alterations in gene expression and behavior, suggesting that Drosophila can be used as a potential alternative model in inhalation toxicity screening.

  17. Integration of biological responses from a suite of bioassays for the Venice Lagoon (Italy) through sediment toxicity index - part A: development and comparison of two methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Chiara; Novelli, Alessandra Arizzi; De Salvador, Davide; Ghetti, Pier Francesco; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2010-12-01

    Marine and coastal quality assessment, based on test batteries involving a wide array of endpoints, organisms and test matrices, needs for setting up toxicity indices that integrate multiple toxicological measures for decision-making processes and that classify the continuous toxicity response into discrete categories according to the European Water Framework Directive. Two toxicity indices were developed for the lagoon environment such as the Venice Lagoon. Stepwise procedure included: the construction of a database that identified test-matrix pairs (indicators); the selection of a minimum number of ecotoxicological indicators, called toxicological core metrics (CMs-tox) on the basis of specific criteria; the development of toxicity scores for each CM-tox; the integration of the CMs-tox into two indices, the Toxicity Effect Index (TEI), based on the transformation of Toxic Unit (TU) data that were integrated as logarithmic sum, and the Weighted Average Toxicity Index (WATI), starting from toxicity classes integrated as weighted mean. Results from the indices are compared; advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are discussed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jing; Parsons, Loren; Pope, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 6–7 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (89–90%) and CPF (78–83%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (88–91%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (35–50%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. • Functional signs were only noted with parathion. • Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. • 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were

  19. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Parsons, Loren [Committee on Neurobiology of Affective Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 6–7 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (89–90%) and CPF (78–83%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (88–91%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (35–50%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. • Functional signs were only noted with parathion. • Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. • 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were

  20. A multiple index integrating different levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rui; Hughes, Samantha; Coimbra, Ana; Monteiro, Sandra; Pereira, Vítor; Lopes, Marisa; Pereira, Sandra; Pinto, Ana; Sampaio, Ana; Santos, Cátia; Carrola, João; de Jesus, Joaquim; Varandas, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many methods in freshwater biomonitoring tend to be restricted to a few levels of biological organization, limiting the potential spectrum of measurable of cause-effect responses to different anthropogenic impacts. We combined distinct organisational levels, covering biological biomarkers (histopathological and biochemical reactions in liver and fish gills), community based bioindicators (fish guilds, invertebrate metrics/traits and chironomid pupal exuviae) and ecosystem functional indicators (decomposition rates) to assess ecological status at designated Water Framework Directive monitoring sites, covering a gradient of human impact across several rivers in northern Portugal. We used Random Forest to rank the variables that contributed more significantly to successfully predict the different classes of ecological status and also to provide specific cut levels to discriminate each WFD class based on reference condition. A total of 59 Biological Quality Elements and functional indicators were determined using this procedure and subsequently applied to develop the integrated Multiple Ecological Level Index (MELI Index), a potentially powerful bioassessment tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cd toxicity in Ash amended to plantations; the dilemma of different answers at different levels of description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Ekelund, Flemming; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    . Other more abundant cations like Zn regulate Cd uptake. Mycorrhiza reduce Cd uptake in several plants. In barley Cd gradually decrease from root via stem to seeds. In conclusion for ash amounts up to 10 t/ha, we do not find metal toxicity of ash or evidence for bioaccumulation of metals in soil...... growth, equally because of the pH increase and the nutrients added. The pH increase stimulates decomposition activity. Soil carbon availability is not permanently increased with ash amendment, however, which may suggest that decomposition increase is coupled to primary production increase. Plantation....... Wood ash increase plantation soil Cd, and so did Cd in grass although at a very low level, Cd in lichens and Cd in the small biomass of earthworms. The toxicity of Cd is regulated by metal binding to soil being several orders of magnitude lower than in pure liquid. Ash is toxic towards microarthropods...

  2. Earthworm nano‐ecotoxicology: Towards an integrated approach in toxicity testing of metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Pedersen, Henrik; Wang, Jing

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) belong to an emerging class of potential environmental pollutants. Of particular interest are the characteristics of NP toxicity under different exposure conditions e.g. cell culture, aquatic or soil media. NPs are thought to behave differently depending on the me...

  3. 76 FR 59142 - Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities-Integrating Study Results To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of study results to assess concerns about human reproductive and developmental toxicities. It does... assist that office in processing your requests. See the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section for electronic access to the guidance document. Submit electronic comments on the guidance to http://www.regulations.gov...

  4. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the five toxic elements studied, the highest mean concentration (mg/kg) of 133.74±10.60 was recorded for Pb followed by Cr (22.27±3.03), Ni (8.14±0.33) and As (5.97±0.32) in the soils while the least mean concentration of 1.64±0.11 was recorded for Cd. The toxic elements were examined for dependency upon some ...

  5. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  6. Towards Integration of Biological and Physiological Functions at Multiple Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishin eNomura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An aim of systems physiology today can be stated as to establish logical and quantitative bridges between phenomenological attributes of physiological entities such as cells and organs and physical attributes of biological entities, i.e., biological molecules, allowing us to describe and better understand physiological functions in terms of underlying biological functions. This article illustrates possible schema that can be used for promoting systems physiology by integrating quantitative knowledge of biological and physiological functions at multiple levels of time and space with the use of information technology infrastructure. Emphasis will be made for systematic, modular, hierarchical, and standardized descriptions of mathematical models of the functions and advantages for the use of them.

  7. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  8. Comparing rankings of selected TRI organic chemicals for two environments using a level III fugacity model and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, F.G.; Egemen, E.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory, TRI (USEPA, 1995) is a comprehensive listing of chemicals, mass released, source of releases, and other related information for chemicals which are released into the environment in the US. These chemicals are then ranked according to the mass released as a indication of their environmental impact. Industries have been encouraged to adopt production methods to decrease the release of chemicals which are ranked highly in the TRI. Clearly, this ranking of the chemicals based upon the mass released fails to take into account very important environmental aspects. The first and most obvious aspect is the wide range of toxicity's of the chemicals released. Numerous researchers have proposed systems to rank chemicals according to their toxicity. The second aspect, which a mass released based ranking does not take into account, is the fate and transport of each chemical within the environment. Cohen and Ryan (1985) and Mackay and Paterson (1991) have proposed models to evaluate the fate and transport of chemicals released into the environment. Some authors have incorporated the mass released and toxicity with some fate and transport aspects to rank the impact of released chemicals. But, due to the complexities of modeling the environment, the lack of published data on properties of chemicals, and the lack of information on the speciation of chemicals in complex systems, modeling the fate and transport of toxic chemicals in the environment remains difficult. To provide an indication of the need to rank chemicals according to their environmental impact instead of the mass released, the authors have utilized a subset of 45 organic chemicals from the TRI, modeled the fate and transport of the chemicals using a Level III fugacity model, and compared those equilibrium concentrations with toxicity data to yield a hazard value for each chemical

  9. Monitoring the levels of toxic air pollutants in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The ambient air quality in Freetown, Sierra Leone was investigated for the first time for toxic air pollutants. ..... 215 Switzerland), in a water bath at temperature of 55°C and pressure of ..... scraps. Furthermore, the prolonged use of generators.

  10. Integrated toxic evaluation of sulfamethazine on zebrafish: Including two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Yang, Qiulian; Jiang, Weili; Lu, Jilai; Xiang, Zhongrun; Guo, Ruixin; Chen, Jianqiu

    2018-03-01

    Persistence of antibiotics in aquatic environment may pose a risk to the non-target aquatic organisms. This study provided an integrated evaluation to analyze the toxic stress of sulfamethazine (SMZ) on zebrafish in two lifespan stages (embryo-larval and adult) and three exposure periods (exposure, post-exposure and re-exposure). Zebrafish embryos and adult zebrafish were exposed to SMZ at 0.2, 20 and 2000 μg/L, respectively. The results showed that SMZ at any given concentration inhibited the hatching of embryos at 58-96 hpf (hours post-fertilization). Our result also indicated that two major kinds of the malformation, which was induced by the antibiotic, were edema and spinal curvature. Additionally, the antibiotic stimulated the heartbeat while reduced the body length of the embryo at 72 hpf. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased at 120 hpf when the embryos were exposed to the lowest concentration (0.2 μg/L) of the antibiotic. On the other hand, the antibiotic induced SOD activities and MDA contents in adult zebrafish in the exposure and re-exposure periods. The MDA contents could recover while SOD activities still increased in 2 d after the exposure. Both SOD activities and MDA contents could recover in 7 d after the exposure. Levels of SOD and MDA in the re-exposure were higher than those in the first exposure. Our results suggested that SMZ had toxic effects on both embryos and adult zebrafish, and provided an integrated evaluation of the toxic effects of SMZ on zebrafish at a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p craft villages in Vietnam are co-exposed to toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  12. Evaluation of Esophageal Anastomotic Integrity With Serial Pleural Amylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Helms, Gerald A; Mayfield, William R

    2018-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is the most devastating and potentially fatal complication after esophagectomy. Current detection methods can be inaccurate and place patients at risk of other complications. Analysis of pleural fluid for amylase may be more accurate and place patients at less of a risk for evaluating the integrity of an esophageal anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed prospective data of 45 consecutive patients who underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy over an 18-month period and evaluated their anastomotic integrity with serial pleural amylase levels (PAL). There were 40 men (89%), and median age was 63 years (range, 35 to 79). Indication for esophagectomy was cancer in 38 patients (84%); 27 (71%) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation. A barium swallow was performed in the first 25 patients at median postoperative day (POD) 5 (range, 5 to 10); the swallow was negative in 23 patients (93%). Serial PALs were obtained starting on POD 3 and stopped 1 day after toleration of clear liquids. The PALs in the no-leak patients were highest on POD 3 (median 42 IU/L; range, 20 to 102 IU/L) and decreased (median 15 IU/L; range, 8 to 34 IU/L) to the lowest levels 1 day after clear liquid toleration (p = 0.04). Two patients had a leak and had peak PALs of 227 IU/L and 630 IU/L, respectively; both leaks occurred on POD 4, 1 day before their scheduled swallow test. The last 20 patients underwent serial PALs only, without a planned swallow test or computed tomography scan for anastomotic integrity evaluation. One of these patients had a leak on POD 5 with a low PAL of 55 IU/L the day before the spike of more than 4,000 IU/L. Two of the leaks were treated with esophageal stent placement and intravenous antibiotics, and the remaining patient's leak resolved with intravenous antibiotics, no oral intake, and observation only. None of the leak patients required transthoracic esophageal repair or drainage of an empyema. There was 1 postoperative death (2%) secondary to aspiration

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration by integrating in vitro and in vivo toxicity with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Riviere, Jim E; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Lin, Zhoumeng

    2018-04-14

    This study aimed to conduct an integrated and probabilistic risk assessment of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based on recently published in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies coupled to a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Dose-response relationships were characterized based on cell viability assays in various human cell types. A previously well-validated human PBPK model for AuNPs was applied to quantify internal concentrations in liver, kidney, skin, and venous plasma. By applying a Bayesian-based probabilistic risk assessment approach incorporating Monte Carlo simulation, probable human cell death fractions were characterized. Additionally, we implemented in vitro to in vivo and animal-to-human extrapolation approaches to independently estimate external exposure levels of AuNPs that cause minimal toxicity. Our results suggest that under the highest dosing level employed in existing animal studies (worst-case scenario), AuNPs coated with branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) would likely induce ∼90-100% cellular death, implying high cytotoxicity compared to risk prediction, and point of departure estimation of AuNP exposure for humans and illustrate an approach that could be applied to other NPs when sufficient data are available.

  14. Effects of toxic levels of sodium, arsenic, iron and aluminum on the rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockard, R G; McWalter, A R

    1956-01-01

    The results of two sand culture experiments on rice plants are described. In one, the toxic effects of sodium, as sodium chloride, and of arsenic, as sodium arsenate, were tested; in the other, iron, chelated with the disodium salt of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid, and aluminium, as aluminium sulfate, were tried out. The former was undertaken because of the existence of these sub

  15. Evaluation of toxicity level of the polluted eco-system for an industrial city of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Akram, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    The indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial effluents and solid wastes into the open environment poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. Gujranwala is an industrial city of Pakistan wherein a large number of different industries are situated and majority of them are not equipped with proper recycling or effluent treatment plants. Unfortunately, untreated industrial effluents are locally used for the irrigation purposes which may result in higher concentrations of toxic metals in the crops and vegetables. Therefore, prime objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of toxic metals in the polluted soils, vegetables and crops grown in the vicinity of industrial areas using neutron activation analysis technique. The results obtained showed higher values of toxic metals in the studied samples. The observed highest concentration of As (0.94 ± 0.06) in spinach, Br (69 ± 9) in turnip, Co (0.83 ± 0.01) in millet, Cr (51.7 ± 4.2) in wheat, Mn (76.2 ± 7.3) in tomato, Sb (0.5 ± 0.06) in rice, Cl (31698 ± 3921) and Se (3.4 ± 0.4) in carrot. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  16. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ma

    Full Text Available Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content, metallothionein (MT content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (p<0.05. Clear toxic effects of DEHP on E. fetida have been generally recognized by means of the disturbance of antioxidant enzyme activity/content and critical proteins, cell membrane and organelle disorder and DNA damage estimated by length of tail, tail DNA ratio, and tail moment parameters. A concentration of DEHP of 3 mg kg-1 may be recommended as a precaution against the potential risk of PAEs in soils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms.

  17. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  18. Sustainable integration of high levels of intermittent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Cabral, P.

    2005-01-01

    The sustainable development of electric power systems rely on three main drivers: the security of supply, the competitiveness and the protection of the environment. For this purpose the promotion of endogenous energy sources, mainly the renewable ones, should be underlined. Still, most of renewable energy sources raise very sensitive issues concerning the security of supply, due to its randomness and unpredictability. The wind power, currently in its fast growing development, plays a relevant role on this matter. From the demand-side perspective, there is also a lot to do regarding the promotion of more efficient use of energy as well as mechanisms that contribute to security of supply. This paper aims to present guidelines for the selection of the most adequate solutions regarding: sustainable evolution of renewable generation technologies, based on the most meritorious resources under economic and security of supply assessments; complementary energy storage systems that allow the integration of intermittent generation ensuring adequate security of supply levels; and sustainable evolution of demand, based on DSM measures selected from different available alternatives. (author)

  19. Exploring Chemical Routes Relevant to the Toxicity of Paracetamol and Its meta-Analogue at a Molecular Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Arriaga, Romina; Galano, Annia

    2017-06-19

    Several chemical routes related to the toxicity of paracetamol (APAP, also known as acetaminophen), its analogue N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), and their deacetylated derivatives, were investigated using the density functional theory. It was found that AMAP is more resilient to chemical oxidation than APAP. The chemical degradation of AMAP into radical intermediates is predicted to be significant only when it is induced by strong oxidants. This might explain the apparent contradictions among experimental evidence regarding AMAP toxicity. All of the investigated species are incapable of oxidizing DNA, but they can damage lipids by H atom transfer (HAT) from the bis-allylic site, with the phenoxyl radical of AMAP being the most threatening to the lipids' chemical integrity. Regarding protein damage, Cys residues were identified as the most likely targets. The damage in this case may involve two different routes: (i) HAT from the thiol site by phenoxyl radicals and (ii) protein arylation by the quinone imine (QI) derivatives. Both are not only thermochemically viable, but also are very fast reactions. According to the mechanism identified here as the most likely one for protein arylation, a rather large concentration of QI would be necessary for this damage to be significant. This might explain why APAP is nontoxic in therapeutic doses, while overdoses can result in hepatic toxicity. In addition, the QI derived from both APAP and AMAP were found to be capable of inflicting this kind of damage. In addition, it is proposed that they might increase • OH production via the Fenton reaction, which would contribute to their toxicity.

  20. Using the IRWQIGT Index to Determine Toxicity Levels in Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present descriptive-analytic study was to estimate the toxicity level of the groundwater resources in the Province of Semnan using the IRWQIGT index and its zoning via GIS. The experiments were conducted over the period from October 2013 to October 2014during which time monthly samples were taken from the 41 wells that supply drinking water to the cities and towns in the Province. All the samples were subjected to lab analyses at Semnan Water and Wastewater Laboratory where such chemical parameters as Arsenic, Phenol, Mercury, Detergents, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Cyanide, Iron, Magnesium, and TPH were determined according to the procedures of Standard Methods (2008. The measuerments were subsequently used to calculate the groundwater toxicity level index (IRWQIGT. Finally, a zoning map of the IRWQIGT index for Semnan Province was prepared using GIS. Results showed that the IRWQIGT index in Semnan Province ranged between 96.54 and 98.2, indicating an excellent water quality. The lowest (96.585 and highest (98.076 values of IRWQIGT were recorded in the cities of Sorkheh and Mahdishahr, respectively, and that the values for all the parameters were in the standard range. These results indicate that water of excellent quality is available in all the cities in the province so that no toxicity treatment is required.

  1. [The umbilical blood levels of lead and some other toxic metals as a biomarker of environment-induced exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalova, L I; Malykh, O L; Matiukhina, G V; Gnezdilova, S V

    2007-01-01

    Groups of pregnant women, which made up in Revda, Pervouralsk, Krasnouralsk, and Verkh-Isetsky District of Yekaterinburg, were studied. Tests of umbilical blood samples (UB) for the levels of calcium, iron, chromium, manganese, zinc, nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury have established that the mean concentration of lead and the proportion of samples with elevated UB lead concentrations depend on how close the residential area is located to the major industrial source of emission of this toxic metal into ambient air. This correlation is less marked for other metals or it is not found. The particular position of lead is likely to be explained by the fact that it is entirely foreign to an organism and by the comparative unimportance of a contribution of the sources of exposure to this metal, which are unassociated with man-caused environmental and food pollution. As far as other metals are concerned, the situation is complicated by the fact that they are not only toxic, but when upon minor exposures, also essential biotrace elements with controlled and interdependent toxic kinetics. It is also shown that when a pregnant woman takes a complex of biological protectors promoting a reduction in her body's levels of lead, its concentrations in her body, its UB concentration is much lower than such a bioprophylactic effect is absent.

  2. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  3. Business Level Service-Oriented Enterprise Application Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokraev, S.; Quartel, Dick; Steen, Maarten W.A.; Wombacher, Andreas; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach for service-oriented enterprise application integration (EAI). Unlike current EAI solutions, which mainly focus on technological aspects, our approach allows business domain experts to get more involved in the integration process. First, we provide a technique

  4. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  5. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic Y; Jennings, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to

  6. Mutant LRRK2 Toxicity in Neurons Depends on LRRK2 Levels and Synuclein But Not Kinase Activity or Inclusion Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, Gaia; Nakamura, Ken; Cookson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    By combining experimental neuron models and mathematical tools, we developed a “systems” approach to deconvolve cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration underlying the most common known cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Neurons ectopically expressing mutant LRRK2 formed inclusion bodies (IBs), retracted neurites, accumulated synuclein, and died prematurely, recapitulating key features of PD. Degeneration was predicted from the levels of diffuse mutant LRRK2 that each neuron contained, but IB formation was neither necessary nor sufficient for death. Genetic or pharmacological blockade of its kinase activity destabilized LRRK2 and lowered its levels enough to account for the moderate reduction in LRRK2 toxicity that ensued. By contrast, targeting synuclein, including neurons made from PD patient-derived induced pluripotent cells, dramatically reduced LRRK2-dependent neurodegeneration and LRRK2 levels. These findings suggest that LRRK2 levels are more important than kinase activity per se in predicting toxicity and implicate synuclein as a major mediator of LRRK2-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:24403142

  7. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  8. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms and manifestations of toxic actions at the bone tissue level; Mecanismes et manifestations de l'action des toxiques au niveau du tissu osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal abnormalities determined by toxic at the bone level are: osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis or osteopetrosis. The principal toxics having a noxiousness at the bone level are: the fluorine, the phosphorus, the lead, the bismuth, the cadmium and the strontium. The strontium 90 has an important radioactivity that gives at the bone level osteosarcomas or at low doses, leukemoid reactions and marrow angiosarcoma. (N.C.)

  10. ARE METHODS USED TO INTEGRATE STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A CONDITIONING FACTOR OF THE LEVEL OF INTEGRATION? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Bernardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing multiple Management System Standards (M SSs and considering managing the related Management Systems (MSs as a single system.The aim of this paper is to analyze if methods us ed to integrate standardized MSs condition the level of integration of those MSs. A descriptive methodology has been applied to 343 Spanish organizations registered to, at least, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. Seven groups of these organizations using different combinations of methods have been analyzed Results show that these organizations have a high level of integration of their MSs. The most common method used, was the process map. Organizations using a combination of different methods achieve higher levels of integration than those using a single method. However, no evidence has been found to confirm the relationship between the method used and the integration level achieved.

  11. Radioactive and conventional toxic waste compared - An integrated approach, useful for an appraisal of carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueeler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The interplay of nuclear and conventional toxic ('special') waste is investigated, using a novel integrated system assessment: material and system characteristics, risk assessment and regulatory approaches. The goal is to create profiles of strengths and weaknesses of wastes that are similar in their risk characteristics but dealt with differently in risk management and regulation. A further objective is to draw lessons from the comparison of different discourses and procedures of waste with a similar profile with regard to decision-making processes (the reasons for the different regulation of both waste systems are not investigated here). Finally, a side glance is ventured on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in view of the keynote lecture of Session 5. (authors)

  12. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamatsu Akinori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine dioxide (CD gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human.

  13. Integrated approaches for determination of environmental and human risks of persistent toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, L.; Cupr, P.; Dusek, L.; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Klanova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Substances that are persistent and bioaccumulative often posses toxic characteristics and cause adverse human health or environmental effects. Basic objective of the long-term research project INCHEMBIOL undertaken by the Centre RECETOX are the complex studies of interactions among chemical compounds present in environmental compartments and their biological effects and studies of the fate of mainly persistent chemical compounds in the environment, their effects on the environment and living organisms including human. Destiny in this concept consists of a summary of transport (from their input in the environment, transport within the environmental compartment, where they are discharged, transport among compartments and long-range transport in the environment) and transformation processes (abiotic and biotic transformations). It also includes study of distribution equilibriums, properties conditioning their environmental behaviour, study of the transformation processes and their products. This complex approach is a part of long-term research activities of the centre RECETOX. In the contribution methods used and results obtained in exploration of the causality among chemical (presence of chemical compounds in the environment) and biological (mechanisms of effects on the living organisms) are described.

  14. Assessment of the toxicity level of gamma-irradiated snake (Naja naja oxiana) venom by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidyasagar, P.B.; Pal, Saumen

    1991-01-01

    Immunization is the only answer to the challenge of the diseases for which it is extremely difficult to institute timely and proper treatment following the inset. Various antigenic agents responsible for such diseases are used for the purpose of immunization to overcome this difficulty. To make safe use of the antigens it is required to reduce their toxicity level keeping the antigenicity intact and develop a suitable way to detect it. To ensure this, toxoids are produced from the toxic antigens by using different physical and chemical methods. Snake venoms are some important antigens which deserve more attention to be used for immunization because bites by poisonous snakes require instant treatment which is difficult to install. Toxoids used in the present study were produced by irradiating oxus cobra (Naja naja oxiana) venom under cobalt-60 gamma-ray source. The toxocity level of thus produced venom toxoid was assessed by photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. In support of the PA observations, optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of the venom in solution were also studied. Percentile change in PA signal intensity was taken as the parameter for toxocity level which was then correlated to the percentile residual toxocity of the venom obtained by direct method of injecting the venom in mice. Efforts were also made to find out the possible effects of the radiation on the venom. (author). 29 refs., 7 figs

  15. Statistical evaluation of essential/toxic metal levels in the blood of valvular heart disease patients in comparison with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Asim; Shah, Munir H

    2017-05-12

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of selected essential and toxic metals in the onset/prognosis of valvular heart disease (VHD). Nitric acid-perchloric acid based wet digestion procedure was used for the quantification of the metals by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Comparative appraisal of the data revealed that average levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Li, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in blood of VHD patients, while the average concentration of Ca was found at elevated level in controls (P < 0.05). However, Cu, Mg, Na, Sr and Pb depicted almost comparable levels in the blood of both donor groups. The correlation study revealed significantly different mutual associations among the metals in the blood of VHD patients compared with the controls. Multivariate statistical methods showed substantially divergent grouping of the metals for the patients and controls. Some significant differences in the metal concentrations were also observed with gender, abode, dietary/smoking habits and occupations of both donor groups. Overall, the study demonstrated that disproportions in the concentrations of essential/toxic metals in the blood are involved in pathogenesis of the disease.

  16. Improving ecological risk assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals by using an integrated modeling system - An example assessing chloroparaffins in riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical risk assessment (CRA) is primarily carried out at the screening level relying on empirical relationships between chemical properties and tested toxicity effects. Ultimately, risk to aquatic ecosystems is strongly dependent on actual exposure, which depends on chemical pr...

  17. Climbing the ladder: capability maturity model integration level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Bryce; Lutteroth, Christof

    2011-02-01

    This article details the attempt to form a complete workflow model for an information and communication technologies (ICT) company in order to achieve a capability maturity model integration (CMMI) maturity rating of 3. During this project, business processes across the company's core and auxiliary sectors were documented and extended using modern enterprise modelling tools and a The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) methodology. Different challenges were encountered with regard to process customisation and tool support for enterprise modelling. In particular, there were problems with the reuse of process models, the integration of different project management methodologies and the integration of the Rational Unified Process development process framework that had to be solved. We report on these challenges and the perceived effects of the project on the company. Finally, we point out research directions that could help to improve the situation in the future.

  18. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-01-01

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V —all of them frequently found in e-waste—, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of

  19. k0-INAA measurement of levels of toxic elements in oil sludge and their leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Kok Siong Khoo; Sukiman Sarmani; Majid, A.A.; Ainon Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Development of the petroleum industry has resulted in increasing production of oil sludge, the disposal of which risks introducing hazardous elements into the environment. In the frames of these studies the presence of the toxic metals arsenic, chromium and zinc in oil sludge and the leachability of those toxins. Samples were obtained from a refinery plant in Sg Udang, Melaka and from the Miri Crude Oil Terminal, Sarawak, both in Malaysia. k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to measure mass fractions of elements. The samples were packed and irradiated in a TRIGA Mark II reactor. Mass fraction of arsenic in the oil sludge samples were found to be higher than the EPA pollutant mass fraction limit; mass fractions of chromium and zinc were below of this limit. Samples were also tested for leachability, which was found to be contributed to by controlled diffusion. Slow leachability of arsenic was found to be higher than the EPA limit in these oil sludge samples, influenced by such factors as redox condition. It was found however, that the most leachable of these elements in all samples from both sites was zinc, followed by arsenic and chromium, indicating that zinc may present a more serious threat of environmental contamination than the other two. (author)

  20. A probe to study the toxic interaction of tartrazine with bovine hemoglobin at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yating; Wei, Haoran; Liu, Rutao

    2014-03-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in food products, but tartrazine in the environment is potentially harmful. The toxic interaction between tartrazine and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was investigated using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling techniques under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that tartrazine can bind with BHb to form a complex. The binding process was a spontaneous molecular interaction, in which van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds played major roles. Molecular docking results showed that the hydrogen bonds exist between the oxygen atoms at position 31 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys99, and also between the oxygen atoms at position 15 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys104, Lys105. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that tartrazine led to conformational changes in BHb, including loosening of the skeleton structure and decreasing α helix in the secondary structure. The synchronous fluorescence experiment revealed that tartrazine binds into the hemoglobin central cavity, and this was verified using a molecular modeling study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Special Project Examination in Integrated Science - Ordinary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, David

    A science achievement test for the General Certificate of Education (GCE, England) was developed for students enrolled in the curriculum of the Schools Council Integrated Science Project. This document contains discussions of the testing program and a copy of the 1973 test. After an overview of the curriculum project and issues related to…

  2. Low level constraints on dynamic contour path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hall

    Full Text Available Contour integration is a fundamental visual process. The constraints on integrating discrete contour elements and the associated neural mechanisms have typically been investigated using static contour paths. However, in our dynamic natural environment objects and scenes vary over space and time. With the aim of investigating the parameters affecting spatiotemporal contour path integration, we measured human contrast detection performance of a briefly presented foveal target embedded in dynamic collinear stimulus sequences (comprising five short 'predictor' bars appearing consecutively towards the fovea, followed by the 'target' bar in four experiments. The data showed that participants' target detection performance was relatively unchanged when individual contour elements were separated by up to 2° spatial gap or 200 ms temporal gap. Randomising the luminance contrast or colour of the predictors, on the other hand, had similar detrimental effect on grouping dynamic contour path and subsequent target detection performance. Randomising the orientation of the predictors reduced target detection performance greater than introducing misalignment relative to the contour path. The results suggest that the visual system integrates dynamic path elements to bias target detection even when the continuity of path is disrupted in terms of spatial (2°, temporal (200 ms, colour (over 10 colours and luminance (-25% to 25% information. We discuss how the findings can be largely reconciled within the functioning of V1 horizontal connections.

  3. Managerial competence at senior levels of integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, B B

    1998-01-01

    The advent of integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the healthcare industry has changed much about the work involved in running many healthcare organizations. As a result of these changes, senior healthcare managers in IDSs need different skills and knowledge (competencies) than managers of other healthcare systems. The work of managers is changed by the shift to more organizational integration in the healthcare industry because they become responsible for coordinated continuation of services, accountable for the overall health status of the populations they serve, and involved in more complex organizational structures. The article identifies six distinct managerial competencies--conceptual, technical managerial/clinical, interpersonal/collaborative, political, commercial, and governance--and describes how they relate to an IDS senior manager's successful work performance. The implications of these competencies are considered for practicing senior managers in IDSs, as well as those who aspire to such positions, and those who help educate them.

