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Sample records for intake weight gain

  1. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  2. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  3. Dietary intake and weight gain of pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth-weight remains an indicator for survivalof infants and a summary of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Low birth-weight is prevalent in developing countries and contributes to infant mortality. Weight gain during pregnancy is a good predictor of birth-weight and window of opportunity to reduce LBW rates ...

  4. Body weight gain in free-living Pima Indians: effect of energy intake vs expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataranni, P A; Harper, I T; Snitker, S

    2003-01-01

    Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited.......Obesity results from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, experimental evidence of the relative contribution of interindividual differences in energy intake and expenditure (resting or due to physical activity) to weight gain is limited....

  5. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  6. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  7. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  8. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Czwornog

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41. Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02. PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95. PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021 over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure.

  10. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  13. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  14. Compromised Weight Gain, Milk Intake, and Feeding Behavior in Breastfed Newborns of Depressive Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Sybil L.; Jackson, Shera C.; Boylan, L. Mallory

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad. Method N = 50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding. Results An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight, age, hunger a...

  15. Mirtazapine and Weight Gain in Avoidant and Restrictive Food Intake Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Emily; Chen, Theresa; Menzel, Jessie; Schwartz, Terry; Kaye, Walter H

    2018-04-01

    Avoidant and restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a newly classified disorder in the DSM-5 that describes a pattern of restrictive eating across the lifespan that results in significant weight loss, nutritional deficiency, dependence on enteral feeding or nutritional supplements, or marked interference in psychosocial functioning. 1 Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment approaches or medications for this disorder. 2 We have administered a range of psychoactive medications to those with ARFID in our treatment program in an attempt to find an effective medication. One medication of interest has been mirtazapine because it promotes appetite and weight gain, decreases nausea and vomiting, and improves gastric emptying. Although mirtazapine is an off-label approach in a pediatric population and carries a black box warning for an increased risk of suicide, it is an effective treatment for depression and anxiety symptoms in adults and is generally well tolerated. 3,4 There are no studies to date reporting on the use of mirtazapine in patients with ARFID. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  17. The Association between Obesity-Risk Genes and Gestational Weight Gain Is Modified by Dietary Intake in African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-risk genes have been associated with dietary intake, appetite regulation, and gestational weight gain (GWG. The purpose of this study was to examine whether dietary intake including total energy intake and macronutrients modify or mediate the association between obesity-risk genes and GWG. An observational study was conducted with 85 African American pregnant women. Sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle factors and dietary recalls were collected during pregnancy. Seven obesity-risk genetic variants were genotyped. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the moderation and mediation effects of dietary intake. The mean GWG was 14.2 kg, and 55.3% of the women gained above the Institute of Medicine GWG guidelines. A nominally significant association was found between rs17782313 (close to MC4R and percentage of energy intake from fat P=0.043. A variant downstream of KCTD15 (rs11084753 was nominally significantly related to GWG P=0.023. There was a significant interaction between the KCTD15 polymorphism and dietary fat intake P=0.048. Women with the AG genotype gained more weight during pregnancy with more dietary fat consumption. In conclusion, our results indicate that dietary macronutrients, especially fat intake, may modify the effect of the KCTD15 gene on GWG. Improved knowledge of gene-diet interactions can facilitate the development of personalized interventions.

  18. Effect of photoperiod on body weight gain, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in Japanese quail (Coturnix c. Japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Effect of photoperiod and food duration on body weight gain, energy intake, energy expenditure, and sexual development were investigated in two strains of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), bred for meat (broilers) or egg production (layers), from 7 to 71 days of age. In a first experiment

  19. [Acupuncture Intervention Reduced Weight Gain Induced by Hypoglycemic Agents through Food Intake-related Targets in Central Nervous System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin-yue; Ou, Chen; Lu, Sheng-feng; Zhu, Bing-mei

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice shows that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) induce weight gain in patients with type-II diabetes mellitus during treatment, which restrains its application and generalization clinically. It has been demonstrated that acupuncture therapy is useful in easing obesity in clinical trials. In the present paper, we summarize the underlying mechanism of weight gain induced by TZDs through food intake-related targets in the central nervous system and analyze the possible effects of acupuncture therapy. Acupuncture therapy is expected to reduce weight gain side effect of TZDs through 1) lowering permeability of blood brain barrier to reduce TZDs concentration in the brain, 2) upregulating the expression of hypothalamic leptin and inhibiting hypothalamic neuropiptide Y expression, and 3) down-regulating activities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor to reduce energy intake and fat syntheses.

  20. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  1. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    factors targeted. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2. METHODS: Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean...... type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: During the intervention women in the D+PA group...... for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149....

  2. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2018-01-01

    subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...

  3. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  4. Forage intake and weight gain of ewes is affected by roughage mixes during winter in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Yunbo; Yuan, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of dietary roughage species and their combinations on forage intake and growth rate of ewes during winter in a pastoral-farming area of northeast China. Twenty-five Northeast crossbred ewes (fine-wool sheep × Small-tailed Han sheep) were randomly selected and divided into five groups (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5). During a 30 day feeding trial, each group of ewes were offered the same basal diet (composed of 0.36 kg chopped maize stalk (10 mm), 0.14 kg corn meal, 0.05 kg soybean meal and 1.2 g NaCl) and one of the five supplementary roughage mixes, namely 100% Leymus chinensis hay (G1), 100% Vigna radiata stalk (G2), L. chinensis hay plus Suaeda glauca (G3), V. radiata stalk plus S. glauca (G4) and L. chinensis hay plus V. radiata stalk and S. glauca (G5). The results showed that roughage mixes had significant influences on daily roughage intake and daily weight gain of ewes. Ewes had greater daily roughage intake when supplemented with three species of roughage compared to the roughage with one species; however, there was no significant difference between G1 and G2, G3 and G4, or between G4 and G5. The average daily gain of ewes was also greater when they were supplemented with the roughage combination of L. chinensis, V. radiata stalk and S. glauca. No difference in average daily weight gain was observed between the G4 and G5 treatments (P > 0.05). The lowest average daily weight gain was observed when the ewes were supplemented with V. radiata stalk alone (G2) (P ewes with various roughages simultaneously in winter could improve their forage intake and average daily weight gain compared to offering the ewes only one type of dietary roughage. Further, feeding roughage supplements containing a diverse mix of roughage species represents one method for increasing roughage utilization in livestock production during winter in the pastoral-farming areas of northeastern China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  6. Correlations of circulating peptide YY and ghrelin with body weight, rate of weight gain, and time required to achieve the recommended daily intake in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, XiaFang; Du, XueLiang; Zhu, JianXing; Xie, LiJuan; Zhang, YongJun; He, ZhenJuan

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to elucidate the relationships between serum concentrations of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin and growth development in infants for potential application to the clinical observation index. Serum concentrations of PYY and ghrelin were measured using radioimmunoassay from samples collected at the clinic. For each patient, gestational age, birth weight, time required to return to birth weight, rate of weight gain, time required to achieve recommended daily intake (RDI) standards, time required for full-gastric feeding, duration of hospitalization, and time of administration of total parenteral nutrition were recorded. Serum PYY and ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the preterm group (N = 20) than in the full-term group (N = 20; P weight, and the degree of correlation varied with age. Serum ghrelin concentration correlated negatively with birth weight and positively with the time required to achieve RDI (P newborns and to determine the usefulness of measuring these hormones in clinical practice.

  7. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Renault

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted.To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342 among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2.Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA; physical activity intervention alone (PA; or control (C. Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14 and endpoint (weeks 36-37 using a validated food frequency questionnaire.During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7 greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks.In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149.

  9. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted. To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI≥30 kg/m2. Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11-14) and endpoint (weeks 36-37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk) intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149.

  10. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  11. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  12. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Borderas, T F; Rushen, J

    2011-03-01

    Dairy calves are increasingly fed large volumes of milk, which reduces feeding motivation and improves weight gain. However, calves often show signs of hunger and lose weight when weaned off milk due to low starter intake. We examined whether delaying the age at weaning would reduce responses to weaning. Calves were raised in groups of 9 and fed milk, starter, hay, and water with automated feeders. In each group, 3 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low-milk, early-weaned: fed 6 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d of age; (2) high-milk early-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d; (3) high-milk later-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 89 d of age. Milk, starter, and hay intakes were recorded daily and digestible energy (DE) intake estimated. Feeder visits were recorded. Before weaning, the high-milk calves drank more milk, ate less starter and hay, but had higher DE intakes, gained more weight, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the low-milk, early-weaned calves. During and immediately after weaning, the high-fed, early-weaned calves ate less starter and hay, had lower DE intakes, and gained less weight than the low-milk, early-weaned calves and lost their body weight advantage 7 d after weaning. During and immediately after weaning, the high-milk, later-weaned calves ate more starter and hay and had higher DE intakes, higher weight gains, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the high-milk, early-weaned calves. They were still heavier than the low-milk, early-weaned calves 18 d after weaning. Delaying the age at which calves are weaned off milk reduces the drop in energy intake and behavioral signs of hunger that result from weaning. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  14. [Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Paiva, Letícia Vieira; Costa, Verbênia Nunes; Liao, Adolfo Wenjaw; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during pregnancy); live fetus at labor onset; delivery at the institution; maternal weight measured on the day of delivery, and presence of medical and/or obstetrical complications characterizing pregnancy as high-risk. Nutritional status was assessed by pregestational body mass index and body mass index in late pregnancy, and the patients were classified as: underweight, adequate, overweight and obese. A food frequency questionnaire was applied to evaluate energy consumption. We investigated maternal weight gain, delivery data and perinatal outcomes, as well as fetal growth based on the occurrence of small for gestational age and large for gestational age neonates. We included 374 women who were divided into three study groups according to newborn birth weight: adequate for gestational age (270 cases, 72.2%), small for gestational age (91 cases, 24.3%), and large for gestational age (13 cases, 3.5%). Univaried analysis showed that women with small for gestational age neonates had a significantly lower mean pregestational body mass index (23.5 kg/m², ppregnancy (27.7 kg/m², ppregnancy (25.3%, ppregnancy (34.3 kg/m², ppregnancy (53.8%, ppregnancy (OR=0.9; CI95% 0.8-0.9, ppregnancy (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.1-11.7, p=0.04). The maternal nutritional status at the end of pregnancy in high-risk pregnancies is independently associated with fetal growth, the body mass index during late pregnancy is a protective factor against small for gestational age neonates, and maternal obesity is a risk factor for large for gestational age neonates.

  15. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  17. Effect of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb leaves level in the diet on feed intake and body weight gain of Kacang goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. W. Lawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analysis the effect of levels of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb. Willd. leaves in the diet on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of Kacang goats. The completely randomized block design using 5 treatments and 5 replications was used in this experiment. The treatments were 5 concentrate feeds containing different levels of white kabesak leaves i.e. 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in the dry matter (DM basis (representing T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments, respectively. The feeds were set up to contain 11.5-12.5% of crude protein (CP. Concentrate feed and native grass was fed at ratio of 60 : 40 was fed to 5 local male goats (age 1-1.5 years old and initial weight of 16.7±5.0 kg. The results showed that DM, organic matter (OM, and CP intake of T0 was not significantly different from those of T1 goats, but it was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of T2, T3 and T4. The DM, OM, CP, and crude fiber (CF digestibility as well as body weight gain in T2 goats were significantly higher (P<0.05 and had feed conversion ratio that was significantly better (P<0.05 compared to those of the other feed treatments. In conclusion, the most optimum level of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb. Willd. leaves used in concentrate feed for goat was 20 %.

  18. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake ( p diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 ( p protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  19. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  20. Effects of inclusion levels of Indigofera sp. on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain in kids fed Brachiaria ruziziensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Tarigan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty weaned male goats (F1 of Boer x Kacang with initial weight of 9 to 12 kg and ages ranging between 3.0 and 4.0 months were used in a study to evaluate the increasing inclusion of Indigofera sp foliage as a source of protein in diets based on chopped Brachiaria ruziziensis for growing goats. Five goats were allocated to one of four treatments in a randomised block design. The diet treatments were: T0 (control diets: B. ruziziensis (100%, T1 (85% B. ruziziensis + 15% Indigofera sp., T2 (70% B. ruziziensis + 30% Indigofera sp. T3 (55% B. ruziziensis + 45% Indigofera sp. all on DM basis. Feed (DM was offered daily at 3.5% BW. The content of CP in Indigofera sp is relatively high (258 g/kg DM, while the NDF (350.7 g/kg DM and ADF (232.2 g/ kg DM concentrations were low. The content of secondary compounds such as total phenol (8.9 g/kg DM, total tannin (0.8 g/kg DM and condensed tannin (0,5 g/kg DM were considerably low. The inclusion of Indigofera sp foliage in diets increased (P 0.05 among the T0,T1 and T2 diets and ranged from 0.08 to 0.09. It is concluded that the foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as feed supplement to supply proteins with low tannin contents. In a grass-based diets Indigofera sp colud be used at the level of 30 to 45% (DM for growing kids.

  1. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  2. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause weight gain? Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. Weight gain can occur as a side effect of some ... and metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL). The average weight gain is about 2.6 pounds (about 1.2 ...

  3. [Fast food promotes weight gain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne V

    2007-05-07

    The total amounts of fat in a fast food menu consisting of French fries and fried Chicken Nuggets from McDonald's and KFC, respectively, bought in 35 different countries vary from 41 to 71 gram. In most countries the menu contained unacceptably high amounts of industrially-produced trans fat which contributes to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and type 2 diabetes. The quality of the ingredients in fast food ought to be better and the size of the portions smaller and less energy-dense so that frequent fast food meals do not increase the risk of obesity and diseases among customers.

  4. The effect of holiday weight gain on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    The topic of holiday weight gain has been a frequent subject of the lay media; however, scientific interest has only been recent. Multiple studies in Western societies have reported average weight gains among adults during the period between mid-November and mid-January that were about 0.5 kg. The range in individual weight changes was large, however, and the already overweight and obese gain more weight than those who are healthy weight. When the average gain across the year was also measured, the holiday weight was the major contributor to annual excess weight gain. Efforts patterned to increase awareness to energy balance and body weight have been shown to be successful at reducing such gain. An exception to holiday weight gain being a major contributor to annual excess gain has been children, in whom summer weight gains have been observed to be the major contributor to average excess weight gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences...... on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we...... identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation...

  6. Weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain in outpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances A; Boden, Joseph M; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Bulik, Cynthia M; Joyce, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate the finding of Wildes and Marcus, Behav Res Ther, 50, 266-274, 2012 that higher levels of weight suppression at pretreatment predict greater total weight gain, faster rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms amongst patients admitted with anorexia nervosa. Participants were 56 women with anorexia nervosa diagnosed by using strict or lenient weight criteria, who were participating in a randomized controlled psychotherapy trial (McIntosh et al., Am J Psychiatry, 162, 741-747, 2005). Thirty-five women completed outpatient treatment and post-treatment assessment. Weight suppression was the discrepancy between highest lifetime weight at adult height and weight at pretreatment assessment. Outcome variables were total weight gain, rate of weight gain, and bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment [assessed using the Eating Disorders Examination (Fairburn et al., Binge-Eating: Nature, Assessment and Treatment. New York: Guilford, 1993)]. Weight suppression was positively associated with total weight gain and rate of weight gain over treatment. Regression models showed that this association could not be explained by covariates (age at onset of anorexia nervosa and treatment modality). Weight suppression was not significantly associated with bulimic symptoms in the month prior to post-treatment assessment, regardless of whether bulimic symptoms were examined as continuous or dichotomous variables. The present study reinforces the previous finding that weight suppression predicts total weight gain and rate of weight gain amongst patients being treated for anorexia nervosa. Methodological issues may explain the failure of the present study to find that weight suppression predicts bulimic symptoms. Weight suppression at pretreatment for anorexia nervosa should be assessed routinely and may inform treatment planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Consumo dietético de gestantes e ganho ponderal materno após aconselhamento nutricional Dietary intake of pregnant women and maternal weight gain after nutritional counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliener de Souza Fazio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer o consumo dietético de gestantes avaliando a ingestão de macronutrientes e micronutrientes, e verificar o ganho ponderal materno na gravidez. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo do período de junho de 2002 a junho de 2008 com gestantes que receberam orientação nutricional durante pré-natal em hospital universitário, agrupadas de acordo com o estado nutricional antropométrico classificado pelo índice de massa corpórea (IMC pré-gestacional. O consumo dietético foi analisado pelas informações de entrevista de frequência alimentar realizada na primeira avaliação da gestante no serviço de nutrição, para obter os dados do hábito alimentar, calculando-se a ingestão de macronutrientes e micronutrientes. As gestantes receberam aconselhamento nutricional, e foi analisado o ganho ponderal materno na gravidez. RESULTADOS: do total de 187 gestantes que receberam orientação nutricional, 23 (12,2% eram de baixo peso, 84 (45,0%, eutróficas, 37 (19,8% com sobrepeso, e 43 (23,0%, obesas. As gestantes de baixo peso apresentaram menor consumo de lípides quando comparadas ao grupo com eutrofia (101,4 versus 137,3 g; p=0,043. A média do consumo de ferro foi maior nas gestantes eutróficas (14,6 mg/d quando comparadas às com sobrepeso (12,2 mg/d ou obesidade (10,9 mg/d; pPURPOSE: to determine the dietary consumption of pregnant women, by assessing the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients, and to verify the maternal weight gain during pregnancy. METHODS: a retrospective study conducted from June 2002 to June 2008 with pregnant women who received nutritional counseling during prenatal care at a university hospital, grouped according to anthropometric nutritional status classified by pregestational body mass index (BMI. The dietary intake was analyzed according to the information obtained in food frequency interviews, performed at the first evaluation of pregnant women in the service of nutrition to obtain data about

  8. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  9. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, J; Daykin, J; Holder, R; Sheppard, M C; Franklyn, J A

    2001-08-01

    Patients frequently express concern that treating hyperthyroidism will lead to excessive weight gain. This study aimed to determine the extent of, and risk factors for, weight gain in an unselected group of hyperthyroid patients. We investigated 162 consecutive hyperthyroid patients followed for at least 6 months. Height, weight, clinical features, biochemistry and management were recorded at each clinic visit. Documented weight gain was 5.42 +/- 0.46 kg (mean +/- SE) and increase in BMI was 8.49 +/- 0.71%, over a mean 24.2 +/- 1.6 months. Pre-existing obesity, Graves' disease causing hyperthyroidism, weight loss before presentation and length of follow-up each independently predicted weight gain. Patients treated with thionamides or radioiodine gained a similar amount of weight (thionamides, n = 87, 5.16 +/- 0.63 kg vs. radioiodine, n = 62, 4.75 +/- 0.57 kg, P = 0.645), but patients who underwent thyroidectomy (n = 13) gained more weight (10.27 +/- 2.56 kg vs. others, P = 0.007). Development of hypothyroidism (even transiently) was associated with weight gain (never hypothyroid, n = 102, 4.57 +/- 0.52 kg, transiently hypothyroid, n = 29, 5.37 +/- 0.85 kg, on T4, n = 31, 8.06 +/- 1.42 kg, P = 0.014). This difference remained after correcting for length of follow-up. In the whole cohort, weight increased by 3.95 +/- 0.40 kg at 1 year (n = 144) to 9.91 +/- 1.62 kg after 4 years (n = 27) (P = 0.008), representing a mean weight gain of 3.66 +/- 0.44 kg/year. We have demonstrated marked weight gain after treatment of hyperthyroidism. Pre-existing obesity, a diagnosis of Graves' disease and prior weight loss independently predicted weight gain and weight continued to rise with time. Patients who became hypothyroid, despite T4 replacement, gained most weight.

  11. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individu...

  12. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for CON heifers (9.94 ± 0.12 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (8.50 and 8.34 ± 0.12 kg, respectively). Net energy DMI was less (P < 0.01) for CON heifers (4.98 ± 0.23 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (5.43 and 5.35 ± 0.23 kg, respectively). Control heifers gained less (P < 0.01; 0.59 ± 0.14 kg/d) than either HI (0.82 ± 0.14 kg/d) or LO heifers (0.78 ± 0.14 kg/d), resulting in lower (501 ± 9 kg) BW (P < 0.01) than HI (519 ± 9 kg) heifers at the end of the feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P < 0.03) than LO heifers. Cow BW was similar (P = 0.48) among treatments at pregnancy diagnosis, and final pregnancy rate was also similar (87%; P = 0.22). Protein supplementation increased ADG in pregnant heifers; however, calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy

  13. Weight and weight gain during early infancy predict childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Holst, Claus; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain.......Infant weight and weight gain are positively associated with later obesity, but whether there is a particular critical time during infancy remains uncertain....