  4. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  5. Evaluation of systems incorporating transmutation for the reduction of the long term toxicity of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    One of the alternative high-level nuclear waste (HLW) management/disposal concepts proposed involves the separation from HLW of the elements with isotopes which dominate the radiotoxicity and the transmutation of these nuclides to shortlived or stable products. The waste management system required for transmutation employs chemical processing of HLW to recover waste nuclides for irradiation with neutrons in a transmutation device. The transmuter periodically requires replenishment of the target nuclides and chemical processing to remove the transmutation products. The waste streams from HLW processing and product recovery together comprise the discharge from the system. An imploding liner fusion reactor (ILFR) is assumed for the transmuter with the waste nuclides dissolved in a molten lead-lithium alloy blanket. The potential transmutation candidates are defined as the elements with toxicities per unit volume (toxicity indexes) in solidified HLW at 1000 years which are greater than that for 0.2% uranium ore (carnotite). The candidates which require separation for transmutation are the actinides; Np, Pu, Am, and Cu and the fission products; I and Tc. Certain assumptions were made for the parameters for the ILFR and its operating conditions, and a system evaluation was done. System evaluations indicate that blanket waste loadings on the order of several percent of the total concentration result in attractive performance in terms of high transmutation capacities and low blanket processing requirments. It appears that transmutation system goals in terms of toxicity reduction are achievable with a modest number of transmuters. In addition, requirements for transmuter performance, chemical processing capacity and chemical separation efficiency appear to be within projected values for this technology

  6. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, G E-mail:risticg@eunet yu [Department of Nutrition, Medical Faculty, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2002-05-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  7. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  8. determination of levels of essential and toxic heavy metals in lentil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    High protein content (22 to 34.6% ) and 55% starch, low level of .... time and higher temperature and result in the formation of turbid digests and colored ..... One of the major obstacles in chemical education is the lack of association ... Cundeva K., Pavlovovska G and Stafilov T. Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society, 18(6),.

  9. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke

    2016-12-15

    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geometric phase for N-level systems through unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D. B.; Rau, A. R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Geometric phases are important in quantum physics and are now central to fault-tolerant quantum computation. For spin 1/2, the Bloch sphere S 2 , together with a U(1) phase, provides a complete SU(2) description. We generalize to N-level systems and SU(N) in terms of a 2(N-1)-dimensional base space and reduction to a (N-1)-level problem, paralleling closely the two-dimensional case. This iteratively solves the time evolution of an N-level system and gives (N-1) geometric phases explicitly. A complete analytical construction of an S 4 Bloch-like sphere for two qubits is given for the Spin(5) or SO(5) subgroup of SU(4)

  11. Technology-integrated Mathematics Education at the Secondary School Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Serin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of technological devices to enrich learning and teaching of Mathematics has been widely recognized recently. This study is founded on a case study that investigates how technology-related Mathematics teaching can enhance learning of Mathematical topics. The findings indicate that when teachers integrate technology into their teaching practices, students’ learning of Mathematics is significantly promoted. It was seen that the use of effective presentations through technological devices highly motivated the students and improved their mathematics achievement. This highlights that the availability of technological devices, teacher beliefs, easy access to resources and most importantly teacher skills of using technological devices effectively are decisive factors that can provide learners better understanding of mathematical concepts.

  12. Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-10-31

    Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this

  13. Cadmium toxicity studies under long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Marafante, E.; Amantini, L.; Ubertalli, L.; Pietra, R.

    1978-01-01

    A long term-low level exposure (LLE) experiment was conducted on rats to determine the metabolic patterns for realistic dietary levels of cadmium. Male rats fed with 61 ppb of cadmium ad libitum, 50 labelled with 109 Cd radiotracer as cadmium chloride via drinking mineral water and 11 unlabelled via food for 2 years. The diet was characterized in its metal content by neutron activation analysis to obtain the total dietary intake of different elements. The kidney was found to be the tissue with the major concentration of cadmium which accumulated continuously during the experiment. The variation of the accumulation pattern of Cd concentration in the liver and intestine indicated an initial rapid increase of Cd during the first 100 days. After this period an apparent equilibrium was attained in both these tissues until the end of the study. The intracellular distribution of cadmium in kidneys, liver, intestine and pancreas were similar, the cytosol fractions containing about 80% of the cellular cadmium. Dialysis experiments indicated that significant amounts of cadmium were able to be associated with cellular organelles, the mitochondria representing the most important organelle capable of binding cadmium. The cytoplasmatic Cd-profiles obtained at various stages of the experiment showed that the metal was only bound to a low-molecular-weight component, cadmium-binding protein (CdBP), which represents the specific cellular-binding component for cadmium under the long term-low level exposure (LLE) conditions. No significant variations in the concentrations of the elements in different organs were observed in animals supplemented with 109 Cd in respect to 109 Cd untreated controls. (Auth.)

  14. Levels of potentially toxic metals in water, sediment and peat from Wonderfonteinspruit, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsaka, Ntumba C; McCrindle, Robert I; Ambushe, Abayneh A

    2018-04-30

    Environmental monitoring of the levels of potentially toxic metals is of importance because of possible adverse effects on living species. This study was conducted to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, U and V in water, sediment and peat samples collected from the region of Wonderfonteinspruit. Water samples were simply filtered and acidified with HNO 3 prior to analysis. Sediment and peat were oven-dried, ground, sieved and mineralised using a microwave digestion system. Concentrations of the selected elements in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A Zeeman mercury analyser was also used for quantification of Hg in the same sediment and peat samples. The method validation was carried out using SRM 1643e water and BCR 320R sediment certified reference materials. The results showed no significant difference at 95% level of confidence between the certified and measured values after using the Student's t-test. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U found in rivers and dams were lower than the tentative South African water quality range guideline for domestic and irrigation purposes. However, water from dams and certain rivers was unsuitable for irrigation and domestic use.

  15. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adriana Angela; Farias, Silvia Sara; Strobl, Analia Mabel; Perez, Laura Beatriz; Lopez, Clara Magdalena; Pineiro, Adriana; Roses, Otmaro; Fajardo, Maria Angelica

    2007-01-01

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 μg g -1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 μg g -1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

  16. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

    2007-04-15

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

  17. Levels of essential and potentially toxic trace metals in Antarctic macro algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia; Arisnabarreta, Sebastian Perez; Vodopivez, Cristian; Smichowski, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Antarctic algae were examined for their accumulation ability in the uptake of different metals and metalloids from the Antarctic aquatic environment. Macro algae were collected during the 2000 austral summer season at Jubany Station (Argentinean base) around Potter Cove, King George Island. The elements quantified were: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn. An optimized microwave-assisted digestion procedure was used to digest the samples and the elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A wide range of metal retention capacity among the different species was observed. The highest levels of trace elements were found in Monostroma hariotii and Phaeurus antarcticus, with concentrations up to 3095 μg g -1 for Fe. On the basis of the levels of trace elements observed in Monostroma hariotii and its wide distribution in the Antarctic Peninsula, this organism accomplishes a number of prerequisites to be considered as an adequate biomonitor for future studies

  18. Histopathological Study of Subacute Toxic Effects of Chloroacetic Acid on Albino Rats and its Correlation with Serum Levels of Malondialdehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings are increasingly being exposed to chloroacetic acid (CAA, a type of halo acetic acid. It would not be an exaggeration to say that almost the whole humankind today is affected by it or its metabolites. The concern over the carcinogenicity of haloacetic acids led the United States Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the allowable concentration of haloacetic acids in drinking water as part of the Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule promulgated in 1998. Keeping this view in mind, the present study on histolopathological evaluation of different types of tissues viz., brain, kidney, liver, spleen and testes of Rattus norvegicus was performed, to find out the subacute toxicity of chloroacetic acid and correlation between CAA administration and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA level in blood.

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  20. Impact of Professional Development on Level of Technology Integration in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miktuk, Darlynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative study was to evaluate the impact of professional development on the level of technology integration within the elementary classroom using an online survey known as the LoTi (levels of teaching innovation) survey. Information about the history of computers, technology integration, andragogy, and effective…

  1. Effects of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) polymorphism on toxic metal and trace element levels in placental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Tekin, Deniz; Aliyev, Vugar; Yalcin, Serap; Kurtay, Guelay; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-01-01

    The placenta is a crucial organ of fetal origin that functions in providing nutrients to the fetus from the mother. During pregnancy, the need for essential micronutrients, such as Fe and Zn, increases due to the requirements of the growing fetus. Maternal Fe deficiency induces an increase in Cu levels and can also affect cytokine levels in the placenta. On the other hand, Cu deficiency, although not as common, can also have destructive effects on the fetus. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities, including such as immune responses, acute-phase reactions, and inflammation. The placenta produces a significant amount of IL-6 during pregnancy. The effects of the IL-6 -174 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on IL-6 gene transcription and on plasma cytokine levels were assessed in the present study. We investigated the association between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and trace element/toxic metal levels in placental tissues. For the purposes of this study, 95 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Presence of the IL-6 polymorphism was determined using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, and metal levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Based on our data, there were no significant associations between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and Pb, Cd, Fe, or Zn levels in the placental tissues (p > 0.05), but a statistically significant association was detected between the polymorphism and Cu levels (p = 0.016). We determined that the mean Cu levels in the placental tissues from individuals with GG, GC and CC genotypes were 5.62 ± 1.98, 6.22 ± 3.22 and 8.00 ± 1.32 ppm, respectively, whereas the overall mean Cu level from the placental tissues was 5.98 ± 2.51 ppm. - Highlights: → We studied between the association of IL-6 polymorphism and metal levels in the placenta tissues. → It was the first report evaluating the association

  2. Real-time isothermal RNA amplification of toxic marine microalgae using preserved reagents on an integrated microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Laouenan, Florian; Loukas, Christos-Moritz; Monsalve, Lisandro Gabriel; Thanner, Christine; Morgan, Hywel; Ruano-López, Jesus M; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2013-01-21

    Quantitation of specific RNA sequences is a useful technique in marine biology that can elucidate cell abundance, speciation and viability, especially for early detection of harmful algal blooms. We are thus developing an integrated microfluidic system for cell concentration and lysis, RNA extraction/purification and quantitative RNA detection for environmental applications. The portable system is based on a microfluidic cartridge, or "lab-card", using a low-cost injection moulded device, with a laminated lid. Here we present real-time isothermal RNA amplification using reagent master-mixes preserved on-chip in a gel at 4 °C for up to eight months. We demonstrate quantitation by reference to an internal control in a competitive assay with 500 cell equivalents of the toxic microalga Karenia brevis. Annealing of primers, amplification at 41 °C and real-time fluorescence detection of the internal control and target using sequence-specific molecular beacons were all performed on-chip.

  3. Levels of essential and toxic metals in fenugreek seeds (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum L. cultivated in different parts of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtu Hagos

    Full Text Available Summary The levels of the major (Ca, K, Na, Mg, trace (Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, and toxic (Pb, Cd metals in the seeds of fenugreek cultivated in different regions of Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS. Wet ashing was used to digest 0.5 g of fenugreek seed flour using 1.5 mL of HNO3 and HClO4 acid mixtures (5:1 ratio, 30 min pre-digestion time, 45 min total digestion time and a temperature of 150 °C. Thirteen elements were determined, obtaining concentrations in the following ranges: Ca (15353-36771 mg kg-1 > Fe (6041-18584 mg kg-1 ≈ K (6789-11517 mg kg-1 > Pb (615-2624 mg kg-1 > Na (201-1559 mg kg-1 > Cd (285-464 mg kg-1 > Cr (3-552 mg kg-1 > Ni (31-108 mg kg-1 > Mg (31-102 mg kg-1 > Zn (15-33 mg kg-1 > Mn (16-28 mg kg-1 > Cu (ND-35 mg kg-1 > Co (4-15 mg kg-1. A statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA at the 95% confidence level revealed there were significant differences between the mean metal contents of fourteen sample means, except for Zn. Pearson’s correlation revealed weak positive or negative linear relationships, which implies that the presence of one metal did not affect the presence of the other metals within the plant, except for a few metals. The study showed that fenugreek seeds were a good source of essential metals. However, they also contained large amounts of the toxic metals Cd and Pb and therefore should not be consumed daily.

  4. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of natural samples from the vicinity of rice fields using two trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina R; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    An ecotoxicological screening of environmental samples collected in the vicinity of rice fields followed a combination of physical and chemical measurements and chronic bioassays with two freshwater trophic levels (microalgae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris; daphnids: Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna). As so, water and sediment/soil elutriate samples were obtained from three sites: (1) in a canal reach crossing a protected wetland upstream, (2) in a canal reach surrounded by rice fields and (3) in a rice paddy. The sampling was performed before and during the rice culture. During the rice cropping, the whole system quality decreased comparatively to the situation before that period (e.g. nutrient overload, the presence of pesticides in elutriates from sites L2 and L3). This was reinforced by a significant inhibition of both microalgae growth, especially under elutriates. Contrary, the life-history traits of daphnids were significantly stimulated with increasing concentrations of water and elutriates, for both sampling periods.

  6. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion

  7. Integration of Lower Level Supervisors into the Management Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-31

    sessions. Brief (2-3 hour) training "work sessions" could be developed to help lower level supervisors 4 solve specific problema . These sessions...34 In D. Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1959. Gardner, B.B. & Whyte, W.F. "The man in the...line supervisory problem redefined." Personnel Journal, 1975, 54(12), 620-623+. Stouffer, S.A. "An analysis of conflicting social norms." American

  8. Level Set Structure of an Integrable Cellular Automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichiro Takagi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a group theoretical setting a sort of discrete dynamical system is constructed and applied to a combinatorial dynamical system defined on the set of certain Bethe ansatz related objects known as the rigged configurations. This system is then used to study a one-dimensional periodic cellular automaton related to discrete Toda lattice. It is shown for the first time that the level set of this cellular automaton is decomposed into connected components and every such component is a torus.

  9. Glomeromycota communities survive extreme levels of metal toxicity in an orphan mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, I; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Cleyet-Marel, J C; Baudoin, E; van Tuinen, D

    2017-11-15

    Abandoned tailing basins and waste heaps of orphan mining sites are of great concern since extreme metal contamination makes soil improper for any human activity and is a permanent threat for nearby surroundings. Although spontaneous revegetation can occur, the process is slow or unsuccessful and rhizostabilisation strategies to reduce dispersal of contaminated dust represent an option to rehabilitate such sites. This requires selection of plants tolerant to such conditions, and optimization of their fitness and growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance metal tolerance in moderately polluted soils, but their ability to survive extreme levels of metal contamination has not been reported. This question was addressed in the tailing basin and nearby waste heaps of an orphan mining site in southern France, reaching in the tailing basin exceptionally high contents of zinc (ppm: 97,333 total) and lead (ppm: 31,333 total). In order to contribute to a better understanding of AMF ecology under severe abiotic stress and to identify AMF associated with plants growing under such conditions, that may be considered in future revegetation and rhizostabilisation of highly polluted areas, nine plant species were sampled at different growing seasons and AMF root colonization was determined. Glomeromycota diversity was monitored in mycorrhizal roots by sequencing of the ribosomal LSU. This first survey of AMF in such highly contaminated soils revealed the presence of several AMF ribotypes, belonging mainly to the Glomerales, with some examples from the Paraglomerales and Diversisporales. AMF diversity and root colonization in the tailing basin were lower than in the less-contaminated waste heaps. A Paraglomus species previously identified in a polish mining site was common in roots of different plants. Presence of active AMF in such an environment is an outstanding finding, which should be clearly considered for the design of efficient rhizostabilisation processes

  10. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  11. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-10-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight-normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. © 2014 The Authors

  12. Integrating Non-Tidal Sea Level data from altimetry and tide gauges for coastal sea level prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to integrate Non-Tidal Sea Level (NSL) from the joint TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite altimetry with tide gauge data at the west and north coast of the United Kingdom for coastal sea level prediction. The temporal correlation coefficient between altimetric...... NSLs and tide gauge data reaches a maximum higher than 90% for each gauge. The results show that the multivariate regression approach can efficiently integrate the two types of data in the coastal waters of the area. The Multivariate Regression Model is established by integrating the along-track NSL...... from the joint TOPEX/Jason-1/Jason-2 altimeters with that from eleven tide gauges. The model results give a maximum hindcast skill of 0.95, which means maximum 95% of NSL variance can be explained by the model. The minimum Root Mean Square Error (RMSe) between altimetric observations and model...

  13. Implementing and measuring the level of laboratory service integration in a program setting in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mbah

    Full Text Available The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration.A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360 supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤ 80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and <25% NO integration. Weaknesses were noted and addressed.We analyzed 9 (7.4% primary, 104 (85.2% secondary and 9 (7.4% tertiary level facilities. There were statistically significant differences in integration levels between baseline and 3 months follow-up period (p<0.01. Baseline median total integration score was 4 (IQR 3 to 5 compared to 7 (IQR 4 to 9 at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000. Partial and fully integrated laboratory systems were 64 (52.5% and 0 (0.0% at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0% and 3 (2.4% respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000.This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each laboratory on the integration continuum.

  14. Integrating Field Buses at the Application Level C Interface and LabView Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Charrue, P

    1996-01-01

    The controls group of the SPS and LEP accelerators at CERN, Geneva, uses many different fieldbuses into the controls infrastucture, such as 1553, BITBUS, GPIB, RS232, JBUS, etc. A software package (SL-EQUIP) has been developped to give end users a standardized application program interface (API) to access any equipment connected to any fieldbus. This interface has now been integrated to LabView. We can offer a powerful graphical package, running on HP-UX workstations which treats data from heterogeneous equipment using the great flexibility of LabView. This paper will present SL-EQUIP and LabView, and will then describe some applications using these tools.

  15. Role of calibration, validation, and relevance in multi-level uncertainty integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chenzhao; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of model parameters is an essential step in predicting the response of a complicated system, but the lack of data at the system level makes it impossible to conduct this quantification directly. In such a situation, system model parameters are estimated using tests at lower levels of complexity which share the same model parameters with the system. For such a multi-level problem, this paper proposes a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in the system level prediction by integrating calibration, validation and sensitivity analysis at different levels. The proposed approach considers the validity of the models used for parameter estimation at lower levels, as well as the relevance at the lower level to the prediction at the system level. The model validity is evaluated using a model reliability metric, and models with multivariate output are considered. The relevance is quantified by comparing Sobol indices at the lower level and system level, thus measuring the extent to which a lower level test represents the characteristics of the system so that the calibration results can be reliably used in the system level. Finally the results of calibration, validation and relevance analysis are integrated in a roll-up method to predict the system output. - Highlights: • Relevance analysis to quantify the closeness of two models. • Stochastic model reliability metric to integrate multiple validation experiments. • Extend the model reliability metric to deal with multivariate output. • Roll-up formula to integrate calibration, validation, and relevance.

  16. An integrated omic analysis of hepatic alteration in medaka fish chronically exposed to cyanotoxins with possible mechanisms of reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Le Manach, Séverine; Huet, Hélène; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Chaouch, Soraya; Duval, Charlotte; Sotton, Benoit; Ponger, Loïc; Marie, Arul; Mathéron, Lucrèce; Lennon, Sarah; Bolbach, Gérard; Djediat, Chakib; Bernard, Cécile; Edery, Marc; Marie, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms threaten human health as well as the population of other living organisms in the aquatic environment, particularly due to the production of natural toxic components, the cyanotoxin. So far, the most studied cyanotoxins are microcystins (MCs). In this study, the hepatic alterations at histological, proteome and transcriptome levels were evaluated in female and male medaka fish chronically exposed to 1 and 5 μg L -1 microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to the extract of MC-producing Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7820 (5 μg L -1 of equivalent MC-LR) by balneation for 28 days, aiming at enhancing our understanding of the potential reproductive toxicity of cyanotoxins in aquatic vertebrate models. Indeed, both MC and Microcystis extract adversely affect reproductive parameters including fecundity and egg hatchability. The liver of toxin treated female fish present glycogen storage loss and cellular damages. The quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that the quantities of 225 hepatic proteins are dysregulated. In particular, a notable decrease in protein quantities of vitellogenin and choriogenin was observed, which could explain the decrease in reproductive output. Liver transcriptome analysis through Illumina RNA-seq reveals that over 100-400 genes are differentially expressed under 5 μg L -1  MC-LR and Microcystis extract treatments, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the omic data attests that various metabolic pathways, such as energy production, protein biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, are disturbed by both MC-LR and the Microcystis extract, which could provoke the observed reproductive impairment. The transcriptomics analysis also constitutes the first report of the impairment of circadian rhythm-related gene induced by MCs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of chronic exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of cyanotoxins, suggesting that Microcystis extract could impact a

  17. Polymer-based 2D/3D wafer level heterogeneous integration for SSL module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.; Wei, J.; Ye, H.; Koh, S.; Harianto, S.; Nieuwenhof, M.A. van den; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a heterogeneous integration of solid state lighting (SSL) module, including light source (LED) and driver/control components. Such integration has been realized by the polymer-based reconfigured wafer level package technologies and such structure has been prototyped and

  18. The Integrated Multi-Level Bilingual Teaching of "Social Research Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanhan; Ye, Jian

    2012-01-01

    "Social Research Methods," as a methodology course, combines theories and practices closely. Based on the synergy theory, this paper tries to establish an integrated multi-level bilingual teaching mode. Starting from the transformation of teaching concepts, we should integrate interactions, experiences, and researches together and focus…

  19. Integration of multi-level marketing management systems geographically industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Lavrov; Lada Polikarpova; Alla Handramai

    2015-01-01

    In the article the authors attempt to develop a multi-level management system territorially industry development in market conditions, built in the widespread use of various types of marketing and their horizontal and vertical integration.

  20. Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the Namibian ... The study was informed by Rogers' theory of diffusion and adopted a qualitative ... A semi- structured interview guide and an observation schedule were used to ...

  1. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  2. Conceptual plan for closer integration of network- and project-level pavement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of current performance modeling concepts and a feasibility study of the possibility of integrating network- and project-level performance prediction. The widely differing modeling methods in use today are reviewed a...

  3. Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Iskusnykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation products, and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 1.11.1.9 and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 activities at rats liver injury, after 12, 36, 70, 96, 110, and 125 hours & tetrachloromethane administration have been investigated. The histological examination of the liver sections of rats showed that prominent hepatocytes with marked vacuolisation and inflammatory cells which were arranged around the necrotic tissue are more at 96 h after exposure to CCl4. Moreover maximum increase in GR and GP activities, 2.1 and 2.5 times, respectively, was observed at 96 h after exposure to CCl4, what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr was analyzed by the determination of their respective mRNAs in the rat liver tissue under toxic hepatitis conditions. The analyses of Gpx1 and Gsr expression revealed that the transcript levels increased in 2.5- and 3.0-folds, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl4 administration. It can be proposed that the overexpression of these enzymes could be a mechanism of enhancement of hepatocytes tolerance to oxidative stress.

  4. An integrative view of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities: molecular mechanisms, current treatment challenges and potential protective measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J.; Peppone, Luke J.; de Graaf, Inge A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is currently one of the most widely-used chemotherapeutic agents against various malignancies. Its clinical application is limited, however, by inherent renal and cardiac toxicities and other side effects, of which the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. Experimental studies show cisplatin generates reactive oxygen species, which impair the cell’s antioxidant defense system, causing oxidative stress and potentiating injury, thereby culminating in kidney and heart failure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities may allow clinicians to prevent or treat this problem better and may also provide a model for investigating drug-induced organ toxicity in general. This review discusses some of the major molecular mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal and cardiac toxicities including disruption of ionic homeostasis and energy status of the cell leading to cell injury and cell death. We highlight clinical manifestations of both toxicities as well as (novel)biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We also present some current treatment challenges and propose potential protective strategies with novel pharmacological compounds that might mitigate or prevent these toxicities, which include the use of hydrogen sulfide. PMID:27717837

  5. Testing for Level Shifts in Fractionally Integrated Processes: a State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based on the autocorrela......Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based...... on the autocorrelation function or the periodogram. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification that allows to disentangle the level shifts from the fractionally integrated component. The estimation is carried out on the basis of a state-space methodology...... and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts. Once the memory parameter is correctly estimated, we use the KPSS test for presence of level shift. The Monte Carlo simulations show how this approach produces unbiased estimates of the memory parameter...

  6. Preoperative intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost in locally advanced rectal cancer: Report on late toxicity and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Benedikt; Platteaux, Nele; Van den Begin, Robbe; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy has been established as the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. As an alternative strategy, we explored intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT–IGRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in a prospective phase II study. Here, we report outcome and late toxicity after a median follow-up of 54 months. Methods and materials: A total of 108 patients were treated preoperatively with IMRT–IGRT, delivering a dose of 46 Gy in fractions of 2 Gy. Patients (n = 57) displaying an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm based on magnetic resonance imaging received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Results: The absolute incidence of grade ⩾3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity was 9% and 4%, respectively, with a 13% rate of any grade ⩾3 late toxicity. The actuarial 5-year local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 97%, 57%, and 68%. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection and pN2 disease were associated with significantly impaired OS. Conclusions: The use of preoperative IMRT–IGRT with a SIB resulted in a high 5-year LC rate and non-negligible late toxicity

  7. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM ART INTERRUPTION ON LEVELS OF INTEGRATED HIV DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Zachary; Sharaf, Radwa; VanBelzen, D Jake; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Connick, Elizabeth; Volberding, Paul; Skiest, Daniel J; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; O'Doherty, Una; Li, Jonathan Z

    2018-03-28

    Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) studies are required to evaluate strategies aimed at achieving ART-free HIV remission, but the impact of ATI on the viral reservoir remains unclear. We validated a DNA size selection-based assay for measuring levels of integrated HIV DNA and applied it to assess the effects of short-term ATI on the HIV reservoir. Samples from participants from four AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) ATI studies were assayed for integrated HIV DNA levels. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained for 12 participants with available samples pre-ATI and approximately 6 months after ART resumption. Four participants also had samples available during the ATI. The median duration of ATI was 12 weeks. Validation of the HIV Integrated DNA size-Exclusion (HIDE) assay was performed using samples spiked with unintegrated HIV DNA, HIV-infected cell lines, and participant PBMCs. The HIDE assay eliminated 99% of unintegrated HIV DNA species and strongly correlated with the established Alu- gag assay. For the majority of individuals, integrated DNA levels increased during ATI and subsequently declined upon ART resumption. There was no significant difference in levels of integrated HIV DNA between the pre- and post-ATI time points, with the median ratio of post:pre-ATI HIV DNA levels of 0.95. Using a new integrated HIV DNA assay, we found minimal change in the levels of integrated HIV DNA in participants who underwent an ATI followed by 6 months of ART. This suggests that short-term ATI can be conducted without a significant impact on levels of integrated proviral DNA in the peripheral blood. IMPORTANCE Interventions aimed at achieving sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission require treatment interruption trials to assess their efficacy. However, these trials are accompanied by safety concerns related to the expansion of the viral reservoir. We validated an assay that uses an automated DNA size-selection platform for quantifying levels of integrated

  8. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). College of Education

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  9. Wafer-level testing and test during burn-in for integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bahukudumbi, Sudarshan

    2010-01-01

    Wafer-level testing refers to a critical process of subjecting integrated circuits and semiconductor devices to electrical testing while they are still in wafer form. Burn-in is a temperature/bias reliability stress test used in detecting and screening out potential early life device failures. This hands-on resource provides a comprehensive analysis of these methods, showing how wafer-level testing during burn-in (WLTBI) helps lower product cost in semiconductor manufacturing.Engineers learn how to implement the testing of integrated circuits at the wafer-level under various resource constrain

  10. Is serum level of CC chemokine ligand 18 a biomarker for the prediction of radiation induced lung toxicity (RILT)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Eleni; Vach, Werner; Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Brenner, Anton; Brunner, Thomas Baptist; Kaier, Klaus; Prasse, Antje; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Zissel, Gernot; Nestle, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is produced by alveolar macrophages in patients with fibrosing lung disease and its concentration is increased in various fibrotic lung diseases. Furthermore CCL18 is elevated in several malignancies as it is produced by tumor associated macrophages. In this study we aimed to analyze the role of CCL18 as a prognostic biomarker for the development of early radiation induced lung toxicity (RILT), i.e. radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation and its significance in the course of the disease. Sixty seven patients were enrolled prospectively in the study. Patients were treated with irradiation for several thoracic malignancies (lung cancer, esophageal cancer, thymoma), either with conventionally fractionated or hypo-fractionated radiotherapy. The CCL18 serum levels were quantified with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) at predefined time points: before, during and at the end of treatment as well as in the first and second follow-up. Treatment parameters and functional tests were also correlated with the development of RILT.Fifty three patients were evaluable for this study. Twenty one patients (39%) developed radiologic signs of RILT Grade >1 but only three of them (5.6%) developed clinical symptoms (Grade 2). We could not find any association between the different CCL18 concentrations and a higher incidence of RILT. Statistical significant factors were the planning target volume (odds ratio OR: 1.003, p = 0.010), the volume of the lung receiving > 20 Gy (OR: 1.132 p = 0.004) and age (OR: 0.917, p = 0.008). There was no association between serial CCL18 concentrations with tumor response and overall survival.In our study the dosimetric parameters remained the most potent predictors of RILT. Further studies are needed in order to estimate the role of CCL18 in the development of early RILT.

  11. Is serum level of CC chemokine ligand 18 a biomarker for the prediction of radiation induced lung toxicity (RILT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gkika

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18 is produced by alveolar macrophages in patients with fibrosing lung disease and its concentration is increased in various fibrotic lung diseases. Furthermore CCL18 is elevated in several malignancies as it is produced by tumor associated macrophages. In this study we aimed to analyze the role of CCL18 as a prognostic biomarker for the development of early radiation induced lung toxicity (RILT, i.e. radiation pneumonitis after thoracic irradiation and its significance in the course of the disease. Sixty seven patients were enrolled prospectively in the study. Patients were treated with irradiation for several thoracic malignancies (lung cancer, esophageal cancer, thymoma, either with conventionally fractionated or hypo-fractionated radiotherapy. The CCL18 serum levels were quantified with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at predefined time points: before, during and at the end of treatment as well as in the first and second follow-up. Treatment parameters and functional tests were also correlated with the development of RILT.Fifty three patients were evaluable for this study. Twenty one patients (39% developed radiologic signs of RILT Grade >1 but only three of them (5.6% developed clinical symptoms (Grade 2. We could not find any association between the different CCL18 concentrations and a higher incidence of RILT. Statistical significant factors were the planning target volume (odds ratio OR: 1.003, p = 0.010, the volume of the lung receiving > 20 Gy (OR: 1.132 p = 0.004 and age (OR: 0.917, p = 0.008. There was no association between serial CCL18 concentrations with tumor response and overall survival.In our study the dosimetric parameters remained the most potent predictors of RILT. Further studies are needed in order to estimate the role of CCL18 in the development of early RILT.