  14. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mood stabilizer. The medication Symbyax combines the antidepressant fluoxetine and the antipsychotic olanzapine and is associated with ... in body weight and psychotropic drugs: A systematic synthesis of the literature. PLOS One. 2012;7:e36889. ...

  15. Weight gain in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demark-Wahnefried, W; Rimer, B K; Winer, E P

    1997-05-01

    This review of the literature indicates that weight gain is a common observation among women after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Gains in weight range from 0 to 50 lb and are influenced by menopausal status; nodal status; and the type, duration, and intensity of treatment. Weight gain appears to be greater among premenopausal women; among those who are node positive; and among those receiving higher dose, longer duration, and multiagent regimens. Psychosocial research suggests that weight gain has a profoundly negative impact on quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Recent findings also suggest that weight gain during therapy may increase the risk of recurrence and decrease survival. Although weight gain in patients with breast cancer is clinically well appreciated, little research has been conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms of energy imbalance. Changes in rates of metabolism, physical activity, and dietary intake are all plausible mechanisms and call for more research. Further study will provide valuable insight into the problem of weight gain and encourage effective interventions to improve the quality and quantity of life for the woman with breast cancer. Until more is known, however, dietetics practitioners will have to monitor and work individually with patients with breast cancer and use empirical approaches to achieve the important goal of weight management.

  16. Optimal weight gain in triplet pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert C; Erfani, Hadi; Shamshirsaz, Amir A; Spiel, Melissa; Ravangard, Sam F; Shaman, Majid; Allaf, M Baraa; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2017-08-01

    To identify appropriate weight gain in triplet gestations, which may aid in reducing the risk of perinatal morbidity within this high-risk cohort. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all non-anomalous triplet pregnancies between 23 and 40 weeks' gestation resulting in live births at five tertiary-care medical centers between 1991 and 2011. Subjects were divided by pre-pregnancy BMI into underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups, and then stratified by low (gain (≥1.5 lbs/week). Primary outcomes included spontaneous preterm birth and preeclampsia. We included 116 mothers and 348 corresponding neonates for final analysis. The incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery less than 32 weeks' gestation was 37% and 41%, respectively. The incidence of preeclampsia increased with weight gain per week, but was not statistically different from subjects who gained less weight. We found no statistical correlation between weight gain per week and preterm delivery. We found no association between preeclampsia or preterm delivery and increasing weight gain in triplet pregnancies. The association with increased risk for preeclampsia was predominantly due to BMI effect. Based on the current study, recommendations for optimal weight gain in mothers with triplet gestations could not be defined.

  17. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  18. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  19. Effects of having a baby on weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wendy J; Hockey, Richard; Dobson, Annette J

    2010-02-01

    Women often blame weight gain in early adulthood on having a baby. The aim was to estimate the weight gain attributable to having a baby, after disentangling the effects of other factors that influence weight change at this life stage. A longitudinal study of a randomly selected cohort of 6458 Australian women, aged 18-23 years in 1996, was conducted. Self-report mailed surveys were completed in 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2006, and data were analyzed in 2008. On average, women gained weight at the rate of 0.93% per year (95% CI=0.89, 0.98) or 605 g/year (95% CI=580, 635) for a 65-kg woman. Over the 10-year study period, partnered women with one baby gained almost 4 kg more, and those with a partner but no baby gained 1.8 kg more, than unpartnered childless women (after adjustment for other significant factors: initial BMI and age; physical activity, sitting time, energy intake (2003); education level, hours in paid work, and smoking). Having a baby has a marked effect on 10-year weight gain, but there is also an effect attributable to getting married or living with a partner. Social and lifestyle as well as energy balance variables should be considered when developing strategies to prevent weight gain in young adult women. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  1. The effect of supplementary formalin treated soya‐bean meal on feed intake, milk yield and live‐weight gain of dairy cows fed ensiled fodder beets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    1993-01-01

    The present experiment compared formalin treated soya‐bean meal (2 kg DM) with barley and urea (2.4 kg DM) as supplements for a mixture of ensiled beets and ammonium‐treated straw given ad libitum in a cross over experiment with two periods of 6 weeks. Furthermore, these diets were compared...... to a traditional diet with fodder beets and ad libitum feeding with grass silage for a period of 12 weeks. The soya‐bean meal increased the daily intake of beet‐straw silage significantly from 13.1 to 14.1 kg DM (P

  2. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  3. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G; Cohn, T; Remington, G

    2007-01-24

    Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD -3.38 kg CI -4.2 to -2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD - 1.16 kg CI -1.9 to -0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD -1.69 kg CI -2.8 to -0.6) compared with standard care. Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective pharmacological and non pharmacological interventions. However, interpretation is limited by the small number of studies, small sample size

  4. Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Guy; Cohn, Tony; Remington, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight gain is common for people with schizophrenia and this has serious implications for health and well being. Objectives To determine the effects of both pharmacological (excluding medication switching) and non pharmacological strategies for reducing or preventing weight gain in people with schizophrenia. Search methods We searched key databases and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group’s trials register (April 2006), reference sections within relevant papers, hand searched key journals, and contacted the first author of each relevant study and other experts to collect further information. Selection criteria We included all clinical randomised controlled trials comparing any pharmacological or non pharmacological intervention for weight gain (diet and exercise counselling) with standard care or other treatments for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data from studies. As weight is a continuous outcome measurement, weighted mean differences (WMD) of the change from baseline were calculated. The primary outcome measure was weight loss. Main results Twenty-three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Five trials assessed a cognitive/behavioural intervention and eighteen assessed a pharmacological adjunct. In terms of prevention, two cognitive/behavioural trials showed significant treatment effect (mean weight change) at end of treatment (n=104, 2 RCTs, WMD −3.38 kg CI −4.2 to −2.0). Pharmacological adjunct treatments were significant with a modest prevention of weight gain (n=274, 6 RCTs, WMD − 1.16 kg CI −1.9 to −0.4). In terms of treatments for weight loss, we found significantly greater weight reduction in the cognitive behavioural intervention group (n=129, 3 RCTs, WMD −1.69 kg CI −2.8 to −0.6) compared with standard care. Authors’ conclusions Modest weight loss can be achieved with selective

  5. Effect of Nigella sativa or Curcumin on Daily Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and some Physiological Functions in Growing Zaraibi Goats during Hot Summer Season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty one Zaraibi kids, aged 4-5 months and weighed on average 9.5 ±0.2 kg were divided into three groups, seven kids in each. The experiment was beginning after the end of weaning period and lasted 5 months (May, June, July, August and September). Kids in the 1st group were fed the basal ration (concentrate feed mixture plus Barseem hay without additives (Control), while those in the 2nd and 3rd groups were fed the same basal ration supplemented daily with crushed 2 gram from Nigella or Curcumin per one kg CFM, respectively. Nigella sativa (Nigella) and Curcumin addition to the diet of kids during months of the hot summer season comparison with control group improved significantly the final LBW at the end of 5 months by 5.56 and 4.8 kg and increased significantly average daily body gain (DBG) of kids by 62.2 and 54.25 g, respectively. Supplementation improved the animal immunity function i.e. total protein and globulin concentrations as well as thyroid hormonal levels (T4 and T3) and decreased the factor related to heart disease (total cholesterol and total lipids), glucose and cortisol levels in the blood plasma. At the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected negatively by supplementation either with Nigella or Curcumin. Supplementation the diet of growing goats increased also significantly the Hb values and RBC'S count as well as the concentrations of Na, K, and Pi.

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa or Curcumin on Daily Body Weight Gain, Feed Intake and some Physiological Functions in Growing Zaraibi Goats during Hot Summer Season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; El Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty one Zaraibi kids, aged 4-5 months and weighed on average 9.5±0.2 kg were divided into three groups, seven kids in each. The experiment was beginning after the end of weaning period and lasted 5 months (May, June, July, August and September). Kids in the 1 s t group were fed the basal ration (concentrate feed mixture plus Barseem hay without additives (Control), while those in the 2 n d and 3 r d groups were fed the same basal ration supplemented daily with crushed 2 gram from Nigella or Curcumin per one kg CFM, respectively. Nigella sativa (Nigella) and Curcumin addition to the diet of kids during months of the hot summer season comparison with control group improved significantly the final LBW at the end of 5 months by 5.56 and 4.8 kg and increased significantly average daily body gain (DBG) of kids by 62.2 and 54.25 g, respectively. Supplementation improved the animal immunity function i.e. total protein and globulin concentrations as well as thyroid hormonal levels (T 4 and T 3 ) and decreased the factor related to heart disease (total cholesterol and total lipids), glucose and cortisol levels in the blood plasma. At the same time, liver and kidney functions were not affected negatively by supplementation either with Nigella or Curcumin. Supplementation the diet of growing goats increased also significantly the Hb values and RBC'S count as well as the concentrations of Na, K, and Pi.

  7. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI. Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads. An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497. Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011. Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722. Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with

  8. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Chico-Barba, Gabriela; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-09-27

    Introduction : Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective : To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods : A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26-28 to three months postpartum ( n = 168 mother-child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results : Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions : Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  9. Causes and Consequences of Interdialytic weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Higher interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is associated with higher predialysis blood pressure and increased mortality. IDWG is also increasingly being recognized as an indicator of nutritional status. We studied in detail the associations of various patient factors and nutritional

  10. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Maternal weight gain in pregnancy can offer a good means of assessing the well being of the pregnant mother and by inference, her baby. The cross – sectional prospective study was carried out carried out between November 1996 and December 1997, in Jos University Teaching hospital to assess the influence ...

  11. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  12. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...

  13. Weight gain in children on oxcarbazepine monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoufi, Anastasia; Vartzelis, George; Tsentidis, Charalambos; Attilakos, Achilleas; Koemtzidou, Evangelia; Kossiva, Lydia; Katsarou, Eustathia; Soldatou, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on body growth of children with epilepsy are rare and their results are controversial. To the contrary, many studies have shown significant weight gain following valproate (VPA) treatment. To prospectively evaluate the effect of OXC monotherapy on growth patterns of children with epilepsy and compare it with the effect of VPA monotherapy. Fifty-nine otherwise healthy children, aged 3.7-15.9 years, with primary generalized, partial or partial with secondary generalization seizure disorder, were included in the study. Twenty six children were placed on OXC and thirty three on VPA monotherapy. Body weight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their standard deviation scores (SDS), were evaluated prior to as well as 8 months post initiation of OXC or VPA therapy. Eight months post OXC-treatment, BW, SDS-BW, BMI and SDS-BMI increased significantly. The increase was similar to that observed in the VPA group. An additional 15.4% of children in the OXC group and 21.2% in the VPA group became overweight or obese. The effect of both OXC and VPA therapy on linear growth did not reach statistical significance. Similarly to VPA, OXC monotherapy resulted in a significant weight gain in children with epilepsy. Careful monitoring for excess weight gain along with counseling on adapting a healthy lifestyle should be offered to children on OXC therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does basal metabolic rate predict weight gain?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthanont, Pimjai; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some previous studies have indicated that a low basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an independent predictor of future weight gain, but low rates of follow-up and highly select populations may limit the ability to generalize the results. Objective: We assessed whether adults with a low BMR gain more weight than do adults with a high BMR who are living in a typical Western environment. Design: We extracted BMR, body-composition, demographic, and laboratory data from electronic databases of 757 volunteers who were participating in our research protocols at the Mayo Clinic between 1995 and 2012. Research study volunteers were always weight stable, had no acute illnesses and no confounding medication use, and were nonsmokers. The top and bottom 15th percentiles of BMR, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, age, and sex, were identified. Follow-up electronic medical record system data were available for 163 subjects, which allowed us to determine their subsequent weight changes for ≥3 y (mean: ∼9.7 y). Results: By definition, the BMR was different in the high-BMR group (2001 ± 317 kcal/d; n = 86) than in the low-BMR group (1510 ± 222 kcal/d; n = 77), but they were comparable with respect to age, body mass index, FFM, and fat mass. Rates of weight gain were not greater in the bottom BMR group (0.3 ± 1.0 kg/y) than in the top BMR group (0.5 ± 1.5 kg/y) (P = 0.17). Conclusion: Adults with low BMRs did not gain more weight than did adults with high BMRs, implying that habitual differences in food intake or activity counterbalance variations in BMR as a risk factor for weight gain in a typical Western population. PMID:27581474

  15. Maternal Gestational and Postdelivery Weight Gain and Child Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  16. Maternal gestational and postdelivery weight gain and child weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is a risk factor for the development of overweight in her child. It is unknown whether GWG programs the child's health or whether GWG indicates a shared familial lifestyle during childhood. To disentangle these influences, we studied the association

  17. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...... 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark....

  18. Genetic factors as predictors of weight gain in young adult Dutch men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Seidell, J.C.; Bouchard, C.; Baak, van M.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Chagnon, M.; Graaf, de C.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in several candidate genes for obesity and weight gain. Polymorphisms in these genes may contribute to weight gain through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure or adipogenesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: From two large cohorts in

  19. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  20. Gestational Weight Gain and Interpregnancy Weight Change in Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emily; Armson, B Anthony; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; MacSween, Kayla; Woolcott, Christy

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and interpregnancy weight change (IPWC) in adolescent mothers (younger than 20 years), and to determine if this association differs from adult women (aged 20-35 years). Retrospective cohort study. We included 3055 adolescents and 17,090 adult women with singleton pregnancies recorded in the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database with a subsequent pregnancy occurring between 2003 and 2014. GWG in the first pregnancy was categorized as below, within, or above the current Institute of Medicine recommendations. IPWC was defined as the difference between the prepregnancy weights of the 2 pregnancies. Analyses were adjusted for parity, body mass index in the first pregnancy, and time between pregnancies. Relative to adolescents with GWG within the recommendations, those who gained below had a 2.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) lower mean IPWC whereas those who gained above had a 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.3-5.1) higher mean IPWC. Smaller differences in IPWC between GWG categories were observed in adult women; relative to those with GWG within the recommendations, adults who gained below had a 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.9-1.7) lower mean IPWC and those who gained above had a 2.9 kg (95% CI, 2.6-3.2) higher mean IPWC. Mean IPWC differed across GWG categories and the differences were greater in adolescents than in adult women. This difference should be considered when assessing whether specific GWG recommendations are needed for adolescents. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  2. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  3. [Status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women during 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y; Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y; Lai, J Q

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To examine the status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women at different trimesters in 2010-2012. Methods: Participants were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, we recruited 2 805 singleton pregnant women with gestational age 13 weeks or more from 31 provinces of China. A standard questionnaire was used to collect general information and pre-pregnancy weight; body weight and height of pregnant women were measured using a unified weighing scale and stadiometer, dietary intake during the previous year was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with appropriate gestational weight gain. Results: Among 2 805 pregnant women, 1 441 were in the second (13-27 weeks) and 1 364 in the third trimesters (≥28 weeks) . In the 2(nd) trimester, 229 cases (15.9%), 440 cases (30.5%) and 772 cases (53.6%) were insufficient gestational weight gain, appropriate gestational weight gain and excessive gestational weight gain respectively. So were 256 cases (18.8%), 474 cases (34.8%), 634 cases (46.5%) in the 3(rd) trimester respectively. In the multivariate unconditional logistic model, less fruit intake was associated with insufficient weight gain for women in the 2(nd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 1.58 (1.06-2.34)). Pregnant women with Han ethnicity who live in the small/medium city had lower risk of insufficient weight gain in the 3(rd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 0.58 (0.34-0.98)). Those pregnant women with physical activity gain ( OR (95% CI ): 1.33 (1.02-1.73)). Conclusion: The prevalence of appropriate gestational weight gain was low in China. Our study suggests that pregnant weight gain is associated with fruit intake, types of residential area and physical activity.

  4. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  5. [原著]Effect of Meal-Timing on Body Weight Gain in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Sheng-Chi; Chung, Hei-Mei; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Haeno, Fumiyo; Nomura, Satomi; Ikemiyasiro, Midori; Shinjo, Sumie; Asato, Liu; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine. Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to find when to eat for better weight control. Five experiments of 10 days duration were done with 7 young women volunteers. The daily energy intake was 33 kcal/kg in all the experiments but the time or size of meals was different in each experiment. We observed that the later the time of dinner, the more the weight gain; breakfast did not have any effect on the weight gain and an evening snack before dinner prevented weight gain due to a late dinner. These results sug...

  6. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de novilhos f1 Limousin x Nelore: consumo, conversão alimentar e ganho de peso Concentrate levels in the diet for crossbreed Limousin x Nellore bulls: intake, feed: gain ratio and weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2000-10-01

    live weight (ALWDG empty body weight (EBWDG and carcass weight (CARG. Five animals were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment as reference, to estimate the initial empty body weight of animals that remained in feedlot. The animals were full fed up to the slaughter weight of 500 kg. The coast-cross grass hay was used as forage source in the diet. A completely randomised design in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. The two diet balance methods resulted on equal animal performances. The dry matter intake showed a quadratic response, and a maximum values of 8.04 kg DM, 1.99% LW, and 89.22g DM/kg0.75 for the concentrate levels of 41.42, 36.71, and 37.96%, respectively were estimated. The feed: gain ratio, NDFI and days in fed decreased and ALWDG linearly increased as the concentrate levels in the diet increase. The ALWDG and CARG showed quadratic response, with maximum of 1.16 and 0.81 for 61.11 and 64,47% of concentrate level in the diet.

  7. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  8. Regulation of food intake and body weight by recombinant proghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhen; Majumder, Arundhati; Wu, Xiaobin; Mulholland, Michael W

    2009-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid hormone derived from the endoproteolytic processing of its prehormone proghrelin. Although ghrelin has been reported to regulate food intake and body weight, it is still unknown whether proghrelin exercises any biological function. Here we show that recombinant proghrelin alters food intake and energy metabolism in mice. After intraperitoneal administration of recombinant proghrelin (100 nmol/kg body wt), cumulative food intake was significantly increased at days 1, 2, and 3 (6 +/- 0.3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 20 +/- 0.8 g vs. 5 +/- 0.2, 10 +/- 0.2, and 16 +/- 0.3 g of the control mice receiving normal saline, respectively, n = 6, P light photo period in mice treated with proghrelin increased significantly relative to the control (2.1 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.2 g, n = 6, P dark photo period was observed between mice treated with proghrelin and vehicle (4.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 g, n = 6, P > 0.05). This is associated with a decrease in body weight (0.42 +/- 0.04 g) for mice treated with proghrelin, whereas control animals gained body weight (0.31 +/- 0.04 g). Mice treated with proghrelin demonstrate a significant decrease in respiratory quotient, indicating an increase in fat consumption. Recombinant proghrelin is functionally active with effects on food intake and energy metabolism.

  9. Oral Lactobacillus Counts Predict Weight Gain Susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing, Johanne Aviaja; Walker, Karen Christina; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown an association between weight change and the makeup of the intestinal microbiota in humans. Specifically, Lactobacillus, a part of the entire gastrointestinal tract's microbiota, has been shown to contribute to weight regulation. Aim: We examined the associat......Background: Recent studies have shown an association between weight change and the makeup of the intestinal microbiota in humans. Specifically, Lactobacillus, a part of the entire gastrointestinal tract's microbiota, has been shown to contribute to weight regulation. Aim: We examined...

  10. Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  12. Insulin-associated weight gain in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: What can be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian; Guess, Nicola; Dornhorst, Anne; Taheri, Shahrad; Frost, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Insulin therapy (IT) is initiated for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when glycaemic targets are not met with diet and other hypoglycaemic agents. The initiation of IT improves glycaemic control and reduces the risk of microvascular complications. There is, however, an associated weight gain following IT, which may adversely affect diabetic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A 3 to 9 kg insulin-associated weight gain (IAWG) is reported to occur in the first year of initiating IT, predominantly caused by adipose tissue. The potential causes for this weight gain include an increase in energy intake linked to a fear of hypoglycaemia, a reduction in glycosuria, catch-up weight, and central effects on weight and appetite regulation. Patients with type 2 diabetes who are receiving IT often have multiple co-morbidities, including obesity, that are exacerbated by weight gain, making the management of their diabetes and obesity challenging. There are several treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes, who require IT, that attenuate weight gain, help improve glycaemic control, and help promote body weight homeostasis. This review addresses the effects of insulin initiation and intensification on IAWG, and explores its potential underlying mechanisms, the predictors for this weight gain, and the available treatment options for managing and limiting weight gain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freisling, Heinz; Noh, Hwayoung; Slimani, Nadia; Chajès, Véronique; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Cross, Amanda J; Skeie, Guri; Jenab, Mazda; Mancini, Francesca R; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Hansen, Camilla P; Overvad, Kim; Duell, Eric J; Redondo-Sánchez, Daniel; Amiano, Pilar; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Winkvist, Anna; Braaten, Tonje; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2017-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years.

  14. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  15. Optimal weight gain in obese and overweight pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka-Nakama, Junko; Enomoto, Kimiko; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Miyagi, Etsuko; Aoki, Shigeru

    2018-03-20

    We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.

  16. Defining the role of dietary intake in determining weight change in patients with cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrah, R; Kanbalian, M; Van Der Borch, C; Swinton, N; Wing, S; Jagoe, R T

    2018-02-01

    Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia. A retrospective study of data for each of the first three clinic visits for patients seen between 2009 and 2015. Data on weight change, dietary intake and change in dietary intake were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine independent explanatory factors for weight change, including the impact of appetite level and a marker of systemic inflammation. Of 405 eligible patients, 320 had data on dietary intake available. Dietary intake varied widely at baseline: 26.9% reported very poor diet and only 17% were consuming recommended levels of energy and protein. A highly significant positive correlation was found between dietary energy or protein intake and weight change, both before and after being seen in the clinic. Anorexia was also significantly correlated with weight loss at each clinic visit. However, there was no similar overall correlation between change in dietary intake and change in weight. Many patients with advanced cancer and weight loss are consuming diets that would likely be insufficient to maintain weight even in healthy individuals. Higher consumption of protein and energy correlates with greater weight gain, but it is impossible to predict the response to increased nutritional intake when patients are first assessed. There is a pressing need to improve understanding of factors that modulate metabolic responses to dietary intake in patients with cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  17. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  18. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Konttinen, H.M.; Homberg, J.R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Winkens, L.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to

  19. Avaliação do consumo e ganho de peso de novilhos em pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, na estação chuvosa Evaluation of intake and weight gain of steers in rotacional grazing of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora D'Avila Erbesdobler

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, onde foram avaliados o consumo de capim-elefante, a efetividade da limitação do tempo de pastejo a quatro horas diárias, para manter o consumo próximo à mantença e o ganho de peso de 36 novilhos ¾ Gir-Holandês, em cinco períodos sucessivos de 36 dias, na estação chuvosa. Os tratamentos foram: livre acesso ao pasto (pastejo irrestrito e pastejo restrito. A disponibilidade de matéria verde seca do capim-elefante nos cinco períodos variou de 4,0 a 7,8 kg/100 kg PV. Os animais com livre acesso ao pasto consumiram o equivalente a 1,61 vezes o dos animais de pastejo restrito e tiveram ganho de peso de corpo vazio médio diário de 516,4 g, com um ganho estimado de 432,5 kg por hectare, estando dentro da faixa de ganho de peso verificada para capim-elefante no Brasil. O consumo de energia metabolizável por unidade de tamanho metabólico manteve-se estável nos três primeiros períodos, elevando-se nos dois últimos períodos, em que ocorreram os maiores ganhos de peso dos animais. Quatro horas diárias de pastejo garantiram consumo próximo à mantença.The research was conducted in the experimental farm of the EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, to evaluate intake of elephantgrass, the effectiveness of limiting grazing time to four daily hours for keeping intake close to maintenance level, and the weight gain of thirty-six steers during five successive periods of thirty-six days, during the rainy season. The treatments were: free access to pasture (unlimited grazing and restricted grazing. The availability of green dry matter varied from 4.0 to 7.8 kg/100kg LW. The average daily weight gain of animals with free access to pasture was 516.5 g and their dry matter intake corresponded to 1.61 times that from the restricted grazing ones. The estimated gain per hectare was 423.5 kg, which is within the range reported for elephantgrass in Brasil. Metabolizable energy intake, per

  20. The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.

  1. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  2. Compensatory weight gain due to dopaminergic hypofunction: new evidence and own incidental observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr Iwo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of obesity. More specifically, dopaminergic hypofunction might lead to (overcompensatory food intake. Overeating and resulting weight gain may be induced by genetic predisposition for lower dopaminergic activity, but might also be a behavioral mechanism of compensating for decreased dopamine signaling after dopaminergic overstimulation, for example after smoking cessation or overconsumption of high palatable food. This hypothesis is in line with our incidental finding of increased weight gain after discontinuation of pharmaceutical dopaminergic overstimulation in rats. These findings support the crucial role of dopaminergic signaling for eating behaviors and offer an explanation for weight-gain after cessation of activities associated with high dopaminergic signaling. They further support the possibility that dopaminergic medication could be used to moderate food intake.

  3. Changes in job strain and subsequent weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2018-01-01

    in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0......Objective: Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. Design: The study was designed...... as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control...

  4. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n=82, enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012.

  5. Electroacupuncture Reduces Weight Gain Induced by Rosiglitazone through PPARγ and Leptin Receptor in CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA on protecting the weight gain side effect of rosiglitazone (RSG in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM rats and its possible mechanism in central nervous system (CNS. Our study showed that RSG (5 mg/kg significantly increased the body weight and food intake of the T2DM rats. After six-week treatment with RSG combined with EA, body weight, food intake, and the ratio of IWAT to body weight decreased significantly, whereas the ratio of BAT to body weight increased markedly. HE staining indicated that the T2DM-RSG rats had increased size of adipocytes in their IWAT, but EA treatment reduced the size of adipocytes. EA effectively reduced the lipid contents without affecting the antidiabetic effect of RSG. Furthermore, we noticed that the expression of PPARγ gene in hypothalamus was reduced by EA, while the expressions of leptin receptor and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 were increased. Our results suggest that EA is an effective approach for inhibiting weight gain in T2DM rats treated by RSG. The possible mechanism might be through increased levels of leptin receptor and STAT3 and decreased PPARγ expression, by which food intake of the rats was reduced and RSG-induced weight gain was inhibited.

  6. Metformin and berberine prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueshan Hu

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is a first line medication for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it is also one of the atypical antipsychotics carrying the highest risk of weight gain. Metformin was reported to produce significant attenuation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients, while the study of preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain in an animal model is absent. Berberine, an herbal alkaloid, was shown in our previous studies to prevent fat accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing a well-replicated rat model of olanzapine-induced weight gain, here we demonstrated that two weeks of metformin or berberine treatment significantly prevented the olanzapine-induced weight gain and white fat accumulation. Neither metformin nor berberine treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of olanzapine-increased food intake. But interestingly, a significant loss of brown adipose tissue caused by olanzapine treatment was prevented by the addition of metformin or berberine. Our gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the weight gain prevention efficacy of metformin or berberine treatment was associated with changes in the expression of multiple key genes controlling energy expenditure. This study not only demonstrates a significant preventive efficacy of metformin and berberine treatment on olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats, but also suggests a potential mechanism of action for preventing olanzapine-reduced energy expenditure.

  7. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  8. Thirst distress and interdialytic weight gain: how do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheena; Locking-Cusolito, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Thirst is a frequent and stressful symptom experienced by hemodialysis patients. Several studies have noted a positive relationship between thirst and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). These factors prompted us to consider ways that we could intervene to reduce thirst and IDWG through an educative, supportive nursing intervention. This paper presents the results of a pilot research project, the purpose of which was to: examine the relationship between thirst distress (the negative symptoms associated with thirst) and IDWG in a sample of our patients, describe patients' strategies for management of thirst, and establish the necessary sample size for the planned intervention study. The pilot research project results showed that in a small sample of 20, there was a mildly positive, though not statistically significant, correlation between thirst distress and IDWG (r = 0.117). Subjects shared a wide variety of thirst management strategies including: limiting salt intake, using ice chips, measuring daily allotment, performing mouth care, eating raw fruits and vegetables, sucking on hard candy and chewing gum. This pilot research project showed that given an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 80%, we will require a sample of 39 subjects to detect a 20% change in IDWG. We will employ these results to plan our intervention study, first by establishing the appropriate sample size and second by incorporating identified patient strategies into an educational pamphlet that will form the basis of our intervention.

  9. Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    -11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....

  10. RELATION OF WEIGHT GAIN INTERDIALYTIC ANDFOOD CONSUMPTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Delfrate Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the papper was to verify the relationship between dietary intake and interdialytic weight gain in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cross-sectional study, in a renal clinic in Irati, Paraná, Brazil. Prehemodialysis weight and weight after hemodialysis were evaluated. Food intake was analyzed according to food frequency and usual food day (DAH. The data were evaluated descriptively and also through the chi-square test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Sixty-one patients (54.1% participated in the study, with a mean age of 57.78±14.58 years, 62.3% of males. The mean pre-hemodialysis weight was 68.28±15.14 kg, while hemodialysis was 65.63±15.01 kg (p0.05. The other food groups (meat, cereals, fats and sweets also had no association with weight gain (p> 0.05. When the nutrients were compared, according to the DAH, there was no relation with the interdialytic weight gain (p>0.05. Thus, it was observed that there was a relationship between interdialytic weight gain and macronutrient consumption; The same was not observed for micronutrients.

  11. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [de

  12. [Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Odatzidu, L; Kiencke, P; Schicha, H

    2002-02-01

    Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas.

  13. Gestational Weight Gain and its Relation with Birth Weight of the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Meena; Paneru, Rupa

    2017-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is an important predictor of the health of the newborn. It is affected by body mass index of the women. This study was conducted to find out gestational weight gain according to Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendation and relationship of newborn birth weight to body mass index and gestational weight gain of the women. It was cross sectional, hospital based study. The women, who attended at term pregnancy for delivery and having recorded first trimester body weight, were included in the study. Their body mass index was calculated and they were stratified into 4 groups according to body mass index. The gestational weight gain was calculated by subtracting first trimester body weight from body weight at the time of admission for delivery. All the women were followed till delivery. The newborn birth weight was taken immediately after delivery. A total of 227 women were enrolled in the study. More than half of the women had normal body mass index. There were 84 (37%) overweight and obese women. Mean gestational weight gain was 10.21 kg, and mean weight of the newborn was 3.05 kg. There were equal number of women who had adequate weight gain and less weight gain according to recommendation. Excess weight gain was seen in 34 (15%) women. Women of higher body mass index and women who had gain more weight during pregnancy had larger newborns. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of the women were important predictors of birth weight of the newborn. There is a positive correlation between gestational weight gain of the women and birth weight of the newborn.

  14. Trends and determinants of weight gains among OECD countries: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S; Vu, X-B; Barnett, A

    2018-06-01

    Obesity has become a global issue with abundant evidence to indicate that the prevalence of obesity in many nations has increased over time. The literature also reports a strong association between obesity and economic development, but the trend that obesity growth rates may converge over time has not been examined. We propose a conceptual framework and conduct an ecological analysis on the relationship between economic development and weight gain. We also test the hypothesis that weight gain converges among countries over time and examine determinants of weight gains. This is a longitudinal study of 34 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in the years 1980-2008 using publicly available data. We apply a dynamic economic growth model to test the hypothesis that the rate of weight gains across countries may converge over time. We also investigate the determinants of weight gains using a longitudinal regression tree analysis. We do not find evidence that the growth rates of body weight across countries converged for all countries. However, there were groups of countries in which the growth rates of body weight converge, with five groups for males and seven groups for females. The predicted growth rates of body weight peak when gross domestic product (GDP) per capita reaches US$47,000 for males and US$37,000 for females in OECD countries. National levels of consumption of sugar, fat and alcohol were the most important contributors to national weight gains. National weight gains follow an inverse U-shape curve with economic development. Excessive calorie intake is the main contributor to weight gains. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association of Antidepressant Medication and Body Weight Gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ranjbar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature and discover which antidepressants are responsible for weight gain and then to discuss the areas with lack of adequate knowledge. Method: An electronic search was conducted through Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library, and ScienceDirect. Forty nine empirical researches were identified and reviewed. Results: Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and mirtazapine have been associated with more weight gain induction in clinical studies, but not in animal-based studies. All TCAs have been reported to cause weight gain except protriptyline. MAOIs have been associated with weight gain. In SSRI group, citalopram and ecitalopram induce weight, yet mixed results exist for paroxetine and fluoxetine. Researches unanimously reported weight loss effect for bupropion. Some studies suggest contributing factors in the relationship of antidepressants with body weight changes including age, gender, base-line weights and treatment duration. Various results of different treatment durations have been reported in some cases but there are not continuous time-dependent studies for the influences of antidepressants on body weight changes. Conclusion: More studies are required to discover underlying mechanisms and the time-dependent effects of antidepressants on body weight changes.

  16. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  17. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and...

  18. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...... and defined as gain in g/week. We used multivariable linear regression, including adjusting for pre-pregnancy body mass index, to calculate relative change in GWG and 95% CI. RESULTS: Average GWG was 471(224) g/week. The adjusted weight gain was 16 g/week lower (95% CI 9 to 22, p for trend ....001) in the highest (Q5) versus lowest (Q1) quintile of the P/C ratio (∼3% average reduction across the entire pregnancy). Weight gain for those with >20%E vs

  19. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD]) in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p gained less weight during pregnancy (p gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  20. Energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and with weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Montaurier, Christophe; Cano, Noël; Caillot, Nicolas; Blot, A; Meunier, Nathalie; Pereira, Bruno; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Jouve, Christelle; Boirie, Yves; Deteix, Patrice; Morio, Beatrice

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in energy metabolism could trigger weight gain after renal transplantation. Nineteen transplanted non-diabetic men, 53 ± 1.6 years old, receiving calcineurin inhibitors but no corticosteroids were studied. They were compared with nine healthy men matched for height, age and lean body mass. Daily energy expenditure and its components (sleeping, basal and absorptive metabolic rates) were analyzed for 24 h in calorimetric chambers and for 4 days in free living conditions using calibrated accelerometry. Other variables known to influence energy expenditure were assessed: body composition, physical activity, 4-day food intake, drug consumption, serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, and epinephrine. Transplant recipients who gained more than 5% body weight after transplantation (n = 11, +11.0 ± 1.5 kg) were compared with those who did not (n = 8) and with the controls. Weight gain compared with non-weight gain patients and controls exhibited higher fat mass without change in lean body mass. Daily, sleeping and resting energy expenditure adjusted for lean body mass was significantly higher in non-weight gain (167.1 ± 4.2 kJ/kg/lean body mass/24 h, P controls (146.1 ± 4.6). Weight gain compared with controls and non-weight gain subjects had lower free living physical activity and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers. After kidney transplantation, weight gain patients were characterized by lower adjusted energy expenditure, reduced spontaneous physical activity but a more sedentary life style and a trend toward a higher energy intake explaining the reason they gained weight. The nWG KTR had increased resting and sleeping EE which protected them from weight gain. Such hypermetabolism was also observed in 24-h EE measurements. By comparison with the nWG patients, the WG transplant recipients were characterized by higher β-blocker consumption. These data could be helpful in the prevention of weight

  1. Association of Group Prenatal Care With Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.

  2. Associations of neighbourhood walkability indices with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2018-04-03

    Inconsistent associations of neighbourhood walkability with adults' body weight have been reported. Most studies examining the relationships of walkability and adiposity are cross-sectional in design. We examined the longitudinal relationships of two walkability indices - conventional walkability and space syntax walkability, and their individual components, with weight change among adults over four years. Data were from the Physical Activity in Localities and Community study in Adelaide, Australia. In 2003-2004, 2650 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCDs) returned baseline questionnaires; in 2007-2008, the follow-up survey was completed by 1098. Participants reported their weight at baseline and at follow-up. Neighbourhood walkability indices were calculated using geographic information systems and space syntax software. Linear marginal models using generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors were fitted to examine associations of the two walkability indices and their individual components with the weight at follow-up, adjusting for baseline weight, socio-demographic variables, and spatial clustering at the level of CCD. The overall mean weight gain over four years was 1.5 kg. The two walkability indices were closely correlated (r = 0.76, p walkability indices and weight change. Among walkability components, there was a marginally significant negative association between space syntax measure of street integration and weight change: one standard deviation increment in street integration was associated with 0.31 kg less weight gain (p = 0.09). Using a prospective study design and a novel space-syntax based measure of walkability, we were not able to identify relationships between neighbourhood walkability with weight gain. This is consistent with other inconclusive findings on the built environment and obesity. Research on the built environment and adults' weight gain may need to consider not just local environments but

  3. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L.; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. Sample: The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. Methods: A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. Results: A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37–2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27–2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09–1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30–1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27–1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09–1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86–0.91). Conclusions: Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain. PMID:26741198

  4. Weight Gain and its Correlates among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Kim, RN, PhD, OCN

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Younger women, women who were obese at diagnosis, women with more than 36 months since diagnosis, or women who showed lower diet quality should be considered at high-risk for weight gain. Findings from our study suggest that optimal weight management strategies should be developed using ethnically- or culturally-appropriate approaches.

  5. Maternal weight gain in second and third trimesters and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study was carried out to determine the relationship between weight gain in the second and third trimesters with the corresponding birth weights in Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 270 pregnant women who gave birth to singleton deliveries and their consecutive newborns were randomly selected from among ...

  6. Exercise during pregnancy and its association with gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shericka T; Liu, Jihong; Wilcox, Sara; Moran, Robert; Gallagher, Alexa

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association between exercise during pregnancy and meeting gestational weight gain recommendations. Data came from the 2009 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (n = 856). Women reported their participation in exercise/sports activities before and during pregnancy, including the number of months and types of exercise. We developed an exercise index (EI), the product of the number of months spent in exercise and average metabolic equivalents for specific exercise. The 2009 Institute of Medicine's guideline was used to categorize gestational weight gain into three classes: inadequate, adequate, and excessive. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Over 46 % of women exceeded the recommended weight gain during pregnancy. Nearly one third (31.9 %) of women reported exercising ≥3 times a week at any time during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not report this level of exercise during pregnancy, exercising women were more likely to meet gestational weight gain recommendations (32.7 vs. 18.7 %) and had a lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.43, 95 % confidence interval 0.24-0.78]. Women with an EI above the median value of those women who exercised or women who exercised ≥3 times a week for 6-9 months during pregnancy had lower odds of excessive gestational weight gain (AOR for EI 0.20, 0.08-0.49; AOR for months 0.26, 0.12-0.56, respectively). Our findings support the need to promote or increase exercise during pregnancy to reduce the high proportion of women who are gaining excessive weight.

  7. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain influence birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, L; Wu, M L; Huang, S H; Cao, X J

    2018-02-01

    Evidence suggests that pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain have impact on pregnancy and birth weight, yet whether maternal gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse birth weight among women with different pre-pregnancy body mass index categories are unknown. We selected 1617 children matched with their mothers as study subjects. The subjects were divided into three categories: weight gain below the American Institute of Medicine guidelines, weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. The prevalence of pre-pregnancy underweight and overweight/obese women was 16.3% and 12.3%. And nearly 15.2% of the women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline, 52.1% of the women had gestational weight gain above American Institute of Medicine guideline. Maternal overweight and obese was associated with increased risk for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age. Women had gestational weight gain below American Institute of Medicine guideline were more likely to have low birth weight and small-for-gestational age than women who had gestational weight gain within American Institute of Medicine guideline. Furthermore, the risks for macrosomia and large-for-gestational age were increased in women with above American Institute of Medicine guideline. And for women with a normal weight before pregnancy, gestational weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine guidelines were associated with higher rates of macrosomia and large-for-gestational age, compared with the women of similar pre-pregnancy weight category but with gestational weight gain within the American Institute of Medicine guidelines. Women with abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain are at risk for adverse birth weight outcomes. Moreover, gestational weight gain has a differential effect on the rates of adverse

  8. Effect of revised IOM weight gain guidelines on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Wall, Terry C; Guild, Camelia; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-03-01

    We sought to examine perinatal outcomes in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) comparing those whose weight gain met 2009 IOM guidelines to women meeting 1990 IOM guidelines. This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing birth records linked to hospital discharge data for all term, singleton infants born to overweight, Missouri residents (2000-2006) with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). We excluded congenital anomalies, mothers with diabetes, hypertension, or previous cesarean delivery. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-five women gained 25-35 lbs (1990 guidelines); 1.6% delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants and 1.1% delivered macrosomic infants. Eight thousand three hundred fifty women gained 15-25 lbs (2009 guidelines); 3.4% delivered LBW infants and 0.6% delivered macrosomic infants. Women who gained 15-25 lbs were 1.99 (95% CI 1.67, 2.38) times more likely to have a LBW infant and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) times less likely to deliver a macrosomic infant. Limiting weight gain in women with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), per the 2009 guidelines, increases the risk of LBW deliveries and decreases the risk of macrosomia but does not reduce associated adverse perinatal outcomes. Further studies should explore the optimal weight gain to reduce these outcomes.

  9. Weight Gain and Hair Loss during Anti-TNF Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Lutf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.