  12. Implementing and measuring the level of laboratory service integration in a program setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Henry; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Ikani, Patrick Anibbe; Balogun, Oluseyi; Sanwo, Olusola; Ochei, Kingsley; Ekanem, Maurice; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration. A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360) supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration) for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤ 80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and laboratory systems were 64 (52.5%) and 0 (0.0%) at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0%) and 3 (2.4%) respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each laboratory on the integration continuum.

  13. Investigation of landfill leachate toxic potency: An integrated approach with the use of stress indices in tissues of mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dailianis, Stefanos, E-mail: sdailianis@upatras.gr [Section of Animal Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate induces mortality of mussels and their cell death at very low doses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepathological alterations occur in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alterations of stress indices reveal neurotoxic and genotoxic potency of leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leachate could induce oxidative damage in tissues of leachate-exposed mussels. - Abstract: The present study investigates the harmful impacts of landfill leachate release and/or disposal into the marine environment, as well as its ability to induce lethal and pre-pathological alterations in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In specific, mortality test (96 h), performed first in order to estimate leachate lethal endpoints, showed increased levels of mussel mortality after exposure to leachate higher than 0.5%, v/v (96 h LC{sub 50} = 0.526%, v/v), while the exposure to 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) of leachate showed negligible levels of mortality (96 h LC{sub 10} = 0.167%, v/v). Furthermore, the estimation of lysosomal membrane integrity in hemocytes of exposed mussels (Neutral Red Retention Time assay) showed increased levels of lysosomal destabilization in cells of mussels exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of leachate (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) for 4 days. In order to exclude parameters, such as mussel mortality and cell death, which could interfere with the obtained results, leachate at final concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1% (v/v) were finally used for the estimation of a battery of stress indices in target tissues of mussels, such as hemolymph, gills and digestive gland. According to the results, leachate-exposed mussels showed a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, increased levels of nuclear abnormalities, as well as increased levels of metallothionein, superoxide anion and lipid peroxides (in terms of malondialdehyde equivalents) in each tissue tested. The

  14. Impacts of optimal energy storage deployment and network reconfiguration on renewable integration level in distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sérgio F.; Fitiwi, Desta Z.; Cruz, Marco R.M.; Cabrita, Carlos M.P.; Catalão, João P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic and multi-objective stochastic mixed integer linear programming model is developed. • A new mechanism to quantify the impacts of network flexibility and ESS deployments on RES integration is presented. • Optimal integration of ESSs dramatically increases the level and the optimal exploitation of renewable DGs. • As high as 90% of RES integration level may be possible in distribution network systems. • Joint DG and ESS installations along with optimal network reconfiguration greatly contribute to voltage stability. - Abstract: Nowadays, there is a wide consensus about integrating more renewable energy sources-RESs to solve a multitude of global concerns such as meeting an increasing demand for electricity, reducing energy security and heavy dependence on fossil fuels for energy production, and reducing the overall carbon footprint of power production. Framed in this context, the coordination of RES integration with energy storage systems (ESSs), along with the network’s switching capability and/or reinforcement, is expected to significantly improve system flexibility, thereby increasing the capability of the system in accommodating large-scale RES power. Hence, this paper presents a novel mechanism to quantify the impacts of network switching and/or reinforcement as well as deployment of ESSs on the level of renewable power integrated in the system. To carry out this analysis, a dynamic and multi-objective stochastic mixed integer linear programming (S-MILP) model is developed, which jointly takes the optimal deployment of RES-based DGs and ESSs into account in coordination with distribution network reinforcement and/or reconfiguration. The IEEE 119-bus test system is used as a case study. Numerical results clearly show the capability of ESS deployment in dramatically increasing the level of renewable DGs integrated in the system. Although case-dependent, the impact of network reconfiguration on RES power integration is not

  15. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  16. The introduction of integrated pest management in the Ethiopian horticultural sector : Bacillus thuringiensis strains and its toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction As hazards of conventional broad acting pesticides are documented, researchers, poli cymakers and growers look for pesticides that are toxic only to the target pest, have no impact on other such as beneficial species, and have fewer environmental effects. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

  17. Energy Level Composite Curves-a new graphical methodology for the integration of energy intensive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls

    2006-01-01

    Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation

  18. Teachers' level of ICT integration in teaching and learning: A survey in Malaysian private preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Kamarulzaman; Abdullah, Che Anuar Che; Idris, Mohd Noor; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning in private preschool in Malaysia. A total 61 teachers from 10 private preschools in the district of Mualim in the state of Perak Malaysia were randomly chosen in this survey research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were knowledgeable about the educational ICT application. However, the findings revealed that the teachers' level of ICT integration is still at the low level. This is based on the results of a study that most of the teachers are normal users and ICT application was used for their own work rather than using it in their teaching and learning in the classroom. In addition, the findings indicated that teachers' awareness towards the important of ICT in teaching and learning is not encouraging and this issue is related to the training provided, equipment and time constraints that hinder the integration of ICT.

  19. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Levels, Sources and Health Hazards of Road-Dust Associated Toxic Metals in Jalalabad and Kabul Cities, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Waqar Azeem; Khpalwak, Wahdatullah; Chidya, Russel Chrispine Garven; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif Mohamed Mohamed Ali; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Makhdoom, Masood Arshad; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate selected road-dust associated heavy metals, their relations with natural and anthropogenic sources, and potential human and environmental health risks. For this purpose, 42 and 36 road-dusts samples were collected from Jalalabad and Kabul cities (Afghanistan), respectively. The following elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, and Cd in Jalalabad; and Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Co, and Cd in Kabul. Except for Ni, all the elemental contents were less than the Canadian permissible limits in residential/parkland soils. Principle Component Analysis and enrichment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn pointed to anthropogenic sources, whereas Co, Cr, and Mn indicated crustal inputs. Broadly, Cd monomial risk index ([Formula: see text]) was considerable; however, one site each in both cities showed high risk ([Formula: see text] ≥ 350). The potential ecological risk (RI) is mostly low; however, at some sites, the risk was considerable. Ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route (99%) for heavy metals and contributed > 90% to noncancerous (all residents), as well as 92% (children) and 75-89% (adults) cancerous risks. The noncancerous risks of all metals and their integrated risks for all residents were within acceptable levels. Moreover, potential cancer risks in children from Ni and Cr were slightly higher than the US-EPA safe levels but were within acceptable levels for adults. This study found higher risks to children and therefore recommends proper management and ways to control metals pollution load in these areas to decrease human health and RIs.

  1. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  2. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  3. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, S.; Stärk, H.-J.; Riegger, U.; Borovec, Jakub; Mattusch, J.; Heinz, A.; Schmelzer, C.E.H.; Matoušková, Šárka; Dickinson, B.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2016), s. 1244-1258 ISSN 0028-646X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Ceratophyllum demersum * Environmentally relevant * Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) * Toxic metals Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  4. A framework for different levels of integration of computational models into web-based virtual patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Narracott, Andrew J; Manini, Simone; Bayley, Martin J; Lawford, Patricia V; McCormack, Keith; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-23

    Virtual patients are increasingly common tools used in health care education to foster learning of clinical reasoning skills. One potential way to expand their functionality is to augment virtual patients' interactivity by enriching them with computational models of physiological and pathological processes. The primary goal of this paper was to propose a conceptual framework for the integration of computational models within virtual patients, with particular focus on (1) characteristics to be addressed while preparing the integration, (2) the extent of the integration, (3) strategies to achieve integration, and (4) methods for evaluating the feasibility of integration. An additional goal was to pilot the first investigation of changing framework variables on altering perceptions of integration. The framework was constructed using an iterative process informed by Soft System Methodology. The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) initiative has been used as a source of new computational models. The technical challenges associated with development of virtual patients enhanced by computational models are discussed from the perspectives of a number of different stakeholders. Concrete design and evaluation steps are discussed in the context of an exemplar virtual patient employing the results of the VPH ARCH project, as well as improvements for future iterations. The proposed framework consists of four main elements. The first element is a list of feasibility features characterizing the integration process from three perspectives: the computational modelling researcher, the health care educationalist, and the virtual patient system developer. The second element included three integration levels: basic, where a single set of simulation outcomes is generated for specific nodes in the activity graph; intermediate, involving pre-generation of simulation datasets over a range of input parameters; advanced, including dynamic solution of the model. The third element is the

  5. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  6. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  7. Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Abal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. In this study, a 4-level Up and Down Procedure was designed in order to determine for the first time the oral lethal dose 50 (LD50 and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL in mice by using an accurate well-characterized TTX standard.

  8. Short course radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for stage I-II breast cancer, early toxicities of a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background TomoBreast is a unicenter, non-blinded randomized trial comparing conventional radiotherapy (CR) vs. hypofractionated Tomotherapy (TT) for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of the trial is to compare whether TT can reduce heart and pulmonary toxicity. We evaluate early toxicities. Methods The trial started inclusion in May 2007 and reached its recruitment in August 2011. Women with stage T1-3N0M0 or T1-2N1M0 breast cancer completely resected by tumorectomy (BCS) or by mastectomy (MA) who consented to participate were randomized, according to a prescribed computer-generated randomization schedule, between control arm of CR 25x2 Gy/5 weeks by tangential fields on breast/chest wall, plus supraclavicular-axillary field if node-positive, and sequential boost 8x2 Gy/2 weeks if BCS (cumulative dose 66 Gy/7 weeks), versus experimental TT arm of 15x2.8 Gy/3 weeks, including nodal areas if node-positive and simultaneous integrated boost of 0.6 Gy if BCS (cumulative dose 51 Gy/3 weeks). Outcomes evaluated were the pulmonary and heart function. Comparison of proportions used one-sided Fisher's exact test. Results By May 2010, 70 patients were randomized and had more than 1 year of follow-up. Out of 69 evaluable cases, 32 were assigned to CR (21 BCS, 11 MA), 37 to TT (20 BCS, 17 MA). Skin toxicity of grade ≥1 at 2 years was 60% in CR, vs. 30% in TT arm. Heart function showed no significant difference for left ventricular ejection fraction at 2 years, CR 4.8% vs. TT 4.6%. Pulmonary function tests at 2 years showed grade ≥1 decline of FEV1 in 21% of CR, vs. 15% of TT and decline of DLco in 29% of CR, vs. 7% of TT (P = 0.05). Conclusions There were no unexpected severe toxicities. Short course radiotherapy of the breast with simultaneous integrated boost over 3 weeks proved feasible without excess toxicities. Pulmonary tests showed a slight trend in favor of Tomotherapy, which will need confirmation with longer

  9. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  10. An Integrated Skills Approach Using Feature Movies in EFL at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study based on an integrated skills approach using feature movies (DVDs) in EFL syllabi at the tertiary level. 100 students took part in the study and the data was collected through a three - section survey questionnaire: demographic items, 18 likert scale questions and an open-ended question. The data…

  11. Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…

  12. System-Level Design of an Integrated Receiver Front End for a Wireless Ultrasound Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a system-level design is presented for an integrated receive circuit for a wireless ultrasound probe, which includes analog front ends and beamformation modules. This paper focuses on the investigation of the effects of architectural design choices on the image quality. The point...

  13. Estimation of average hazardous-event-frequency for allocation of safety-integrity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, Y.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts of the draft international standard, IEC 61508, is target failure measures to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, i.e. Safety Integrity Levels. The Safety Integrity Levels consist of four discrete probabilistic levels for specifying the safety integrity requirements or the safety functions to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. In order to select the Safety Integrity Levels the draft standard classifies Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems into two modes of operation using demand frequencies only. It is not clear which modes of operation should be applied to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems taking into account the demand-state probability and the spurious demand frequency. It is essential for the allocation of Safety Integrity Levels that generic algorithms be derived by involving possible parameters, which make it possible to model the actuality of real systems. The present paper addresses this issue. First of all, the overall system including Electric/Electronic/programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems is described using a simplified fault-tree. Then, the relationships among demands, demand-states and proof-tests are studied. Overall systems are classified into two groups: a non-demand-state-at-proof-test system which includes both repairable and non-repairable demand states and a constant-demand-frequency system. The new ideas such as a demand-state, spurious demand-state, mean time between detections, rates of d-failure and h-failure, and an h/d ratio are introduced in order to make the Safety Integrity Levels and modes of operation generic and comprehensive. Finally, the overall system is simplified and modeled by fault-trees using Priority-AND gates. At the same time the assumptions for modeling are described. Generic algorithms to estimate hazardous

  14. Systemic effects of ionizing radiation at the proteome and metabolome levels in the blood of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the influence of inflammation and radiation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Karol; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Blood is the most common replacement tissue used to study systemic responses of organisms to different types of pathological conditions and environmental insults. Local irradiation during cancer radiotherapy induces whole body responses that can be observed at the blood proteome and metabolome levels. Hence, comparative blood proteomics and metabolomics are emerging approaches used in the discovery of radiation biomarkers. These techniques enable the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of molecules and the identification of sets of components that can discriminate different physiological states of the human body. Radiation-induced changes are affected by the dose and volume of irradiated tissues; hence, the molecular composition of blood is a hypothetical source of biomarkers for dose assessment and the prediction and monitoring of systemic responses to radiation. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence regarding molecular responses to ionizing radiation detected at the level of the human blood proteome and metabolome. It focuses on patients exposed to radiation during cancer radiotherapy and emphasizes effects related to radiation-induced toxicity and inflammation. Systemic responses to radiation detected at the blood proteome and metabolome levels are primarily related to the intensity of radiation-induced toxicity, including inflammatory responses. Thus, several inflammation-associated molecules can be used to monitor or even predict radiation-induced toxicity. However, these abundant molecular features have a rather limited applicability as universal biomarkers for dose assessment, reflecting the individual predisposition of the immune system and tissue-specific mechanisms involved in radiation-induced damage.

  15. Water level management of lakes connected to regulated rivers: An integrated modeling and analytical methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tengfei; Mao, Jingqiao; Pan, Shunqi; Dai, Lingquan; Zhang, Peipei; Xu, Diandian; Dai, Huichao

    2018-07-01

    Reservoir operations significantly alter the hydrological regime of the downstream river and river-connected lake, which has far-reaching impacts on the lake ecosystem. To facilitate the management of lakes connected to regulated rivers, the following information must be provided: (1) the response of lake water levels to reservoir operation schedules in the near future and (2) the importance of different rivers in terms of affecting the water levels in different lake regions of interest. We develop an integrated modeling and analytical methodology for the water level management of such lakes. The data-driven method is used to model the lake level as it has the potential of producing quick and accurate predictions. A new genetic algorithm-based synchronized search is proposed to optimize input variable time lags and data-driven model parameters simultaneously. The methodology also involves the orthogonal design and range analysis for extracting the influence of an individual river from that of all the rivers. The integrated methodology is applied to the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake. The results show that: (1) the antecedent lake levels are of crucial importance for the current lake level prediction; (2) the selected river discharge time lags reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the rivers' impacts on lake level changes; (3) the predicted lake levels are in very good agreement with the observed data (RMSE ≤ 0.091 m; R2 ≥ 0.9986). This study demonstrates the practical potential of the integrated methodology, which can provide both the lake level responses to future dam releases and the relative contributions of different rivers to lake level changes.

  16. INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS, EDUCATION AND SCIENCE AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innara Lyapina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current world affairs show that the post-industrial stage of development of all mature world powers’ economies is followed by creation of a new development paradigm, which is based on the economy of knowledge, science achievements, innovations, global information and communication systems, and which leads to innovative economy formation. In the context of the national innovation economy formation in the Russian Federation, prerequisites are created for integrating the efforts of business, science and education representatives to develop, produce and market high-tech products which have significant economic or social potential. And this is not only the task announced by the Russian government, but also a natural process in the country’s economy, which contributes to the increase in the integration participants’ efficiency. The result of such integrated interaction of education, science and business consists in a synergistic effect through formation of an interactive cooperation model that involves the active use of combined knowledge, ideas, technologies and other resources during innovative projects implementation. At the same time, integration processes are diverse, complex and occur in each case taking into account the integrating parties’ activity specifics. Within this framework, the goal of the research is to characterize the impact of the education, science and business integration process, on the national technological initiative implementation in the country on the whole and to study the integrating experience of these entities at the regional level. In the course of the research, the stages of the Russian national innovation economy formation process have been studied; the role of education, science and business in the National Technological Initiative implementation has been characterized; it’s been proved that educational institutions are the key link in the integration process in the chain “education – science

  17. Transuranium element toxicity: dose-response relationships at low exposure levels. Summary and speculative interpretation relative to exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is given of information on transuranium element toxicity and the correlation of this information with current established exposure limits. It is difficult to calculate a biologically relevant radiation dose from deposited plutonium; it is exposure that must be controlled in order to prevent biological effect, and if the relationship between exposure and effect is known, then radiation dose is of no concern. There are extensive data on the effects of plutonium in bone. Results of studies at the University of Utah indicate that plutonium in beagles may be as much as ten times more toxic than radium. It has been suggested that this toxicity ratio may be even higher in man than in the beagle dog because of differences in surface-to-volume ratios and differences in the rate of burial of surface-deposited plutonium. The present capabilities for extrapolating dose-effect relationships seem to be limited to the setting of upper limits, based on assumptions of linearity and considerations related to natural background

  18. Thymidylate synthase genetic polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine level in a group of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with disease activity and methotrexate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pınar; Taşbaş, Özgur; Karabulut, Halil; Tukun, Ajlan; Yorgancıoğlu, Rezan

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphism of thymidylate synthase (TS) gene and homocysteine are reported to have a relationship to methotrexate (MTX) metabolism, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine homocysteine levels and the frequency of TS gene triple repeat (TS3R) and double repeat (TS2R) polymorphisms in a group of Turkish RA patients and evaluate its association with MTX toxicity and disease activity. Sixty-four patients with RA and 31 control subjects with a mean age of 48.7 ± 12.5 and 46.2 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled to the study. Demographic characteristics were obtained and number of patients with MTX-related adverse affects, were recorded in the patient group. The homocysteine levels and TS2R/TS3R polymorphisms of the TS gene were analyzed and the distribution of genotypes according to MTX toxicity and disease activity, were determined. The demographic properties were similar between the patient and control subjects. Folic acid supplementation with a mean dose of 5mg folic acid/week, was present in all patients. Thirty-six of the 64 patients showed adverse effects to MTX treatment. The frequency of TS2R and TS3R polymorphisms were found to be similar in the patient and control groups. TS2R and TS3R gene polymorphisms were found to be similar in patients with and without MTX-related adverse events. The mean homocysteine level was also similar in patients with and without TS gene polymorphism, but was found to be higher (12.45μmol/L vs 10.7μmol/L) in patients with MTX-related side effects than in patients without side effects. The mean level of homocysteine was correlated with levels of ESR in the patient group. In conclusion, homocysteine levels might effect the disease activity and toxicity of MTX but 2R and 3R polymorphisms in the TS gene, were not related with MTX-related toxicity in RA patients receiving folate supplementation. Further studies are needed to illuminate the polymorphisms in other enzymes that might be responsible from the MTX

  19. Assessing the level of integration in the offshore wind industry value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Neri, Ivan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Stentoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    of the integration level of the offshore wind industry value chain. The work relies on a review of international peer-reviewed journals. The empirical basis of the paper is based on interviews with key players in the industry. The scope of this study covers the wind turbine generator, foundations, subsea cables......, offshore substation, installation vessels and the wind farm developer. The preliminary findings are that the different indus-trial sectors participating in the OWI are not aware of the maturity level of the sector. The fact that some developers are disintegrating the already integrated supply of some...... components highlights the importance of being aware of the industry’s maturity level to take appropriate decisions. On the other hand the strategic alliances taking part in various sectors of the OWI show that some of the players know that they have to join and share the expenses of much needed R...

  20. Functional and anatomical correlates of word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo eInubushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In both vocal and sign languages, we can distinguish word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in terms of hierarchical processes, which integrate various elements into another higher level of constructs. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to test three language tasks in Japanese Sign Language (JSL: word-level (Word, sentence-level (Sent, and discourse-level (Disc decision tasks. We analyzed cortical activity and gray matter volumes of Deaf signers, and clarified three major points. First, we found that the activated regions in the frontal language areas gradually expanded in the dorso-ventral axis, corresponding to a difference in linguistic units for the three tasks. Moreover, the activations in each region of the frontal language areas were incrementally modulated with the level of linguistic integration. These dual mechanisms of the frontal language areas may reflect a basic organization principle of hierarchically integrating linguistic information. Secondly, activations in the lateral premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus were left-lateralized. Direct comparisons among the language tasks exhibited more focal activation in these regions, suggesting their functional localization. Thirdly, we found significantly positive correlations between individual task performances and gray matter volumes in localized regions, even when the ages of acquisition of JSL and Japanese were factored out. More specifically, correlations with the performances of the Word and Sent tasks were found in the left precentral/postcentral gyrus and insula, respectively, while correlations with those of the Disc task were found in the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. The unification of functional and anatomical studies would thus be fruitful for understanding human language systems from the aspects of both universality and individuality.

  1. Assessing the level of integration in the offshore wind industry value chain

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Neri, Ivan; Mikkelsen, Ole Stegmann; Stentoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The offshore wind industry (OWI) has experienced an explosive growth within the course of a decade and because of this rapid expansion, the industry has not had the opportunity to integrate well and be-come more efficient. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the integration level of the offshore wind industry value chain. The work relies on a review of international peer-reviewed journals. The empirical basis of the paper is based on interviews with key players in t...

  2. INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ON ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kokic Arsic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article is an integration of quality management and sustainable development, with the basis of considerations of sustainable development and the structure of the key quality factors pointed to the possibility of achieving synergy of action on the most important variables, as well as the established model of integration of these two complex concepts. Areas of our study were 83 organizations in the region of Central Serbia. The study was based on questionnaires which contained 50 questions about the level of quality and sustainable development in the companies surveyed. Results of research highlights the most influenced variables in condition of constraints related to transition economy characteristics.

  3. Compensating Level-Dependent Frequency Representation in Auditory Cortex by Synaptic Integration of Corticocortical Input.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F K Happel

    Full Text Available Robust perception of auditory objects over a large range of sound intensities is a fundamental feature of the auditory system. However, firing characteristics of single neurons across the entire auditory system, like the frequency tuning, can change significantly with stimulus intensity. Physiological correlates of level-constancy of auditory representations hence should be manifested on the level of larger neuronal assemblies or population patterns. In this study we have investigated how information of frequency and sound level is integrated on the circuit-level in the primary auditory cortex (AI of the Mongolian gerbil. We used a combination of pharmacological silencing of corticocortically relayed activity and laminar current source density (CSD analysis. Our data demonstrate that with increasing stimulus intensities progressively lower frequencies lead to the maximal impulse response within cortical input layers at a given cortical site inherited from thalamocortical synaptic inputs. We further identified a temporally precise intercolumnar synaptic convergence of early thalamocortical and horizontal corticocortical inputs. Later tone-evoked activity in upper layers showed a preservation of broad tonotopic tuning across sound levels without shifts towards lower frequencies. Synaptic integration within corticocortical circuits may hence contribute to a level-robust representation of auditory information on a neuronal population level in the auditory cortex.

  4. Comparison of long-term survival and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost vs conventional fractionation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao HM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hengmin Tao,1,2 Yumei Wei,1 Wei Huang,1 Xiujuan Gai,1,2 Baosheng Li11Department of 6th Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: In recent years, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB and intensity-modulated radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (IMRT-CF have been involved in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the potential clinical effects and toxicities are still controversial.Methods: Here, 107 patients with biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC between March 2004 and January 2011 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Among them, 54 patients received IMRT-SIB, and 53 patients received IMRT-CF. Subsequently, overall survival (OS, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS, and relevant toxicities were analyzed.Results: In the present study, all patients completed the treatment, and the overall median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 8–126 months. The 5-year OS analysis revealed no significant difference between the IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF groups (80.9% vs 80.5%, P=0.568. In addition, there were also no significant between-group differences in 5-year PFS (73.3% vs 74.4%, P=0.773 and 5-year LRFS (88.1% vs 90.8%, P=0.903. Notably, the dose to critical organs (spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland in patients treated by IMRT-CF was significantly lower than that in patients treated by IMRT-SIB (all P<0.05.Conclusion: Both IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF techniques are effective in treating locally advanced NPC, with similar OS, PFS, and LRFS. However, IMRT-CF has more advantages than IMRT-SIB in protecting spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland from acute and late toxicities, such as xerostomia. Further prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.Keywords: intensity

  5. Modulation of C. elegans Touch Sensitivity Is Integrated at Multiple Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyin

    2014-01-01

    Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

  6. Two-Level Verification of Data Integrity for Data Storage in Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangwei; Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Hongya; Zang, Zhuping; Pang, Mugen; Jiang, Ping

    Data storage in cloud computing can save capital expenditure and relive burden of storage management for users. As the lose or corruption of files stored may happen, many researchers focus on the verification of data integrity. However, massive users often bring large numbers of verifying tasks for the auditor. Moreover, users also need to pay extra fee for these verifying tasks beyond storage fee. Therefore, we propose a two-level verification of data integrity to alleviate these problems. The key idea is to routinely verify the data integrity by users and arbitrate the challenge between the user and cloud provider by the auditor according to the MACs and ϕ values. The extensive performance simulations show that the proposed scheme obviously decreases auditor's verifying tasks and the ratio of wrong arbitration.

  7. An overview of the DOE high-level waste storage tank structural integrity assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bush, S.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    The basic elements of a structural integrity program for high-level waste storage tanks include identifying significant aging degradation mechanisms, developing programs to monitor and control these degradation processes, and developing management options and procedures to minimize impact on the environment should tank leakage develop. A Waste Tank Structural Integrity Panel (TSIP) was established by Brookhaven National Laboratory at the request of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management to review these elements and prepare a set of guidelines that could be used by DOE and its contractors to manage the structural integrity of these tanks. These guidelines emphasize the identification of significant degradation mechanisms for both the steel and concrete components of the tanks, the recommended monitoring and inspection programs, and the indicated management options

  8. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy--many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. © 2015 Cenik et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Defarge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH, the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18–2000 times for co-formulants, 8–141 times for formulations, and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine—POEA and alkyl polyglucoside—APG and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

  10. Cadmium toxicity investigated at the physiological and biophysical levels under environmentally relevant conditions using the aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Elisa; Kappel, Sophie; Stärk, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under environmen......Cadmium (Cd) is an important environmental pollutant and is poisonous to most organisms. We aimed to unravel the mechanisms of Cd toxicity in the model water plant Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to low (nM) concentrations of Cd as are present in nature. Experiments were conducted under...... environmentally relevant conditions, including nature-like light and temperature cycles, and a low biomass to water ratio. We measured chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence kinetics, oxygen exchange, the concentrations of reactive oxygen species and pigments, metal binding to proteins, and the accumulation of starch...... and metals. The inhibition threshold concentration for most parameters was 20 nM. Below this concentration, hardly any stress symptoms were observed. The first site of inhibition was photosynthetic light reactions (the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre measured as Fv /Fm , light...

  11. Assessing the Impact of the Competency Level on the Success of Companies’ Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolayevna Rudenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of companies is crucially important in the ongoing globalization processes. Companies must unify the material assets and optimize property. The integration of the company, incrementally, and competency development is also essential in order to expand the competitiveness of the company’s integrated structure. Identification and management of competencies are especially important for the enterprise structures, which carry out the integration processes. The level of competency development and the types of competencies may or may not be similar. The aim of this research is to specify and develop an organizational competency structure, which groups individual competencies of an organization into various segments based on their similarity. This research is relevant due to the need to systematize and streamline competencies in order to better identify them and develop a set of measures for their monitoring. The theoretical literature analysis allowed us to create a model that characterizes the assumed impact of the competencies on the successful integration of companies. Based on the data, we divided the organizational competencies into five major categories are. An empirical assessment of the impact of the competencies on the market success of the integration of enterprise structures is provided. This research indicates that the success of such integration is substantially determined by the formation and development of the competencies. The authors interviewed top managers of 225 medium and large-sized companies from all over the country were (the questionnaire was created by Rudenko M.N. The time lag is 5 years. Thereby, the results can be used in the process of regional policy formation.

  12. Monitoring programme on toxic metal in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) from Istanbul, Turkey: levels and estimated weekly intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Özkan

    2013-05-01

    Toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) concentrations of small-medium bluefish, anchovy and sardine in Istanbul, Turkey, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) throughout 1 year. The concentrations of pollutants were found to vary according to season and species. Estimates of weekly intake levels of the metals were calculated and compared to recommended safe limits for fish consumption by humans. The levels of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the fillets of all species resulted in estimates of weekly intake levels that were lower than the recommended safe limits. The concentrations of Hg of small bluefish in September, of medium bluefish in June and September, of anchovy in March, and of sardine in August and September resulted in estimates of weekly intake levels that were higher than the recommended safe limits for human consumption.

  13. The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronschnabel, Jens; Brem, Silvia; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    The classical phonological deficit account of dyslexia is increasingly linked to impairments in grapho-phonological conversion, and to dysfunctions in superior temporal regions associated with audiovisual integration. The present study investigates mechanisms of audiovisual integration in typical and impaired readers at the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Congruent and incongruent audiovisual as well as unimodal (visual only and auditory only) material was presented. Audiovisual presentations were single letters and three-letter (consonant-vowel-consonant) stimuli accompanied by matching or mismatching speech sounds. Three-letter stimuli exhibited fast phonetic transitions as in real-life language processing and reading. Congruency effects, i.e. different brain responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli were taken as an indicator of audiovisual integration at a phonetic level (grapho-phonological conversion). Comparisons of unimodal and audiovisual stimuli revealed basic, more sensory aspects of audiovisual integration. By means of these two criteria of audiovisual integration, the generalizability of audiovisual deficits in dyslexia was tested. Moreover, it was expected that the more naturalistic three-letter stimuli are superior to single letters in revealing group differences. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic (EEG and fMRI) data were acquired simultaneously in a simple target detection task. Applying the same statistical models to event-related EEG potentials and fMRI responses allowed comparing the effects detected by the two techniques at a descriptive level. Group differences in congruency effects (congruent against incongruent) were observed in regions involved in grapho-phonological processing, including the left inferior frontal and angular gyri and the inferotemporal cortex. Importantly, such differences also emerged in superior temporal key regions. Three-letter stimuli revealed stronger group differences than single letters. No

  14. An Integrative Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-scale Multiple Level Network Reconstruction of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how metabolic reactions translate the genome of an organism into its phenotype is a grand challenge in biology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS statistically connect genotypes to phenotypes, without any recourse to known molecular interactions, whereas a molecular mechanistic description ties gene function to phenotype through gene regulatory networks (GRNs, protein-protein interactions (PPIs and molecular pathways. Integration of different regulatory information levels of an organism is expected to provide a good way for mapping genotypes to phenotypes. However, the lack of curated metabolic model of rice is blocking the exploration of genome-scale multi-level network reconstruction. Here, we have merged GRNs, PPIs and genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMNs approaches into a single framework for rice via omics’ regulatory information reconstruction and integration. Firstly, we reconstructed a genome-scale metabolic model, containing 4,462 function genes, 2,986 metabolites involved in 3,316 reactions, and compartmentalized into ten subcellular locations. Furthermore, 90,358 pairs of protein-protein interactions, 662,936 pairs of gene regulations and 1,763 microRNA-target interactions were integrated into the metabolic model. Eventually, a database was developped for systematically storing and retrieving the genome-scale multi-level network of rice. This provides a reference for understanding genotype-phenotype relationship of rice, and for analysis of its molecular regulatory network.