  10. VERY HIGH WEIGHT GAIN IN EXCLUSIVELY BREASTFED INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Melanie Wange

    , family doctors and at our institute. Breastmilk intake was estimated by weighing (using prefeeding and postfeeding infant weighing) during 2-4 24h periods (Tanita BD 815 MA). Breastmilk macronutrient content was measured by mid-infrared human milk analyzer (Miris AB, Sweden). Results: Case 1: boy, birth...... weight 3.8 kg. Weight-for-age curve in Fig 1. Exclusively breastfed until 5 mo, and stopped breastfeeding at 11 mo. At 5.5 mo milk intake was about 1100 ml (91ml/kg) and milk macronutrient content (4 samples foremilk and 4 hindmilk (g/100 ml)): fat foremilk 0.4-2.1, hindmilk 4.3-6.9, protein foremilk: 0.......6-0.8. Case 2: girl, birth weight 4.45 kg. Weight-for-age curve in Fig 2. Exclusively breastfed until 5 mo Still partially breastfed at last measurement at 8 mo. At 4 mo milk intake was about 1500 ml (128ml/kg) and milk macronutrient content (g/100 ml) measured on 4 complete emptying of a breast: fat 2...

  11. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  12. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H

    2016-05-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sauleau

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN or the globus pallidus internus (GPi. Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040. There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6, left superior gyrus (BA 8, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46, and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7. However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067. These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  14. The Impact of Kangaroo Care on Premature Infant Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evereklian, Melvina; Posmontier, Bobbie

    Preterm births occur among 11.4% of all live infant births. Without steady weight gain, premature infants may experience lengthy hospitalizations, neurodevelopmental deficits and hospital readmissions, which can increase the financial burden on the health care system and their families. The total U.S. health-related costs linked to preterm infant deliveries are estimated at $4.33 billion. Kangaroo care is a feasible practice that can improve preterm infant weight gain. However, this intervention is utilized less often throughout the U.S. due to numerous barriers including a lack of consistent protocols, inadequate knowledge, and decreased level of confidence in demonstrating the proper kangarooing technique. An integrative review was conducted to evaluate the impact of kangaroo care on premature infant weight gain in order to educate nurses about its efficacy among preterm infants. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar. Large volume searches were restricted using appropriate filters and limiters. Most of the evaluated studies determined that weight gain was greater among the kangarooing premature infants. Kangaroo care is a low-tech low-cost modality that can facilitate improved preterm infant weight gain even in low-resource settings. Despite its current efficacy, kangaroo care is not widely utilized due to several barriers including an absence of standardized protocols and a lack of knowledge about its benefits. Kangaroo care can become a widespread formalized practice after nurses and parents learn about the technique and its numerous benefits for premature infants, including its association with improved weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How common is substantial weight gain after pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Priya; Houlihan, Christine; Shub, Alexis; Churilov, Leonid; Pritchard, Natasha; Price, Sarah; Ekinci, Elif; Proietto, Joseph; Permezel, Michael

    2017-11-20

    Although population-based studies indicate that on average, women gain 1-2kg between pregnancies, women with obesity often attribute its development to childbearing. There is little contemporary data available regarding how commonly this occurs, particularly in women of different body mass index (BMI) categories. The aim of this study was to examine inter-pregnancy weight changes among women at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. This was a retrospective review of data from the Birthing Outcomes System electronic record of 19,617 women aged 20 years or older, who delivered at least two consecutive singleton infants at ≥37 weeks' gestation at Mercy Hospital for Women between December 1994 and December 2015. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between pregnancies and maternal BMI category in the first pregnancy, adjusting for covariates of maternal age, inter-pregnancy interval, and socioeconomic status. Gain of ≥4kg/m 2 between the first two pregnancies occurred in 7.5% of normal weight women, 10.5% of overweight women, and 13.4% of women with obesity. One in five women who were normal weight in their first pregnancy increased to overweight or obese BMI categories in their second pregnancy. Substantial weight gain in relation to pregnancy affects a considerable proportion of women. Since inter-pregnancy weight gain is associated with several complications in the next pregnancy and longer term, avoiding excessive weight gain during and between pregnancies may prevent adverse health consequences in mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD] in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p < 0.001. A 6 kg increase (1 SD in gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p < 0.001. The positive effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on birth weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p < 0.001, but the negative indirect effect was small (SC = -0.076, p < 0.001 and partially mediated by the lower weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p < 0.001. The positive effect of weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p < 0.001, with a small indirect effect of cesarean delivery (SC = 0.011; p < 0.001. Women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index gained less weight during pregnancy (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The effect of gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  17. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Vos

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Students experienced hindrance in physical exercise and mental well-being. Students with a high BMI without irregular eating habits were willing to change their lifestyle. However, students who had irregular lifestyles exhibited the lowest willingness to change their eating behaviors and to lose weight. Our study provides insight into means by which adolescents at high risk for weight gain can be approached to improve experienced quality of life.

  18. The effect of the Thanksgiving Holiday on weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinger Mary K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More people than ever are considered obese and the resulting health problems are evident. These facts highlight the need for identification of critical time periods for weight gain. Therefore the purpose was to assess potential changes that occur in body weight during the Thanksgiving holiday break in college students. Methods 94 college students (23.0 ± 4.6 yrs, 72.1 ± 14.0 kg, 172.6 ± 9.3 cm, 24.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2 reported to the human body composition laboratory at the University of Oklahoma following a 6-hour fast with testing occurring prior to, and immediately following the Thanksgiving holiday break (13 ± 3 days. Body weight (BW was assessed using a balance beam scale while participants were dressed in minimal clothing. Paired t-tests were used to assess changes in BW pre and post Thanksgiving holiday with additional analysis by gender, body mass index (BMI, and class standing (i.e. undergraduate vs. graduate. Results Overall, a significant (P P P 2 group compared to a non significant 0.2 kg gain in the normal group (2. Conclusion These data indicate that participants in our study gained a significant amount of BW (0.5 kg during the Thanksgiving holiday. While an increase in BW of half a kilogram may not be cause for alarm, the increase could have potential long-term health consequences if participants retained this weight gain throughout the college year. Additionally, because the overweight/obese participants gained the greatest amount of BW, this group may be at increased risk for weight gain and further obesity development during the holiday season.

  19. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  20. Association of Timing of Weight Gain in Pregnancy With Infant Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Wen, Shi Wu; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Ye, Chang; Shen, Minxue; Smith, Graeme N; Walker, Mark C

    2018-02-01

    Gestational weight gain is a determinant of infant birth weight, but it is unclear whether its timing in pregnancy may hold implications in this regard. Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the association of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with birth weight. However, as these studies have typically recruited women during the first trimester, they are inherently limited by a reliance on self-reported pregravid weight. To evaluate the associations of directly measured maternal pregravid weight and the timing of subsequent weight gain across pregnancy with infant birth weight. In this prospective, preconception, observational cohort study, 1164 newly married women in Liuyang, China, underwent pregravid evaluation at a median of 19.9 weeks before a singleton pregnancy during which they underwent serial weight measurements. The study was conducted from February 1, 2009, to November 4, 2015. Data analysis was performed between September 1, 2016, and May 6, 2017. Maternal weight gain was calculated for the following 10 gestational intervals: from pregravid to less than 14, 14 to 18, 19 to 23, 24 to 28, 29 to 30, 31 to 32, 33 to 34, 35 to 36, 37 to 38, and 39 to 40 weeks. Associations of pregravid weight and weight gain within each of the 10 gestational intervals with the outcome of infant birth weight. The mean (SD) age of the 1164 women included in the study was 25.3 (3.1) years. Pregravid weight was consistently associated with infant birth weight. However, among the 10 gestational intervals, only weight gain from pregravid to 14 weeks and from 14 to 18 weeks was associated with birth weight. Birth weight increased by 13.6 g/kg (95% CI, 3.2-24.1 g/kg) of maternal weight gain from pregravid to 14 weeks and by 26.1 g/kg (95% CI, 3.8-48.4 g/kg) of maternal weight gain from 14 to 18 weeks. Maternal weight only in the first half of gestation is a determinant of infant birth weight. Before pregnancy and early gestation may be a critical window for

  1. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  2. Effect of Fishmeal Supplementation on Body Weight Gain of White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 8-week feeding trials were carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing an inadequate commercial diet available in Eritrea. with fishmeal produced locally by sun-drying and grinding on the body weight gain of White Leghorn chicks. The commercial diet consisted 'of a mixture of sorghum, wheat middlings, ...

  3. Weight gain in patients after therapy for hyperthyroidism | Brunova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of obesity following therapy for hyperthyroidism and to assess the contributing factors associated with an undesirable weight gain. Design. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical records for 160 hyperthyroid patients attending an endocrine clinic in Bloemfontein (1994 ...

  4. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  5. Patterns of gestational weight gain and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the increasing global importance of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its impact on birthweight, little is known about the patterns of GWG in African populations. Objectives: To determine the pattern of GWG and its association with birthweight in Nigeria. Methods: It was a longitudinal study of 200 ...

  6. Weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess weight gain, physical activity and dietary changes during the first year of university life in Malawi. Setting: The setting was Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi. Subjects: The subjects were first-year students (n = 47) enrolled for the 2008/2009 academic year.

  7. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  8. Maternal and fetal genetic contribution to gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrington, N M; Richmond, R; Fenstra, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical recommendations to limit gestational weight gain (GWG) imply high GWG is causally related to adverse outcomes in mother or offspring, but GWG is the sum of several inter-related complex phenotypes (maternal fat deposition and vascular expansion, placenta, amniotic fluid and f...

  9. The effects of maternal weight gain patterns on term birth weight in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sing, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goals of our study were 1) to estimate the trends in maternal weight gain patterns and 2) to estimate the influence of variation in maternal weight and rate of weight gain over different time periods in gestation on variation in birth weight in African-American and non-African-American gravidas. Study Design and Setting Data from a prospective cohort study in which pregnant women were monitored at multiple time points during pregnancy were analyzed. Maternal weight was measured at three times during pregnancy, preconception (W0); 16-20 weeks gestation (W1); and 30-36 weeks gestation (W2), in a cohort of 435 women with full-term singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age-adjusted birth weight (aBW) and measures of maternal weight and rate of weight gain across pregnancy was estimated using a multivariable longitudinal regression analysis stratified on African-American race. Results The aBW was significantly associated with maternal weight measured at any visit in both strata. For African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with variation in the rate of maternal weight gain in the first half of pregnancy (W01) but not the rate of maternal weight gain in the second half of pregnancy (W12); while for non-African-American women, variation in aBW was significantly associated with W12 but not W01. Conclusion Factors influencing the relationship between aBW and maternal weight gain patterns depend on the context of the pregnancy defined by race. Clinical decisions and recommendations about maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy may need to account for such heterogeneity. PMID:20632908

  10. Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.

  11. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868

  12. Assessment of physical activity among pregnant women in context of weight gain in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Mączka

    2017-06-01

    Optimal physical activity from walking is associated with lower body weight gains compared to stimulated physical activity of Pilates, which is not associated with weight gain. The more a women walk, the less weight gain they have.

  13. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521

  14. Preoperative weight gain might increase risk of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative

  15. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: Does dietary restraint predict weight gain four years after diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Weel, C. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether dieting--restriction of food intake for the purpose of weight control--suppresses or promotes excessive food intake and weight gain. Design: A 4-year follow-up study of a dietary intervention in a sample of 97 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Main Outcome

  16. The dieting dilemma in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: does dietary restraint predict weight gain 4 years after diagnosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Weel, C. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether dieting--restriction of food intake for the purpose of weight control--suppresses or promotes excessive food intake and weight gain. DESIGN: A 4-year follow-up study of a dietary intervention in a sample of 97 patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P care. Group prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Substantial weight gain during adulthood: the road to bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Sandberg, Keisha R; Miller, Wendy M; Odom, Jacqueline S; Sloan, Kevin C; de Jong, Adam T; Nori, Katherine E; Irving, Sarah D; Krause, Kevin R; Franklin, Barry A

    2005-01-01

    We sought to examine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years with the degree and rate of rise in body weight during adulthood among the morbidly obese. We evaluated 196 patients with a standard medical history form and a structured interview with questions regarding weight at age 18 years. The study included 40 (20.4%) men and 156 (79.6%) women. The mean BMI was 50.2+/-8.0 kg/m2, range 37.0-80.0 kg/m2. Based on self-reported weight, 133 (67.9%) were overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) and 68 (34.7%) were obese (BMI > or =30 kg/m2) at age 18 years. The distribution of cumulative weight gain was normal with a mean of 60.8+/-23.7 kg. There was a positive relationship (r=0.36, pweight gain were BMI at age 18 years (pweight gains during adult life, resulting in morbid obesity and high rates of obesity-related comorbidities.

  19. The Effect of Ranitidine on Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced weight gain is a disturbing side effect of Olanzapine that affects the quality of life in psychotic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Ranitidine in attenuating or preventing Olanzapine-induced weight gain. A parallel 2-arm clinical trial was done on 52 patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective and schizophreniform disorders who received Olanzapine for the first time. All these were first-episode admitted patients. They were randomly allocated to receive either Ranitidine or placebo. The trend of body mass index (BMI was compared between groups over 16-week course of treatment. Mean weight was 62.3 (SD: 9.6 kg at baseline. Thirty-three subjects (63.5% had positive family history of obesity. The average BMI increment was 1.1 for Ranitidine group and 2.4 for the placebo group. The multivariate analysis showed this effect to be independent of sex, family history of obesity, and baseline BMI value. The longitudinal modeling after controlling for baseline values failed to show the whole trend slope to be different. Although the slight change in trend’s slope puts forward a hypothesis that combined use of Ranitidine and Olanzapine may attenuate the weight gain long run, this needs to be retested in future larger scale long-term studies. This trial is registered with IRCT.ir 201009112181N5.

  20. Weight Gain: A Possible Side Effect of All Antiretrovirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Menzaghi, Barbara; Orofino, Giancarlo; Passerini, Simone; Madeddu, Giordano; Martinelli, Canio Vito; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Squillace, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Bonfanti, Paolo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Quirino, T; Bonfanti, P; Ricci, E; Bellacosa, C; Maggi, P; Calza, L; Abeli, C; Menzaghi, B; Celesia, B M; Grosso, C; Stagno, A; Vichi, F; Mazzotta, F; Martinelli, C; Penco, G; Cassola, G; Di Biagio, A; Taramasso, L; Nicolini, L A; Dentone, C; Molteni, C; Palvarini, L; Scalzini, A; Carenzi, L; Rizzardini, G; Valsecchi, L; Cordier, L; Rusconi, S; Colombo, V; Galli, M; Franzetti, M; De Socio, G V; Mazzotta, E; Parruti, G; Madeddu, G; Bagella, P; S. Mura, M; Libertone, R; Antinori, A; Di Giambenedetto, S; Orofino, G; Guastavigna, M; Caramell, P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain and body mass index (BMI) increase are central issues in patients living with HIV who need to minimize the risk of metabolic disease. Information collected through the SCOLTA cohort revealed significant 1-year BMI increase in patients treated with dolutegravir (P = .004), raltegravir (P = .0004), elvitegravir (P = .004), darunavir (P = .0006), and rilpivirine (P = .029). BMI gain correlated with low baseline BMI (P = .002) and older age (P = .0007) in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stages A/B, with lower BMI (P = .005) and CD4+ T-cell count (P = .007) at enrollment in stage C. PMID:29255735

  1. Eruption of first permanent incisors and live weight gain in grazing yearling Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, B A; Butler, K L

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the timing and duration of eruption of the first permanent incisors, live weight, sex and other factors on contemporaneous live weight gain in Angora goats. Goats were previously part of a pen study on the effects of energy intake of Angora does during pregnancy and lactation on kid development. The design was 3 levels of nutrition in mid-pregnancy by 2 levels of postnatal nutrition in 17 randomised blocks. Artificial insemination, ultrasound examination and feeding does in pens enabled accurate conduct of the study. After weaning, goats were grazed in sex groups. Live weight change between 14 and 20 months of age was related to deciduous first incisor loss and permanent first incisor development and other attributes assessed before the study. Live weight change was related to the elapsed time for first permanent incisors to commence eruption and to the length of time for first permanent incisors to erupt. This response was affected by sex. Over summer and autumn, entire males with short eruption intervals gained 2-3 kg more than entire males with long eruption intervals. Females that reached first permanent incisor eruption by mid-summer had a live weight gain of 3 kg more than those that reached the same development 3 months later. Live weight change in yearling Angora goats was associated with the process of first permanent incisor eruption. In females, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was earlier. In males, live weight gain was greater when first permanent incisor eruption was faster. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  3. Polygenic Risk, Appetite Traits, and Weight Gain in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Belsky, Daniel; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wardle, Jane; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic risks for obesity. These genetic risks influence development of obesity partly by accelerating weight gain in childhood. Research is needed to identify mechanisms to inform intervention. Cross-sectional studies suggest appetite traits as a candidate mechanism. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether appetite traits mediate genetic influences on children’s weight gain. OBJECTIVE To test whether genetic risk for obesity predicts accelerated weight gain in middle childhood (ages 4–8 years) and whether genetic association with accelerated weight gain is mediated by appetite traits. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort at the Trondheim Early Secure Study, Trondheim, Norway, enrolled at age 4 years during 2007 to 2008, with follow-ups at ages 6 and 8 years. Participants were sampled from all children born in 2003 or 2004 who attended regular community health checkups for 4-year-olds (97.2%attendance; 82.0%consent rate, n = 2475). Nine hundred ninety-five children participated at age 4 years, 795 at age 6 years, and 699 at age 8 years. Analyses included 652 children with genotype, adiposity, and appetite data. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were body mass index and body-fat phenotypes measured from anthropometry (ages 4, 6, and 8 years) and bioelectrical impedance (ages 6 and 8 years). Genetic risk for obesity was measured using a genetic risk score composed of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously discovered in genome-wide association studies of adult body mass index. Appetite traits were measured at age 6 years with the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 652 genotyped child participants, 323 (49.5%) were female, 58 (8.9%) were overweight, and 1 (0.2%) was obese. Children at higher genetic risk for obesity had higher baseline body mass index and fat mass compared with lower genetic risk peers, and they gained

  4. Weight gain in pregnancy and child weight status from birth to adulthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S A; Petito, L C; Rehkopf, D H; Ritchie, L D; Abrams, B

    2017-08-01

    High weight gain in pregnancy has been associated with child adiposity, but few studies have assessed the relationship across childhood or in racially/ethnically diverse populations. The objectives of the study are to test if weight gain in pregnancy is associated with high birthweight and overweight/obesity in early, middle and late childhood and whether these associations differ by maternal race/ethnicity. Mother-child dyads (n = 7539) were included from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative cohort study in the USA (1979-2012). Log-binomial regression models were used to analyse associations between weight gain and the outcomes: high birthweight (>4000 g) and overweight/obesity at ages 2-5, 6-11 and 12-19 years. Excessive weight gain was positively associated, and inadequate weight gain was negatively associated with high birthweight after confounder adjustment (P gain was associated with overweight in early, middle and late childhood. These associations were not significant in Hispanics or Blacks although racial/ethnic interaction was only significant ages 12-19 years (P = 0.03). Helping pregnant women gain weight within national recommendations may aid in preventing overweight and obesity across childhood, particularly for non-Hispanic White mothers. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Body image and gestational weight gain: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50% of Australian adult women of childbearing age are overweight or obese, and, when pregnant, the majority gain excessive weight; this is also the case in the United States and other developed nations. High gestational weight gain (GWG) is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight/obesity postbirth and is also associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Understanding factors that contribute to excessive GWG is vital in combating obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine whether body image attitudes (eg, feeling fat, attractive, or strong and fit, and salience of weight and shape) predict GWG. Pregnant women, recruited through advertisements on pregnancy online forums and parenting magazines, completed questionnaires assessing body image, demographic variables, and GWG. The Body Attitudes Questionnaire assessed body image in early-to-middle, middle, and late pregnancy (mean of 16.8, 24.7, and 33.0 weeks' gestation, respectively). Total GWG was calculated by subtracting self-reported pre pregnancy weight from self-reported weight at 36.8 weeks' gestation. A total of 150 pregnant women responded to the study's advertisements, and 72% (n = 108) took part. After controlling for pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI), lower attractiveness in early-to-middle pregnancy was associated with higher GWG. In late pregnancy, women who had the lowest feelings of fatness had greater GWG. Body image attitudes earlier in pregnancy did not predict whether GWG recommendations were exceeded. Women of higher BMI were more likely to gain excessive weight. The findings suggest that the type and timing of pregnancy, body attitudes, and the time of pregnancy when they are noted, predict GWG. However, more research in the area is needed, including assessment of the relationship between body image concerns, GWG, and other psychosocial factors. We recommend that midwives monitor body image concerns in pregnancy to help address factors affecting GWG in at

  6. Magnitude and determinants of inadequate third-trimester weight gain in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M Tafsir; Rahman, Sabuktagin; Locks, Lindsey Mina; Rahman, Mizanur; Hore, Samar Kumar; Saqeeb, Kazi Nazmus; Khan, Md Alfazal; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2018-01-01

    general poor. Maternal characteristics such as short stature, low BMI, advanced age, parity, low level of education and socioeconomic status, being Hindu, intake of arsenic contaminated water, and conceiving during monsoon or dry season were the risk factors for inadequate weight gain in the third trimester. Special attention should be given during prenatal care to women with the risk factors identified in this study.

  7. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Eating behavior dimensions. Associations with energy intake and body weight. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W; Blundell, John E; Wardle, Jane

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual's food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  10. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  11. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m 2 ; gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  12. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  13. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  14. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  15. Gut microbiota modifications and weight gain in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent obesity is a significant public health concern and has been associated with cardiovascular disease and related metabolic sequelae later in life. In recent years, several studies have postulated an imbalance in the composition of the early life gut microbiota results in pediatric obesity and its associated diseases. The early life gut microbiota is influenced by several factors including the mode of delivery, prematurity, breastfeeding, and the use of antibiotics and probiotics. It has been proposed that, when given early in life, antibiotics and probiotics disrupt the gut microbiota and consequently its metabolic activity, promoting weight gain. Probiotics have increasingly been administrated to children and studies on the perinatal use of probiotics on low birth weight and healthy infants revealed significantly increased body length and weight later in life in comparison with infants who did not receive probiotic supplements. Similarly, exposure to antibiotics is very high perinatally and in the early periods of life and there is evidence that antibiotic treatment decreases the biodiversity of the early life gut microbiota. In addition, studies have revealed that antibiotic treatment during the first months of life is associated with being overweight later in life. In this paper we review the effects of the administration of probiotics and antibiotics in early life on the gut microbiota and discuss their effects on weight gain. Keywords: Gut microbiota, Obesity, Newborn, Antibiotics, Probiotics

  16. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  17. Weight gain of piglets subject to different protocols of castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Antunes de Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Lima M.P.A., Gehrcke M.I., Laskoski F., Cristani J. & Oleskovicz N. [Weight gain of piglets subject to different protocols of castration.] Desempenho de ganho de peso de leitões após diferentes protocolos de castração. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:209-214, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Av. Luiz de Camões 2090, Conta Dinheiro, Lages, SC 88520-000, Brasil. E-mail: marcos_paulo@hotmail.com The aim this study was to evaluate the performance of weight gain of piglets castrated, and three methods of sedation and or local anesthesia compared with the traditional method recommended by the standards of Good Practices in Swine Production. We used 100 male pigs, seven days old, weighing 2.9 ± 0.50 kg, which were randomly divided into four groups: (BP Practice, in which the animals were castrated without anesthesia or analgesia, L (Lidocaine, which received 0.5 mL of lidocaine without epinephrine in each spermatic cord; SL (sedation/lidocaine which were sedated with tramadol 4mg.kg-1 and midazolam 1 mg.kg-1 intramuscular (IM, associated with the local block with 0.5 mL of lidocaine without epinephrine administered in each spermatic cord, and S (sedation, which received tramadol 4mg.kg-1 and midazolam 1mg.kg-1 IM. Recorded the weight of the animals at birth, the seventh day preceding the castration procedure, and 20 days old at the time of weaning. The data were evaluated by One Way ANOVA (ANOVA followed by Tukey test (P<0.05. The mean weights of animals at weaning were 6.15±0.86, 6.02±1.06, 5.96±0.19 and 5.51±1.14 and the average daily weight gain, the day of Castration at weaning was 0.23±0.05, 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.06 and 0.19±0.05 respectively, for BP groups, L, SL and S. There were no significant differences between the values of the groups studied. The use of sedation protocols and or anesthetic to perform the

  18. Timing of Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Modulates Newborn Anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Allard, Catherine; Doyon, Myriam; Lacroix, Marilyn; Guillemette, Laetitia; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Bouchard, Luigi; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-02-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and neonatal adiposity. However, timing of excessive GWG may have a differential impact on birth outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of early and mid/late excessive GWG on newborn anthropometry in the context of the Canadian clinical recommendations that are specific for first trimester and for second/third trimesters based on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. We included 607 glucose-tolerant women in our main analyses, after excluding women who had less than the recommended total GWG. Maternal body weight was measured in early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy, and late pregnancy. Maternal and fetal clinical outcomes were collected, including newborn anthropometry. Women were divided into four groups according to the Canadian guidelines for GWG in the first and in the second/third trimesters: (1) "overall non-excessive" (reference group); (2) "early excessive GWG"; (3) "mid/late excessive GWG"; and (4) "overall excessive GWG." Differences in newborn anthropometry were tested across GWG categories. Women had a mean (±SD) pre-pregnancy BMI of 24.7 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and total GWG of 15.3 ± 4.4 kg. Women with mid/late excessive GWG gave birth to heavier babies (gestational age-adjusted birth weight z-score 0.33 ± 0.91) compared with women in the reference group (0.00 ± 0.77, P = 0.007), whereas women with early excessive GWG gave birth to babies of similar weight (gestational age-adjusted z-score 0.01 ± 0.86) to the reference group (0.00 ± 0.77, P = 0.84). When we stratified our analyses and investigated women who gained within the recommendations for total GWG, mid/late excessive GWG specifically was associated with greater newborn size, similar to our main analyses. Excessive GWG in mid/late pregnancy in women who did not gain weight excessively in early pregnancy is associated with increased birth size, even in those who gained within the Canadian recommendations

  19. An Environmental Intervention to Prevent Excess Weight Gain in African American Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L.; Han, Hongmei; Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Lewis, Leslie; Champagne, Catherine M.; Sothern, Melinda; Ryan, Donna; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Examine the influence of an environmental intervention to prevent excess weight gain in African American children. Design Single-group repeated measures. Setting The intervention was delivered to a school composed of African American children. Subjects Approximately 45% (N = 77) of enrolled second through sixth grade students. Intervention The 18-month intervention was designed to alter the school environment to prevent excess weight gain by making healthier eating choices and physical activity opportunities more available. Measures Body Mass Index Percentile was the primary outcome variable. Body mass index Z-score was also calculated, and percent body fat, using bioelectrical impedance, was also measured. Total caloric intake (kcal), and percent kcal from fat, carbohydrate, and protein were measured by digital photography. Minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior were self-reported. Analysis Mixed models analysis was used, covarying baseline values. Results Boys maintained while girls increased percent body fat over 18-months (p = .027). All children decreased percent of kcal consumed from total and saturated fat, and increased carbohydrate intake and self-reported physical activity during the intervention (p values < .025). body mass index Z-score, sedentary behavior, and total caloric intake were unchanged. Conclusion The program may have resulted in maintenance of percent body fat in boys. Girl's percent body fat steadily increased, despite similar behavioral changes as boys. School-based interventions targeting African American children should investigate strategies that can be effective across gender. PMID:20465148

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  1. Role of Sex and the Environment in Moderating Weight Gain Due to Inadequate Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coborn, Jamie E; Houser, Monica M; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep. The obesogenic environment is characterized by easy access to palatable foods and a low demand for energy expenditure in daily activities. These and other environmental factors are discussed, as they drive altered sleep or their interaction with food choice and intake can promote obesity. We discuss data that suggest differences in sleep patterns and responses to sleep disruption influence sex disparities in weight gain, and that enviromental disturbances alter sleep and interact with features of the obesogenic environment that together promote obesity.

  2. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  3. Efeito do teor protéico do concentrado no consumo de cana-de-açúcar com uréia e ganho de peso de novilhas em crescimento Effect of protein content of the concentrate on the intake of sugar cane with urea and weight gain by growing heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Andrade Rodrigues

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes suplementos protéicos no consumo de cana-de-açúcar com uréia foi avaliado em novilhas mestiças de Holandês-Zebu, durante a estação seca. Dezoito novilhas com peso médio inicial de 288 kg e idade variando entre 15 e 22 meses foram suplementadas com farelo de soja ou com concentrado contendo 28,7% de proteína bruta. A quantidade de suplemento oferecida foi de 1,0 kg/animal·dia. A cana-de-açúcar com uréia foi fornecida à vontade. As médias dos consumos diários de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro de cana-de-açúcar com uréia, em porcentagem do peso vivo, foram 2,33 e 2,43 e 1,19 e 1,23, respectivamente, para os animais suplementados com farelo de soja ou concentrado contendo 28,7% de proteína bruta. Os suplementos protéicos não influíram no consumo de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro da cana-de-açúcar com uréia. Não houve diferença no ganho de peso entre os tratamentos. As médias de ganho de peso foram 0,39+0,04 e 0,36+0,04 kg/animal·dia, respectivamente, para os animais suplementados com farelo de soja ou com concentrado contendo 28,7% de proteína bruta.The effect of different protein supplements on intake of sugar cane with urea by crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers was evaluated during 12 weeks in the dry season. Eighteen heifers, averaging initial weight of 288 kg and age ranging from 15 to 22 months, were supplemented with soybean meal or concentrate with 28.7% crude protein. The amount of supplement fed was 1.0 kg/animal·day. Sugar cane with urea was fed ad libitum. The average intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of sugar cane with urea in percent of live weight were 2.33 and 2.43; 1.19 and 1.23 for the animals supplemented with soybean meal or concentrate with 28.7% crude protein, respectively. The protein supplements did not affect intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of sugar cane with urea. The supplements did not affect heifers weight gain

  4. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  5. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.

  6. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  7. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. Methods: We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003–2010. Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI, gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive. Results: Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively. Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16. Black and white women living in high

  8. Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, A. A.; Sitompul, O. S.; Tulus

    2018-04-01

    K- Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is a good classifier, but from several studies, the result performance accuracy of KNN still lower than other methods. One of the causes of the low accuracy produced, because each attribute has the same effect on the classification process, while some less relevant characteristics lead to miss-classification of the class assignment for new data. In this research, we proposed Attribute Weighting Based K-Nearest Neighbor Using Gain Ratio as a parameter to see the correlation between each attribute in the data and the Gain Ratio also will be used as the basis for weighting each attribute of the dataset. The accuracy of results is compared to the accuracy acquired from the original KNN method using 10-fold Cross-Validation with several datasets from the UCI Machine Learning repository and KEEL-Dataset Repository, such as abalone, glass identification, haberman, hayes-roth and water quality status. Based on the result of the test, the proposed method was able to increase the classification accuracy of KNN, where the highest difference of accuracy obtained hayes-roth dataset is worth 12.73%, and the lowest difference of accuracy obtained in the abalone dataset of 0.07%. The average result of the accuracy of all dataset increases the accuracy by 5.33%.

  9. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Thorpe, Roland J; Amutah, Ndidi; Davis, Esa M; Walker, Renee E; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Bodnar, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003-2010). Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI), gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood) and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty) were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese) and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive). Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively). Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16). Black and white women living in high poverty areas compared with women living in

  10. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. A qualitative study of gestational weight gain goal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Shaniece; Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-10-20

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important predictor of short and long-term pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, and women who set a GWG goal are more likely to gain within recommended ranges. Little information is available regarding potentially modifiable factors that underlie a woman's GWG goals. Our aims were to explore women's perceptions regarding factors that affect GWG, their understanding of appropriate GWG, their goal-setting experiences including patient-health care provider (HCP) conversations, and supportive interventions they would most like to help them achieve the recommended GWG. We conducted nine in-depth interviews and seven focus groups with a total of 33 Boston, Massachusetts (MA) area women who were pregnant and had delivered within the prior 6 months. We recorded and transcribed all interviews. Two investigators independently coded resulting transcripts. We managed data using MAXQDA2 and conducted a content analysis. Perceived factors that contributed to GWG goal-setting included the mother's weight control behaviors concerning exercise and diet-including a "new way of eating for two" and "semblance of control", experiences during prior pregnancies, conversations with HCPs, and influence from various information sources. Women focused on behaviors with consistent messaging across multiple sources of information, but mainly trusted their HCP, valued one-to-one conversations with them about GWG, preferred that the HCP initiate the conversation about GWG goals, and would be open to have the conversation started based on visual aid based on their own GWG progression. Pregnant women highly value discussions with their HCP to set GWG goals. Pregnant women view their clinicians as the most reliable source of information and believe that clinicians should open weight-related discussions throughout pregnancy.

  12. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestat...

  13. Influence of mealtime habits on the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosamantes-Carrasco, Libia Darina; Méndez-Hernández, Pablo; Flores, Yvonne N; Siani, Carole; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Ramírez, Paula; Rivera-Paredez, Berenice; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge

    2017-02-01

    To prospectively examine the extent to which mealtime habits influences the risk of weight gain and obesity in Mexican adults. We performed a prospective cohort study. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale was used for assessing participants' MHQ; the outcomes of interest were gain ≥5 % of body weight, developing overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, after 7 years of follow-up. In order to estimate the independent effect of MHQ on anthropometric indicators, generalized linear models were computed to obtain adjusted relative risks (95 % CI). The state of Morelos, Mexico. Mexican adults (n 837) aged 18-70 years participating in a cohort study. Compared with participants classified in the higher MHQ category, individuals in the middle and lower MHQ groups had a 4·1 (2·5, 6·7) and 6·2 (3·9, 9·7) fold greater risk of gain ≥5 % of body weight, respectively; 6·6 (2·8, 15·5) and 8·6 (3·7, 19·8) fold greater risk of becoming overweight/obese, respectively; and 3·8 (2·0, 7·3) and 5·3 (2·8, 9·8) fold greater risk of developing abdominal obesity, respectively. This study provides evidence about the influence of a set of mealtime habits on obesity indicators, showing that greater adherence to unadvisable mealtime habits increases the risk of developing unhealthy anthropometric indicators. Since the meal is one of the most important sources of food intake, and consequently weight status, the MHQ scale can be a useful population tool to predict weight gain and obesity.

  14. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children as Overweight and Children's Weight Concerns and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-03-01

    The global prevalence of childhood obesity is alarmingly high. Parents' identification of their children as overweight is thought to be an important prerequisite to tackling childhood obesity, but recent findings suggest that such parental identification is counterintuitively associated with increased weight gain during childhood. One possibility is that parental identification of their child as being overweight results in that child viewing his or her body size negatively and attempting to lose weight, which eventually results in weight gain. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies to examine the relation between children's weight gain and their parents' identification of them as being overweight. Across both studies, children whose parents perceive them to be overweight are more likely to view their body size negatively and are more likely than their peers to be actively trying to lose weight. These child-reported outcomes explained part of the counterintuitive association between parents' perceptions of their children as being overweight and the children's subsequent weight. We propose that the stigma attached to being recognized and labeled as "overweight" may partly explain these findings.

  15. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled...... trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weightweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used...... to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...

  17. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and preschool wheezing: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T.M. Leermakers (Lisan); A.M.M. van der Sonnenschein-Voort (Agnes); R. Gaillard (Romy); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with risks of preschool wheezing in offspring and explored the role of growth, infectious and atopic mechanisms. This substudy of 4656 children was embedded in a population-based birth

  18. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The CHOP postnatal weight gain, birth weight, and gestational age retinopathy of prematurity risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Quinn, Graham E; Huang, Jiayan; Dreiseitl, Stephan; Antigua, Jules; Foroughi, Negar; Abbasi, Soraya

    2012-12-01

    To develop a birth weight (BW), gestational age (GA), and postnatal-weight gain retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prediction model in a cohort of infants meeting current screening guidelines. Multivariate logistic regression was applied retrospectively to data from infants born with BW less than 1501 g or GA of 30 weeks or less at a single Philadelphia hospital between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2009. In the model, BW, GA, and daily weight gain rate were used repeatedly each week to predict risk of Early Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity type 1 or 2 ROP. If risk was above a cut-point level, examinations would be indicated. Of 524 infants, 20 (4%) had type 1 ROP and received laser treatment; 28 (5%) had type 2 ROP. The model (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia [CHOP]) accurately predicted all infants with type 1 ROP; missed 1 infant with type 2 ROP, who did not require laser treatment; and would have reduced the number of infants requiring examinations by 49%. Raising the cut point to miss one type 1 ROP case would have reduced the need for examinations by 79%. Using daily weight measurements to calculate weight gain rate resulted in slightly higher examination reduction than weekly measurements. The BW-GA-weight gain CHOP ROP model demonstrated accurate ROP risk assessment and a large reduction in the number of ROP examinations compared with current screening guidelines. As a simple logistic equation, it can be calculated by hand or represented as a nomogram for easy clinical use. However, larger studies are needed to achieve a highly precise estimate of sensitivity prior to clinical application.

  1. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  2. Determinants of Weight Gain During Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy and Association of Such Weight Gain With Recurrence in Long-term Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Akshara; Sinha, Arup K; Valle-Goffin, Janeiro; Shen, Yu; Tripathy, Debu; Barcenas, Carlos H

    2018-02-01

    Weight gain is a negative prognostic factor in breast cancer (BC) patients. The risk factors for weight gain during adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) and the extent to which such weight gain is associated with disease recurrence remain unclear. We retrospectively identified a cohort of women with a diagnosis of stage I-III, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative BC from January 1997 to August 2008, who had received initial treatment at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, had completed 5 years of ET, and had remained free of locoregional or distant relapse or contralateral BC for ≥ 5 years after diagnosis. The weight change at the end of 5 years of ET was measured as the percentage of the change in weight from the start of ET, with a weight gain of > 5% considered clinically significant. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the determinants of such weight gain and the risk of recurrence after 5 years. Of 1282 long-term BC survivors, 432 (33.7%) had a weight gain of > 5% after 5 years of ET. Women who were premenopausal at diagnosis were 1.40 times more likely than women who were postmenopausal at diagnosis to have a weight gain of > 5%. Asian women had the lowest risk of gaining weight. The recurrence risks of patients who had gained weight and those who had not were not significantly different. Premenopausal BC patients had an increased risk of weight gain after 5 years of ET; however, BC patients with a weight gain of > 5% did not have an increased risk of disease recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Eating out, weight and weight gain. A cross-sectional and prospective analysis in the context of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naska, A; Orfanos, P; Trichopoulou, A; May, A M; Overvad, K; Jakobsen, M U; Tjønneland, A; Halkjær, J; Fagherazzi, G; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Rohrmann, S; Hermann, S; Steffen, A; Haubrock, J; Oikonomou, E; Dilis, V; Katsoulis, M; Sacerdote, C; Sieri, S; Masala, G; Tumino, R; Mattiello, A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Barricarte, A; Rodríguez, L; Dorronsoro, M; Sánchez, M-J; Chirlaque, M-D; Agudo, A; Manjer, J; Wirfält, E; Hellström, V; Shungin, D; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N J; Spencer, E A; Freisling, H; Slimani, N; Vergnaud, A-C; Mouw, T; Romaguera, D; Odysseos, A; Peeters, P H M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight gain with eating at restaurants and similar establishments or eating at work among 10 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. This study included a representative sample of 24,310 randomly selected EPIC participants. Single 24-h dietary recalls with information on the place of consumption were collected using standardized procedures between 1995 and 2000. Eating at restaurants was defined to include all eating and drinking occasions at restaurants, cafeterias, bars and fast food outlets. Eating at work included all eating and drinking occasions at the workplace. Associations between eating at restaurants or eating at work and BMI or annual weight changes were assessed using sex-specific linear mixed-effects models, controlling for potential confounders. In southern Europe energy intake at restaurants was higher than intake at work, whereas in northern Europe eating at work appeared to contribute more to the mean daily intake than eating at restaurants. Cross-sectionally, eating at restaurants was found to be positively associated with BMI only among men (β=+0.24, P=0.003). Essentially no association was found between BMI and eating at work among both genders. In a prospective analysis among men, eating at restaurants was found to be positively, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with weight gain (β=+0.05, P=0.368). No association was detected between energy intake at restaurants and weight changes, controlling for total energy intake. Among men, eating at restaurants and similar establishments was associated with higher BMI and possibly weight gain.

  4. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation reduces weight gain in an obesity-animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Melega

    Full Text Available Prior studies of appetite regulatory networks, primarily in rodents, have established that targeted electrical stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH can alter food intake patterns and metabolic homeostasis. Consideration of this method for weight modulation in humans with severe overeating disorders and morbid obesity can be further advanced by modeling procedures and assessing endpoints that can provide preclinical data on efficacy and safety. In this study we adapted human deep brain stimulation (DBS stereotactic methods and instrumentation to demonstrate in a large animal model the modulation of weight gain with VMH-DBS. Female Göttingen minipigs were used because of their dietary habits, physiologic characteristics, and brain structures that resemble those of primates. Further, these animals become obese on extra-feeding regimens. DBS electrodes were first bilaterally implanted into the VMH of the animals (n = 8 which were then maintained on a restricted food regimen for 1 mo following the surgery. The daily amount of food was then doubled for the next 2 mo in all animals to produce obesity associated with extra calorie intake, with half of the animals (n = 4 concurrently receiving continuous low frequency (50 Hz VMH-DBS. Adverse motoric or behavioral effects were not observed subsequent to the surgical procedure or during the DBS period. Throughout this 2 mo DBS period, all animals consumed the doubled amount of daily food. However, the animals that had received VMH-DBS showed a cumulative weight gain (6.1±0.4 kg; mean ± SEM that was lower than the nonstimulated VMH-DBS animals (9.4±1.3 kg; p<0.05, suggestive of a DBS-associated increase in metabolic rate. These results in a porcine obesity model demonstrate the efficacy and behavioral safety of a low frequency VMH-DBS application as a potential clinical strategy for modulation of body weight.