  15. Integrated System-Level Optimization for Concurrent Engineering With Parametric Subsystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Todd; DeWeck, Oliver L.; Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of concurrent design practices to the aerospace industry has greatly increased the productivity of engineers and teams during design sessions as demonstrated by JPL's Team X. Simultaneously, advances in computing power have given rise to a host of potent numerical optimization methods capable of solving complex multidisciplinary optimization problems containing hundreds of variables, constraints, and governing equations. Unfortunately, such methods are tedious to set up and require significant amounts of time and processor power to execute, thus making them unsuitable for rapid concurrent engineering use. This paper proposes a framework for Integration of System-Level Optimization with Concurrent Engineering (ISLOCE). It uses parametric neural-network approximations of the subsystem models. These approximations are then linked to a system-level optimizer that is capable of reaching a solution quickly due to the reduced complexity of the approximations. The integration structure is described in detail and applied to the multiobjective design of a simplified Space Shuttle external fuel tank model. Further, a comparison is made between the new framework and traditional concurrent engineering (without system optimization) through an experimental trial with two groups of engineers. Each method is evaluated in terms of optimizer accuracy, time to solution, and ease of use. The results suggest that system-level optimization, running as a background process during integrated concurrent engineering sessions, is potentially advantageous as long as it is judiciously implemented.

  16. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator employing a dielectrically-isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity-gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  18. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator developed employing a dielectrically isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity- gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  19. An integrated approach to strategic planning in the civilian high-level radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.; Katz, J.; Redmond, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the approach that the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to the task of strategic planning for the civilian high-level radioactive waste management program. It highlights selected planning products and activities that have emerged over the past year. It demonstrates that this approach is an integrated one, both in the sense of being systematic on the program level but also as a component of DOE strategic planning efforts. Lastly, it indicates that OCRWM strategic planning takes place in a dynamic environment and consequently is a process that is still evolving in response to the demands placed upon it

  20. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  1. Determination of the toxicity level of the fluoropolymers production wastes by reaction of soil microflora and cyanobacteria Nostoc paludosum Kütz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkina Tatyana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment is constantly receiving the substances that are artificially synthesized by human, hence, not inherent in nature, that are circulating in it. One of the most common wastes of fluoroelastomer SKF-26 production is the mother solution entering the environment together with the wastewater of chemical enterprises. Until now limits of allowable concentrations of these compounds have not been established, as they are considered practically safe. By determining the toxicity level of the waste of fluoropolymers production conducted by reaction of soil algae , cyanobacteria and micromycetes it was showed that the waste of fluorine rubber SKF-26 production are not safe or neutral for these groups of microorganisms. The toxicity of high concentrations of the mother solution SKF-26 was particularly evident in the damaging effects to the of the test organism Nostoc paludosum in aqueous medium. Field experiments confirmed that not only mother solutions, but also the possible products of their transformations are toxic. This fact clearly illustrates the change in the structure of mikocenoses where a progressive increase in populations with melanized mycelium takes place.

  2. Representation and Integration: Combining Robot Control, High-Level Planning, and Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrick, Ronald; Kraft, Dirk; Mourao, Kira

    We describe an approach to integrated robot control, high-level planning, and action effect learning that attempts to overcome the representational difficulties that exist between these diverse areas. Our approach combines ideas from robot vision, knowledgelevel planning, and connectionist machine......-level action specifications, suitable for planning, from a robot’s interactions with the world. We present a detailed overview of our approach and show how it supports the learning of certain aspects of a high-level lepresentation from low-level world state information....... learning, and focuses on the representational needs of these components.We also make use of a simple representational unit called an instantiated state transition fragment (ISTF) and a related structure called an object-action complex (OAC). The goal of this work is a general approach for inducing high...

  3. Assessment of the levels of potentially toxic substances around a transect of anthrosols in Aqaba shoreline, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Jawasreh, Raid

    2016-04-01

    Soils are the major sink for potentially toxic substances (PTSs) such as heavy metals released into the environment by emissions from the quickly increasing of human impact including industrial mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, land misuse, wastewater irrigation, spillage of petrochemicals, and atmospheric deposition. The present study concerns the properties variability and soil biological health status in abandoned salt transportation port site in the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Seven sites were selected according to different morphological and pedological conditions, anthropogenic impact and the same climate conditions. Successively, all locations were sampled for topsoil in the period between spring-summer 2014. Field observations as well as laboratory analysis including heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn); soil chemo-physical parameters (pH, soil dry mass, carbonate, water holding, organic carbon content, soil particle size distribution), and quality of soil's biological community were determined. The anthropogenic influence related to former port activity on soils of the studied area is evident. Soils in the studied area site are highly contaminated by PTSs, mainly Cu and Zn, by 648, 298.6 mgKg-1respectively. Former activities proved to affect the microarthropods community altering both quantity and quality of soil and the chemo-physical structure of the microhabitats. The evaluation of soil biological quality index (QBS-ar) of the surface horizons from the study area is demonstrated that the area is "sufferings" since it is affected by PTSs contamination resulting in a failure in the ecological success of secondary recolonization after abandonment. However, there is an increasing need for further research in the soils of Aqaba focusing on soil health management , combining QBS-ar index with soil chemo-physical properties. Key words: Potentially Toxic Substances, Heavy Metals, Soil Quality.

  4. An integrated radar model solution for mission level performance and cost trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, John; Duncan, Kerron; Zimmerman, Madeline; Drupp, Rob; Manno, Mike; Barrett, Donald; Smith, Amelia

    2017-05-01

    A fully integrated Mission-Level Radar model is in development as part of a multi-year effort under the Northrop Grumman Mission Systems (NGMS) sector's Model Based Engineering (MBE) initiative to digitally interconnect and unify previously separate performance and cost models. In 2016, an NGMS internal research and development (IR and D) funded multidisciplinary team integrated radio frequency (RF), power, control, size, weight, thermal, and cost models together using a commercial-off-the-shelf software, ModelCenter, for an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar system. Each represented model was digitally connected with standard interfaces and unified to allow end-to-end mission system optimization and trade studies. The radar model was then linked to the Air Force's own mission modeling framework (AFSIM). The team first had to identify the necessary models, and with the aid of subject matter experts (SMEs) understand and document the inputs, outputs, and behaviors of the component models. This agile development process and collaboration enabled rapid integration of disparate models and the validation of their combined system performance. This MBE framework will allow NGMS to design systems more efficiently and affordably, optimize architectures, and provide increased value to the customer. The model integrates detailed component models that validate cost and performance at the physics level with high-level models that provide visualization of a platform mission. This connectivity of component to mission models allows hardware and software design solutions to be better optimized to meet mission needs, creating cost-optimal solutions for the customer, while reducing design cycle time through risk mitigation and early validation of design decisions.

  5. Gene expression change in human dental pulp cells exposed to a low-level toxic concentration of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate: an RNA-seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Geun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Kim, Sun-Young

    2014-09-01

    Dental composite resin restoration for defective tooth may lead unpolymerized resin monomers to be leached into dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the early gene expression change over time of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) treated with a low-level toxic concentration of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a common dental resin monomer, by adopting the novel high-throughput transcriptome analysis of RNA-seq. The low-level toxic concentration of TEGDMA was determined through MTT assays with serially diluted concentrations. After the HDPCs were exposed to TEGDMA for 6, 12, 24 or 48 hr, the total RNA of the samples was prepared for RNA-seq. qRT-PCR for several genes was performed for validation of RNA-seq results. In the treated group, 1280 genes were differentially expressed compared with the control group. Five patterns of time-series gene expression profiles were identified through k-means clustering analysis. Angiogenesis, cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix organization, response to extracellular stimulus, inflammatory response and mineralization-related process were major gene ontology terms in functional annotation clustering. HMOX1, OSGIN1, SMN2, SRXN1 AKR1C1, SPP1 and TOMM40L were highly up-regulated genes, and WRAP53 and CCL2 were highly down-regulated genes over time. qRT-PCR for several genes exhibited a high level of agreement with RNA-seq. TEGDMA induced the HDPCs to show massive and dynamic gene expression changes over time. The previously suggested toxic mechanism of TEGDMA was not only verified, but new genes whose functions have yet to be determined were also found. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Lung toxicity determination by in vitro exposure at the air liquid interface with an integrated online dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muelhopt, Sonja; Paur, H-R; Diabate, S; Weiss, C; Krebs, T

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an association between the concentration of ultrafine particles in the atmosphere and the rate of mortality or morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. For the quantitative assessment of the toxicity of airborne nanoparticles the dose-response relationship is tested in in vitro test systems using bioassays of cell cultures as sensor. For the air-liquid interface exposure of cell cultures towards aerosols the Karlsruhe exposure system was developed. The human lung cell cultures are exposed in VITROCELL (registered) system modules with a constant flow of the conditioned aerosol. After exposure the cells are analyzed to measure the biological responses such as viability, inflammatory or oxidative stress. For the determination of the dose response relationship the accurate knowledge of the deposited particle mass is essential. A new online method is developed in the Karlsruhe exposure system: the sensor of a quartz crystal microbalance is placed in an exposure chamber instead of the membrane insert and exposed to the aerosol in the same way as the cell cultures. The deposited mass per area unit is monitored as a function of exposure time showing a linear relationship for a constant aerosol flow with defined particle concentration. A comparison of this new dose signal to a dosimetry method using fluorescein sodium particles shows a very good correlation between the sensor signal of the quartz crystal microbalance and the deposited mass on the membranes shown by spectroscopy. This system for the first time provides an online dose measurement for in vitro experiments with nanoparticles.

  7. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-03-15

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5-32.4 microg g(-1) fw) and eggs (0.04-2.79 microg g(-1) fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n=94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n=28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (feather Hg at hatching (feathers of chicks < or =10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg's effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  8. Estimating the threshold levels of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic lung edema resultant from accidents involving uranium hexafluoride release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasteva, G.N.; Antipin, E.B.; Bad'in, V.I.; Molokanov, A.A.; Mordasheva, V.V.; Mirkhajdarov, A.Kh.; Sorokin, A.V.; Savinova, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic edema of the lung with lethal outcome are estimated. The levels of UF 6 entry under emergency conditions are evaluated and bronchopulmonary disease is described in subjects involved in three accidents with UF 6 release which occurred in the seventies and eighties, as shown by records. The results deny the previous assumption on the leading role of uranium in a single exposure to uranium hexafluoride. Fluorine ion triggering the mechanism of reactions in systems which determine the disease outcome is vitally important [ru

  9. Integrating Omics Technologies to Study Pulmonary Physiology and Pathology at the Systems Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Ramesh Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assimilation and integration of “omics” technologies, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has readily altered the landscape of medical research in the last decade. The vast and complex nature of omics data can only be interpreted by linking molecular information at the organismic level, forming the foundation of systems biology. Research in pulmonary biology/medicine has necessitated integration of omics, network, systems and computational biology data to differentially diagnose, interpret, and prognosticate pulmonary diseases, facilitating improvement in therapy and treatment modalities. This review describes how to leverage this emerging technology in understanding pulmonary diseases at the systems level -called a “systomic” approach. Considering the operational wholeness of cellular and organ systems, diseased genome, proteome, and the metabolome needs to be conceptualized at the systems level to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. Currently available omics technology and resources require a certain degree of training and proficiency in addition to dedicated hardware and applications, making them relatively less user friendly for the pulmonary biologist and clinicians. Herein, we discuss the various strategies, computational tools and approaches required to study pulmonary diseases at the systems level for biomedical scientists and clinical researchers.

  10. A biomolecular proportional integral controller based on feedback regulations of protein level and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairet, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Homeostasis is the capacity of living organisms to keep internal conditions regulated at a constant level, despite environmental fluctuations. Integral feedback control is known to play a key role in this behaviour. Here, I show that a feedback system involving transcriptional and post-translational regulations of the same executor protein acts as a proportional integral (PI) controller, leading to enhanced transient performances in comparison with a classical integral loop. Such a biomolecular controller-which I call a level and activity-PI controller (LA-PI)-is involved in the regulation of ammonium uptake by Escherichia coli through the transporter AmtB. The P II molecules, which reflect the nitrogen status of the cell, inhibit both the production of AmtB and its activity (via the NtrB-NtrC system and the formation of a complex with GlnK, respectively). Other examples of LA-PI controller include copper and zinc transporters, and the redox regulation in photosynthesis. This scheme has thus emerged through evolution in many biological systems, surely because of the benefits it offers in terms of performances (rapid and perfect adaptation) and economy (protein production according to needs).

  11. Integrated Level 3 risk assessment for the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, A.C. Jr.; Brown, T.D.; Miller, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed on the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant using state-of-the-art PRA analysis techniques. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the risk to the offsite population during full power operation of the plant and to include a characterization of the uncertainties in the calculated risk values. Uncertainties were included in the accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, and the source term analysis. Only weather uncertainties were included in the consequence analysis. In this paper selected results from the accident frequency, accident progression, source term, consequence, and integrated risk analyses are discussed and the methods used to perform a fully integrated Level 3 PRA are examined. LaSalle County Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located 55 miles southwest of Chicago, Illinois. Each unit utilizes a Mark 2 containment to house a General Electric 3323 MWt BWR-5 reactor. This PRA, which was performed on Unit 2, included internal as well as external events. External events that were propagated through the risk analysis included earthquakes, fires, and floods. The internal event accident scenarios included transients, transient-induced LOCAs (inadvertently stuck open relief valves), anticipated transients without scram, and loss of coolant accidents

  12. From individual to population level effects of toxicants in the tubicifid Branchiura sowerbyi using threshold effect models in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Billoir, Elise; Péry, Alexandre R R; Garric, Jeanne; Charles, Sandrine

    2010-05-01

    Effects of zinc were studied in the freshwater worm Branchiura sowerbyi using partial and full life-cycle tests. Only newborn and juveniles were sensitive to zinc, displaying effects on survival, growth, and age at first brood at environmentally relevant concentrations. Threshold effect models were proposed to assess toxic effects on individuals. They were fitted to life-cycle test data using Bayesian inference and adequately described life-history trait data in exposed organisms. The daily asymptotic growth rate of theoretical populations was then simulated with a matrix population model, based upon individual-level outputs. Population-level outputs were in accordance with existing literature for controls. Working in a Bayesian framework allowed incorporating parameter uncertainty in the simulation of the population-level response to zinc exposure, thus increasing the relevance of test results in the context of ecological risk assessment.

  13. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  14. Reading Level and Comprehension of Research Consent Forms: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Gabriella; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-02-01

    Consent forms continue to be at a higher reading level than the recommended sixth to eighth grade, making it difficult for participants to comprehend information before enrolling in research. To assess and address the extent of the problem regarding the level of literacy of consent forms and update previously published reports, we conducted an integrative literature review of English language research published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013; 35 descriptive and eight intervention studies met inclusion criteria. Results confirmed that developing forms at eighth-grade level was attainable though not practiced. It was found that risks of participation was the section most poorly understood. There was also a lack of consensus regarding the most effective method to increase comprehension. Further research using standardized tools is needed to determine the best approach for improving consent forms and processes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  16. FPGA-based multimodal embedded sensor system integrating low- and mid-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; Martín H, José Antonio; Santos, Matilde; Meyer-Baese, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation is a low-level vision task that is especially relevant due to its wide range of applications in the real world. Many of the best motion estimation algorithms include some of the features that are found in mammalians, which would demand huge computational resources and therefore are not usually available in real-time. In this paper we present a novel bioinspired sensor based on the synergy between optical flow and orthogonal variant moments. The bioinspired sensor has been designed for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) using properties of the mammalian cortical motion pathway. This sensor combines low-level primitives (optical flow and image moments) in order to produce a mid-level vision abstraction layer. The results are described trough experiments showing the validity of the proposed system and an analysis of the computational resources and performance of the applied algorithms.

  17. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  18. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  19. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  20. Leveling the Playing Field: Teacher Perception of Integrated STEM, Engineering, and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Bridgette Ann

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and approaches of 14 third-through-fifth grade Arkansan elementary teachers towards integrative engineering and engineering practices during 80 hours of integrated STEM professional development training in the summer and fall of 2014. This training was known as Project Flight. The purpose of the professional development was to learn integrated STEM content related to aviation and to write grade level curriculum units using Wiggins and McTighe's Understanding by Design curriculum framework. The current study builds upon on the original research. Using a mixed method exploratory, embedded QUAL[quan] case study design and a non-experimental convenience sample derived from original 20 participants of Project Flight, this research sought to answer the following question: Does professional development influence elementary teachers' perceptions of the curriculum and instruction of integrated STEM engineering and engineering practices in a 3-to-5 grade level setting? A series of six qualitative and one quantitative sub-questions informed the research of the mixed method question. Hermeneutic content analysis was applied to archival and current qualitative data sets while descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and repeated measures ANOVA tests were performed on the quantitative data. Broad themes in the teachers' perceptions and understanding of the nature of integrated engineering and engineering practices emerged through triangulation. After the professional development and the teaching of the integrated STEM units, all 14 teachers sustained higher perceptions of personal self-efficacy in their understanding of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The teachers gained understanding of engineering and engineering practices, excluding engineering habits of mind, throughout the professional development training and unit teaching. The research resulted in four major findings specific to elementary engineering

  1. Toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Comparison between effects at the population and sub-cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlon, Helene; Fortin, Claude; Floriani, Magali; Adam, Christelle; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Boudou, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of selenium in aquatic ecosystems is mainly linked to its uptake and biotransformation by micro-organisms, and its subsequent transfer upwards into the food chain. Thus, organisms at low trophic level, such as algae, play a crucial role. The aim of our study was to investigate the biological effects of selenite on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, both at the sub-cellular level (effect on ultrastructure) and at the population level (effect on growth). The cells were grown under batch culture conditions in well-defined media and exposed to waterborne selenite at concentrations up to 500 μM; i.e. up to lethal conditions. Based on the relationship between Se concentration and cell density achieved after a 96 h exposure period, an EC 50 of 80 μM with a 95% confidence interval ranging between 64 and 98 μM was derived. No adaptation mechanisms were observed: the same toxicity was quantified for algae pre-contaminated with Se. The inhibition of growth was linked to impairments observed at the sub-cellular level. The intensity of the ultrastructural damages caused by selenite exposure depended on the level and duration of exposure. Observations by TEM suggested chloroplasts as the first target of selenite cytotoxicity, with effects on the stroma, thylakoids and pyrenoids. At higher concentrations, we could observe an increase in the number and volume of starch grains. For cells collected at 96 h, electron-dense granules were observed. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that these granules contained selenium and were also rich in calcium and phosphorus. This study confirms that the direct toxicity of selenite on the phytoplankton biomass is not likely to take place at concentrations found in the environment. At higher concentrations, the link between effects at the sub-cellular and population levels, the over-accumulation of starch, and the formation of dense granules containing selenium are reported for the first time in the literature for a

  2. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  3. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  4. Environmental Exposure of Children to Toxic Trace Elements (Hg, Cr, As) in an Urban Area of Yucatan, Mexico: Water, Blood, and Urine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Fargher, L; Quesadas-Rojas, M; Moo-Puc, R; Oceguera-Vargas, I; Noreña-Barroso, E; Yáñez-Estrada, L; Alvarado, J; González, L; Pérez-Herrera, N; Pérez-Medina, S

    2018-05-01

    Merida is the largest urban center in the Mexican State of Yucatan. Here domestic sewage is deposited in poorly built septic tanks and is not adequately treated. Because of contamination from such waste, water from the top 20 m of the aquifer is unsuitable for human consumption. Given this situation and because children are highly vulnerable to environmental pollution, including exposure to toxic trace elements, this study focused on evaluating the exposure of children to arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and mercury (Hg) in water. It also evaluated the relationship between the levels of these elements in water and their concentrations in urine and blood. Among the 33 children monitored in the study, arsenic surpassed WHO limits for blood in 37% of the cases, which could result from the ingestion of poultry contaminated with organoarsenic compounds. In the case of WHO limits for Mercury, 65% of the water samples analyzed, 28% of urine samples, and 12% of blood samples exceeded them. Mercury exposure was correlated with biological sex, some lifestyle factors, and the zone in Merida in which children live. These data suggest that the levels of some toxic metals in children may be affected by water source, socioeconomic factors, and individual behavior.

  5. Contamination levels, toxicity profiles, and emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of an emerging industrial town and its environs in the Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomatah, Anthony C; Okoye, Chukwuma O B

    2017-11-09

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Nnewi and its environs were determined. Soil samples were extracted by sonication using hexane:dichloromethane (3:1) mixture and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The total PAHs concentrations (μg/kg) were 16.681 to 46.815, being three orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible level recommended by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). These concentrations followed this order: industrial ˃ farmlands ˃ commercial ˃ residential. Industrialized areas showed higher concentrations (p ˂ 0.05) than the other areas. Diagnostic ratios show that the major source of PAHs was the open burning of industrial and agricultural wastes, as shown by the occurrence of highest concentrations in the industrial areas, followed by agricultural areas. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values showed non-pollution and very low toxicity. Nevertheless, it was clear that industrialization has had some impact on the PAHs levels in soils and the total environment in this area and could be problematic with time, except with proper environmental management.

  6. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  7. An integrated framework for high level design of high performance signal processing circuits on FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, K.; Belkacemi, S.; Sukhsawas, S.

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes an integrated framework for the high level design of high performance signal processing algorithms' implementations on FPGAs. The framework emerged from a constant need to rapidly implement increasingly complicated algorithms on FPGAs while maintaining the high performance needed in many real time digital signal processing applications. This is particularly important for application developers who often rely on iterative and interactive development methodologies. The central idea behind the proposed framework is to dynamically integrate high performance structural hardware description languages with higher level hardware languages in other to help satisfy the dual requirement of high level design and high performance implementation. The paper illustrates this by integrating two environments: Celoxica's Handel-C language, and HIDE, a structural hardware environment developed at the Queen's University of Belfast. On the one hand, Handel-C has been proven to be very useful in the rapid design and prototyping of FPGA circuits, especially control intensive ones. On the other hand, HIDE, has been used extensively, and successfully, in the generation of highly optimised parameterisable FPGA cores. In this paper, this is illustrated in the construction of a scalable and fully parameterisable core for image algebra's five core neighbourhood operations, where fully floorplanned efficient FPGA configurations, in the form of EDIF netlists, are generated automatically for instances of the core. In the proposed combined framework, highly optimised data paths are invoked dynamically from within Handel-C, and are synthesized using HIDE. Although the idea might seem simple prima facie, it could have serious implications on the design of future generations of hardware description languages.

  8. Predicting in vivo effect levels for repeat-dose systemic toxicity using chemical, biological, kinetic and study covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Lisa; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Pham, LyLy; Clouzeau, Jacques; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Blanchet, Delphine; Noçairi, Hicham; Setzer, Woodrow; Judson, Richard; Grulke, Chris; Mansouri, Kamel; Martin, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e.g., study type, strain, administration route) in addition to multiple descriptor sets, including chemical (ToxPrint, PaDEL, and Physchem), biological (ToxCast), and kinetic descriptors. Using random forest modeling with cross-validation and external validation procedures, study-level covariates alone accounted for approximately 15% of the variance reducing the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 0.96 log 10 to 0.85 log 10  mg/kg/day, providing a baseline performance metric (lower expectation of model performance). A consensus model developed using a combination of study-level covariates, chemical, biological, and kinetic descriptors explained a total of 43% of the variance with an RMSE of 0.69 log 10  mg/kg/day. A benchmark model (upper expectation of model performance) was also developed with an RMSE of 0.5 log 10  mg/kg/day by incorporating study-level covariates and the mean effect level per chemical. To achieve a representative chemical-level prediction, the minimum study-level predicted and observed effect level per chemical were compared reducing the RMSE from 1.0 to 0.73 log 10  mg/kg/day, equivalent to 87% of predictions falling within an order-of-magnitude of the observed value. Although biological descriptors did not improve model performance, the final model was enriched for biological descriptors that indicated xenobiotic metabolism gene expression, oxidative stress, and

  9. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-01-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  10. Severe accident management at the Loviisa NPP - Application of integrated ROAAM and PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, S.; Routamo, T.; Tuomisto, H.; Lundstrom, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) was developed for assessment and management of rare, high consequence hazards. The purpose of most ROAAM applications has been to solve major, isolated severe accident issues related to early containment failure such as Mark-I Liner Attack and Direct Containment Heating. In addition to ROAAM in the issue resolution context, the so called Integrated ROAAM approach can be used to provide an overall frame of safety evaluation that allows determination of whether an adequate level of safety has been achieved for a plant. Integrated ROAAM approach brings together quantifications of probabilistic elements based on statistical inference and treatment of deterministic elements based on identification of dominant physics, for severe accident phenomenology, in a well defined and clearly structured way. Fortum, as an owner of the Loviisa NPP, used the Integrated ROAAM approach when developing and implementing a comprehensive severe accident management (SAM) strategy for the Loviisa NPP. The SAM strategy is based on unique features of this VVER-440 plant with ice condenser containment and it includes hardware modifications at the plant, substantial new I and C qualified for severe accident conditions, new SAM guidelines, a SAM Handbook, revision of emergency preparedness organization, and versatile training approaches. It could be argued that the resolution of individual severe accident issues is not sufficient for assessing the overall safety of a nuclear power plant, and thus the ROAAM (in an issue resolution context) is not performing the same function as a PSA study (level 2 included). Actually the Integrated ROAAM approach takes on even a more ambitious task than the PSA, since it determines how a balance can be achieved between accident prevention and mitigation of containment-threatening physical phenomena. Thus it provides a tool for implementing a sound diverse defence-in-depth strategy at a plant. Integrated

  11. Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Taehoon; Oh, Jinoh; Ko, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungchul; Han, Wook-Shin

    2010-04-16

    Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user's feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time.

  12. Crevice corrosion ampersand pitting of high-level waste containers: integration of deterministic ampersand probabilistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM

  13. CREVICE CORROSION and PITTING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE CONTAINERS: INTEGRATION OF DETERMINISTIC and PROBABILISTIC MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOSEPH C. FARMER AND R. DANIEL MCCRIGHT

    1997-01-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM

  14. Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized

  15. An Integrated Inventory-Transportation System with Periodic Pick-Ups and Leveled Replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Volling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a combined inventory-transportation system. The general idea is to integrate a simple replenishment policy with a routing component to derive operationally consistent standard routes as a basis for milk run design. The most interesting feature of the approach is that we combine stochastic vehicle routing with a replenishment policy which makes use of inventory to level the variability propagated into transportation operations. To evaluate the approach, we compare its performance with stochastic vehicle routing as well as sequential vehicle routing and replenishment planning. With respect to these approaches, substantial gains are achieved.

  16. Integrated process analyses studies on mixed low level and transuranic wastes. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Options for integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) are compared such as total life cycle cost (TLCC), cost sensitivities, risk, energy requirements, final waste volume, and aqueous and gaseous effluents. The comparisons were derived by requiring all conceptual systems to treat the same composition of waste with the same operating efficiency. Thus, results can be used as a general guideline for the selection of treatment and disposal concepts. However, specific applications of individual systems will require further analysis. The potential for cost saving options and the research and development opportunities are summarized.

  17. Assessment of Material Solutions of Multi-level Garage Structure Within Integrated Life Cycle Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałach, Daniel; Sagan, Joanna; Gicala, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an environmental and economic analysis of the material solutions of multi-level garage. The construction project approach considered reinforced concrete structure under conditions of use of ordinary concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC). Using of HPC allowed to significant reduction of reinforcement steel, mainly in compression elements (columns) in the construction of the object. The analysis includes elements of the methodology of integrated lice cycle design (ILCD). By making multi-criteria analysis based on established weight of the economic and environmental parameters, three solutions have been evaluated and compared within phase of material production (information modules A1-A3).

  18. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological vis-a-vis biochemical assessment on the toxic level and antineoplastic efficacy of a synthetic drug Pt-ATP on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shipra; Sadhu, Arpita Sengupta; Patra, Swarup; Mukherjea, Kalyan K

    2008-11-12

    CDDP for 10 days. Our comparative studies with normal and drug treated animals reveal that the drug does not affect the body weight of the drug treated animals significantly. The biochemical parameters like ALT and AST levels are also within normal limits which rules out hepatotoxicity. The detailed histological studies by SEM reveal that the hepatic, kidney and spleen tissues are not adversely affected by the drug. Comparison of biochemical parameters with the CDDP treated animals show that Pt-ATP is not at all toxic like the CDDP. The Kaplan-Meier analysis of the survival data of Set I has shown promising results with a significance of p < 0.0001. Set I results are promising and indicating antineoplastic efficacy of the synthesized drug with increased life span of the animals. Biochemical analysis, hematological and SEM studies revealed that the drug was neither nephrotoxic nor hepato-spleeno-toxic under the experimental set up.