  5. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes proporções Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o ganho de peso de bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo concentrado e silagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu nas seguintes proporções: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 e 65:35, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados vinte e quatro animais castrados Holandês x Zebu, com peso vivo inicial médio de 364 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Por ocasião da ensilagem, procedeu-se o tratamento do capim com o inoculante enzimo-bacteriano Nutroeste 50 t. Para o cálculo da matéria seca fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAI como indicador. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados ad libitum. O ensaio teve duração de 84 dias, divididos em três períodos de 28 dias após 15 dias de adaptação. Os consumos médios de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHO e as digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CHO e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF elevaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas dietas. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para o ganho de peso médio diário, estimando-se incrementos de 0,0184 kg/unidade de concentrado adicionado. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes de PB, EE e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN não foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 77, 88 e 60%. Silagem de Brachiaria brizantha não-emurchecida, constituindo 50% da dieta de bovinos H x Z, promoveu ganhos de peso em torno de 1,0 kg/dia.Intake and total apparent digestibilities of the nutrients and average daily gains (ADG by beef cattle fed diets based on concentrate and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu silage in the following proportions: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 and 65:35, in dry matter basis were evaluated. Twenty-four crossbred (Holstein x Zebu steers, with initial live weight of

  7. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  9. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  10. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  11. Prediction of Excessive Weight Gain in Insulin Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Johansen, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain in insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in addition to metformin or placebo, randomized into 18-month treatment groups with three different insulin analogue......AIMS: Weight gain is an ongoing challenge when initiating insulin therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, if prediction of insulin associated weight gain was possible on an individualized level, targeted initiatives could be implemented to reduce weight gain. The objective...... treatment regimens. Participants with excessive weight gain were defined as the group with weight gain in the 4(th) quartile. We developed a pattern classification method to predict individuals prone to excessive weight gain. RESULTS: The median weight gain among all patients (n = 412) was 2.4 (95...

  12. Weight Suppression But Not Symptom Improvement Predicts Weight Gain During Inpatient Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Diedrich, Alice; Greetfeld, Martin; Schlegl, Sandra; Schwartz, Caroline; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2018-03-01

    Fear of gaining weight is a common obstacle to seeking treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated changes in body mass index (BMI) during inpatient treatment for BN in relation to treatment outcome and weight suppression (WS). Female inpatients of a specialized eating disorders clinic were grouped as deteriorated/unchanged, reliably improved, and clinically significantly improved based on Eating Disorder Inventory-2 scores. Repeated measures ANOVA was employed to examine changes in BMI between admission and discharge depending on treatment outcome and WS. One-hundred seventy-nine patients were included. Overall, the average BMI significantly increased by 0.54 kg/m 2 (SD = 1.24). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no association of change in BMI with treatment outcome [F(df) = 1.13 (2166), p = 0.327] but with WS [F(df) = 2.76 (3166), p Bulimia nervosa can be successfully treated without causing excessive weight gain. Patients with higher WS might expect somewhat more weight gain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Magnitude and determinants of inadequate third-trimester weight gain in rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. M. Tafsir; Rahman, Sabuktagin; Locks, Lindsey Mina; Rahman, Mizanur; Hore, Samar Kumar; Saqeeb, Kazi Nazmus; Khan, Md. Alfazal

    2018-01-01

    , third-trimester weight gain was in general poor. Maternal characteristics such as short stature, low BMI, advanced age, parity, low level of education and socioeconomic status, being Hindu, intake of arsenic contaminated water, and conceiving during monsoon or dry season were the risk factors for inadequate weight gain in the third trimester. Special attention should be given during prenatal care to women with the risk factors identified in this study. PMID:29698483

  14. Novel regulator of acylated ghrelin, CF801, reduces weight gain, rebound feeding after a fast, and adiposity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Wellman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801 along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  15. Insulin Detemir Causes Lesser Weight Gain in Comparison to Insulin Glargine: Role on Hypothalamic NPY and Galanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ishraq Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Compared with other insulin analogues, insulin detemir induces less weight gain. This study investigated whether this effect was achieved by influencing the hypothalamic appetite regulators neuropeptide Y (NPY and galanin (GAL. Methods. Type  2 diabetic rat models were established with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of STZ. All rats were divided into NC, DM, DM+DE and DM+GLA groups. Glycemic levels of all study groups were checked at study onset and after 4 weeks of insulin treatment. Food intake and body weight were monitored during treatment. After 4 weeks, the hypothalamus of rats was examined for NPY and GAL mRNA and protein expression. Results. After 4 weeks of treatment, compared with the DM+GLA group, the DM+DE group exhibited less food intake (P<0.05 and less weight gain (P<0.05, but showed similar glycemic control. The expression of hypothalamic NPY and GAL at both mRNA and protein level were significantly lower (P<0.05 in the DM+DE group. Conclusion. Insulin detemir decreased food intake in type 2 diabetic rats, which led to reduced weight gain when compared to insulin glargine treatment. This effect is likely due to downregulation of hypothalamic NPY and GAL.

  16. A longitudinal study on the relationship between eating style and gestational weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijden, C.; Steinbach, S.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; van Mechelen, W.; van Poppel, M.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gaining too much weight in pregnancy poses health risks for mother and child. Eating style has been shown to be related to weight gain in general but the relation to maternal weight gain in pregnancy is unclear. Objectives: To assess the influence of eating style and psycho social

  17. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Sámano; Hugo Martínez-Rojano; Gabriela Chico-Barba; Estela Godínez-Martínez; Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez; Diana Montiel-Ojeda; Maricruz Tolentino

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the corr...

  18. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  19. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pfat oxidation when compared with a low-GI diet (Pfat oxidation was associated with regain in fat mass (r=0.43, Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  20. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  1. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns

  2. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  3. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns. PMID:22666778

  4. Correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann

    2017-06-01

    to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett F.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Start study was conducted during 2009–2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. Subjects: From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre......Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Design: Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children......-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (schooling), 285 children completed the intervention and had complete information on dietary intake. Results: Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P...

  6. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2017-04-01

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p < .0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hr) body mass increased significantly (p < .001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal・day -1 and 471 ± 124 g・day -1 , respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol・kg -1 ) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol・kg -1 ). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hr duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  8. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  9. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Akgun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05, and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05. However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05. The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1% and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%. Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3% and obese (52.5% groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.

  10. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  11. Pregnancy weight gain by gestational age and stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Hutcheon, J A; Bodnar, L M; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-11-21

    To study the association between total and early pregnancy (gain and risk of stillbirth, stratified by early-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Population-based cohort study. Stockholm-Gotland Region, Sweden. Pregnant women with singleton births (n = 160 560). Pregnancy weight gain was standardised into gestational age-specific z-scores. For analyses of total pregnancy weight gain, a matched design with an incidence density sampling approach was used. Findings were also contrasted with current Institute of Medicine (IOM) weight gain recommendations. Stillbirth defined as fetal death at ≥22 completed weeks of gestation. For all BMI categories, there was no statistical association between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of a weight gain z-score of -2.0 SD to +2.0 SD. Among normal-weight women, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth for lower (-2.0 to -1.0 SD) and higher (+1.0 to +1.9 SD) total weight gain was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.48-1.49) and 1.03 (0.60-1.77), respectively, as compared with the reference category. Further, there were no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth within the range of weight gain currently recommended by the IOM. For the majority of the BMI categories, the point estimates at the extremes of weight gain values (gain and increased risks of high weight gain, but estimates were imprecise and not statistically significant. We found no associations between total or early pregnancy weight gain and stillbirth across the range of weight gain experienced by most women. There was no association between weight gain during pregnancy and stillbirth among most women. © 2017 Karolinska Institutet. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  13. Postcessation weight gain concern as a barrier to smoking cessation: Assessment considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Levine, Michele D

    2018-01-01

    Concern about postcessation weight gain may be one potential barrier to quitting smoking. In this 'mini-review' of recent literature, we summarize findings on the relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation, and evaluate varied use of postcessation weight gain concern assessments and potential moderators of the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. We conducted a search using the terms "smoking" OR "smoking cessation" AND "weight concern" for articles published between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016. We identified 17 studies assessing postcessation weight gain concern, seven of which evaluated the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation association. The relationship between postcessation weight gain concern and smoking cessation was mixed. Recent studies varied in their assessments of postcessation weight gain concern, many of which were not validated and assessed correlates of this construct. Studies varied in their adjustment of demographic (e.g., sex), smoking-specific (e.g., smoking level), and weight-specific (e.g., body mass index) variables. The use of non-validated assessments and variability in testing covariates/moderators may contribute to conflicting results regarding the postcessation weight gain concern-cessation relationship. We recommend validating an assessment of postcessation weight gain concern, maintaining vigilance in testing and reporting covariates/moderators, and investigating trajectories of this construct over time and by smoking status to inform future assessment and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed. PMID:25620843

  15. Association between smoking cessation and weight gain in treatment-seeking African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcia M; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Resnicow, Ken; Dietz, Noella A; Antoni, Michael H; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2018-06-01

    Research has shown that African Americans gain more than average weight after smoking cessation. However, African Americans have been underrepresented in post-cessation weight gain research. The current study examined 1) the pattern of weight gain and 2) the association between smoking status and weight gain in a sample of African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. Data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a 4-week culturally specific smoking cessation cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention among African American smokers (N = 342). Weight was measured and self-reported smoking status was biochemically verified at baseline, end of counseling, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Random effects multilevel modeling was used to examine weight gain over twelve months post CBT, and a fully unconditional model tested the pattern of weight gain over time. Smoking status was included as a time-varying factor to examine its effect on weight gain, controlling for potential confounding variables. Weight significantly increased among those who remained abstinent over 12 months post CBT [average gain of seven lbs. (three kg)]. Controlling for covariates, abstinence was predictive of the rate of weight gain for those with high weight concern. Weight gain among African American abstainers was comparable to the average post-cessation weight gain observed among the general population. It is possible that exposure to CBT (culturally specific or standard) may have mitigated excessive weight gain. Future research should assess predictors of weight gain in African American smokers to inform future smoking cessation interventions and help elucidate factors that contribute to tobacco- and obesity-related health disparities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gestational weight gain in overweight and obese women enrolled in a healthy lifestyle and eating habits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, E; Malavolti, M; Bertarini, V; Pignatti, L; Neri, I; Battistini, N C; Facchinetti, F

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether changes in lifestyle in women with BMI > 25 could decrease gestational weight gain and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. Women with BMI > 25 were randomized at 1st trimester to no intervention or a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Program including diet (overweight: 1700 kcal/day, obese: 1800 kcal/day) and mild physical activity (30 min/day, 3 times/week). At baseline and at the 36th week women filled-in a Food Frequency Questionnaire. gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery. Data stratified by BMI categories. Socio-demographic features were similar between groups (TLC: 33 cases, 28 cases). At term, gestational weight gain in obese women randomized to TLC group was lower (6.7 ± 4.3 kg) versus controls (10.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.047). Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension and preterm delivery were also significantly lower. TLC was an independent factor in preventing gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension. Significant changes in eating habits occurred in the TLC group, which increased the number of snacks, the intake of fruits-vegetables and decreased the consumption of sugar. A caloric restriction associated to changes in eating behavior and constant physical activity, is able to reduce gestational weight gain and related pregnancy complications in obese women.

  17. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pwhey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  18. Lifestyle Risk Factors for Weight Gain in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Jensen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4 years and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3 years, referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness. Sleep latency (56.6 (25.5 vs. 40.9 (16.9 min, p = 0.042 and plasma triglycerides (1.0 (0.8, 1.2 vs. 0.7 (0.7, 0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.013 were significantly greater in asthmatic versus non-asthmatic children. No group difference was observed in appetite hormones, dietary intake, or activity levels (p > 0.05. Sleep duration paralleled overall diet quality (r = 0.36, p = 0.04, whilst daytime sleepiness paralleled plasma lipids (r = 0.61, p =0.001 and sedentary time (r = 0.39, p = 0.02. Disturbances in sleep quality and plasma triglycerides were evident in non-obese asthmatic children referred for polysomnography, versus non-asthmatic children. Observed associations between diet quality, sedentary behavior, and metabolic and sleep-related outcomes warrant further investigation, particularly the long-term health implications.

  19. Almost all antipsychotics result in weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bak

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antipsychotics (AP induce weight gain. However, reviews and meta-analyses generally are restricted to second generation antipsychotics (SGA and do not stratify for duration of AP use. It is hypothesised that patients gain more weight if duration of AP use is longer. METHOD: A meta-analysis was conducted of clinical trials of AP that reported weight change. Outcome measures were body weight change, change in BMI and clinically relevant weight change (7% weight gain or loss. Duration of AP-use was stratified as follows: ≤6 weeks, 6-16 weeks, 16-38 weeks and >38 weeks. Forest plots stratified by AP as well as by duration of use were generated and results were summarised in figures. RESULTS: 307 articles met inclusion criteria. The majority were AP switch studies. Almost all AP showed a degree of weight gain after prolonged use, except for amisulpride, aripiprazole and ziprasidone, for which prolonged exposure resulted in negligible weight change. The level of weight gain per AP varied from discrete to severe. Contrary to expectations, switch of AP did not result in weight loss for amisulpride, aripiprazole or ziprasidone. In AP-naive patients, weight gain was much more pronounced for all AP. CONCLUSION: Given prolonged exposure, virtually all AP are associated with weight gain. The rational of switching AP to achieve weight reduction may be overrated. In AP-naive patients, weight gain is more pronounced.

  20. Longitudinal study of weight, energy intake and physical activity change across two decades in older Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany C; Gryka, Anna A; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997-1999 and 2009-2011. At each visit, participants were weighed, measured and completed socioeconomic and demographic questionnaires. Participants at the first visit were asked to recall body weights at 20, 30 and 40 years of age. We assessed trends in BMI, physical activity and energy intake across and within visits. Over 2 decades, obesity prevalence doubled from 14% to 28% of the participants, with 69% of participants being categorised as overweight or obese. Greater than 70% of participants gained >5% of their baseline BMI with weight gain occurring across all weight categories. Energy intake and physical activity levels (PALs) did not change during the 2 decades after menopause (p trend=0.06 and 0.11, respectively), but, within the second visit, energy intake increased concomitantly with a decrease in physical activity across increasing quartiles of BMI (p trend <0.001 for all). Overweight and obesity increased by over 50% over the course of 20 years. Weight gain occurred across the adult life course regardless of starting weight. The marked increase in dietary intake and decrease in PALs in middle age suggest a potential critical period for intervention to curb excess weight gain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  2. Examination of Routine Use of Prenatal Weight Gain Charts as a Communication Tool for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Marijo; Sidebottom, Abbey C; McCool, Brigitte R

    2017-10-01

    Objectives In 2009 the IOM revised prenatal weight gain guidelines. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to assess if provider education and use of prenatal weight gain charts to track weight gain and counsel patients was associated with better patient and provider knowledge and communication about the guidelines. Methods A prospective non-randomized study conducted in four OB practices (two control, two intervention). Data sources included provider surveys (n = 16 intervention, 21 control), patient surveys (n = 332), and medical records. Intervention clinics received provider education on the IOM guidelines and used patient education materials and prenatal weight gain charts to track weight gain and as a counseling tool. Comparison clinics received no education and did not use the charts or patient education information. Results More patients at intervention clinics (92.3%) reported that a provider gave them advice about weight gain, compared to patients from comparison clinics (66.4%) (p gain (83.1 vs. 64.3%, p = 0.007). Intervention clinic patients were more likely to have knowledge of the guidelines indicated by 72.3% reporting a target weight gain amount within the guidelines versus 50.4% of comparison patients (p gain charts resulted in higher patient reported communication about weight gain from their provider, higher patient satisfaction with those discussions, and better knowledge of the appropriate target weight gain goals.

  3. Neonatal Body Composition According to the Revised Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston-Presley, Larraine; Catalano, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released revised pregnancy weight gain guidelines. There are limited data regarding the effect of maternal weight gain on newborn adiposity. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate neonatal fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat according to current Institute of Medicine (IOM) pregnancy weight gain guidelines. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of neonates delivered at least 36 wk gestation and evaluated for fat mass, lean body mass, and percentage body fat. Women with abnormal glucose tolerance testing and other known medical disorders or pregnancies with known fetal anomalies were excluded. Pregravid body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (30 kg/m2). Maternal weight gain was quantified as less than, equal to, or greater than current IOM guidelines. Newborn body composition measurements were compared according to weight gain and BMI categories. Results: A total of 439 maternal-newborn pairs were evaluated; 19.8% (n = 87) of women gained less than IOM guidelines; 31.9% (n = 140), equal to IOM guidelines; and 48.3% (n = 212), greater than IOM guidelines. Significant differences for each component of body composition were found when evaluated by IOM weight gain categories (all ANOVA, P weight gain for women who were of normal weight before pregnancy remained significant. Conclusion: Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is a significant contributor to newborn body composition, particularly for women who are of normal weight before pregnancy. PMID:22821895

  4. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    and relatively nutrient-dense foods and beverages such as vegetables, fruit juice and processed fruit and an inverse association between fruit intake and relatively nutrient-dilute foods and beverages such as soft drinks and snack foods as well as energy density and E% from fat. The feasibility study showed......The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... may aid to achieve these goals. Energy density of the diet can be reduced by substituting energy-dense food items with less energy-dense food items such as fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are considered as relatively low energy-dense food groups due to their high content of water...

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  6. Does Weight Gain During the Operation Wait Time Have an Impact on Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Karaman, Kerem; Budak, Ersin; Taymur, İbrahim; Buyukuysal, Cagatay

    2017-02-01

    The effect of preoperative weight changes on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative weight gain on postoperative weight loss outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Ninety-two morbidly obese patients undergoing SG from January 2014 to April 2016 were separated into two groups according to whether they gained weight or not during the waiting time prior to surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42.4 %) gained weight during the waiting time and 53 patients (57.6 %) did not. The median body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) at surgery was significantly higher in weight-gained patients (47.8 (min-max, 40-62)) compared to patients who had not gained weight (45.10 (min-max, 41-67)), (P = 0.034). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the distribution of age, gender, family history of obesity, existence of comorbidity, smoking, weight gain during childhood or adulthood, preoperative Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores, waiting time period, and body weight at the initial visit (P > 0.05). The ASA I score was higher in weight-gained patients whereas ASA II score was higher in those who did not gain, and the difference was significant (P = 0.046). Postoperative % BMI loss and % weight loss were not significantly different between the two groups at the first, third, sixth months, and the end of the first year (P > 0.05). Weight gain during waiting time has no negative impact on % weight loss and % BMI loss after SG.

  7. Healthy Weight Gain for Teens: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids with each meal and snack. What about protein bars? Protein bars are another type of supplement. ... gain but remember to have discussions about school, sports, current events, and feelings with your teen. Related ...