  20. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  1. Generalized Heine–Stieltjes and Van Vleck polynomials associated with two-level, integrable BCS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquette, Ian; Links, Jon

    2012-01-01

    We study the Bethe ansatz/ordinary differential equation (BA/ODE) correspondence for Bethe ansatz equations that belong to a certain class of coupled, nonlinear, algebraic equations. Through this approach we numerically obtain the generalized Heine–Stieltjes and Van Vleck polynomials in the degenerate, two-level limit for four cases of integrable Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) pairing models. These are the s-wave pairing model, the p + ip-wave pairing model, the p + ip pairing model coupled to a bosonic molecular pair degree of freedom, and a newly introduced extended d + id-wave pairing model with additional interactions. The zeros of the generalized Heine–Stieltjes polynomials provide solutions of the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations. We compare the roots of the ground states with curves obtained from the solution of a singular integral equation approximation, which allows for a characterization of ground-state phases in these systems. Our techniques also permit the computation of the roots of the excited states. These results illustrate how the BA/ODE correspondence can be used to provide new numerical methods to study a variety of integrable systems. (paper)

  2. [Comparison of level of satisfaction of users of home care: integrated model vs. dispensaries model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Marta; Limonero, Joaquín T; Peñart, Xavier; Jiménez, Jordi; Gassó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    To determine the level of satisfaction of users that receive home health care through two different models of primary health care: integrated model and dispensaries model. cross-sectional, observational study. Two primary care centers in the province of Barcelona. The questionnaire was administered to 158 chronic patients over 65 years old, of whom 67 were receiving health care from the integrated model, and 91 from the dispensaries model. The Evaluation of Satisfaction with Home Health Care (SATISFAD12) questionnaire was, together with other complementary questions about service satisfaction of home health care, as well as social demographic questions (age, sex, disease, etc). The patients of the dispensaries model showed more satisfaction than the users receiving care from the integrated model. There was a greater healthcare continuity for those patients from the dispensaries model, and a lower percentage of hospitalizations during the last year. The satisfaction of the users from both models was not associated to gender, the health perception,or independence of the The user satisfaction rate of the home care by primary health care seems to depend of the typical characteristics of each organisational model. The dispensaries model shows a higher rate of satisfaction or perceived quality of care in all the aspects analysed. More studies are neede to extrapolate these results to other primary care centers belonging to other institutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. DOE`s integrated low-level waste management program and strategic planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management; Hwang, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    To meet the DOE`s commitment to operate its facilities in a safe, economic, and environmentally sound manner, and to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local rules, regulations, and agreements, DOE created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in 1989 to focus efforts on controlling waste management and cleaning up contaminated sites. In the first few years of its existence, the Office of Waste Management (EM-30) has concentrated on operational and corrective activities at the sites. In 1992, the Office of Waste Management began to apply an integrated approach to managing its various waste types. Consequently, DOE established the Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) to properly manage its complex-wide LLW in a consistent manner. The objective of the LLWMP is to build and operate an integrated, safe, and cost-effective program to meet the needs of waste generators. The program will be based on acceptable risk and sound planning, resulting in public confidence and support. Strategic planning of the program is under way and is expected to take two to three years before implementation of the integrated waste management approach.

  4. Ebselen protects against behavioral and biochemical toxicities induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: correlations between motor coordination, reactive species levels, and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane

    2014-12-01

    The protective effect of ebselen was investigated against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in rats. Ebselen (10 or 25 mg/kg, intragastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day for a period of 4 days. Locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight gain were determined. The striatal content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and protein carbonyl as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities was determined 24 h after the last dose of 3-NP. Na(+)/ K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities were also determined. The results demonstrated that ebselen at a dose of 25 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, protected against (1) a decrease in locomotor activity, motor coordination impairment, and body weight loss; (2) striatal oxidative damage, which was characterized by an increase in ROS levels, protein carbonyl content, and GR activity, an inhibition of CAT and GPx activities, and a decrease in GSH levels; and (3) an inhibition of SDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, induced by 3-NP. GST activity and AA levels were not modified by ebselen or 3-NP. Ebselen was not effective against the inhibition of δ-ALA-D activity induced by 3-NP. The results revealed a significant correlation between SDH activity and ROS levels, and SDH activity and latency to fall (rotarod test). The present study highlighted the protective effect of ebselen against 3-NP-induced toxicity in rats.

  5. Developing integrated performance assessment and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudyakova T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability through the integrated indicators development. Currently, many enterprises operate under variable external environment, which imposes a strict requirement to consider this uncertainty. For the evaluation, analysis and prediction of the sustainability of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis we believe it possible and necessary to use the apparatus of probability theory and mathematical statistics. This problem solution will improve quantitative assessing the financial and economic stability level, forecasting possible scenarios of the enterprise development and, therefore, based on the proactive management principles and adaptation processes will greatly increase their effective functioning, as well as reduce bankruptcy probability.

  6. Integrated model of Korean spent fuel and high level waste disposal options - 16091

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yongsoo; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to simulate options for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and reprocessing products in South Korea. A companion paper (Hwang and Miller, 2009) describes a systems-level model of Korean options for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the 21. century. The model addresses alternative design concepts for disposal of SNF of different types (Candu, PWR), high level waste, and fission products arising from a variety of alternative fuel cycle back ends. It uses the GoldSim software to simulate the engineered system, near-field and far-field geosphere, and biosphere, resulting in long-term dose predictions for a variety of receptor groups. The model's results allow direct comparison of alternative repository design concepts, and identification of key parameter uncertainties and contributors to receptor doses. (authors)

  7. Serum VEGF-A and CCL5 levels as candidate biomarkers for efficacy and toxicity of regorafenib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mashima, Tetsuo; Kawata, Naomi; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Horiike, Yuki; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Dan, Shingo; Shinozaki, Eiji; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor used as salvage therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We tested whether serum cytokine levels are associated with clinical outcome in the mCRC patients receiving regorafenib. Serum samples were collected before treatment start, day 21, and progressive disease, and eleven angiogenic and inflammatory cytokine serum levels were examined. Fifty-four patients of a total of 62 enrolled patients were eligible for the analyses. The chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) levels ≤ cut-off value (59959 pg/ml) at baseline was associated with relative tumor shrinkage (P = 0.021), better progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.036) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.019). Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) levels showing a decrease on day 21 were significantly associated with a better PFS (P = 0.021). CCL5 levels ≤ cut-off was associated with any grade hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) (P = 0.025) and thrombocytopenia (P = 0.013). Low chemokine ligand 2 levels at baseline were associated with grade 2 ≤ HFSR. High angiopoietin-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels at baseline were associated with grade 3 ≤ total bilirubin increase and transaminases increase, respectively. Low bFGF levels at baseline were associated with grade 3 ≤ hypertension. No correlation with severe events was observed. Baseline serum CCL5 levels and decrease of the serum VEGF-A levels may serve as potential predictive markers for survival or treatment-specific toxicities in mCRC patients receiving regorafenib. PMID:27166185

  8. The Cumulative Daily Tolerance Levels of Potentially Toxic Excipients Ethanol and Propylene Glycol Are Commonly Exceeded in Neonates and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2018-01-01

    neonates and infants and compare these levels to the tolerance limits found in guidelines published by European Medicines Agency (EMA). As part of the SEEN study, all medicinal products administered to neonates and infants were recorded. All included neonates received ≥2 medicinal products/day and infants...... ≥3 medicinal products/day. Daily excipient levels were calculated based on quantities obtained from manufacturers or databases. Excipient levels were compared to tolerance limits proposed by the EMA. Altogether, 470 neonates and 160 infants were included, recording 4207 prescriptions and 316 products...... exceed tolerance limit of 6 mg/kg/day. Of the total number of prescriptions involving PG-containing medicinal products (n = 174), 70% would alone exceed a maximum tolerance limit of 50 mg/kg/day. Maximal daily exposure to ethanol (1563 mg/kg/day) or PG (954 mg/kg/day) exceeded the tolerance limits...

  9. [The Community Care as a model of social and health integration at the local level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    The article develops a hypothesis for improving primary care services through health care solutions that can exceed the models in use (essentially hierarchical and based on tasks) in favor of new relational, multi-sectoral and network approaches that could privilege the integration of social and health services at the regional and district level (Community care). A qualitative methodological approach which analyzes the role of social networks in Community care, some national and international experiences of primary care models and the evaluation of the different role given to primary care both in the hierarchical-pyramidal approach and in the horizontal one (network approach). Some Italian regions are experimenting effective organizational models of care such as Primary Care Teams, Primary Care Units, Regional teams, Departments of Primary Care, Houses of Health ... At international level, it should be mentioned the Chronic Care Model (CCM), recently identified by WHO as a reference model, and adopted by the Tuscany Region (Italy). People-centered health care projects need shared interventions by competent and functional multiprofessional teams: the best outcome for the patient depends on the good interaction between individuals. It's necessary that relationships between members of the group are based on interdependence, integration and consistency to avoid risks of group illusion.

  10. Fabricating a multi-level barrier-integrated microfluidic device using grey-scale photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoonkwang; Kim, Minseok; Kim, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Most polymer-replica-based microfluidic devices are mainly fabricated by using standard soft-lithography technology so that multi-level masters (MLMs) require multiple spin-coatings, mask alignments, exposures, developments, and bakings. In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating MLMs for planar microfluidic channels with multi-level barriers (MLBs). A single photomask is necessary for standard photolithography technology to create a polydimethylsiloxane grey-scale photomask (PGSP), which adjusts the total amount of UV absorption in a negative-tone photoresist via a wide range of dye concentrations. Since the PGSP in turn adjusts the degree of cross-linking of the photoresist, this method enables the fabrication of MLMs for an MLB-integrated microfluidic device. Since the PGSP-based soft-lithography technology provides a simple but powerful fabrication method for MLBs in a microfluidic device, we believe that the fabrication method can be widely used for micro total analysis systems that benefit from MLBs. We demonstrate an MLB-integrated microfluidic device that can separate microparticles. (paper)

  11. INTEGRATED SFM TECHNIQUES USING DATA SET FROM GOOGLE EARTH 3D MODEL AND FROM STREET LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure from motion (SfM represents a widespread photogrammetric method that uses the photogrammetric rules to carry out a 3D model from a photo data set collection. Some complex ancient buildings, such as Cathedrals, or Theatres, or Castles, etc. need to implement the data set (realized from street level with the UAV one in order to have the 3D roof reconstruction. Nevertheless, the use of UAV is strong limited from the government rules. In these last years, Google Earth (GE has been enriched with the 3D models of the earth sites. For this reason, it seemed convenient to start to test the potentiality offered by GE in order to extract from it a data set that replace the UAV function, to close the aerial building data set, using screen images of high resolution 3D models. Users can take unlimited “aerial photos” of a scene while flying around in GE at any viewing angle and altitude. The challenge is to verify the metric reliability of the SfM model carried out with an integrated data set (the one from street level and the one from GE aimed at replace the UAV use in urban contest. This model is called integrated GE SfM model (i-GESfM. In this paper will be present a case study: the Cathedral of Palermo.

  12. The Canadian experience in implementing the State-level integrated safeguards concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, M.A.; Ellacott, T.

    2013-01-01

    After receiving the Broad Safeguards Conclusion in 2005 that all nuclear material remained in peaceful activities, Canada began implementing the State-level Integrated Safeguards Approach for Canada (SLISAC) on a Sector-by-Sector basis, culminating in the full State-wide implementation of Integrated Safeguards in January 2010. The Approach has resulted in a significant reduction in IAEA person days of inspection, a shift from scheduled routine inspections to randomized, short-notice and unannounced inspections, increased information streams on operational activities and inventory flows to the IAEA, and closer collaboration between the Agency and the SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control). This paper will describe the implementation of this new approach, touching on: the main features of the Canadian SLA (State-level Approach); the agreed order of priority in the transition to the approach within the various sectors of the Canadian fuel cycle; the work plan established for moving forward in a logical and orderly manner, thereby allowing all parties to put in place the necessary protocols and procedures; and some initial thoughts on the lessons learned throughout this process. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  13. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  14. PSA Level 2 as element of an integral safety assessment before plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Steinroetter, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina the Central Nuclear Atucha II is near to completion. This is a pressurized heavy water reactor. PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) level 1, level 2 and level 3 have to be performed in order to show compliance with the Argentinean dose limit. Such studies have been done first by the former KWU in the 1980's to get the construction license (FABIAN 1985). Nowadays the plant owner NA-SA performs PSA level 1 and provides information about the core damage states to GRS, who does the subsequent PSA level 2 part. GRS delivers source terms to the environment and the associated frequencies to the Argentinean research institute CNEA, which performs level 3 together with NA-SA. Since GRS is situated in the middle of the chain, interface definition with both ends has been a significant task of the GRS activities. Experience gained during this process will be highlighted in the presentation. The analysis of PSA level 2 proper follows a traditional approach: -) deterministic accident simulation with integral code MELCOR; -) analyses of specific issues which are not covered by MELCOR; and -) probabilistic accident progression analysis with EVNTRE event tree methodology. It appears that MELCOR and EVNTRE and PSA guidelines in general are flexible enough to analyse new or uncommon reactor designs. It also appears that the plant specific design features may require analyses beyond present code capabilities, calling for expert judgment and they can largely determine PSA results. The behaviour of iodine is not yet covered satisfactorily by state-of-the-art models in MELCOR

  15. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Liping; Zheng, Gene J.; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W.; Yan, Xulin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wong, Ming H.

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes

  16. The integration of object levels and their content: a theory of global/local processing and related hemispheric differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ronald; Volberg, Gregor

    2005-06-01

    This article presents and tests the authors' integration hypothesis of global/local processing, which proposes that at early stages of processing, the identities of global and local units of a hierarchical stimulus are represented separately from information about their respective levels and that, therefore, identity and level information have to be integrated at later stages. It further states that the cerebral hemispheres differ in their capacities for these binding processes. Three experiments are reported in which the integration hypothesis was tested. Participants had to identify a letter at a prespecified level with the viewing duration restricted by a mask. False reporting of the letter at the nontarget level was predicted to occur more often when the integration of identity and level could fail. This was the case. Moreover, visual-field effects occurred, as expected. Finally, a multinomial model was constructed and fitted to the data. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-24

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective element of the tunable oscillator. Unlike typical band-pass resonators, T-resonator has a band-notch characteristics because of which it has been integrated with an unstable amplifying unit having negative resistance in the desired frequency range. Magnitude and phase of input reflection coefficient of the transistor has been optimized over the desired frequency range. Phase flattening technique has been introduced to maximize the frequency shift of the oscillator. With the help of this technique, we were able to enhance the percentage tuning of the oscillator manifolds which resulted into a level sensor with higher sensitivity. The interface level of fluids (oil and water in our case) causes a relative change in oscillation frequency by more than 50% compared to maximum frequency shift of 8% reported earlier with dielectric tunable oscillators.

  18. Life cycle assessment for optimising the level of separated collection in integrated MSW management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, L; Grosso, M; Giugliano, M

    2009-02-01

    This life cycle assessment study analyses material and energy recovery within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems, and, in particular, the recovery of the source-separated materials (packaging and organic waste) and the energy recovery from the residual waste. The recovery of materials and energy are analysed together, with the final aim to evaluate possible optimum levels of source-separated collection that lead to the most favourable energetic and environmental results; this method allows identification of an optimum configuration of the MSW management system. The results show that the optimum level of source-separated collection is about 60%, when all the materials are recovered with high efficiency; it decreases to about 50%, when the 60% level is reached as a result of a very high recovery efficiency for organic fractions at the expense of the packaging materials, or when this implies an appreciable reduction of the quality of collected materials. The optimum MSW management system is thus characterized by source-separated collection levels as included in the above indicated range, with subsequent recycling of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale incinerator operating in combined heat and power mode.

  19. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  20. Perceptions and Practice: The Relationship between Teacher Perceptions of Technology Use and Level of Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    This correlational-predictive study investigated the relationship between teacher perceptions of technology use and observed classroom technology integration level using the "Technology Uses and Perceptions Survey" (TUPS) and the "Technology Integration Matrix-Observation" (TIM-O) instruments, developed by the Florida Center…

  1. Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy : a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adoption policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, van S.; Kuindersma, W.

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the integration of climate policy in Dutch public policy at the national, regional, local and area level. The national analysis focuses on the horizontal integration of climate policy in national government programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies and specific policy

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in recurrent or oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. A toxicity review of simultaneous integrated protection (SIP) versus conventional SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkika, E.; Kirste, S.; Schimek-Jasch, T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Adebahr, S. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); Wiehle, R. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Claus, R. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem-Cell Transplantation, Freiburg (Germany); Wittel, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nestle, U.; Grosu, A.L.; Brunner, T.B. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Baltas, D. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in pancreatic cancer can be limited by its proximity to organs at risk (OAR). In this analysis, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of two different treatment approaches in patients with locally recurrent or oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. According to the prescription method, patients were divided in two cohorts (C1 and C2). The planning target volume (PTV) was created through a 4 mm expansion of the internal target volume. In C2, a subvolume was additionally created, a simultaneous integrated protection (SIP), which is the overlap of the PTV with the planning risk volume of an OAR to which we prescribed a reduced dose. In all, 18 patients were treated (7 with local recurrences, 9 for oligometastases, 2 for both). Twelve of 23 lesions were treated without SIP (C1) and 11 with SIP (C2). The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8-14.6) months. The OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 87 and 58%, respectively. Freedom from local progression for combined cohorts at 6 and 12 months was 93 and 67% (95% CI 15-36), respectively. Local control was not statistically different between the two groups. One patient in C2 experienced grade ≥3 acute toxicities and 1 patient in C1 experienced a grade ≥3 late toxicity. The SIP approach is a useful prescription method for abdominal SBRT with a favorable toxicity profile which does not compromise local control and overall survival despite dose sacrifices in small subvolumes. (orig.) [German] Die stereotaktische Strahlentherapie (SBRT) ist bei Pankreaskarzinomen durch die enge Lagebeziehung der Risikoorgane (OAR) zum Zielvolumen erschwert. In dieser Analyse evaluierten wir die Toxizitaet und die Lokalkontrolle von zwei unterschiedlichen Therapiestrategien bei Patienten mit rezidivierendem oder oligometastatischem Pankreaskarzinom. Die Patienten wurden anhand der Verschreibungsmethode in zwei Kohorten geteilt (C1 und C2). Das

  3. Selenite modulates the level of phenolics and nutrient element to alleviate the toxicity of arsenite in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Tripathi, Preeti; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Niranjan, Abhishek; Mallick, Shekhar; Tripathi, Pratibha; Pande, Veena; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice is a serious threat all over the world particularly in South East Asia. Selenium (Se) plays important role in protection of plants against various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Moreover, arsenite (AsIII) and selenite (SeIV) can be biologically antagonistic due to similar electronic configuration and sharing the common transporter for their uptake in plant. In the present study, the response of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and nutrient elements was analyzed to investigate Se mediated As tolerance in rice seedlings during AsIII and SeIV exposure in hydroponics. Selenite (25µM) significantly decreased As accumulation in plant than As (25µM) alone treated plants. Level of oxidative stress related parameters viz., reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, electrical conductivity, nitric oxide and pro-oxidant enzyme (NADPH oxidase), were in the order of As>As+Se>control>Se. Selenium ameliorated As phytotoxicity by increased level of phenolic compounds particularly gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and rutin and thiol metabolism related enzymes viz., serine acetyl transferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS). Selenium supplementation enhanced the uptake of nutrient elements viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, and improved plant growth. The results concluded that Se addition in As contaminated environment might be an important strategy to reduce As uptake and associated phytotoxicity in rice plant by modulation of phenolic compounds and increased uptake of nutrient elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) for Concurrent and Distributed Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Altus, Troy D.; Phillips, Matthew; Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The paper introduces a new version of the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) methods intended for optimization of engineering systems conducted by distributed specialty groups working concurrently and using a multiprocessor computing environment. The method decomposes the overall optimization task into subtasks associated with disciplines or subsystems where the local design variables are numerous and a single, system-level optimization whose design variables are relatively few. The subtasks are fully autonomous as to their inner operations and decision making. Their purpose is to eliminate the local design variables and generate a wide spectrum of feasible designs whose behavior is represented by Response Surfaces to be accessed by a system-level optimization. It is shown that, if the problem is convex, the solution of the decomposed problem is the same as that obtained without decomposition. A simplified example of an aircraft design shows the method working as intended. The paper includes a discussion of the method merits and demerits and recommendations for further research.

  5. Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial Park level: A case of Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Yong; Zhu Qinghua; Haight, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park

  6. High School Mathematics Curriculum Development Integrated with Character Education Within Project Assessment as Spiral System Leveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Badriatul Munawaroh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: (1 description of characteristics and (2 validate thesenior hight school of mathematics syllabus integrated character education with the project assessment, (3 test the effectiveness of the learning material of function in class X. Testing procedure of syllabus and learning used research development of Borg & Gall (1987. The data were processed with descriptive analysis, statistical test t test and regression. The results obtained by the integration of the 10 characters on the senior hight school of mathematics syllabus show a valid syllabus by experts with an average score of 4 (both categories, the maximum score of 5. Test implementation on learning reach effective: (1 the percentage of learners achieve mastery learning by 89, 5%; (2 an increase of characters curiosity of learners of meeting 1 to 2, up to 3, up to 4 each score gain of 0.17; 0.30; 0.31; (3 the influence of the curiosity of students to the learning outcomes of 48.9%, (4 the average learning outcomes of students experimental class (77.2 is better than the control class (76.2. Thus, each character can bring a change in behavior according to the character programmed and observed in the learning process in focus. Coordination learning at every level stated in the syllabus.

  7. OAHG: an integrated resource for annotating human genes with multi-level ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Sun, Jie; Xu, Wanying; Dong, Lixiang; Hu, Yang; Zhou, Meng

    2016-10-05

    OAHG, an integrated resource, aims to establish a comprehensive functional annotation resource for human protein-coding genes (PCGs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs by multi-level ontologies involving Gene Ontology (GO), Disease Ontology (DO), and Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). Many previous studies have focused on inferring putative properties and biological functions of PCGs and non-coding RNA genes from different perspectives. During the past several decades, a few of databases have been designed to annotate the functions of PCGs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs, respectively. A part of functional descriptions in these databases were mapped to standardize terminologies, such as GO, which could be helpful to do further analysis. Despite these developments, there is no comprehensive resource recording the function of these three important types of genes. The current version of OAHG, release 1.0 (Jun 2016), integrates three ontologies involving GO, DO, and HPO, six gene functional databases and two interaction databases. Currently, OAHG contains 1,434,694 entries involving 16,929 PCGs, 637 miRNAs, 193 lncRNAs, and 24,894 terms of ontologies. During the performance evaluation, OAHG shows the consistencies with existing gene interactions and the structure of ontology. For example, terms with more similar structure could be associated with more associated genes (Pearson correlation γ 2  = 0.2428, p < 2.2e-16).

  8. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  9. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.

  10. "Dioxins are the easiest topic to mention": Resident activists' construction of knowledge about low-level exposure to toxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses how residents in a local area contributed to the construction of knowledge in regard to scientific assessments in relation to a fire in a storage dump of burnable waste. Building on analytical concepts primarily from Social Worlds theory as well as some concepts from Actor-Network Theory, the analysis shows how dissent and a number of scientific controversies were initiated by some residents living nearby the waste dump who proved to be excellent network builders and who built a number of alliances with media and independent scientists, thus questioning the authorities' and their experts' legitimacy. Furthermore, the situated analysis identifies how a few persons--not very organized--were able to create a debate about scientific matters using their combined resources and strong alliance-building abilities, thus proving that in some cases there is no need for a higher level of organization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    were seen in the underweight and wasting levels. However, significant improvements in the median height-for-age z-score (HAZ) were found in levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 6-month follow-up (-1.99 SD, n = 314)(Z = -7.683, p<0.0001). Unfortunately, there were significant increases in the levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 1-Year follow-up (-2.70 SD, n = 242)(Z = -2.21, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: An integrated blanket supplementary feeding program could possibly reduce levels of stunting in just 6-months, but continued monitoring is required of the children even if the children are discharged from the program to ensure their rehabilitation is sustained at home. The increase in levels of stunting at 1-Year follow-up may have been due to the fact that many of the rehabilitated children were discharged and not followed up for the study. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of integrated blanket supplementary feeding programs on reducing levels of stunting. (author)

  12. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  13. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3A: Low Levels of Synchronous Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Nicholas W. [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Leonardi, Bruno [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [GE Energy Management, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-17

    The stability of the North American electric power grids under conditions of high penetrations of wind and solar is a significant concern and possible impediment to reaching renewable energy goals. The 33% wind and solar annual energy penetration considered in this study results in substantial changes to the characteristics of the bulk power system. This includes different power flow patterns, different commitment and dispatch of existing synchronous generation, and different dynamic behavior from wind and solar generation. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, is one of the largest regional solar and wind integration studies to date. In multiple phases, it has explored different aspects of the question: Can we integrate large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West? The work reported here focused on the impact of low levels of synchronous generation on the transient stability performance in one part of the region in which wind generation has displaced synchronous thermal generation under highly stressed, weak system conditions. It is essentially an extension of WWSIS-3. Transient stability, the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism among all elements following disturbances, is a major constraint on operations in many grids, including the western U.S. and Texas systems. These constraints primarily concern the performance of the large-scale bulk power system. But grid-wide stability concerns with high penetrations of wind and solar are still not thoroughly understood. This work focuses on 'traditional' fundamental frequency stability issues, such as maintaining synchronism, frequency, and voltage. The objectives of this study are to better understand the implications of low levels of synchronous generation and a weak grid on overall system performance by: 1) Investigating the Western Interconnection under conditions of both high renewable

  14. Toxic metal levels in cocoa powder and chocolate by ICP-MS method after microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Dico, Gianluigi Maria; Galvano, Fabio; Dugo, Giacomo; D'ascenzi, Carlo; Macaluso, Andrea; Vella, Antonio; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2018-04-15

    The Commission Regulation (EC) Regulation N. 488/2014, established the concentration limits for cadmium in specific products based on cocoa and chocolate products as from January 2019. Based on this information there is a need to determine ultratrace levels of elements that might be presents in cocoa and chocolate products. In this work, the concentrations of Arsenic, Antimony, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Selenium and Vanadium were evaluated in cocoa powder and chocolate by the validation of an ICP-MS method. Good selectivity/specificity, recovery, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, LOD, LOQ, range of linearity, standard measurement uncertainty parameters for method validation were achieved, in accordance with Commission Regulation. The cocoa powder revealed the maximum metal concentrations of 0.303 ± 0.035 mg/kg for cadmium, 1.228 ± 0.146 mg/kg for lead and 0.094 ± 0.013 mg/kg for arsenic. A significant difference was found between cocoa powder and chocolate samples (p < .05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of supercapacitive storage in renewable energy system to compare the response of two level and five level inverter with RL type load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Suman; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Das, Upama

    2018-04-01

    The analytical and simulation-based study in this presented paper shows a comparative report between two level inverter and five-level inverter with the integration of Supercapacitive storage in Renewable Energy system. Sometime dependent numerical models are used to measure the voltage and current response of two level and five level inverter in MATLAB Simulink based environment. In this study supercapacitive sources, which are fed by solar cells are used as input sources to experiment the response of multilevel inverter with integration of su-percapacitor as a storage device of Renewable Energy System. The RL load is used to compute the time response in MATLABSimulink based environment. With the simulation results a comparative study has been made of two different level types of inverters. Two basic types of inverter are discussed in the study with reference to their electrical behavior. It is also simulated that multilevel inverter can convert stored energy within supercapacitor which is extracted from Renewable Energy System.

  16. Serum Levels of Toxic AGEs (TAGE May Be a Promising Novel Biomarker for the Onset/Progression of Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Takeuchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs generated with aging or in the presence of diabetes mellitus, particularly AGEs derived from the glucose/fructose metabolism intermediate glyceraldehyde (Glycer-AGEs; termed toxic AGEs (TAGE, were recently shown to be closely involved in the onset/progression of diabetic vascular complications via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE. TAGE also contribute to various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; cancer; Alzheimer’s disease, and; infertility. This suggests the necessity of minimizing the influence of the TAGE-RAGE axis in order to prevent the onset/progression of lifestyle-related diseases (LSRD and establish therapeutic strategies. Changes in serum TAGE levels are closely associated with LSRD related to overeating, a lack of exercise, or excessive ingestion of sugars/dietary AGEs. We also showed that serum TAGE levels, but not those of hemoglobin A1c, glucose-derived AGEs, or Nε-(carboxymethyllysine, have potential as a biomarker for predicting the progression of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. We herein introduce the usefulness of serum TAGE levels as a biomarker for the prevention/early diagnosis of LSRD and the evaluation of the efficacy of treatments; we discuss whether dietary AGE/sugar intake restrictions reduce the generation/accumulation of TAGE, thereby preventing the onset/progression of LSRD.

  17. In vivo relevance of two critical levels for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated cellular protection against electrophile toxicity found in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Laura H J; Pot, Gerda K; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2006-08-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated detoxification of quinones is suggested to be involved in cancer prevention. In the present study, using transfected CHO cells, it was demonstrated that the relation between NQO1 activity and the resulting protection against the cytotoxicity of menadione shows a steep dose-response curve revealing a 'lower protection threshold' of 0.5mumol DCPIP/min/mg protein and an 'upper protection threshold' at 1mumol DCPIP/min/mg protein. In an additional in vivo experiment it was investigated how both in vitro critical activity levels of NQO1, relate to NQO1 activities in mice and man, either without or upon induction of the enzyme by butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) or indole-3-carbinol (I(3)C). Data from an experiment with CD1 mice revealed that base-line NQO1 levels in liver, kidney, small intestine, colon and lung are generally below the observed 'lower protection threshold' in vitro, this also holds for most human tissue S-9 samples. To achieve NQO1 levels above this 'lower protection threshold' will require 5-20 fold NQO1 induction. Discussion focuses on the relevance of the in vitro NQO1 activity thresholds for the in vivo situation. We conclude that increased protection against menadione toxicity can probably not be achieved by NQO1 induction but should be achieved by other mechanisms. Whether this conclusion also holds for other electrophiles and the in vivo situation awaits further definition of their NQO1 protection thresholds.

  18. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  19. The Impact of Low-Level Lead Toxicity on School Performance among Hispanic Subgroups in the Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackowicz, Michael J; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O; Rankin, Kristin M; Lewis, Dan A; Haider, Danish; Lanphear, Bruce P; Evens, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children's educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic Black). We investigated the impact of BLL on standardized test performance by Hispanic subgroup (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic). We examined 12,319 Hispanic children born in Chicago between 1994 and 1998 who were tested for BLL between birth and 2006 and enrolled in the 3rd grade at a CPS school between 2003 and 2006. We linked the Chicago birth registry, the Chicago Blood Lead Registry, and 3rd grade Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores to examine associations between BLL and school performance. Primary analyses were restricted to children with BLL below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L). BLLs below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L) were inversely associated with reading and math scores in all Hispanic subgroups. Adjusted Relative Risks (RRadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reading and math failure were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.25, 1.63) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.32, 1.78), respectively, per each additional 5 µg/dL of lead exposure for Hispanic children; RRadj did not differ across subgroups. We estimate that 7.0% (95% CI = 1.8, 11.9) of reading and 13.6% (95% CI = 7.7, 19.2) of math failure among Hispanic children can be attributed to exposure to BLLs of 5-9 µg/dL (0.242 to 0.435 µmol/L) vs. 0-4 µg/dL (0-0.193 µmol/L). The RRadj of math failure for each 5 µg/dL (0.242 µmol/L) increase in BLL was notably (p = 0.074) stronger among black Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65-15.94) compared to white Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12-2.02). Early childhood lead exposure is associated with poorer achievement on standardized reading and math tests in the 3rd grade for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic children enrolled in Chicago

  20. Multi-Level Integration of Environmentally Perturbed Internal Phenotypes Reveals Key Points of Connectivity between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Benis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genotype and external phenotype of organisms are linked by so-called internal phenotypes which are influenced by environmental conditions. In this study, we used five existing -omics datasets representing five different layers of internal phenotypes, which were simultaneously measured in dietarily perturbed mice. We performed 10 pair-wise correlation analyses verified with a null model built from randomized data. Subsequently, the inferred networks were merged and literature mined for co-occurrences of identified linked nodes. Densely connected internal phenotypes emerged. Forty-five nodes have links with all other data-types and we denote them “connectivity hubs.” In literature, we found proof of 6% of the 577 connections, suggesting a biological meaning for the observed correlations. The observed connectivities between metabolite and cytokines hubs showed higher numbers of literature hits as compared to the number of literature hits on the connectivities between the microbiota and gene expression internal phenotypes. We conclude that multi-level integrated networks may help to generate hypotheses and to design experiments aiming to further close the gap between genotype and phenotype. We describe and/or hypothesize on the biological relevance of four identified multi-level connectivity hubs.

  1. Structural integrity investigation for RPV with various cooling water levels under pressurized melting pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategy denoted as in-vessel retention (IVR is widely used in severe accident (SA management by most advanced nuclear power plants. The essence of IVR mitigation is to provide long-term external water cooling in maintaining the reactor pressure vessel (RPV integrity. Actually, the traditional IVR concept assumed that RPV was fully submerged into the water flooding, and the melting pool was depressurized during the SA. The above assumptions weren't seriously challenged until the occurrence of Fukushima accident on 2011, suggesting the structural behavior had not been appropriately assessed. Therefore, the paper tries to address the structure-related issue on determining whether RPV safety can be maintained or not with the effect of various water levels and internal pressures created from core meltdown accident. In achieving it, the RPV structural behaviors are numerically investigated in terms of several field parameters, such as temperature, deformation, stress, plastic strain, creep strain, and total damage. Due to the presence of high temperature melt on the inside and water cooling on the outside, the RPV failure is governed by the failure mechanisms of creep, thermal-plasticity and plasticity. The creep and plastic damages are interacted with each other, which further accelerate the failure process. Through detailed investigation, it is found that the internal pressure as well as water levels plays an important role in determining the RPV failure time, mode and site.

  2. Integration of emergency action levels with Combustion Engineering Emergency Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faletti, D.W.; Jamison, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the development of a method for integrating Emergency Action Levels (EALs) with plant-specific Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Emergency Operating Procedure Technical Guidelines (CEOG EOPTFs). EALs are discrete conditions or values of plant operating parameters which, if exceeded, require declaration of an appropriate level of emergency. At most operating plants, the EALs and event classification procedures are totally separate from the Emergency Operating Procedures used by the plant staff to control the plant during abnormal conditions. Control room personnel using the EOPs to deal with abnormal plant conditions must recognize when plant safety is sufficiently degraded that an emergency declaration may be warranted, and then enter a separate classification procedure containing EALs for a number of plant conditions and parameters. The operator then compares the existing plant conditions to the EALs and makes an emergency declaration accordingly. Using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Technical Guidelines document, a set of emergency class definitions and criteria were developed based on the status of the three main fission product barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system and containment). The EOPTGs were then annotated with suggested guidance to a procedure writer. The proposed method was tested by applying it to the reactor accident sequences that were shown in the reactor safety study to dominate accident risk. The object of the test was to determine if an EAL set linked to the EOP annotations would produce timely and accurate classification of the risk-dominant sequences. 6 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  3. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  4. The effect of sports on level of community integration as reported by persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C S; Nabavi, D; Yuen, H K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether participation in sports by persons with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) affected level of community integration as defined by the World Health Organization and as measured by the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). Forty-eight participants were recruited from a camp for persons with physical disabilities as well as from SCI support groups. Participants were divided into groups of athletes (n = 30) and nonathletes (n = 18) on the basis of their self-reported level of sports participation. Athletes scored significantly higher on four of five subsections of the CHART (physical independence, mobility, occupation, social integration), indicating greater levels of community integration than nonathletes. These findings extend the literature outlining the physical and psychological benefits of sports. Occupational therapists have a unique opportunity to use the occupation of sports to integrate the roots of the profession with the cultural demands of society.

  5. Rhodamine B triggers ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, decreases in the number of follicles, 17B-estradiol level, and thickness of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syiska Atik Maryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to rhodamine B on ovarian oxidative stress, ovarian follicles, hormone 17beta-estradiol and thickness of endometrium. Methods: A total of 28 female rats were divided into four groups consisting of control; groups treated with rhodamine B at doses of 4.5; 9, and 18 milligram/200 gram body weight. Rhodamine B was administered orally for 36 days with the probe. Analysis of MDA level was done spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically by hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of 17-estradiol level was done by ELISA. Results: Rhodamine B administered in different doses in female rats can increase ovarian MDA levels significantly than the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce the number of primary, secondary, and De Graaf follicles significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce 17-estradiol level significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. The administration of rhodamine B could reduce thickness of endometrium significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of rhodamine B triggered ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, a decrease in the number of follicles, and decreased level of 17-estradiol which ultimately lowered the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 451-457

  6. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different 44 realities'' lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) ''detail enhancement,'' wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) ''data enhancement,'' wherein the MSI techniques axe concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) ''conceptual enhancement,'' wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail. This research focuses on data and conceptual enhancement algorithms. To be useful in many real-world applications, e.g., autonomous or teleoperated robotics, real-time feedback is critical. But, many MSI/image processing algorithms require significant processing time. This is especially true of feature extraction, object isolation, and object recognition algorithms due to their typical reliance on global or large neighborhood information. This research attempts to exploit the speed currently available in state-of-the-art digitizers and highly parallel processing systems by developing MSI algorithms based on pixel rather than global-level features

  7. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  8. Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: a Population Level Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan J. Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their dual importance in the assessment of endangered/threatened species, there have been few attempts to integrate traditional ecological knowledge (TEK and evolutionary biology knowledge (EBK at the population level. We contrasted long-term aboriginal TEK with previously obtained EBK in the context of seasonal migratory habits and population biology of a salmonid fish, brook charr, (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting a large, remote postglacial lake. Compilation of TEK spanning four decades involved analytical workshops, semidirective interviews, and collaborative fieldwork with local aboriginal informants and fishing guides. We found that TEK complemented EBK of brook charr by providing concordant and additional information about (1 population viability; (2 breeding areas and migration patterns of divergent populations; and (3 the behavioral ecology of populations within feeding areas; all of which may ultimately affect the maintenance of population diversity. Aboriginal concerns related to human pressures on this species, not revealed by EBK, also help to focus future conservation initiatives for divergent populations and to encourage restoration of traditional fishing practices. However, relative to EBK, the relevance of TEK to salmonid biodiversity conservation was evident mainly at a smaller spatial scale, for example, that of individual rivers occupied by populations or certain lake sectors. Nevertheless, EBK was only collected over a 4-yr period, so TEK provided an essential long-term temporal window to evaluate population differences and persistence. We concluded that, despite different conceptual underpinnings, spatially and temporally varying TEK and EBK both contribute to the knowledge base required to achieve sustainability and effective biodiversity conservation planning for a given species. Such integration may be particularly relevant in many isolated regions, where intraspecific diversity can go unrecognized due to sparse

  9. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghry, S.L.; Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; DePaoli, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and open-quotes otherclose quotes. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF 6 conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992

  10. Integrative characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus dumerilii (Elapidae) from Colombia: Proteome, toxicity, and cross-neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno

    2016-03-16

    In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28.1%). This compositional profile shows that M. dumerilii venom belongs to the 'PLA2-rich' phenotype, in the recently proposed dichotomy for Micrurus venoms. Enzymatic and toxic venom activities correlated with protein family abundances. Whole venom induced a conspicuous myotoxic, cytotoxic and anticoagulant effect, and was mildly edematogenic and proteolytic, whereas it lacked hemorrhagic activity. Some 3FTxs and PLA2s reproduced the lethal effect of venom. A coral snake antivenom to Micrurus nigrocinctus demonstrated significant cross-recognition of M. dumerilii venom proteins, and accordingly, ability to neutralize its lethal effect. The combined compositional, functional, and immunological data here reported for M. dumerilii venom may contribute to a better understanding of these envenomings, and support the possible use of anti-M. nigrocinctus coral snake antivenom in their treatment. Coral snakes represent a highly diversified group of elapids in the New World, with nearly 70 species within the genus Micrurus. Owing to their scarce yields, the biochemical composition and toxic activities of coral snake venoms have been less well characterized than those of viperid species. In this work, an integrative view of the venom of M. dumerilii, a medically relevant coral snake from Colombia, was obtained by a combined proteomic, functional, and immunological approach. The venom contains proteins from at least eleven families, with a predominance of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), followed by three

  11. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  12. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  13. A System of Systems Approach to Integrating Global Sea Level Change Application Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambachus, M. J.; Foster, R. S.; Powell, C.; Cole, M.

    2005-12-01

    The global sea level change application community has numerous disparate models used to make predications over various regional and temporal scales. These models have typically been focused on limited sets of data and optimized for specific areas or questions of interest. Increasingly, decision makers at the national, international, and local/regional levels require access to these application data models and want to be able to integrate large disparate data sets, with new ubiquitous sensor data, and use these data across models from multiple sources. These requirements will force the Global Sea Level Change application community to take a new system-of-systems approach to their programs. We present a new technical architecture approach to the global sea level change program that provides external access to the vast stores of global sea level change data, provides a collaboration forum for the discussion and visualization of data, and provides a simulation environment to evaluate decisions. This architectural approach will provide the tools to support multi-disciplinary decision making. A conceptual system of systems approach is needed to address questions around the multiple approaches to tracking and predicting Sea Level Change. A systems of systems approach would include (1) a forum of data providers, modelers, and users, (2) a service oriented architecture including interoperable web services with a backbone of Grid computing capability, and (3) discovery and access functionality to the information developed through this structure. Each of these three areas would be clearly designed to maximize communication, data use for decision making and flexibility and extensibility for evolution of technology and requirements. In contemplating a system-of-systems approach, it is important to highlight common understanding and coordination as foundational to success across the multiple systems. The workflow of science in different applications is often conceptually similar

  14. Assessment of building integrated energy supply and energy saving schemes on a national level in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.; Morthorst, P.E.; Birkl, C.

    2011-06-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The results of these analyses were integrated in five scenarios to examine the consequences at national level of implementing insulation together with solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps in single-family houses. The simulations focused on the building period between 1961 and 1972 characterised by high building activity and low energy performance. The five scenarios - a baseline scenario, a maximum savings scenario, a maximum production scenario, and a combination scenario - showed that regardless of scenario, a consequent use of individual heat pumps leads to the greatest energy savings and CO{sub 2} reductions. (ln)

  15. An integrated extended Kalman filter–implicit level set algorithm for monitoring planar hydraulic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirce, A; Rochinha, F

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel approach to the inversion of elasto-static tiltmeter measurements to monitor planar hydraulic fractures propagating within three-dimensional elastic media. The technique combines the extended Kalman filter (EKF), which predicts and updates state estimates using tiltmeter measurement time-series, with a novel implicit level set algorithm (ILSA), which solves the coupled elasto-hydrodynamic equations. The EKF and ILSA are integrated to produce an algorithm to locate the unknown fracture-free boundary. A scaling argument is used to derive a strategy to tune the algorithm parameters to enable measurement information to compensate for unmodeled dynamics. Synthetic tiltmeter data for three numerical experiments are generated by introducing significant changes to the fracture geometry by altering the confining geological stress field. Even though there is no confining stress field in the dynamic model used by the new EKF-ILSA scheme, it is able to use synthetic data to arrive at remarkably accurate predictions of the fracture widths and footprints. These experiments also explore the robustness of the algorithm to noise and to placement of tiltmeter arrays operating in the near-field and far-field regimes. In these experiments, the appropriate parameter choices and strategies to improve the robustness of the algorithm to significant measurement noise are explored. (paper)

  16. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated into Orion's Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rubik; Ungar, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study verified of the thermal model by using a wax PCM and analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option for any case. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased by at least 40% in order to support a viable water-based PCM HX.

  17. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated Into Orion's Thermal Control System Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system and in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased over 20% in order to have a viable water-based PCM HX.

  18. Integrated analysis of beach ridge and lagoon systems as indicator of sea-level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel U.; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Morigi, Caterina; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten

    2015-04-01

    Beach ridges and lagoons are common features of the modern coastal landscape in much of Denmark and represent an important part of the Holocene raised marine deposits. We here present our results from investigations into the possibilities of retrieving continuous relative sea-level (RSL) information from these sedimentary archives, as facilitated by the analysis of surface morphology, coring, subsurface imaging, absolute chronology, and modern analogues. The island of Samsø (55˚51'N, 10˚36'E) was chosen as a case study example. While each of the used archives merely covers a part of the mid to late Holocene developments, their joint analysis allows identifying and separating periods of rapid RSL rise, stability and fall over most of the island's marine stage. We present possible correlations of the data from the lagoons with data from a wide beach-ridge system and suggest causal relations of the RSL reconstruction with the spatial arrangements of marine and glacial landforms on Samsø. The integrated use of a geographical perspective combined with geological precision and methodology has proven to be of great value for understanding temporal, spatial, and process relations in the investigated coastal environment. The study stresses the value of analyzing genetically independent though complementary sedimentary archives to retrieve more complete and potentially more robust results. The presented approach may be useful in microtidal, sediment-surplus environments with a transgressive-regressive Holocene RSL history.

  19. Efficient Simulation Modeling of an Integrated High-Level-Waste Processing Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Michael V.; Paul, Pran K.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated computational tool named the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) has been developed to simulate the operation of the entire high-level-waste complex (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over its full life cycle. ProdMod is used to guide SRS management in operating the waste complex in an economically efficient and environmentally sound manner. SRS HLW operations are modeled using coupled algebraic equations. The dynamic nature of plant processes is modeled in the form of a linear construct in which the time dependence is implicit. Batch processes are modeled in discrete event-space, while continuous processes are modeled in time-space. The ProdMod methodology maps between event-space and time-space such that the inherent mathematical discontinuities in batch process simulation are avoided without sacrificing any of the necessary detail in the batch recipe steps. Modeling the processes separately in event- and time-space using linear constructs, and then coupling the two spaces, has accelerated the speed of simulation compared to a typical dynamic simulation. The ProdMod simulator models have been validated against operating data and other computer codes. Case studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the ProdMod simulator in developing strategies that demonstrate significant cost savings in operating the SRS HLW complex and in verifying the feasibility of newly proposed processes

  20. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements

  1. Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level Set Transformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Song, Xuehang; Ye, Ming; Dai, Zhenxue; Zachara, John; Chen, Xingyuan

    2017-03-01

    A new approach is developed to delineate the spatial distribution of discrete facies (geological units that have unique distributions of hydraulic, physical, and/or chemical properties) conditioned not only on direct data (measurements directly related to facies properties, e.g., grain size distribution obtained from borehole samples) but also on indirect data (observations indirectly related to facies distribution, e.g., hydraulic head and tracer concentration). Our method integrates for the first time ensemble data assimilation with traditional transition probability-based geostatistics. The concept of level set is introduced to build shape parameterization that allows transformation between discrete facies indicators and continuous random variables. The spatial structure of different facies is simulated by indicator models using conditioning points selected adaptively during the iterative process of data assimilation. To evaluate the new method, a two-dimensional semi-synthetic example is designed to estimate the spatial distribution and permeability of two distinct facies from transient head data induced by pumping tests. The example demonstrates that our new method adequately captures the spatial pattern of facies distribution by imposing spatial continuity through conditioning points. The new method also reproduces the overall response in hydraulic head field with better accuracy compared to data assimilation with no constraints on spatial continuity on facies.

  2. Climate Change Adaptation Tools at the Community Level: An Integrated Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Modikela Nkoana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of climate change are experienced at the global, regional and local levels. However, rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa face additional socio-political, cultural and economic challenges in addition to climate change. Decision support tools have been developed and applied to assist rural communities to cope with and adapt to climate change. However, poorly planned participatory processes and the lack of context-specific approaches in these tools are obstacles when aiming at strengthening the resilience of these rural communities. This paper uses an integrated literature review to identify best practices for involving rural communities in climate change adaptation efforts through the application of context-specific and culturally-sensitive climate change adaptation tools. These best practices include the use of a livelihoods approach to engage communities; the explicit acknowledgement of the local cultural do’s and don’ts; the recognition of local champions appointed from within the local community; the identification and prioritisation of vulnerable stakeholders; and the implementation of a two-way climate change risk communication instead of a one-sided information sharing approach.

  3. Is ozonation environmentally benign for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment? Four-level analysis on toxicity reduction based on organic matter fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jingxia; Jia, Huichao; Wu, Bing; Pan, Bingcai

    2018-01-01

    Ozonation is a promising option to treat reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC). However, a systematic understanding and assessment of ozonation on toxicity reduction is insufficient. In this study, ROC sampled from a typical industrial park wastewater treatment plant of China was fractionated into hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophobic neutral (HON), and hydrophilic fraction (HI). Systematic bioassays covering bacteria, algae, fish, and human cell lines were conducted to reveal the role of ozonation in toxicity variation of the four ROC fractions. HOA in the raw ROC exhibited the highest toxicity, followed by HON and HI. Ozonation significantly reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and UV 254 values in HOA, HON, and HI and their toxicity except in HOB. Correlation analysis indicated that chemical data (TOC and UV 254 ) of HOA and HON correlated well with their toxicities; however, poor correlations were observed for HOB and HI, suggesting that a battery of toxicity assays is necessary. This study indicates that TOC reduction during ozonation could not fully reflect the toxicity issue, and toxicity assessment is required in conjunction with the chemical data to evaluate the effectiveness of ozonation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Curriculum Integration in Distance Learning at Primary and Secondary Educational Levels on the Example of eTwinning Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum integration is one of the concepts which has been discussed for years. Telecollaborative projects, which employ elements of distance learning, provide opportunities for putting the idea into practice. Analysis of eTwinning projects undertaken in Polish schools aims at demonstrating the integrative role of distance learning approaches and their contribution to integration of various themes in educational context. As the eTwinning framework is very flexible, allowing for teacher and students autonomy the projects may vary in the topics, age and number of participants, duration scope within curriculum etc. The study shows various levels and perspectives of curriculum integration which take place in eTwinning projects. It also discusses the role of distance learning at primary and secondary educational levels. The challenge is to transform international collaboration of selected schools an everyday practice for all learners and teachers.

  5. A Critical Review of the Integration of Geographic Information System and Building Information Modelling at the Data Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefits brought by the integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM and Geographic Information Systems (GIS are being proved by more and more research. The integration of the two systems is difficult for many reasons. Among them, data incompatibility is the most significant, as BIM and GIS data are created, managed, analyzed, stored, and visualized in different ways in terms of coordinate systems, scope of interest, and data structures. The objective of this paper is to review the relevant research papers to (1 identify the most relevant data models used in BIM/GIS integration and understand their advantages and disadvantages; (2 consider the possibility of other data models that are available for data level integration; and (3 provide direction on the future of BIM/GIS data integration.

  6. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  7. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  8. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  9. Heterogeneous Electronics – Wafer Level Integration, Packaging, and Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility integrates active electronics with microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices at the miniature system scale. It obviates current size-, weight-, and power...

  10. Cadmium versus copper toxicity: Insights from an integrated dissection of protein synthesis pathway in the digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytharopoulou, S.; Kournoutou, G.G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Leotsinidis, M. [Laboratory of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Georgiou, C.D. [Department of Biology, Section of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kalpaxis, D.L., E-mail: dimkal@med.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels results in genotoxicity, without affecting MTs production. •Cd{sup 2+}-exposure of mussels causes low genotoxicity, but induces MTs production. • Both metals induce oxidative stress in mussels, with Cd being the strongest inducer. • Translation is suppressed by both metals, mainly at the initiation and elongation steps. • MTs abrogate translational defects caused by Cd{sup 2+}, by trapping the toxic metal. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of metal-mediated stress on the protein-synthesis pathway in mussels. To this end, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) underwent a 15 days exposure to 100 μg/L Cu{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+}. Both metals, in particular Cd{sup 2+}, accumulated in mussel digestive glands and generated a specific status of oxidative-stress. Exposure of mussels to each metal resulted in 40% decrease of the tRNA-aminoacylation efficiency, at the end of exposure. Cu{sup 2+} also caused a progressive loss in the capability of 40S-ribosomal subunits to form 48S pre-initiation complex, which reached 34% of the control at the end of exposure. Other steps of translation underwent less pronounced, but measurable damages. Mussels exposed to Cd{sup 2+} for 5 days presented a similar pattern of translational dysfunctions in digestive glands, but during the following days of exposure the ribosomal efficiency was gradually restored. Meanwhile, metallothionein levels significantly increased, suggesting that upon Cd{sup 2+}-mediated stress the protein-synthesizing activity was reorganized both quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusively, Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} affect translation at several levels. However, the pattern of translational responses differs, largely depending on the capability of each metal to affect cytotoxic pathways in the tissues, such as induction of antioxidant defense and specific repair mechanisms.

  11. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  12. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  13. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  14. Effect of low level Doses of fast neutrons on the toxicity of snake venom through measuring some biophysical properties of blood serum of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, M.S.; Metwali, R.

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of low level doses of fission neutrons from Cf 252 source on sublethal doses (low medium) of snake venom cerastes cerastes by injecting albino eats with unirradiated or irradiated venom and measuring the biophysical alterations in the blood serum of the rats. The biophysical properties of the total serum proteins were studied through measuring their dielectric relaxation and the electric conductivity in the frequency range 0.1→5 MHz at 4 degree C. The absorption spectra of the extracted total serum protein were also measured. The results indicated that there are pronounced changes in the molecular constructions of the total serum protein such as the molecular radii, shape, the relaxation time and dielectric increment for the rats injected with unirradiated venom but for the rats injected with irradiated venom (3x10 8 n/cm 2 ) corresponding values approach the control value. These changes in the molecular constructions of the total serum protein indicate changes in its biochemical properties. This fact was revealed in a previous work, where the irradiation with the fast neutrons were found to decrease the toxicity of the venom

  15. PRISMA: Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy. A system-level integration model in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret MacAdam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA began in Quebec in 1999. Evaluation results indicated that the PRISMA Project improved the system of care for the frail elderly at no additional cost. In 2001, the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services made implementing the six features of the PRISMA approach a province-wide goal in the programme now known as RSIPA (French acronym. Extensive Province-wide progress has been made since then, but ongoing challenges include reducing unmet need for case management and home care services, creating incentives for increased physician participation in care planning and improving the computerized client chart, among others. PRISMA is the only evaluated international model of a coordination approach to integration and one of the few, if not the only, integration model to have been adopted at the system level by policy-makers.

  16. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Ytreberg, Erik; Eklund, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7 per mille artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests. - Leachate from a biocide-free anti-fouling paint for leisure boat use was more toxic than leachates from ship paints.

  17. Heat management in integrated circuits on-chip and system-level monitoring and cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrenci-Memik, Seda

    2016-01-01

    This essential overview covers the subject of thermal monitoring and management in integrated circuits. Specifically, it focuses on devices and materials that are intimately integrated on-chip (as opposed to in-package or on-board) for the purposes of thermal monitoring and thermal management.

  18. Photocatalytic performance of cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for purification of low-level toxic volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wan K.; Kang, Hyun J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst baked at 350 °C exhibited the highest BTEX degradation efficiency. ► Conventional lamp evidenced a higher degradation efficiency compared to LEDs. ► LEDs was more energy-efficient than conventional lamp for BTEX degradation. ► As the residence time increased, the average degradation efficiency increased. - Abstract: The present study investigated the photocatalytic performance of a cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for the decomposition of low-level (0.1 ppm) gas-phase organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX)). The morphological and optical properties of photocatalysts (Degussa P-25 TiO 2 ) baked at different temperatures were determined using a range of spectral instruments. The photocatalyst baked at 350 °C exhibited the highest conversion efficiencies for both benzene and toluene (81 and ∼100%, respectively). The conventional lamp showed a higher conversion efficiency for benzene compared to the 380-nm UV-LED and a higher conversion efficiency for benzene and toluene than the 365-nm UV-LED. However, the ratios of conversion efficiency to electric power consumption were 2.5–3.0 times higher for the latter light source than the former source. Moreover, as the residence time increased from 0.2 to 1.2 min, the average conversion efficiencies for BTEX of the 3-h photocatalytic process increased from nearly zero to 81%, 7 to nearly 100%, 20 to nearly 100%, and 29–30 to nearly 100%, respectively. The cylindrical photocatalytic reactor inserted with UV-LEDs could be energy-efficiently applied for the decomposition of low-level toxic compounds after optimization of the operating conditions.

  19. Photocatalytic performance of cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for purification of low-level toxic volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan K., E-mail: wkjo@knu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun J., E-mail: khj435@naver.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalyst baked at 350 Degree-Sign C exhibited the highest BTEX degradation efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional lamp evidenced a higher degradation efficiency compared to LEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LEDs was more energy-efficient than conventional lamp for BTEX degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As the residence time increased, the average degradation efficiency increased. - Abstract: The present study investigated the photocatalytic performance of a cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for the decomposition of low-level (0.1 ppm) gas-phase organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX)). The morphological and optical properties of photocatalysts (Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2}) baked at different temperatures were determined using a range of spectral instruments. The photocatalyst baked at 350 Degree-Sign C exhibited the highest conversion efficiencies for both benzene and toluene (81 and {approx}100%, respectively). The conventional lamp showed a higher conversion efficiency for benzene compared to the 380-nm UV-LED and a higher conversion efficiency for benzene and toluene than the 365-nm UV-LED. However, the ratios of conversion efficiency to electric power consumption were 2.5-3.0 times higher for the latter light source than the former source. Moreover, as the residence time increased from 0.2 to 1.2 min, the average conversion efficiencies for BTEX of the 3-h photocatalytic process increased from nearly zero to 81%, 7 to nearly 100%, 20 to nearly 100%, and 29-30 to nearly 100%, respectively. The cylindrical photocatalytic reactor inserted with UV-LEDs could be energy-efficiently applied for the decomposition of low-level toxic compounds after optimization of the operating conditions.

  20. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  1. An integrative view of storage of low- and high-level visual dimensions in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit

    2017-03-01

    Efficient performance in an environment filled with complex objects is often achieved through the temporal maintenance of conjunctions of features from multiple dimensions. The most striking finding in the study of binding in visual short-term memory (VSTM) is equal memory performance for single features and for integrated multi-feature objects, a finding that has been central to several theories of VSTM. Nevertheless, research on binding in VSTM focused almost exclusively on low-level features, and little is known about how items from low- and high-level visual dimensions (e.g., colored manmade objects) are maintained simultaneously in VSTM. The present study tested memory for combinations of low-level features and high-level representations. In agreement with previous findings, Experiments 1 and 2 showed decrements in memory performance when non-integrated low- and high-level stimuli were maintained simultaneously compared to maintaining each dimension in isolation. However, contrary to previous findings the results of Experiments 3 and 4 showed decrements in memory performance even when integrated objects of low- and high-level stimuli were maintained in memory, compared to maintaining single-dimension objects. Overall, the results demonstrate that low- and high-level visual dimensions compete for the same limited memory capacity, and offer a more comprehensive view of VSTM.

  2. Enhancement of high density polyethylene high integrity containers at a low level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Wong, O.P.

    1989-01-01

    High integrity containers (HIC) made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) have been used for disposal in South Carolina since the late seventies. With the recent definitive position taken by the NRC on the suitability of these containers for disposal, alternative means of assuring the structural integrity of the containers for the long term became necessary. The authors' company has developed an utilized reinforced concrete caissons at the Hanford, Washington site as an additional barrier and structural element to assure the long term high integrity function of the current HDPE HIC's also known as Poly HIC's on the market. This paper outlines the background of the HIC's in question, the NRC positions and ruling, and presents technical bases for the applicability of appropriately designed concrete overpacks to augment the structural integrity of HIC's

  3. Validation of the European Prototype for Integrated Care at Municipal Level in Savona: Updating and Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giacomini, M

    2001-01-01

    .... One of the validation site of EPIC was established in Savona (Italy). Subsequently the system in Savona has gone through successful validation and increasing integration with the region's health and social care system...

  4. A Neural Signature of Divisive Normalization at the Level of Multisensory Integration in Primate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Tomokazu; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2017-07-19

    Studies of multisensory integration by single neurons have traditionally emphasized empirical principles that describe nonlinear interactions between inputs from two sensory modalities. We previously proposed that many of these empirical principles could be explained by a divisive normalization mechanism operating in brain regions where multisensory integration occurs. This normalization model makes a critical diagnostic prediction: a non-preferred sensory input from one modality, which activates the neuron on its own, should suppress the response to a preferred input from another modality. We tested this prediction by recording from neurons in macaque area MSTd that integrate visual and vestibular cues regarding self-motion. We show that many MSTd neurons exhibit the diagnostic form of cross-modal suppression, whereas unisensory neurons in area MT do not. The normalization model also fits population responses better than a model based on subtractive inhibition. These findings provide strong support for a divisive normalization mechanism in multisensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vehicle-Level Reasoning Systems: Integrating System-Wide data to Estimate Instantaneous Health State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the primary goals of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) is to detect, diagnose, predict, and mitigate adverse events during the flight of an...