  8. The Association of FTO SNP rs9939609 with Weight Gain at University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, S.F.; Beeken, R.J.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We tested the hypothesis that the obesity-associated FTO SNP rs9939609 would be associated with clinically significant weight gain (>/= 5% of initial body weight) in the first year of university; a time identified as high risk for weight gain. METHODS: We collected anthropometric data from

  9. Characterizing gestational weight gain in a cohort of Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2018-05-01

    to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruofan; Park, Bo Y; Foster, Sarah E; Caughey, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for stillbirth were estimated for each gestational weight-gain stratum using adequate weight gain as the comparison group. The analysis was performed separately for each body mass index (BMI) class. Both inadequate weight gain and weight loss were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth for all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group. Highest risk was seen in weight-loss groups after 36 completed weeks (normal weight: HR = 18.85 [8.25-43.09]; overweight: HR = 5.87 [2.99-11.55]; obese: HR = 3.44 [2.34-5.05]). Weight loss was associated with reduced stillbirth risk in morbidly obese women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.56 [0.34-0.95]). Excess weight gain was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth among obese and morbidly obese women, with highest risk after 36 completed weeks (obese: HR = 2.00 [1.55-2.58]; morbidly obese: HR = 3.16 [2.17-4.62]). In contrast, excess weight gain was associated with reduced risk of stillbirth in normal-weight women between 24 and 28 weeks (HR = 0.57 [0.44-0.70]) and in overweight women between 29 and 33 weeks (HR = 0.62 [0.45-0.85]). Analysis for the underweight group was limited by sample size. Both excessive weight gain and inadequate weight gain were not associated with stillbirth in this group. Stillbirth risk increased with inadequate weight gain and weight loss in all BMI classes except the morbidly obese group, where weight demonstrated a protective effect. Conversely, excessive weight gain was associated with higher risk of stillbirth among

  11. Weight gain in freshman college students and perceived health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Hanck, Christoph; Neisingh, Marjolein; Prak, Dennis; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. We determined body weight increase in first year Dutch college students. We had the objective to determine whether the awareness of the unhealthy lifestyle raised concerns and willingness to change habits. Methods. Body weight, heartbeat, BMI, body fat percentages, and blood pressure

  12. Pregnancy Weight Gain by Gestational Age in Women with Uncomplicated Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Braxter, Betty J; Eckhardt, Cara L; Himes, Katherine P; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2018-03-01

    Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes and are associated with greater gestational weight gain compared to singleton pregnancies. Studies that disentangle the relationship between gestational duration, weight gain and adverse outcomes are needed to inform weight gain guidelines. We created charts of the mean, standard deviation and select percentiles of maternal weight gain-for-gestational age in twin pregnancies and compared them to singleton curves. We abstracted serial prenatal weight measurements of women delivering uncomplicated twin pregnancies at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2013) and merged them with the hospital's perinatal database. Hierarchical linear regression was used to express pregnancy weight gain as a smoothed function of gestational age according to pre-pregnancy BMI category. Charts of week- and day-specific values for the mean, standard deviation, and percentiles of maternal weight gain were created. Prenatal weight measurements (median: 11 [interquartile range: 9, 13] per woman) were available for 1109 women (573 normal weight, 287 overweight, and 249 obese). The slope of weight gain was most pronounced in normal weight women and flattened with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI (e.g. 50th percentiles of 6.8, 5.7, and 3.6 kg at 20 weeks and 19.8, 18.1, and 14.4 at 37 weeks in normal weight, overweight, and obese women, respectively). Weight gain patterns in twins diverged from singletons after 17-19 weeks. Our charts provide a tool for the classification of maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies. Future work is needed to identify the range of weight gain associated with optimal pregnancy health outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.

  14. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other factors, such as a lack of exercise, unhealthy eating and not enough sleep, might contribute to ... activity. Better yet, team up and make the lifestyle changes together. Remember, successful weight loss at any ...

  15. Antenatal weight management: Diet, physical activity, and gestational weight gain in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Judy A; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Pearce, Jo; Jethwa, Preeti H; Taylor, Moira A; Avery, Amanda; Ellis, Sarah; McMullen, Sarah; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-06-01

    to investigate women's physical activity levels, diet and gestational weight gain, and their experiences and motivations of behavior change. analysis of cross-sectional data collected during a longitudinal, cohort study examining physiological, psychological, sociodemographic, and self-reported behavioural measures relating to bodyweight. women recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust. 193 women ≤27 weeks gestation and aged 18 years or over. MEASUREMENTS & FINDINGS: measurements included weight and height, the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education (Brief Version), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short Form), and open questions of perceptions of behaviour change. 50.3% (n=97) were overweight/obese, and women gained 0.26kg/wk (IQR 0.34kg/wk) since conception. The majority consumed low levels of fat (n=121; 63.4%), high levels of unsaturated fat (n=103; 53.9%), and used a dietary supplement (n=166; 86.5%). However, 41% (n=76) were inactive, 74.8% (n=143) did not consume high levels of fibre, and 90.0% (n=171) consumed less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Body mass index category was not associated with diet, physical activity levels, or gestational weight gain. Themes generated from open-questions relating to behaviour change were: (1) Risk management, (2) Coping with symptoms, (3) Self-control, (4) Deviation from norm, (5) Nature knows best. early pregnancy is a period of significant and heterogeneous behaviour change, influenced by perceptions of risk and women's lived experience. Behaviour was influenced not only by perceptions of immediate risk to the fetus, but also by the women's lived experience of being pregnant. There are exciting opportunities to constructively reframe health promotion advice relating to physical activity and diet in light of women's priorities. The need for individualized advice is highlighted, and women across all body mass index categories would

  16. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600

  17. Patterns of Gestational Weight Gain and Its Association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... second trimester had positive correlation with birthweight (r = 0.164, P = 0.02). Obese women gained .... barefooted and wearing light clothing to the nearest 0.5 kg. ..... the other hand, the mean GWG by underweight women.

  18. Employment, work hours and weight gain among middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, N; Hauck, K; Hollingsworth, B

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the influence of employment and work hours on weight gain and weight loss among middle-aged women. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the influence of employment and hours worked on percentage weight change over 2 years across the entire distribution of weight change in a cohort of middle-aged women. A range of controls was included in the models to isolate the effect of work status. A total of 9276 women aged 45-50 years at baseline who were present in both the 1996 and 1998 surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The women were a representative sample of the Australian population. Being out of the labour force or unemployed was associated with lower weight gain and higher weight loss than being employed. The association was stronger at low to moderate levels of weight gain. Among employed women, working regular (35-40), long (41-48) or very long (49+) hours was associated with increasingly higher levels of weight gain compared with working part-time hours. The association was stronger for women with greater weight gain overall. The association between unemployment and weight change became insignificant when health status was controlled for. Employment was associated with more weight gain and less weight loss. Among the employed, working longer hours was associated with more weight gain, especially at the higher levels of weight gain where the health consequences are more serious. These findings suggest that as women work longer hours they are more likely to make lifestyle choices that are associated with weight gain.

  19. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Chi-Chen

    2008-01-01

    .... Since sex hormones and glucocorticoids regulate body weight and adipose tissue distribution, the authors hypothesize that sex hormones and cortisol play a role in treatment-induced weight gain...

  20. Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult blood pressure in 5 low- and middle-income-country cohorts: when does weight gain matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Linda S; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Hallal, Pedro C; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Wills, Andrew K; Norris, Shane A; Dahly, Darren L; Lee, Nanette R; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-05-01

    Promoting catch-up growth in malnourished children has health benefits, but recent evidence suggests that accelerated child weight gain increases adult chronic disease risk. We aimed to determine how birth weight (BW) and weight gain to midchildhood relate to blood pressure (BP) in young adults. We pooled data from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. We used conditional weight (CW), a residual of current weight regressed on prior weights, to represent deviations from expected weight gain from 0 to 12, 12 to 24, 24 to 48 mo, and 48 mo to adulthood. Adult BP and risk of prehypertension or hypertension (P/HTN) were modeled before and after adjustment for adult body mass index (BMI) and height. Interactions of CWs with small size-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth were tested. Higher CWs were associated with increased BP and odds of P/HTN, with coefficients proportional to the contribution of each CW to adult BMI. Adjusted for adult height and BMI, no child CW was associated with adult BP, but 1 SD of BW was related to a 0.5-mm Hg lower systolic BP and a 9% lower odds of P/HTN. BW and CW associations with systolic BP and P/HTN were not different between adults born SGA and those with normal BW, but higher CW at 48 mo was associated with higher diastolic BP in those born SGA. Greater weight gain at any age relates to elevated adult BP, but faster weight gains in infancy and young childhood do not pose a higher risk than do gains at other ages.

  1. Birth Weight, Postnatal Weight Gain, and Childhood Adiposity in Relation to Lipid Profile and Blood Pressure During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulst, Andraea Van; Barnett, Tracie A; Paradis, Gilles; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gomez-Lopez, Lilianne; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-08-04

    Different pathways likely underlie the association between early weight gain and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined whether birth weight for length relationship and weight gain up to 2 years of age are associated with lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP) in early adolescence and determined whether childhood adiposity mediates these associations. Data from QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth), a cohort of white children with parental history of obesity, were analyzed (n=395). Sex-specific weight for length z scores from birth to 2 years were computed. Rate of postnatal weight gain was estimated using individual slopes of weight for length z -score measurements. Percentage of body fat was measured at 8 to 10 years. Fasting lipids and BP were measured at 10 to 12 years. Using path analysis, we found indirect effects of postnatal weight gain, through childhood adiposity, on all outcomes: Rate of postnatal weight for length gain was positively associated with childhood adiposity, which in turn was associated with unfavorable lipid and BP levels in early adolescence. In contrast, small beneficial direct effects on diastolic BP z scores, independent of weight at other time points, were found for birth weight for length (β=-0.05, 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.002) and for postnatal weight gain (β=-0.02, 95% CI, -0.03 to -0.002). Among children with at least 1 obese parent, faster postnatal weight gain leads to cardiovascular risk factors in early adolescence through its effect on childhood adiposity. Although heavier newborns may have lower BP in early adolescence, this protective direct effect could be offset by a deleterious indirect effect linking birth weight to later adiposity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Weight gain in newborns submitted to skin-to-skin contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karine da Costa Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the weight gain among newborns submitted to the kangaroo method and those not submitted to it, and to analyze the factors that may influence this gain: length of hospital stay, gestational age, corrected gestational age, birth weight, weight on the first day of follow-up, duration of gastric tube feeding, duration of oral feeding, and type of diet. Methods: a cross-sectional, quantitative study, with 86 newborns divided into two groups: group 1, with 48 neonates undergoing skin-to-skin contact and Group 2, 38 newborns who did not have this contact. Weights were recorded until hospital discharge. Results: a greater weight gain in Group 1, a longer time of hospitalization in Group 2, and a significant difference in weight gain related to the type of diet in Group 2. Conclusion: skin-to-skin contact has a positive influence on weight gain and length of hospital stay of newborns. The use of an infant formula does not influence weight gain for dyads who experienced skin-to-skin contact. Gestational age, corrected gestational age, birth weight, weight on the first day of follow-up, duration of gastric tube feeding, duration of oral feeding are not correlated with weight gain.

  3. Effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on energy intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskaal-van Dongen, M; Kok, F J; de Graaf, C

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of snacks might contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is not clear how the moment of consumption and energy density of snacks can influence the compensatory response to consumption of snacks in the long term. To investigate the effects of snack consumption for 8 weeks on changes in body weight, emphasizing on moment of consumption and energy density. In total, 16 men and 66 women (mean age 21.9 years (s.d. 0.3 year), mean body mass index 20.7 kg m(-2) (s.d. 0.2 kg m(-2))) were randomly assigned to one of four parallel groups in a 2 x 2 design: snacks consumed with or between meals and snacks having a low (12 kJ g(-1)) energy density. For 8 weeks, subjects consumed mandatory snacks that provided 25% of energy requirements on each day. Body weight, body composition, physical activity level (PAL) and energy intake were measured in week 1 and week 8. There were no differences in changes in body weight between the four groups. Moment of consumption (P=0.7), energy density (P=0.8) and interaction (P=0.09) did not influence body weight. Similarly, there were no differences in changes in body composition, PAL and energy intake between the four groups. Body weight after 8 weeks of snack consumption was not affected by moment of consumption and energy density of snacks. This finding suggests that consuming snacks that are high or low in energy density does not necessarily contribute to weight gain. Healthy, nonobese young adults may be able to maintain a normal body weight through an accurate compensation for the consumption of snacks.

  4. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R; Krah, Nathan M; Dennison, Roberta J; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D; Smith, Lois E H

    2010-12-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r(2) = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome.

  5. Antipsychotic-associated weight gain: management strategies and impact on treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayabandara M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Madhubhashinee Dayabandara, Raveen Hanwella, Suhashini Ratnatunga, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chathurie Suraweera, Varuni A de Silva Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka Abstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a major management problem for clinicians. It has been shown that weight gain and obesity lead to increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and poor drug compliance. This narrative review discusses the propensity of various antipsychotics to cause weight gain, the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions available to counteract this effect and its impact on adherence. Most antipsychotics cause weight gain. The risk appears to be highest with olanzapine and clozapine. Weight increases rapidly in the initial period after starting antipsychotics. Patients continue to gain weight in the long term. Children appear to be particularly vulnerable to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Tailoring antipsychotics according to the needs of the individual and close monitoring of weight and other metabolic parameters are the best preventive strategies at the outset. Switching to an agent with lesser tendency to cause weight gain is an option, but carries the risk of relapse of the illness. Nonpharmacologic interventions of dietary counseling, exercise programs and cognitive and behavioral strategies appear to be equally effective in individual and group therapy formats. Both nonpharmacologic prevention and intervention strategies have shown modest effects on weight. Multiple compounds have been investigated as add-on medications to cause weight loss. Metformin has the best evidence in this respect. Burden of side effects needs to be considered when prescribing weight loss medications. There is no strong evidence to recommend routine prescription of add-on medication for weight reduction. Heterogeneity of study methodologies and other

  6. Energy Gap in the Aetiology of Body Weight Gain and Obesity: A Challenging Concept with a Complex Evaluation and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy gap(s is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity is not constant, may fade out with time if the initial conditions are maintained, and depends on the ‘efficiency' with which the readjustment of the energy imbalance gap occurs with time. The metabolic response to an energy imbalance gap and the magnitude of the energy gap(s can be estimated by at least two methods, i.e. i assessment by longitudinal overfeeding studies, imposing (by design an initial positive energy imbalance gap; ii retrospective assessment based on epidemiological surveys, whereby the accumulated endogenous energy storage per unit of time is calculated from the change in body weight and body composition. In order to illustrate the difficulty of accurately assessing an energy gap we have used, as an illustrative example, a recent epidemiological study which tracked changes in total energy intake (estimated by gross food availability and body weight over 3 decades in the US, combined with total energy expenditure prediction from body weight using doubly labelled water data. At the population level, the study attempted to assess the cause of the energy gap purported to be entirely due to increased food intake. Based on an estimate of change in energy intake judged to be more reliable (i.e. in the same study population and together with calculations of simple energetic indices, our analysis suggests that conclusions about the fundamental causes of obesity development in a population (excess intake vs. low physical activity or both is clouded by a high level of uncertainty.

  7. Weight-Loss: Gain Control of Emotional Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy weight: Key to wellness. In: American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: ... relaxation training reduce emotional eating in women with obesity? An exploratory ... Dietetic Association. 2009;10:1427. Macht M. How emotions affect ...

  8. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  9. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  10. Maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy modify the immunomodulatory potential of breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Laitinen, Kirsi; Salminen, Seppo; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk is an optimal source of nutrition for infants. It contains bioactive components including bacteria that support the microbial colonization and immune system development of the infant. The determinants of human milk composition remain poorly understood, although maternal nutritional and immunological status as well as lifestyle and dietary habits seem to have an impact. The subjects selected were women from a prospective follow-up study categorized by BMI. Milk samples were taken after delivery and at 1 and 6 mo later for analysis of composition in regard to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, soluble CD14 (sCD14), cytokines, and microbiota. TGF-β2 and sCD14 levels in the breast milk of overweight mothers tended to be lower than the levels in that of normal-weight mothers. Also, higher levels of Staphylococcus group bacteria and lower levels of Bifidobacterium group bacteria were detected in overweight mothers as compared with normal-weight ones. The prevalence of Akkermansia muciniphila-type bacteria was also higher in overweight mothers, and the numbers of these bacteria were related to the interleukin (IL)-6 concentration in the colostrum, which was in turn related to lower counts of Bifidobacterium group bacteria in the breast milk of overweight women. Complex interactions of cytokines and microbiota in breast milk guide the microbiological, immunological, and metabolic programming of infant health. Our data may indicate the presence of an additional mechanism that may explain the heightened risk of obesity for infants of overweight and excessive weight gain mothers.

  11. Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawski, Maggie A; Dabelea, Dana; Wagner, Brandie D; Sontag, Marci K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-09-04

    Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life. We categorized the women (1) according to pre-pregnancy body mass index into overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25) or non-overweight/obese (BMI gut microbiota. Maternal OW/OB was associated with lower maternal alpha diversity. Maternal pre-pregnancy OW/OB and excessive GWG were associated with taxonomic differences in the maternal gut microbiota, including taxa from the highly heritable family Christensenellaceae, the genera Lachnospira, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia. These maternal characteristics were not associated with overall differences in the infant gut microbiota over the first 2 years of life. However, the presence of specific OTUs in maternal gut microbiota at the time of delivery did significantly increase the odds of presence in the infant gut at age 4-10 days for many taxa, and these included some lean-associated taxa. Our results show differences in maternal gut microbiota composition at the time of delivery by pre-pregnancy weight and GWG, but these changes were only associated with limited compositional differences in the early life gut microbiota of their infants. Further work is needed to determine the degree to which these maternal microbiota differences at time of birth with OW/OB and GWG may affect the health of the infant over time and by what mechanism.

  12. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are risk factors for infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Siminerio, Lara L; Himes, Katherine P; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Lash, Timothy L; Parisi, Sara M; Abrams, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the joint and independent relationships of gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) on risk of infant mortality was performed. This study used Pennsylvania linked birth-infant death records (2003-2011) from infants without anomalies born to mothers with prepregnancy BMI categorized as underweight (n = 58,973), normal weight (n = 610,118), overweight (n = 296,630), grade 1 obesity (n = 147,608), grade 2 obesity (n = 71,740), and grade 3 obesity (n = 47,277). Multivariable logistic regression models stratified by BMI category were used to estimate dose-response associations between z scores of gestational weight gain and infant death after confounder adjustment. Infant mortality risk was lowest among normal-weight women and increased with rising BMI category. For all BMI groups except for grade 3 obesity, there were U-shaped associations between gestational weight gain and risk of infant death. Weight loss and very low weight gain among women with grades 1 and 2 obesity were associated with high risks of infant mortality. However, even when gestational weight gain in women with obesity was optimized, the predicted risk of infant death remained higher than that of normal-weight women. Interventions aimed at substantially reducing preconception weight among women with obesity and avoiding very low or very high gestational weight gain may reduce risk of infant death. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  13. Effect of Herbal Immunodulator on Body weight gain in immunosuppressed broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Mode

    Full Text Available The herbal immunomodulator was evaluated in immunosupressed broiler birds in terms of body weight gain. The treatment with Ocimum sanctum and Emblica officinalis @ 3 gm /kg feed for 2 weeks were found to be effective immunomodulator in increasing body weight gain in broiler birds. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 269-270

  14. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  15. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrid Merkx; Marlein Ausems; Raymond de Vries; Marianne Nieuwenhuijze

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol

  16. Olanzapine causes hypothermia, inactivity, a deranged feeding pattern and weight gain in female Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S. S.; Calcagnoli, F.; van Dijk, G.; Scheurink, A. J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an a-typical antipsychotic drug antagonizing predominantly 5-HT and dopamine but also histamine muscarin and a adrenergic receptors In humans Olanzapine induces weight gain and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes The underlying mechanisms of Olanzapine-induced weight gain are unclear

  17. Effects of sublethal concentrations of formalin on weight gain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to various sublethal concentrations (25.0, 12.50, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 and 0.0 mgl-1) of formalin to investigate their effects on the weight gain of the fish. Decrease in weight gain, directly proportional to the toxicant concentration, was observed in fish exposed to ...

  18. Long-Term Weight Gain and Risk of Overweight in Parous and Nulliparous Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah; Brown, Wendy J; Foureur, Maralyn

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In longitudinal studies, women gain significant amounts of weight during young adulthood, pointing to pregnancy as an important trigger for weight gain. Studies examining the effect of parity vary in their findings and are complicated by multiple potential confounders. This study exami...

  19. Diminished creatinine clearance in anorexia nervosa: reversal with weight gain.

    OpenAIRE

    Boag, F; Weerakoon, J; Ginsburg, J; Havard, C W; Dandona, P

    1985-01-01

    To assess whether patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormalities in creatinine clearance, we measured plasma creatinine concentration, urinary creatinine excretion, and creatinine clearance in 10 patients with anorexia nervosa before and during treatment. Urinary creatinine excretion and creatinine clearance were diminished in all patients. Nine patients had significant decreases in their plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance was increased even when corrected for body weight and body ...

  20. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  1. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake......). CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain....