  6. Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Kelly; Wilson, Dale G.

    2009-01-01

    Two prototype Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet Level Shifters (ReBiLS) have been developed, where one version is a stand-alone component designed to interface between external low voltage and high voltage, and the other version is an embedded integrated circuit (IC) for interface between internal low-voltage logic and external high-voltage components. Targeting stand-alone and embedded circuits separately allows optimization for these distinct applications. Both ReBiLS designs use the commercially available 180-nm Flex fet Independently Double-Gated (IDG) SOI CMOS (silicon on insulator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Embedded ReBiLS circuits were integrated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder using CMOS Ultra-Low-Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) double-gated digital logic circuits. The scope of the project includes: creation of a new high-voltage process, development of ReBiLS circuit designs, and adjustment of the designs to maximize performance through simulation, layout, and manufacture of prototypes. The primary technical objectives were to develop a high-voltage, thick oxide option for the 180-nm Flexfet process, and to develop a stand-alone ReBiLS IC with two 8-channel I/O busses, 1.8 2.5 I/O on the low-voltage pins, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O on the high-voltage pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10-pF external loads. Another objective was to develop an embedded, rad-hard ReBiLS I/O cell with 0.5-V low-voltage operation for interface with core logic, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. A third objective was to develop a 0.5- V Reed-Solomon Encoder with embedded ReBilS I/O: Transfer the existing CULPRiT RS encoder from a 0.35-micron bulk-CMOS process to the ASI 180-nm Flexfet, rad-hard SOI Process. 0.5-V low-voltage core logic. 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins. 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. The stand

  7. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An

  8. Small-scale integrated demonstration of high-level radioactive waste processing and vitrification using actual SRP waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolsey, G.B.; Baumgarten, P.K.; Eibling, R.E.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    A small-scale pilot plant for chemical processing and vitrification of actual high-level waste has been constructed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). This fully integrated facility has been constructed in six shielded cells and has eight major unit operations. Equipment performance and processing characteristics of the unit operations are reported

  9. Pre-Service and Mentor Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Level of Technology Integration in the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Gatsy A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore perceptions of pre-service and mentor teachers regarding the level of integrating technology in the curriculum of 21 selected classrooms in eight rural school districts in Southeast Texas. The following research questions guided this phenomenological study: 1. What are…

  10. Reactivity I: A Foundation-Level Course for Both Majors and Nonmajors in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; McIntee, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    A foundation level course is presented that integrates aspects of organic, inorganic and biochemistry in the context of reactivity. The course was designed to serve majors in chemistry and other sciences (biochemistry, biology, nutrition), as well as nursing and pre-health professions students. Themes of the course were designed to highlight a…

  11. A Comparison of Burnout Levels of Preschool Teachers in Terms of Having Integration Students in Their Classes or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbaz, Ümit; Koyutürk Koçer, Nazife

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare burnout levels of preschool teachers who have integration students in their classes and those who do not. The sample of the study consists of 185 preschool teachers working in Isparta city and town centers. The data of the study were collected using the Burnout Inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson…

  12. INTEGRATION LEVEL OF FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS WITH THE ACCOUNTING CONVERGENCE PROCESS AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTROLLERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Carpes Dani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the integration level between the financial and management accounting systems as a result of the convergence process with the international accounting standards and of the effectiveness of controllership in Brazilian companies. A descriptive research was undertaken, based on the application of the questionnaire by Angelkort and Weißenberger (2011 to the 500 Best and Biggest of Revista Exame, issue 2011, using a sample of 32 companies that answered the research. The correlations between the integration level of the financial and management accounting systems and the variables “consistency of financial language”, “quality of services provided” and “degree of influence in decision making”, during the convergence period with the international accounting standards, were positive and moderate. It was also observed that the period before the accounting convergence (2004 till 2007 showed a better integration level of the financial and management accounting systems than the accounting convergence period (2008 till 2011. In conclusion, the accounting convergence process increased the integration level of the financial and management accounting systems in the investigated companies, as well as the effectiveness of controllership, particularly in the consistency of the financial language, in the quality of the services provided and in the influence of the controllers’ services on these companies’ decisions.

  13. Quantity of ethanol absorption after excessive hand disinfection using three commercially available hand rubs is minimal and below toxic levels for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Cyril D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs and the worldwide use of ethanol-based hand rubs in hospitals only few studies have specifically addressed the issue of ethanol absorption when repeatedly applied to human skin. The aim of this study was to assess if ethanol absorption occurs during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection using three different alcohol-based hand-rubs, and to quantify absorption levels in humans. Methods Twelve volunteers applied three hand-rubs containing 95% (hand-rub A, 85% (hand-rub B and 55% ethanol (hand-rub C; all w/w. For hygienic hand disinfection, 4 mL were applied 20 times for 30 s, with 1 minute break between applications. For surgical hand disinfection, 20 mL of each hand rub was applied to hands and arms up to the level of the elbow 10 times for 3 minutes, with a break of 5 minutes between applications. Blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were determined immediately prior and up to 90 minutes after application using head space gas chromatography. Results The median of absorbed ethanol after hygienic hand disinfection was 1365 mg (A, 630 mg (B, and 358 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 2.3% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.9% (C. After surgical hand disinfection, the median of absorbed ethanol was 1067 mg (A, 1542 mg (B, and 477 mg (C. The proportion of absorbed ethanol was 0.7% (A, 1.1% (B, and 0.5% (C. The highest median acetaldehyde concentration after 20 hygienic hand disinfections was 0.57 mg/L (hand-rub C, after 30 min, after 10 surgical hand disinfections 3.99 mg/L (hand-rub A, after 20 minutes. Conclusion The overall dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol was below toxic levels in humans and allows the conclusion that the use of the evaluated ethanol-based hand-rubs is safe.

  14. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  15. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  16. The Health Care Strengthening Act: The next level of integrated care in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Ricarda; Blankart, Carl Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    The lack of integration of health-care sectors and specialist groups is widely accepted as a necessity to effectively address the most urgent challenges in modern health care systems. Germany follows a more decentralized approach that allows for many degrees of freedom. With its latest bill, the German government has introduced several measures to explicitly foster the integration of health-care services. This article presents the historic development of integrated care services and offers insights into the construction of integrated care programs in the German health-care system. The measures of integrated care within the Health Care Strengthening Act are presented and discussed in detail from the perspective of the provider, the payer, and the political arena. In addition, the effects of the new act are assessed using scenario technique based on an analysis of the effects of previously implemented health policy reforms. Germany now has a flourishing integrated care scene with many integrated care programs being able to contain costs and improve quality. Although it will be still a long journey for Germany to reach the coordination of care standards set by leading countries such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand or Switzerland, international health policy makers may deliberately and selectively adopt elements of the German approach such as the extensive freedom of contract, the strong patient-focus by allowing for very need-driven and regional solutions, or the substantial start-up funding allowing for more unproven and progressive endeavors to further improve their own health systems. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Research on Sustainable Development Level Evaluation of Resource-based Cities Based on Shapely Entropy and Chouqet Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Qu, Weilu; Qiu, Weiting

    2018-03-01

    In order to evaluate sustainable development level of resource-based cities, an evaluation method with Shapely entropy and Choquet integral is proposed. First of all, a systematic index system is constructed, the importance of each attribute is calculated based on the maximum Shapely entropy principle, and then the Choquet integral is introduced to calculate the comprehensive evaluation value of each city from the bottom up, finally apply this method to 10 typical resource-based cities in China. The empirical results show that the evaluation method is scientific and reasonable, which provides theoretical support for the sustainable development path and reform direction of resource-based cities.

  18. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective

  19. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmirov, V. V.; Prorokova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  20. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhmirov V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  1. Elevated voltage level I.sub.DDQ failure testing of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC's is eliminated by I.sub.DDQ testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip.

  2. Elevated voltage level I{sub DDQ} failure testing of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, A.W.

    1996-05-21

    Burn in testing of static CMOS IC`s is eliminated by I{sub DDQ} testing at elevated voltage levels. These voltage levels are at least 25% higher than the normal operating voltage for the IC but are below voltage levels that would cause damage to the chip. 4 figs.

  3. Symbol recognition via statistical integration of pixel-level constraint histograms: a new descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su

    2005-02-01

    A new descriptor for symbol recognition is proposed. 1) A histogram is constructed for every pixel to figure out the distribution of the constraints among the other pixels. 2) All the histograms are statistically integrated to form a feature vector with fixed dimension. The robustness and invariance were experimentally confirmed.

  4. Middle Level Preservice Teachers Experience a Natural History Arts-Integrated Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn A.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Curricular demands and best practices for middle school require interdisciplinary units. Arts integration can provide motivation and a new pathway to learning. This unit focused on inquiry into the natural history of artifacts and rocks recovered from the exposed subsoil of an area near Cedar Falls, Iowa that had been bulldozed as part of…

  5. Reducing full one-loop amplitudes to scalar integrals at the integrand level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossola, Giovanni; Papadopoulos, Costas G.; Pittau, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    We show how to extract the coefficients of the 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-point one-loop scalar integrals from the full one-loop amplitude of arbitrary scattering processes. In a similar fashion, also the rational terms can be derived. Basically no information on the analytical structure of the amplitude is required, making our method appealing for an efficient numerical implementation

  6. Reducing full one-loop amplitudes to scalar integrals at the integrand level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Giovanni; Papadopoulos, Costas G.; Pittau, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    We show how to extract the coefficients of the 4-, 3-, 2- and 1-point one-loop scalar integrals from the full one-loop amplitude of arbitrary scattering processes. In a similar fashion, also the rational terms can be derived. Basically no information on the analytical structure of the amplitude is required, making our method appealing for an efficient numerical implementation.

  7. Flow level performance approximations for elastic traffic integrated with prioritized stream traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Berg, J.L. van den

    2007-01-01

    Almost all traffic in todays networks can be classified as being either stream or elastic. The support of these two traffic types is possible either with a Differentiated (DiffServ) or an Integrated Services (IntServ) architecture. However, both DiffServ and IntServ rely on efficient scheduling

  8. Strategic Integration of Multiple Bioinformatics Resources for System Level Analysis of Biological Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Mark; Sulakhe, Dinanath; Wang, Sheng; Xie, Bing; Hashemifar, Somaye; Taylor, Andrew; Dubchak, Inna; Conrad Gilliam, T; Maltsev, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances in genomics allow the production of biological data at unprecedented tera- and petabyte scales. Efficient mining of these vast and complex datasets for the needs of biomedical research critically depends on a seamless integration of the clinical, genomic, and experimental information with prior knowledge about genotype-phenotype relationships. Such experimental data accumulated in publicly available databases should be accessible to a variety of algorithms and analytical pipelines that drive computational analysis and data mining.We present an integrated computational platform Lynx (Sulakhe et al., Nucleic Acids Res 44:D882-D887, 2016) ( http://lynx.cri.uchicago.edu ), a web-based database and knowledge extraction engine. It provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization. It gives public access to the Lynx integrated knowledge base (LynxKB) and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces. The Lynx service-oriented architecture supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data. Lynx tools assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, and in the generation of weighted hypotheses regarding the genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. The goal of this integrated platform is to support the end-to-end analytical needs of various translational projects.

  9. Developing a Program-Level Faith Integration Curriculum: A Case Study from Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Bradley K.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating faith with academics possesses significant benefits for students, because it connects major disciplines to students' personal values and goals, prepares students to be effective and faithful professionals in their discipline and vocation, and develops students' understanding of the nature of their discipline. However, to…

  10. Innovation in health service delivery: integrating community health assistants into the health system at district level in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles

    2015-01-28

    To address the huge human resources for health gap in Zambia, the Ministry of Health launched the National Community Health Assistant Strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to integrate community-based health workers into the health system by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). However, literature suggests that the integration process of national community-based health worker programmes into health systems has not been optimal. Conceptually informed by the diffusion of innovations theory, this paper qualitatively aimed to explore the factors that shaped the acceptability and adoption of CHAs into the health system at district level in Zambia during the pilot phase. Data gathered through review of documents, 6 focus group discussions with community leaders, and 12 key informant interviews with CHA trainers, supervisors and members of the District Health Management Team were analysed using thematic analysis. The perceived relative advantage of CHAs over existing community-based health workers in terms of their quality of training and scope of responsibilities, and the perceived compatibility of CHAs with existing groups of health workers and community healthcare expectations positively facilitated the integration process. However, limited integration of CHAs in the district health governance system hindered effective programme trialability, simplicity and observability at district level. Specific challenges at this level included a limited information flow and sense of programme ownership, and insufficient documentation of outcomes. The district also had difficulties in responding to emergent challenges such as delayed or non-payment of CHA incentives, as well as inadequate supervision and involvement of CHAs in the health posts where they are supposed to be working. Furthermore, failure of the health system to secure regular drug supplies affected health service delivery and acceptability of CHA services at community level. The

  11. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity : Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, Anna; Snel, Cor; Rijkmans, Eke; De Groot, Didima; Bouma, Marga; Hermsen, Sanne; Piersma, Aldert; Menke, Aswin; Wolterbeek, André

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  12. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity: Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.; Snel, C.; Rijkmans, E.; Groot, D. de; Bouma, M.; Hermsen, S.; Piersma, A.; Menke, A.; Wolterbeek, A.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  13. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO_2-RuO_2-TiO_2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  14. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini, E-mail: priya.bdu07@gmail.com [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Selvaraj, Hosimin [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Ferro, Sergio [Ecas4 Australia, Unit 8, 1 London Road, Mile End, South Australia 5031 (Australia); Sundaram, Maruthamuthu [Corrosion and Materials Protection Division (CMPD), CSIR—Central electrochemical research institute (CECRI), Karaikudi 630 003 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Firstly, the mediated electro-oxidation allows rapid discoloration of the effluent. • Cost effective sunlight-mediated removal of bio-toxic active chlorine species. • Electrochemical pretreatment enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater. • About 90% COD removal was achieved by a subsequent biodegradation. • By-products from degradation of dyes have shown to be ecofriendly and non-toxic. - Abstract: A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100 min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144 h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC–MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  15. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  16. The Importance of Multi-level Theoretical Integration in Biopsychosocial Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the unification of health research in a biopsychosocial framework. However, increasing specialization and advancement in instrumentation makes it more difficult to bridge understanding across areas. It would be very useful to ground biopsychosocial research in the most powerful explanatory framework in the life sciences, evolution by natural and sexual selection. This would require and explanation of the functional significance of the phenomena related to the area of study, in addition to descriptions of the mechanism. The application of an integrative evolutionary framework will be illustrated with the example of sex differences in human mortality rates, which are related to endocrine, psychological, and socio-environmental factors. The integrative evolutionary model will be contrasted with a theoretical model that acknowledges physiological and social influences, but artificially separates them.

  17. Integrated Employee Occupational Health and Organizational-Level Registered Nurse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Schult, Tamara; Eaton, Jennifer Lipkowitz; Awosika, Ebi; McPhaul, Kathleen M

    2016-05-01

    The study examined organizational culture, structural supports, and employee health program integration influence on registered nurse (RN) outcomes. An organizational health survey, employee health clinical operations survey, employee attitudes survey, and administration data were collected. Multivariate regression models examined outcomes of sick leave, leave without pay, voluntary turnover, intention to leave, and organizational culture using 122 medical centers. Lower staffing ratios were associated with greater sick leave, higher turnover, and intention to leave. Safety climate was favorably associated with each of the five outcomes. Both onsite employee occupational health services and a robust health promotion program were associated with more positive organizational culture perceptions. Findings highlight the positive influence of integrating employee health and health promotion services on organizational health outcomes. Attention to promoting employee health may benefit organizations in multiple, synergistic ways.

  18. Chemical Approach to Biological Safety: Molecular-Level Control of an Integrated Zinc Finger Nuclease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Németh, Eszter; Asaka, Masamitsu N; Kato, Kohsuke

    2018-01-01

    circular dichroism spectroscopy, and nano-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. In situ intramolecular activation of the nuclease domain was observed, resulting in specific cleavage of DNA with moderate activity. This study represents a new approach to AN design through integrated nucleases consisting......Application of artificial nucleases (ANs) in genome editing is still hindered by their cytotoxicity related to off-target cleavages. This problem can be targeted by regulation of the nuclease domain. Here, we provide an experimental survey of computationally designed integrated zinc finger...... nucleases, constructed by linking the inactivated catalytic centre and the allosteric activator sequence of the colicin E7 nuclease domain to the two opposite termini of a zinc finger array. DNA specificity and metal binding were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, synchrotron radiation...

  19. Prioritising integrated care initiatives on a national level. Experiences from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and background: Based on a policy initiative and the foundation of the Competence Centre for Integrated Care by the Austrian Social Security Institutions in 2006, the aim of the project was to identify and prioritise potential diseases and target groups for which integrated care models should be developed and implemented within the Austrian health system. The project was conducted as a cooperation between the Competence Centre for Integrated Care of the Viennese Health Insurance Fund and the Institute of Social Medicine of the Medical University Vienna to ensure the involvement of both, theory and practice. Project report: The focus of the project was to develop an evidence-based process for the identification and prioritisation of diseases and target groups for integrated care measures. As there was no evidence of similar projects elsewhere, the team set out to design the prioritisation process and formulate the selection criteria based on the work in a focus group, literature reviews and a scientific council of national and international experts. The method and criteria were evaluated by an expert workshop. Discussion: The active involvement of all stakeholders from the beginning was crucial for the success. The time constraint proved also beneficial since it allowed the project team to demand focus and cooperation from all experts and stakeholders included. Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates that, with a clear concept and model, an evidence-based prioritisation including all stakeholders can be achieved. Ultimately however, the prioritisation is a political discussion and decision. Our model can only help base these decisions on sound and reasonable assumptions.

  20. Levels & Barriers to Supply Chain Integration: A conceptual model of Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    RajaIrfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    In modern business scenario Supply chain has become the back bone for every business organization. All supply chain partners are joined together in value delivery network of company that no one can perform better without support of other. The ultimate objective of this cohesive relationship is to deliver value to customers and gets desired state of customer satisfaction & loyalty for the organization. For this purpose it is necessary to integrate the internal and external partners of Supply c...

  1. Core Competencies in Integrative Pain Care for Entry-Level Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, Heather; Chauvin, Sheila W; Brown, Michael; Haramati, Aviad

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to develop a set of core competencies for graduating primary care physicians in integrative pain care (IPC), using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) domains. These competencies build on previous work in competencies for integrative medicine, interprofessional education, and pain medicine and are proposed for inclusion in residency training. A task force was formed to include representation from various professionals who are involved in education, research, and the practice of IPC and who represent broad areas of expertise. The task force convened during a 1.5-day face-to-face meeting, followed by a series of surveys and other vetting processes involving diverse interprofessional groups, which led to the consensus of a final set of competencies. The proposed competencies focus on interprofessional knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) and are in line with recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, military medicine, and professional pain societies advocating the need for coordination and integration of services for effective pain care with reduced risk and cost and improved outcomes. These ACGME domain compatible competencies for physicians reflect the contributions of several disciplines that will need to be included in evolving interprofessional settings and underscore the need for collaborative care. These core competencies can guide the incorporation of KSAs within curricula. The learning experiences should enable medical educators and graduating primary care physicians to focus more on integrative approaches, interprofessional team-based, patient-centered care that use evidence-based, traditional and complementary disciplines and therapeutics to provide safe and effective treatments for people in pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile

  3. High construal level can help negotiators to reach integrative agreements: The role of information exchange and judgement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wening, Stefanie; Keith, Nina; Abele, Andrea E

    2016-06-01

    In negotiations, a focus on interests (why negotiators want something) is key to integrative agreements. Yet, many negotiators spontaneously focus on positions (what they want), with suboptimal outcomes. Our research applies construal-level theory to negotiations and proposes that a high construal level instigates a focus on interests during negotiations which, in turn, positively affects outcomes. In particular, we tested the notion that the effect of construal level on outcomes was mediated by information exchange and judgement accuracy. Finally, we expected the mere mode of presentation of task material to affect construal levels and manipulated construal levels using concrete versus abstract negotiation tasks. In two experiments, participants negotiated in dyads in either a high- or low-construal-level condition. In Study 1, high-construal-level dyads outperformed dyads in the low-construal-level condition; this main effect was mediated by information exchange. Study 2 replicated both the main and mediation effects using judgement accuracy as mediator and additionally yielded a positive effect of a high construal level on a second, more complex negotiation task. These results not only provide empirical evidence for the theoretically proposed link between construal levels and negotiation outcomes but also shed light on the processes underlying this effect. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  5. Direct integration of intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays improves statistical power for robust reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Arran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix GeneChips and Illumina BeadArrays are the most widely used commercial single channel gene expression microarrays. Public data repositories are an extremely valuable resource, providing array-derived gene expression measurements from many thousands of experiments. Unfortunately many of these studies are underpowered and it is desirable to improve power by combining data from more than one study; we sought to determine whether platform-specific bias precludes direct integration of probe intensity signals for combined reanalysis. Results Using Affymetrix and Illumina data from the microarray quality control project, from our own clinical samples, and from additional publicly available datasets we evaluated several approaches to directly integrate intensity level expression data from the two platforms. After mapping probe sequences to Ensembl genes we demonstrate that, ComBat and cross platform normalisation (XPN, significantly outperform mean-centering and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD in terms of minimising inter-platform variance. In particular we observed that DWD, a popular method used in a number of previous studies, removed systematic bias at the expense of genuine biological variability, potentially reducing legitimate biological differences from integrated datasets. Conclusion Normalised and batch-corrected intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays can be directly combined to generate biologically meaningful results with improved statistical power for robust, integrated reanalysis.

  6. Integration, viral charge and E2 mRNA levels in the progresion of intraepitelial cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Trujillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to distinguish among squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL those associated with increased risk cervical cancer. Our aim was to evaluate if the expression level of gen E2 in women with SIL and evidence of viral integration is associated to the grade of lesion. Cervical scrapes HPV16 positive from 19 women with normal histology, 45 women with low-grade SIL (LSIL and 45 women with high-grade SIL (HSIL were analyzed. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the mRNA of E2 and E2 and E6 genes to calculate viral load (E6 and the ratio E2/E6 to assess viral integration. Similar frequencies of E2 expression were found in LSIL and HSIL15/45 (33 %, the frequency in women without SIL was lower 3/19 (15.8 %, and all cases with E2 gene expression had mixed episomal and integrated viral DNA. The viral load increased significantly with the grade of SIL (p= 0.049, while E2/E6 ratio decreased (p=0.049. The ROC analysis showed low capacity of the three viral parameters analyzed to distinguish between low and high grade SIL. In conclusion although SIL with mixed and integrated viral DNA with E2 expression could be at lower risk of progression, and viral load and integration were associated with higher severity of the lesion, its clinical value as biomarkers of HSIL is limited.

  7. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  8. Analysis and prediction of daily physical activity level data using autoregressive integrated moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results are provided on predicting daily physical activity level (PAL) data from past data of participants of a physical activity lifestyle program aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle consisting of more physical exercise. The PAL data quantifies the level of a person’s daily physical activity

  9. Integrating plant ecological responses to climate extremes from individual to ecosystem levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Andrew J; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-06-19

    Climate extremes will elicit responses from the individual to the ecosystem level. However, only recently have ecologists begun to synthetically assess responses to climate extremes across multiple levels of ecological organization. We review the literature to examine how plant responses vary and interact across levels of organization, focusing on how individual, population and community responses may inform ecosystem-level responses in herbaceous and forest plant communities. We report a high degree of variability at the individual level, and a consequential inconsistency in the translation of individual or population responses to directional changes in community- or ecosystem-level processes. The scaling of individual or population responses to community or ecosystem responses is often predicated upon the functional identity of the species in the community, in particular, the dominant species. Furthermore, the reported stability in plant community composition and functioning with respect to extremes is often driven by processes that operate at the community level, such as species niche partitioning and compensatory responses during or after the event. Future research efforts would benefit from assessing ecological responses across multiple levels of organization, as this will provide both a holistic and mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to increasing climatic variability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. NA62 Level 0 trigger: TELDES, TX mezzanine, RX mezzanine integration scenario

    CERN Multimedia

    Lupi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    TELDES is a TEL62 daughter-board used in the generation of the Liquid Krypton Calorimeter primitive for the Level 0 Trigger of the NA62 Experiment. TX and RX mezzanines are daughter boards used in the same trigger system to communicate between different levels of the trigger.

  11. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  12. Association of nutritional status and serum albumin levels with development of toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Michel Ortega, Rosa M; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Geraldine; Serna-Thomé, Maria G; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Diaz-Romero, Consuelo; Rodríguez, Cindy M; Martínez, Luis; Sánchez-Lara, Karla

    2010-01-01

    A frequent manifestation of advanced NSCLC is malnutrition, even though there are many studies which relate it with a poor survival, its relation with toxicity has not yet been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to associate malnutrition and albumin serum levels with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy-treated NSCLC. We prospectively evaluated 100 stage IV NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 ) and cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 ). Malnutrition was assessed using SGA prior treatment. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) were used to determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and were related to the development of toxicity. Toxicity was graded according to NCI CTCAE version 3.0 after two chemotherapy cycles. Median age was 58 ± 10 years, 51% of patients were malnourished, 50% had albumin ≤3.0 mg/mL. NLR ≥ 5 was associated with basal hypoalbuminemia (mean ranks, 55.7 vs. 39 p = 0.006), ECOG = 2 (47.2 vs. 55.4 p = 0.026) and PLR ≥ 150 were significantly related with a basal body mass index ≤20 (56.6 vs. 43.5; p = 0.02) and hypoalbuminemia (58.9 vs. 41.3; p = 0.02). Main toxicities observed after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were alopecia (84%), nausea (49%), neuropathy (46%), anemia (33%), lymphopenia (31%), and leukopenia (30%). Patients malnourished and with hypoalbuminemia developed more chemotherapy-induced toxicity overall when compared with those without malnutrition (31 vs 22; p = 0.02) and normal albumin (mean ranks, 62 vs 43; p = 0.002), respectively. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with anemia (56 vs 47; p = 0.05), fatigue (58 vs 46; p = 0.01), and appetite loss (57.1 vs 46.7; p = 0.004) compared with normal albumin. PLR ≥ 150 was related with the development of toxicity grade III/IV (59.27 vs. 47.03 p = 0.008) and anemia (37.9 vs 53.8 p = 0.004). SIR parameters were associated with malnutrition, weight loss and

  13. Association of nutritional status and serum albumin levels with development of toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Luis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent manifestation of advanced NSCLC is malnutrition, even though there are many studies which relate it with a poor survival, its relation with toxicity has not yet been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to associate malnutrition and albumin serum levels with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy-treated NSCLC. Methods We prospectively evaluated 100 stage IV NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 and cisplatin (80 mg/m2. Malnutrition was assessed using SGA prior treatment. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR and the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR were used to determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response (SIR and were related to the development of toxicity. Toxicity was graded according to NCI CTCAE version 3.0 after two chemotherapy cycles. Results Median age was 58 ± 10 years, 51% of patients were malnourished, 50% had albumin ≤3.0 mg/mL. NLR ≥ 5 was associated with basal hypoalbuminemia (mean ranks, 55.7 vs. 39 p = 0.006, ECOG = 2 (47.2 vs. 55.4 p = 0.026 and PLR ≥ 150 were significantly related with a basal body mass index ≤20 (56.6 vs. 43.5; p = 0.02 and hypoalbuminemia (58.9 vs. 41.3; p = 0.02. Main toxicities observed after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were alopecia (84%, nausea (49%, neuropathy (46%, anemia (33%, lymphopenia (31%, and leukopenia (30%. Patients malnourished and with hypoalbuminemia developed more chemotherapy-induced toxicity overall when compared with those without malnutrition (31 vs 22; p = 0.02 and normal albumin (mean ranks, 62 vs 43; p = 0.002, respectively. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with anemia (56 vs 47; p = 0.05, fatigue (58 vs 46; p = 0.01, and appetite loss (57.1 vs 46.7; p = 0.004 compared with normal albumin. PLR ≥ 150 was related with the development of toxicity grade III/IV (59.27 vs. 47.03 p = 0.008 and anemia (37.9 vs 53.8 p = 0.004. Conclusion SIR parameters were associated with

  14. Integrated Assessment of Diclofenac Biotransformation, Pharmacokinetics, and Omics-Based Toxicity in a Three-Dimensional Human Liver-Immunocompetent Coculture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ujjal; Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Large, Emma; Young, Carissa L; Rivera-Burgos, Dinelia; Yu, Jiajie; Cirit, Murat; Hughes, David J; Wishnok, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    In vitro hepatocyte culture systems have inherent limitations in capturing known human drug toxicities that arise from complex immune responses. Therefore, we established and characterized a liver immunocompetent coculture model and evaluated diclofenac (DCF) metabolic profiles, in vitro-in vivo clearance correlations, toxicological responses, and acute phase responses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DCF biotransformation was assessed after 48 hours of culture, and the major phase I and II metabolites were similar to the in vivo DCF metabolism profile in humans. Further characterization of secreted bile acids in the medium revealed that a glycine-conjugated bile acid was a sensitive marker of dose-dependent toxicity in this three-dimensional liver microphysiological system. Protein markers were significantly elevated in the culture medium at high micromolar doses of DCF, which were also observed previously for acute drug-induced toxicity in humans. In this immunocompetent model, lipopolysaccharide treatment evoked an inflammatory response that resulted in a marked increase in the overall number of acute phase proteins. Kupffer cell-mediated cytokine release recapitulated an in vivo proinflammatory response exemplified by a cohort of 11 cytokines that were differentially regulated after lipopolysaccharide induction, including interleukin (IL)-1 β , IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, tumor necrosis factor- α , RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β , and IL-5. In summary, our findings indicate that three-dimensional liver microphysiological systems may serve as preclinical investigational platforms from the perspective of the discovery of a set of clinically relevant biomarkers including potential reactive metabolites, endogenous bile acids, excreted proteins, and cytokines to predict early drug

  15. Integrated Management System in construction company-effective tool of quality, environment and safety level improving

    OpenAIRE

    Gašparík, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Contribution Presents the struCture of integrated M anageMent systeM ( iMs) according to international standards ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and STN OHSAS 18001:2009, which consists of 3 management systems focused to quality, environment and safety of building processes. The purpose of paper is to describe basic steps concerning the development of IMS. Paper analises basic processes of IMS like company vision, IMS planning, implementing, monitoring, revive and improving. The paper presents ...

  16. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-11-15

    A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC-MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [{sup 131}I]FIAU labeling of genetically transduced, tumor-reactive lymphocytes: cell-level dosimetry and dose-dependent toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, Pat [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Koehne, Guenther; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; O' Reilly, Richard J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Allogeneic Transplantation Service, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, New York, NY (United States); Gallardo, Humilidad F. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Gene Transfer and Somatic Cell Engineering Facility, New York, NY (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States); Finn, Ronald [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiochemistry and Cyclotron Core Facility, New York, NY (United States); Riviere, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Gene Transfer and Somatic Cell Engineering Facility, New York, NY (United States); Larson, Steven M. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Donor T cells have been shown to be reactive against and effective in adoptive immunotherapy of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphomas which develop in some leukemia patients post marrow transplantation. These T cells may be genetically modified by incorporation of a replication-incompetent viral vector (NIT) encoding both an inactive mutant nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR), as an immunoselectable surface marker, and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), rendering the cells sensitive to ganciclovir. The current studies are based on the selective HSV-TK-catalyzed trapping (phosphorylation) of the thymidine analog [{sup 131}I]-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuransyl-5-iodo-uracil (FIAU) as a means of stably labeling such T cells for in vivo trafficking (including tumor targeting) studies. Because of the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes and the potentially high absorbed dose to the nucleus from intracellular {sup 131}I (even at tracer levels), the nucleus absorbed dose (D{sub n}) and dose-dependent immune functionality were evaluated for NIT {sup +} T cells labeled ex vivo in [{sup 131}I ]FIAU-containing medium. Based on in vitro kinetic studies of [{sup 131}I ]FIAU uptake by NIT {sup +} T cells, D{sub n} was calculated using an adaptation of the MIRD formalism and the recently published MIRD cellular S factors. Immune cytotoxicity of [{sup 131}I ]FIAU-labeled cells was assayed against {sup 51}Cr-labeled target cells [B-lymphoblastoid cells (BLCLs) ] in a standard 4-h release assay. At median nuclear absorbed doses up to 830 cGy, a {sup 51}Cr-release assay against BLCLs showed no loss of immune cytotoxicity, thus demonstrating the functional integrity of genetically transduced, tumor-reactive T cells labeled at this dose level for in vivo cell trafficking and tumor targeting studies. (orig.)

  18. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  19. Representing the Fuzzy improved risk graph for determination of optimized safety integrity level in industrial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qorbali

    2013-12-01

    .Conclusion: as a result of establishing the presented method, identical levels in conventional risk graph table are replaced with different sublevels that not only increases the accuracy in determining the SIL, but also elucidates the effective factor in improving the safety level and consequently saves time and cost significantly. The proposed technique has been employed to develop the SIL of Tehran Refinery ISOMAX Center. IRG and FIRG results have been compared to clarify the efficacy and importance of the proposed method

  20. Flood extent and water level estimation from SAR using data-model integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajadi, O. A.; Meyer, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have long been recognized as a valuable data source for flood mapping. Compared to other sources, SAR's weather and illumination independence and large area coverage at high spatial resolution supports reliable, frequent, and detailed observations of developing flood events. Accordingly, SAR has the potential to greatly aid in the near real-time monitoring of natural hazards, such as flood detection, if combined with automated image processing. This research works towards increasing the reliability and temporal sampling of SAR-derived flood hazard information by integrating information from multiple SAR sensors and SAR modalities (images and Interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence) and by combining SAR-derived change detection information with hydrologic and hydraulic flood forecast models. First, the combination of multi-temporal SAR intensity images and coherence information for generating flood extent maps is introduced. The application of least-squares estimation integrates flood information from multiple SAR sensors, thus increasing the temporal sampling. SAR-based flood extent information will be combined with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to reduce false alarms and to estimate water depth and flood volume. The SAR-based flood extent map is assimilated into the Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (Hec-RAS) model to aid in hydraulic model calibration. The developed technology is improving the accuracy of flood information by exploiting information from data and models. It also provides enhanced flood information to decision-makers supporting the response to flood extent and improving emergency relief efforts.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity between toxic and non toxic Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massimo

    Indian varieties and a non-toxic variety of Mexican origin by means of about 400 RAPD ... evaluate the level of polymorphism and the capacity to discriminate between the ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol.

  3. Policy Integration and Multi-Level Governance: Dealing with the Vertical Dimension of Policy Mix Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifaceted problems such as sustainable development typically involve complex arrangements of institutions and instruments and the subject of how best to design and operate such ‘mixes’, ‘bundles’ or ‘portfolios’ of policy tools is an ongoing issue in this area. One aspect of this question is that some mixes are more difficult to design and operate than others. The paper argues that, ceteris paribus, complex policy-making faces substantial risks of failure when horizontal or vertical dimensions of policy-making are not well integrated. The paper outlines a model of policy mix types which highlights the design problems associated with more complex arrangements and presents two case studies of similarly structured mixes in the areas of marine parks in Australia and coastal zone management in Europe—one a failure and the other a successful case of integration—to illustrate how such mixes can be better designed and managed more effectively.

  4. High-level waste tank remediation technology integration summary. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLannoy, C.R.; Susiene, C.; Fowler, K.M.; Robson, W.M.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Technology Development Programs are engaged in a number of projects to develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate new technologies to support the cleanup and site remediation of more than 300 underground storage tanks containing over 381,000 m 3 (100 million gal) of liquid radioactive mixed waste at the Hanford Reservation. Significant development is needed within primary functions and in determining an overall bounding strategy. This document is an update of continuing work to summarize the overall strategy and to provide data regarding technology development activities within the strategy. It is intended to serve as an information resource to support understanding, decision making, and integration of multiple program technology development activities. Recipients are encouraged to provide comments and input to the authors for incorporation in future revisions

  5. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  6. Vehicle-Level Reasoning Systems: Integrating System-Wide Data to Estimate the Instantaneous Health State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Mylaraswmay, Dinkar; Mah, Robert W.; Cooper, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    At the aircraft level, a Vehicle-Level Reasoning System (VLRS) can be developed to provide aircraft with at least two significant capabilities: improvement of aircraft safety due to enhanced monitoring and reasoning about the aircrafts health state, and also potential cost savings by enabling Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). Along with the benefits of CBM, an important challenge facing aviation safety today is safeguarding against system and component failures and malfunctions. Faults can arise in one or more aircraft subsystem their effects in one system may propagate to other subsystems, and faults may interact.

  7. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I.

    2000-12-01

    The role of Sweden in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts extends from the late 1940's to the present. It covers active support to place nuclear weapons under international control and participation in practically all control regimes aimed at non-proliferation and elimination of any mass destruction capability. Sweden has also made available highly competent and high-ranking officers to serve many of the institutions and organisations supporting the political work and operative functions in this field. Until 1968, Sweden had a double-track policy where both the nuclear weapons option and non-proliferation as a possibility were pursued and investigated. After 1968, non-proliferation became the established policy, and the nuclear programme, materials and activities have since served exclusively peaceful purposes. It appears possible that the IAEA could, after a short period of initial implementation, be in a position to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in Sweden. Sweden has undertaken to ensure the transparency of its nuclear programme by providing all relevant information and by facilitating physical access, as necessary, and by addressing any questions and issues of concern in a direct and open-minded manner. The implementation of traditional safeguards should continue effectively, to enable the Agency to draw its conclusions on the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material in Sweden in the future. Using its reporting mechanisms, the Agency should share these conclusions with Member States so as to ensure that the objectives of the strengthened safeguards are met. Under these conditions, IAEA could and would decide to proceed with the implementation of integrated safeguard measures at the declared facilities and locations in Sweden. It is proposed that IAEA would participate in annual PIV's, but would, however, detach from routine verification work to the extent possible and make full use of the results of

  8. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  9. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary A. Franke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  10. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Lawrence T. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2205, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Chew, David P. [URS-Savannah River Remediation, Savannah River Site, Building 766-H Room 2426, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  11. Integrated High-Level Waste System Planning - Utilizing an Integrated Systems Planning Approach to Ensure End-State Definitions are Met and Executed - 13244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Lawrence T.; Chew, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy site which has produced nuclear materials for national defense, research, space, and medical programs since the 1950's. As a by-product of this activity, approximately 37 million gallons of high-level liquid waste containing approximately 292 million curies of radioactivity is stored on an interim basis in 45 underground storage tanks. Originally, 51 tanks were constructed and utilized to support the mission. Four tanks have been closed and taken out of service and two are currently undergoing the closure process. The Liquid Waste System is a highly integrated operation involving safely storing liquid waste in underground storage tanks; removing, treating, and dispositioning the low-level waste fraction in grout; vitrifying the higher activity waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility; and storing the vitrified waste in stainless steel canisters until permanent disposition. After waste removal and processing, the storage and processing facilities are decontaminated and closed. A Liquid Waste System Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) was developed to integrate and document the activities required to disposition legacy and future High-Level Waste and to remove from service radioactive liquid waste tanks and facilities. It establishes and records a planning basis for waste processing in the liquid waste system through the end of the program mission. The integrated Plan which recognizes the challenges of constrained funding provides a path forward to complete the liquid waste mission within all regulatory and legal requirements. The overarching objective of the Plan is to meet all Federal Facility Agreement and Site Treatment Plan regulatory commitments on or ahead of schedule while preserving as much life cycle acceleration as possible through incorporation of numerous cost savings initiatives, elimination of non-essential scope, and deferral of other scope not on the critical path to compliance

  12. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  13. Integrated assessment of adaptation to Climate change in Flevoland at the farm and regional level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Mandryk, M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Schaap, B.F.; Reidsma, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2011-01-01

    A key objective of the AgriAdapt project is to assess climate change impacts on agriculture including adaptation at regional and farm type level in combination with market and technological changes. More specifically, the developed methodologies enable (a) the assessment of impacts, risks and

  14. Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation to climate change in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandryk, M.

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the thesis allowed assessing plausible futures of agriculture in Flevoland around 2050 with insights in effective adaptation to climate change at different levels. Besides empirical findings, this thesis contributed methodologically to the portfolio of climate change impact and

  15. The Capstone Sales Course: An Integral Part of a University Level Professional Selling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, David; Harris, Garth; Gulati, Rajesh; Bristow, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The Capstone Sales course is the final in a sequence of five required courses in a 15 credit Professional Selling program housed in the Marketing Department at St. Cloud State University. The course is heavily focused on experiential learning activities for senior-level sales students. In this paper details of the course design, instructor and…

  16. NA62 Level 0 trigger: TELDES and InterTEL boards testing and integration scenario

    CERN Multimedia

    Lupi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    TELDES is a TEL62 daughter-board used in the generation of the Liquid Krypton Calorimeter primitive for the Level 0 Trigger of the NA62 Experiment. InterTEL is a daughter-board used to interconnect the TEL62s used in the CEDAR, LAV and RICH detectors.

  17. Traffic Data for Integrated Project-Level PM2.5 Conformity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    As required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the MOVES model is the mandatory emission : tool for new PM hot-spot analyses for project-level conformity determinations that began after December 20, 2012. : Localized traffic data inpu...

  18. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I

    2000-12-01

    The role of Sweden in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts extends from the late 1940's to the present. It covers active support to place nuclear weapons under international control and participation in practically all control regimes aimed at non-proliferation and elimination of any mass destruction capability. Sweden has also made available highly competent and high-ranking officers to serve many of the institutions and organisations supporting the political work and operative functions in this field. Until 1968, Sweden had a double-track policy where both the nuclear weapons option and non-proliferation as a possibility were pursued and investigated. After 1968, non-proliferation became the established policy, and the nuclear programme, materials and activities have since served exclusively peaceful purposes. It appears possible that the IAEA could, after a short period of initial implementation, be in a position to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in Sweden. Sweden has undertaken to ensure the transparency of its nuclear programme by providing all relevant information and by facilitating physical access, as necessary, and by addressing any questions and issues of concern in a direct and open-minded manner. The implementation of traditional safeguards should continue effectively, to enable the Agency to draw its conclusions on the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material in Sweden in the future. Using its reporting mechanisms, the Agency should share these conclusions with Member States so as to ensure that the objectives of the strengthened safeguards are met. Under these conditions, IAEA could and would decide to proceed with the implementation of integrated safeguard measures at the declared facilities and locations in Sweden. It is proposed that IAEA would participate in annual PIV's, but would, however, detach from routine verification work to the extent possible and make full use of the

  19. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-02

    An era of ubiquitous motion sensing has just begun. All electronic gadgets ranging from game consoles to mobile phones have some sort of motion sensors in them. In contrast to rigid motion sensing systems, this paper presents a system level description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a wearable arm sleeve to capture 3D orientation of the human arm. The sensors have been interfaced with a Bluetooth transceiver chip, which transmits data to a mobile phone app using standard Bluetooth protocol. An android mobile phone app has been developed to display the human arm motion in real time.

  20. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2016-06-14

    Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs), nanomaterial (NM) products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR), and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  1. Toxicological Considerations, Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Management of Inhaled Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Bakand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel engineered nanoparticles (NPs, nanomaterial (NM products and composites, are continually emerging worldwide. Many potential benefits are expected from their commercial applications; however, these benefits should always be balanced against risks. Potential toxic effects of NM exposure have been highlighted, but, as there is a lack of understanding about potential interactions of nanomaterials (NMs with biological systems, these side effects are often ignored. NPs are able to translocate to the bloodstream, cross body membrane barriers effectively, and affect organs and tissues at cellular and molecular levels. NPs may pass the blood–brain barrier (BBB and gain access to the brain. The interactions of NPs with biological milieu and resulted toxic effects are significantly associated with their small size distribution, large surface area to mass ratio (SA/MR, and surface characteristics. NMs are able to cross tissue and cell membranes, enter into cellular compartments, and cause cellular injury as well as toxicity. The extremely large SA/MR of NPs is also available to undergo reactions. An increased surface area of the identical chemical will increase surface reactivity, adsorption properties, and potential toxicity. This review explores biological pathways of NPs, their toxic potential, and underlying mechanisms responsible for such toxic effects. The necessity of toxicological risk assessment to human health should be emphasised as an integral part of NM design and manufacture.

  2. The upgrade of the ATLAS High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition systems and their integration

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High Level Trigger (HLT) systems that served the ATLAS experiment during LHC's first run are being upgraded in the first long LHC shutdown period, from 2013 to 2015. This contribution describes the elements that are vital for the new interaction between the two systems. The central architectural enhancement is the fusion of the once separate Level 2, Event Building (EB), and Event Filter steps. Through the factorization of previously disperse functionality and better exploitation of caching mechanisms, the inherent simplification carries with it an increase in performance. Flexibility to different running conditions is improved by an automatic balance of formerly separate tasks. Incremental EB is the principle of the new Data Collection, whereby the HLT farm avoids duplicate requests to the detector Read-Out System (ROS) by preserving and reusing previously obtained data. Moreover, requests are packed and fetched together to avoid redundant trips to the ROS. Anticipated EB is ac...

  3. Integrating Micro-level Interactions with Social Network Analysis in Tie Strength Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre, Osku; Gupta, Jayesh Prakash; Kärkkäinen, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    of tie strength based on reciprocal interaction from publicly available Facebook data, and suggest that this approach could work as a basis for further tie strength studies. Our approach makes use of weak tie theory, and enables researchers to study micro-level interactions (i.e. discussions, messages......A social tie is a target for ongoing, high-level scientific debate. Measuring the tie strength in social networks has been an important topic for academic studies since Mark Granovetter's seminal papers in 1970's. However, it is still a problematic issue mainly for two reasons: 1) existing tie...... strengthening process in online social networks. Therefore, we suggest a new approach to tie strength research, which focuses on studying communication patterns (edges) more rather than actors (nodes) in a social network. In this paper we build a social network analysis-based approach to enable the evaluation...

  4. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Conclusions: Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems. PMID:28137194

  5. Integrating the commercial and defense high level waste programs - A utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonto, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provided that disposal of high-level wastes resulting from defense activities be included in the authorized repository unless the President determined that separate facilities are required. President Reagan approved commingling of defense and civilian wastes on April 30, 1985. The impacts of this decision on the repository schedule, civilian spent fuel acceptance rates, and cost sharing are reviewed and recommendations for resolving these issues are presented

  6. Protein logic: a statistical mechanical study of signal integration at the single-molecule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, Wiet; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter; Mugler, Andrew

    2012-09-05

    Information processing and decision-making is based upon logic operations, which in cellular networks has been well characterized at the level of transcription. In recent years, however, both experimentalists and theorists have begun to appreciate that cellular decision-making can also be performed at the level of a single protein, giving rise to the notion of protein logic. Here we systematically explore protein logic using a well-known statistical mechanical model. As an example system, we focus on receptors that bind either one or two ligands, and their associated dimers. Notably, we find that a single heterodimer can realize any of the 16 possible logic gates, including the XOR gate, by variation of biochemical parameters. We then introduce what to our knowledge is a novel idea: that a set of receptors with fixed parameters can encode functionally unique logic gates simply by forming different dimeric combinations. An exhaustive search reveals that the simplest set of receptors (two single-ligand receptors and one double-ligand receptor) can realize several different groups of three unique gates, a result for which the parametric analysis of single receptors and dimers provides a clear interpretation. Both results underscore the surprising functional freedom readily available to cells at the single-protein level. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Some interactive factors affecting trench-cover integrity on low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.; Steger, J.G.; DePoorter, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes important mechanisms by which radionuclide can be transported from low-level waste disposal sites into biological pathways, discuss interactions of abiotic and biotic processes, and recommends environmental characteristics that should be measured to design sites that minimize this transport. Past experience at shallow land burial sites for low-level radioactive wastes suggest that occurrences of waste exposure and radionuclide transport are often related to inadequate trench cover designs. Meeting performance standards at low-level waste sites can only be achieved by recognizing that physical, chemical, and biological processes operating on and in a trench cover profile are highly interactive. Failure to do so can lead to improper design criteria and subsequent remedial action procedures that can adversely affect site stability. Based upon field experiments and computer modeling, recommendations are made on site characteristics that require measurement in order to design systems that reduce surface runoff and erosion, manage soil moisture and biota in the cover profile to maximize evapotranspiration and minimize percolation, and place bounds on the intrusion potential of plants and animals into the waste material. Major unresolved problems include developing probabilistic approaches that include climatic variability, improved knowledge of soil-water-plant-erosion relationships, development of practical vegetation establishment and maintenance procedures, prediction and quantification of site potential and plant succession, and understanding the interaction of processes occurring on and in the cover profile with deeper subsurface processes

  8. SPATIO-TEMPORAL DATA MODEL FOR INTEGRATING EVOLVING NATION-LEVEL DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ability to easily combine the data from diverse sources in a single analytical workflow is one of the greatest promises of the Big Data technologies. However, such integration is often challenging as datasets originate from different vendors, governments, and research communities that results in multiple incompatibilities including data representations, formats, and semantics. Semantics differences are hardest to handle: different communities often use different attribute definitions and associate the records with different sets of evolving geographic entities. Analysis of global socioeconomic variables across multiple datasets over prolonged time is often complicated by the difference in how boundaries and histories of countries or other geographic entities are represented. Here we propose an event-based data model for depicting and tracking histories of evolving geographic units (countries, provinces, etc. and their representations in disparate data. The model addresses the semantic challenge of preserving identity of geographic entities over time by defining criteria for the entity existence, a set of events that may affect its existence, and rules for mapping between different representations (datasets. Proposed model is used for maintaining an evolving compound database of global socioeconomic and environmental data harvested from multiple sources. Practical implementation of our model is demonstrated using PostgreSQL object-relational database with the use of temporal, geospatial, and NoSQL database extensions.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Data Model for Integrating Evolving Nation-Level Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokine, A.; Stewart, R. N.

    2017-10-01

    Ability to easily combine the data from diverse sources in a single analytical workflow is one of the greatest promises of the Big Data technologies. However, such integration is often challenging as datasets originate from different vendors, governments, and research communities that results in multiple incompatibilities including data representations, formats, and semantics. Semantics differences are hardest to handle: different communities often use different attribute definitions and associate the records with different sets of evolving geographic entities. Analysis of global socioeconomic variables across multiple datasets over prolonged time is often complicated by the difference in how boundaries and histories of countries or other geographic entities are represented. Here we propose an event-based data model for depicting and tracking histories of evolving geographic units (countries, provinces, etc.) and their representations in disparate data. The model addresses the semantic challenge of preserving identity of geographic entities over time by defining criteria for the entity existence, a set of events that may affect its existence, and rules for mapping between different representations (datasets). Proposed model is used for maintaining an evolving compound database of global socioeconomic and environmental data harvested from multiple sources. Practical implementation of our model is demonstrated using PostgreSQL object-relational database with the use of temporal, geospatial, and NoSQL database extensions.

  10. Improving integrated waste management at the regional level: the case of Lombardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Lucia; Falbo, Alida; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The article summarises the main results of the 'Gestione Rifiuti in Lombardia: Analisi del ciclo di vita' (Waste management in Lombardia region: Life cycle assessment; GERLA) project. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been selected by Regione Lombardia as a strategic decision support tool in the drafting of its new waste management programme. The goal was to use the life cycle thinking approach to assess the current regional situation and thus to give useful strategic indications for the future waste management. The first phase of the study consisted of the LCA of the current management of municipal waste in the Lombardia region (reference year: 2009). The interpretation of such results has allowed the definition of four possible waste management scenarios for the year 2020, with the final goal being to improve the environmental performance of the regional system. The results showed that the current integrated waste management of Lombardia region is already characterised by good energy and environmental performances. However, there is still room for further improvement: actions based, on the one hand, on a further increase in recycling rates and, on the other hand, on a series of technological modifications, especially in food waste and residual waste management, can be undertaken to improve the overall system.

  11. Optimization of Two-Level Disassembly/Remanufacturing/Assembly System with an Integrated Maintenance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhour Guiras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With an increase of environmental pressure on economic activities, reverse flow is increasingly important. It seeks to save resources, eliminate waste, and improve productivity. This paper investigates the optimization of the disassembly, remanufacturing and assembly system, taking into account assembly-disassembly system degradation. An analytical model is developed to consider disassembly, remanufacturing of used/end-of-life product and assembly of the finished product. The finished product is composed of remanufactured and new components. A maintenance policy is sequentially integrated to reduce the system unavailability. The aim of this study is to help decision-makers, under certain conditions, choose the most cost-effective process for them to satisfy the customer as well as to adapt to the potential risk that can perturb the disassembly-assembly system. A heuristic is developed to determine the optimal ordered date of the used end-of-life product as well as the optimum release dates of new external components. The results reveal that considering some remanufacturing and purchase components costs, the proposed model is more economical in comparison with a model without remanufactured parts. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the impact of the variation of the ordering cost and quality of the used end-of-life product on the system profitability. Finally, the risk due to system repair periods is discussed, which has an impact on managerial decision-making.

  12. Onco-proteogenomics: Multi-omics level data integration for accurate phenotype prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Lampros; Prassas, Ioannis; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Charames, George S

    2017-09-01

    The overall goal of translational oncology is to identify molecular alterations indicative of cancer or of responsiveness to specific therapeutic regimens. While next-generation sequencing has played a pioneering role in this quest, the latest advances in proteomic technologies promise to provide a holistic approach to the further elucidation of tumor biology. Genetic information may be written in DNA and flow from DNA to RNA to protein, according to the central dogma of molecular biology, but the observed phenotype is dictated predominantly by the DNA protein coding region-derived proteotype. Proteomics holds the potential to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype, because the powerful analytical tool of mass spectrometry has reached a point of maturity to serve this purpose effectively. This integration of "omics" data has given birth to the novel field of onco-proteogenomics, which has much to offer to precision medicine and personalized patient management. Here, we review briefly how each "omics" technology has individually contributed to cancer research, discuss technological and computational advances that have contributed to the realization of onco-proteogenomics, and summarize current and future translational applications.

  13. CROWN-LEVEL TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION USING INTEGRATED AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL AND LIDAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1 A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM derived from LiDAR data; 2 The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3 Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4 The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90 performed better than Li

  14. Crown-Level Tree Species Classification Using Integrated Airborne Hyperspectral and LIDAR Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.; Kong, X.; Bao, H.; Ni, Y.; Ma, L.; Jin, J.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping tree species is essential for sustainable planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of different trees as different ecological service. However, crown-level tree species automatic classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among diversified tree species, fine-scale spatial variation, shadow, and underlying objects within a crown. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and hyperspectral imagery offer a great potential opportunity to derive crown spectral, structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, an innovative approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized LiDAR data for individual tree crown delineation and morphological structure extraction, and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectral extraction. Specifically, four steps were include: 1) A weighted mean filtering method was developed to improve the accuracy of the smoothed Canopy Height Model (CHM) derived from LiDAR data; 2) The marker-controlled watershed segmentation algorithm was, therefore, also employed to delineate the tree-level canopy from the CHM image in this study, and then individual tree height and tree crown were calculated according to the delineated crown; 3) Spectral features within 3 × 3 neighborhood regions centered on the treetops detected by the treetop detection algorithm were derived from the spectrally normalized CASI imagery; 4) The shape characteristics related to their crown diameters and heights were established, and different crown-level tree species were classified using the combination of spectral and shape characteristics. Analysis of results suggests that the developed classification strategy in this paper (OA = 85.12 %, Kc = 0.90) performed better than LiDAR-metrics method (OA = 79

  15. Mechanisms on boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings at a transcriptional level revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xing Zhou

    Full Text Available The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B-induced alleviation of aluminum (B-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent-like, metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2, cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein, Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like, gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future.

  16. Mechanisms on boron-induced alleviation of aluminum-toxicity in Citrus grandis seedlings at a transcriptional level revealed by cDNA-AFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Xing; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Chen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms on boron (B)-induced alleviation of aluminum (B)-toxicity in plants have been examined in some details, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is very limited. In this study, we first used the cDNA-AFLP to investigate the gene expression patterns in Citrus grandis roots responsive to B and Al interactions, and isolated 100 differentially expressed genes. Results showed that genes related to detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aldehydes (i.e., glutathione S-transferase zeta class-like isoform X1, thioredoxin M-type 4, and 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+-dependent)-like), metabolism (i.e., carboxylesterases and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-like 4-like, nicotianamine aminotransferase A-like isoform X3, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase 18-like isoform X1, and FNR, root isozyme 2), cell transport (i.e., non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein At2g13820-like and major facilitator superfamily protein), Ca signal and hormone (i.e., calcium-binding protein CML19-like and IAA-amino acid hydrolase ILR1-like 4-like), gene regulation (i.e., Gag-pol polyprotein) and cell wall modification (i.e., glycosyl hydrolase family 10 protein) might play a role in B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity. Our results are useful not only for our understanding of molecular processes associated with B-induced alleviation of Al-toxicity, but also for obtaining key molecular genes to enhance Al-tolerance of plants in the future.

  17. A MINIMALIST APPROACH TO MULTI-LEVEL IT-HUMAN INTEGRATION IN TRANSLATION WORK'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Soria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attenlpts to define the intimate relationship that is intended between c1assroon1-based and laboratory-based activities, between private study and language class, between individual and collective effort and between computer-centered and teacher-led learning. We tend to take it as an axiom o€ CALL that the place of IT is beside the teacher, its function complementary or suplementary. Typically. the teacher's role is usually one (occasionally just a couple of these: designer, author, editor, tester, provider, trainer, checker or supervisor. Except when in a supervisory role, the teacher's role is taken over by the computer when the teacher's own activity stops. This is what we tend to call computer-aided instruction. In the vast majority of cases, the role of IT is extrinsic to the teacher's own activity. I shall try to demonstrate here that the aid that the coMputer is able to provide can be effectively brought right into the classroom as an integral, intrinsic part of the teacher's own activity and that, by doing so, it can enhance not only the teacher's activity but also the complementary role which is traditionally assigned to the computer. The processes described here were developed with a specific situation in mind, not atypical in, at least, British Higher Education: increased mixed ability and reduced teaching time. In a pedagogical context that, in spite of mission statement protestations, usually attempts to make the most of the average, they specifically target the lower and higher ability student ranges. New funding has been secured to continue with this research from September 2002.

  18. Personality, foraging behavior and specialization: integrating behavioral and food web ecology at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Benjamin J; Gownaris, Natasha J; Heerhartz, Sarah M; Monaco, Cristián J

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral traits and diet were traditionally thought to be highly plastic within individuals. This view was espoused in the widespread use of optimality models, which broadly predict that individuals can modify behavioral traits and diet across ecological contexts to maximize fitness. Yet, research conducted over the past 15 years supports an alternative view; fundamental behavioral traits (e.g., activity level, exploration, sociability, boldness and aggressiveness) and diet often vary among individuals and this variation persists over time and across contexts. This phenomenon has been termed animal personality with regard to behavioral traits and individual specialization with regard to diet. While these aspects of individual-level phenotypic variation have been thus far studied in isolation, emerging evidence suggests that personality and individual specialization may covary, or even be causally related. Building on this work, we present the overarching hypothesis that animal personality can drive specialization through individual differences in various aspects of consumer foraging behavior. Specifically, we suggest pathways by which consumer personality traits influence foraging activity, risk-dependent foraging, roles in social foraging groups, spatial aspects of foraging and physiological drivers of foraging, which in turn can lead to consistent individual differences in food resource use. These pathways provide a basis for generating testable hypotheses directly linking animal personality to ecological dynamics, a major goal in contemporary behavioral ecology.

  19. Integration of low level and ontology derived features for automatic weapon recognition and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakov, Nikolay M.; Suh, Sang; Attardo, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a further step of a research toward the development of a quick and accurate weapons identification methodology and system. A basic stage of this methodology is the automatic acquisition and updating of weapons ontology as a source of deriving high level weapons information. The present paper outlines the main ideas used to approach the goal. In the next stage, a clustering approach is suggested on the base of hierarchy of concepts. An inherent slot of every node of the proposed ontology is a low level features vector (LLFV), which facilitates the search through the ontology. Part of the LLFV is the information about the object's parts. To partition an object a new approach is presented capab