  2. Calories count. Improved weight gain with dietary intervention in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, R; DeKleermaeker, M; Gidding, S S; Christoffel, K K

    1992-09-01

    We assessed the nutritional status of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) to evaluate the role of dietary intake in impaired weight for patient length. Underweight patients with CHD underwent nutritional counseling to evaluate the role of this intervention in improvement of weight for length. We prospectively evaluated a clinical protocol for nutritional assessment and counseling in patients with CHD. Eligible patients were enrolled from a cardiology clinic during a 13-month period. Initial anthropometric measurements and measurements of dietary intake of underweight and normal-weight patients were compared. Initial and follow-up measurements of underweight patients who received nutritional counseling were compared. Nineteen underweight patients with CHD and 16 normal-weight patients with CHD, aged 1 month to 2 years, were studied. Exclusion criteria included noncardiac factors that could affect growth (eg, low birth weight, Down syndrome, gastrointestinal deficit, and any severe abnormality of the central nervous system). Seventeen of the 19 underweight patients underwent nutritional counseling in the presence of a parent every 2 months for 6 months. Caloric and protein intakes were maximized using high-calorie formulas. Baseline dietary intake was lower in underweight patients than in normal-weight patients (mean percentage of the recommended daily allowance of calories, 89% vs 108%). Follow-up evaluation in normal-weight patients showed no change in percentage of ideal body weight for length. Follow-up evaluation in underweight patients showed improvement in mean dietary intake (from 90% to 104% of the recommended daily allowance of calories) and in mean percentage of ideal body weight for length after intervention (from 83.1% to 88.3%). Nutritional evaluation of patients with CHD demonstrated that underweight children had inadequate diets. Underweight patients with CHD who received nutritional counseling showed increased dietary intake and improved

  3. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  4. Weight gain with add-on second-generation antipsychotics in bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, H; Joas, E; Kardell, M; Pålsson, E; Landén, M

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and magnitude of weight gain in-patients with bipolar disorder when treated with a second-generation antipsychotic as an add-on treatment to a mood stabilizer in routine clinical practice. Data were derived from the quality register for bipolar disorder in Sweden (BipoläR). Patients with bipolar disorder who started add-on treatment with a SGA (n = 575) were compared at next yearly follow-up with age and sex matched patients who were only treated with a mood stabilizer (n = 566). The primary outcome measure was change in body weight and body mass index (BMI). We also assessed the prevalence of clinically significant weight gain defined as ≥7% gain in body weight. The group that received add-on treatment with antipsychotics neither gained more weight nor were at higher risk for a clinically significant weight gain than the reference group. Instead, factors associated with clinically significant weight gain were female sex, young age, low-baseline BMI, and occurrence of manic/hypomanic episodes. We found no evidence of an overall increased risk of weight gain for patients with bipolar disorder after receiving add-on SGA to a mood stabilizer in a routine clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ebdrup Bjørn H; Knop Filip K; Ishøy Pelle L; Rostrup Egill; Fagerlund Birgitte; Lublin Henrik; Glenthøj Birte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the g...

  6. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Wilks, R.; Jahoor, F.; Adeyemo, A.

    1999-01-01

    In modem technological societies the requirement for physical work is diminished and access to food is unrestricted. Under these circumstances a large proportion of the population will gain weight and develop obesity and diabetes. At the individual level, genetic and behavioural factors must combine to lead to an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Weight gain, especially rapid weight gain in a population appears to increase the risk of diabetes sharply. Thus understanding the route to weight gain and obesity, and the modulatory effects of physical activity on development of glucose intolerance is critical to credible intervention strategies to reverse or prevent diabetes in populations especially those in transitional societies. In this proposal we will examine the quantitative importance of non-resting energy expenditure (EE) in populations with rising levels of obesity and high prevalence of diabetes. (author)

  7. Association Between Gestational Weight Gain According to Body Mass Index and Postpartum Weight in a Large Cohort of Danish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining = 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women...... with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended...

  8. Is weight gain really a catalyst for broader recovery?: The impact of weight gain on psychological symptoms in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Lock, James D; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The main aims of this study were to describe change in psychological outcomes for adolescents with anorexia nervosa across two treatments, and to explore predictors of change, including baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as weight gain over time. Participants were 121 adolescents with anorexia nervosa from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial who received either family-based treatment or individual adolescent supportive psychotherapy. Psychological symptoms (i.e., eating disorder psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Conditional multilevel growth models were used to test for predictors of slope for each outcome. Most psychological symptoms improved significantly from baseline to 12 month follow-up, regardless of treatment type. Depressive symptoms and dietary restraint were most improved, weight and shape concerns were least improved, and self-esteem was not at all improved. Weight gain emerged as a significant predictor of improved eating disorder pathology, with earlier weight gain having a greater impact on symptom improvement than later weight gain. Adolescents who presented with more severe, complex, and enduring clinical presentations (i.e., longer duration of illness, greater eating disorder pathology, binge-eating/purging subtype) also appeared to benefit more psychologically from treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Achieving Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain: The Role of Healthcare Provider Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deputy, Nicholas P; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Olson, Christine K

    2018-01-10

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain recommendations in 2009. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice about gestational weight gain and inadequate or excessive weight gain, stratified by prepregnancy body mass index category. We analyzed cross-sectional data from women delivering full-term (37-42 weeks of gestation), singleton infants from four states that participated in the 2010-2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (unweighted n = 7125). Women reported the weight gain range (start and end values) advised by their healthcare provider; advice was categorized as follows: starting below recommendations, starting and ending within recommendations (IOM consistent), ending above recommendations, not remembered, or not received. We examined associations between healthcare provider advice and inadequate or excessive, compared with appropriate, gestational weight gain using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 26.3% of women reported receiving IOM-consistent healthcare provider advice; 26.0% received no advice. Compared with IOM-consistent advice, advice below recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of inadequate weight gain among underweight (aPR 2.22, CI 1.29-3.82) and normal weight women (aPR 1.57, CI 1.23-2.02); advice above recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of excessive weight gain among all but underweight women (aPR range 1.36, CI 1.08-1.72 to aPR 1.42, CI 1.19-1.71). Not remembering or not receiving advice was associated with both inadequate and excessive weight gain. Few women reported receiving IOM-consistent advice; not receiving IOM-consistent advice put women at-risk for weight gain outside recommendations. Strategies that raise awareness of IOM recommendations and address barriers to providing advice are needed.

  10. Health behaviours of pregnant women and gestational weight gains – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal weight gain during pregnancy may exert a negative effect on the development of the foetus, the course of pregnancy, and later the state of health of the mother and her baby. Due to the unfavourable health consequences of abnormal body weight gains in expectant mothers studies of the factors that determine the amount of these gains are important. Aim of the research : Evaluation of the relationship between health behaviours in pregnancy, nutritional status before pregnancy, selected socio-demographic factors, and gestational weight gain. Material and methods : The investigation included 274 women. Using a questionnaire, information was collected pertaining to the place of residence, age, body height and weight, cigarette smoking, and eating habits during pregnancy. The total weight gain during pregnancy was calculated as the difference between perinatal weight and pre-pregnancy body weight. Gestational weight gains were classified as low, recommended, or high. Results: Increased risk of high weight gain was associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages (odds ratio (OR = 2.82, especially beer (OR = 2.72, high consumption of products supplying proteins of animal origin (OR = 2.87, and overweight before pregnancy (OR = 3.37, as well as the delivery being the mother’s first, compared to the third and subsequent childbirth (OR = 4.17. Conclusions: This study indicates that there is a need for health education among females at reproductive age in order to reduce excess weight before conception, and promotion of adequate health behaviours in pregnancy, which would allow the maintenance of normal weight gain during this period.

  11. Examining the provisional guidelines for weight gain in twin pregnancies: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, Olha; Hulman, Adam; Woolcott, Christy; Beyene, Joseph; Giglia, Lucy; Armson, B Anthony; Dodds, Linda; Neupane, Binod; McDonald, Sarah D

    2017-09-29

    Weight gain during pregnancy has an important impact on maternal and neonatal health. Unlike the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for weight gain in singleton pregnancies, those for twin gestations are termed "provisional", as they are based on limited data. The objectives of this study were to determine the neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with gaining weight below, within and above the IOM provisional guidelines on gestational weight gain in twin pregnancies, and additionally, to explore ranges of gestational weight gain among women who delivered twins at the recommended gestational age and birth weight, and those who did not. A retrospective cohort study of women who gave birth to twins at ≥20 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 500 g was conducted in Nova Scotia, Canada (2003-2014). Our primary outcome of interest was small for gestational age (gain were used to categorize women as gaining below, within, or above guidelines. We performed traditional regression analyses for maternal outcomes, and to account for the correlated nature of the neonatal outcomes in twins, we used generalized estimating equations (GEE). A total of 1482 twins and 741 mothers were included, of whom 27%, 43%, and 30% gained below, within, and above guidelines, respectively. The incidence of small for gestational age in these three groups was 30%, 21%, and 20%, respectively, and relative to gaining within guidelines, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.44 (95% CI 1.01-2.06) for gaining below and 0.92 (95% CI 0.62-1.36) for gaining above. The gestational weight gain in women who delivered twins at 37-42 weeks with average birth weight ≥ 2500 g and those who delivered twins outside of the recommend ranges were comparable to each other and the IOM recommendations. While gestational weight gain below guidelines for twins was associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes, additional research exploring alternate ranges of gestational weight gain in twin

  12. Substitution Models of Water for Other Beverages, and the Incidence of Obesity and Weight Gain in the SUN Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujué Fresán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models. We followed 15,765 adults without obesity at baseline. The intake of 17 beverage items was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were average change in body weight in a four-year period and new-onset obesity and their association with the substitution of one serving per day of water for one of the other beverages. During the follow-up, 873 incident cases of obesity were identified. In substitution models, the consumption of water instead of beer or sugar-sweetened soda beverages was associated with a lower obesity incidence (the Odds Ratio (OR 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.68 to 0.94 and OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.97; respectively and, in the case of beer, it was also associated with a higher average weight loss (weight change difference = −328 g; (95% CI −566 to −89. Thus, this study found that replacing one sugar-sweetened soda beverage or beer with one serving of water per day at baseline was related to a lower incidence of obesity and to a higher weight loss over a four-year period time in the case of beer, based on mathematical models.

  13. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of zonisamide to prevent olanzapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Winstanley, Erin; Mori, Nicole; Martens, Brian; McCoy, Jessica; Moeller, Dianna; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Keck, Paul E

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain is commonly observed with olanzapine treatment. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug associated with weight loss. This study examined the effectiveness of zonisamide in preventing weight gain in 42 patients beginning olanzapine for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Each patient had a body mass index of 22 mg/kg or greater and was randomized to taking olanzapine with either zonisamide (n = 20) or placebo (n = 22) for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight in kilograms from baseline. In the primary analysis using longitudinal regression, patients who received zonisamide had a significantly slower rate of weight gain and increase in body mass index than those who received placebo. The patients treated with zonisamide gained a mean (SD) of 0.9 (3.3) kg, whereas those treated with placebo gained a mean (SD) of 5.0 (5.5) kg; P = 0.01. None of the patients in the zonisamide group, compared with 7 patients (33%) in the placebo group, gained 7% of body weight or greater from baseline (Fisher exact test, P = 0.009). The zonisamide group, however, reported significantly more cognitive impairment as an adverse event than the placebo group (25% vs 0, respectively; P = 0.02). Zonisamide was effective for mitigating weight gain in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia initiating treatment with olanzapine but was associated with cognitive impairment as an adverse event.

  14. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  15. Effect of dietary fatty acid intake on prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi; Linseisen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN....... RESULTS: Stearic acid intake was linearly associated with weight gain (P acid intake, significantly so in women. In multinomial models, women in the highest tertile of ALA and stearic acid intake showed increased OR (95 % CI......) and categorised into four groups (weight loss, or =2.5 to or =7.5%/5 years). Energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid intake data were estimated from the FFQ completed at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models as well as multinomial logistic regression analyses (carbohydrate replacement models) were conducted...

  16. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  17. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  18. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  19. A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Nevalainen, J I; Väisänen, S B; Mertanen, A M O; Mering, S M; Nevalainen, T O

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory rodents are usually fed ad libitum. Moderate dietary restriction decreases mortality and morbidity compared with ad libitum feeding. There are, however, problems in achieving dietary restriction. Traditional methods of restricted feeding may interfere with the diurnal rhythms of the animals and are not compatible with group-housing of rodents. We have invented a novel method, the diet board, for restricting the feed intake of laboratory rats. The use of the diet board moderately decreased weight gain of rats when compared with ad libitum-fed animals. The diet board retarded skeletal growth only minimally, whereas major differences were found in body fat depositions. Serum free fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol values were lower in diet-restricted rats, while the opposite was true for serum creatine kinase. There were no differences in total protein, albumin or alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, differences in interindividual variances in parameters were not detected between the groups; hence this study could not combine the diet board with reduction potential. The diet board provides mild to moderate dietary restriction for group-housed rats and is unlikely to interfere with the diurnal eating rhythm. The diet board can also be seen as a cage furniture item, dividing the open cage space and increasing the structural complexity of the environment. In conclusion, the diet board appears to possess refinement potential when compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction.

  20. Changes in working conditions and major weight gain among normal- and overweight midlife employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Riikka; Holstila, Ansku; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-11-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine the association between changes in psychosocial working conditions and major weight gain among midlife women and men. Furthermore, we examined the associations separately among normal- and overweight participants. Methods We used survey data among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, from 2000-2002 (phase 1, N=8960), 2007 (phase 2, N=7332), and 2012 (phase 3, N=6814), with a final study sample of 4369 participants. We examined changes in job strain, job demands, and job control from phase 1 to 2. We defined major weight gain as ≥10% weight gain between phases 1 and 3 based on self-reported weight (kg). We performed logistic regression analysis adjusting for baseline age, marital status, and occupational class, stratifying by gender and by baseline body mass index. Results Job demands among both genders and job strain among women was associated with major weight gain. Furthermore, increased job demands [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.20] or increased job strain (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11) was associated with major weight gain among overweight women. Normal-weight men reporting decreased job demands (OR 4.11, 95% CI 1.48-11.40) and overweight men reporting increasing job demands (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.26-6.82) exhibited higher odds of major weight gain. Conclusions Associations between working conditions and weight gain appeared primarily weak. Our study suggests that overweight individuals might be at a higher risk of weight gain when facing psychosocial strain in the workplace.

  1. [Weight gain and progestin-only contraceptives: more concern than evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camain, J-Y; Renteria, S-C; von Elm, E

    2011-10-26

    Weight gain is a side effect often associated with progestin-only contraceptives. A recently published Cochrane review focuses on this issue that has been addressed in only few studies of good quality. Here we discuss the results of this review in the context of three clinical cases. With progestin-only contraceptives the weight gain is less than often thought, especially after six or twelve months of treatment. Some results are rather reassuring, especially those in obese women and during the post-partum period. This should help improve the compliance of women who fear gaining weight with this type of hormonal contraception.

  2. Body weight gain during adulthood and uterine myomas: Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate whether body weight gain during adulthood is associated with uterine myomas. 1,560 subjects were evaluated in a Pró-Saúde Study. Weight gain was evaluated in a continuous fashion and also in quintiles. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated through logistic regression models that were adjusted for education levels, color/race, body mass indices at age 20, age of menarche, parity, use of oral contraceptive methods, smoking, health insurance, and the Papanicolaou tests. No relevant differences were observed regarding the presence of uterine myomas among weight gain quintiles in that studied population.

  3. Perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and weight gain in U.S. adults with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-06-01

    Perceived weight discrimination and childhood maltreatment have been independently associated with physical and mental health issues, as well as weight gain. It is not known, however, whether childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship between perceived weight discrimination and weight changes. This study examined the relationship between perceived weight discrimination, childhood maltreatment, and changes in body mass index (BMI) over 3 years in 21,357 men and women with overweight and obesity from Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Reporting childhood maltreatment, regardless of the specific form of maltreatment, was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of perceived weight discrimination in women. Perceived weight discrimination was associated with a significantly greater increase in BMI in both genders. Among all women with perceived weight discrimination, those who also reported having experienced childhood maltreatment had significantly less BMI increase compared to those reporting not having experienced childhood maltreatment. Perceived weight discrimination may foster weight gain rather than encouraging weight loss in individuals with overweight/obesity and should be addressed in prevention efforts and clinical settings. Childhood maltreatment may perhaps sensitize individuals to subsequent stressors and increase vulnerability to perceived weight discrimination, particularly in women. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Ishøy, Pelle L

    2012-01-01

    between schizophrenia and overweight patients. DISCUSSION: Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogues used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss...... are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes...... in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogues are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that adjunctive treatment with GLP-1 analogues may constitute a new avenue to treat and prevent metabolic and cerebral deficiencies...

  6. Gamified working memory training in overweight individuals reduces food intake but not body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassen, Fania C M; Houben, Katrijn; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Working Memory (WM) plays a crucial role in successful self-regulation of behavior, including weight regulation. Improving WM might therefore be a promising strategy to support weight loss. In the present study, overweight individuals with a desire to lose weight (N = 91) received an online lifestyle intervention, in conjunction with either 25 sessions of gamified WM training (experimental condition) or a sham training (control). Primary outcomes were Body Mass Index (BMI) and food intake at posttest. Secondary outcomes were executive functioning, self-control, eating style, eating psychopathology and healthy eating. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses with condition as between-subjects factor (experimental versus control) and time as within-subjects factor (baseline, posttest, FU1 after one month and FU2 after six months). Results revealed that the experimental condition increased their WM span more than control from pretest to posttest, and these gains were retained at FU1, though lost at FU2. No transfer effects of WM training to other executive functioning measures were found. During the bogus taste test at posttest, participants in the experimental condition consumed significantly less than participants in the control condition. However, both conditions showed a small reduction in BMI, improved eating style, reduced eating disorder pathology, and reported more self-control and a healthier eating pattern. In conclusion, the current results provide some evidence that WM training can improve eating behavior at the short term. However, the WM gains were short-lived, and the added value of WM training as an intervention to promote weight loss could not be established. Future studies should test the added value of WM training booster sessions to promote weight loss over a prolonged period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenylpropanolamine appears not to promote weight loss in patients with schizophrenia who have gained weight during clozapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovicka, Mary C; Fuller, Matthew A; Konicki, P Eric; White, John C; Steele, Vickie M; Jaskiw, George E

    2002-04-01

    Weight gain is a common side effect of clozapine treatment and may expose patients to obesity-associated health risks. We proposed that concomitant treatment with an appetite suppressant such as phenylpropanolamine (PPA) would lead to a decrease in appetite and therefore loss of weight. This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PPA, 75 mg/day, in outpatients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia (DSM-IV) who were stable on clozapine treatment for at least 4 months and had gained > 10% of their baseline body weight since starting clozapine. Patients were evaluated for adverse effects and weighed weekly. A Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) assessment, a short dietary quiz, and blood indices were completed monthly. Sixteen patients were equally randomly assigned to receive PPA or placebo. The groups did not differ in mean age, baseline weight, dose of clozapine, baseline PANSS scores, or the percent of weight gained since the start of clozapine. There was no significant effect of treatment on weight (t = 0.219, df = 10, p = .831). There was no significant change in either the total PANSS scores (t = -0.755, df = 10, p = .468), the positive or negative symptom cluster scores, or any of the remaining variables. Phenylpropanolamine 75 mg/day was well tolerated but was not effective in reversing established weight gain associated with clozapine treatment in stable outpatients with schizophrenia.

  8. Combined Influence of Gestational Weight Gain and Estimated Fetal Weight on Risk Assessment for Small- or Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sarah J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Kim, Sungduk; Albert, Paul S; Newman, Roger; Grobman, William A; Wing, Deborah A; Grantz, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency with which gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight do not track across gestation and to assess the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth weight as a function of tracking. This study included a pregnancy cohort (2009-2013) of 2438 women from 4 racial/ethnic groups in the United States. We calculated race- and trimester-specific gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight z scores. The prevalence of how often gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight did not or did directly track was examined by grouping z scores into measure-specific categories (1 SD) and then examining 2-measure combinations. Trimester-specific relative risks for SGA and LGA births were estimated with a gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight z score interaction. We estimated coefficients for selected gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight values (-1 SD, 0 SD, and +1 SD) compared with the referent of 0 SD for both measures. Small and large for gestational age were calculated as birth weight below the 10th and at or above the 90th percentiles, respectively. Gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight were within 1 SD 55.5%, 51.5%, and 48.2% of the time in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. There was no significant interaction between gestational weight gain and estimated fetal weight on the risk of SGA in the first and second trimesters (interaction term P = .48; P = .79). In the third trimester, there was a significant interaction (P = .002), resulting in a 71% (95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.02) increased risk of SGA when estimated fetal weight was low and gestational weight gain was high. These relationships were similar for the risk of LGA. Deviations in either measure, even in the presence of average gestational weight gain or estimated fetal weight, still suggest an increased risk of SGA and LGA. © 2017 by the American Institute of

  9. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Relation to Body Mass Index in Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashree, Gopal; Nrutya, Subramanyam; Shobana, Mahadevan; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Joseph, Kurian; Rekha, Kurian; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the weight gain during pregnancy (using Institute of Medicine guidelines) among Asian Indians across different body mass index (BMI) categories (using World Health Organization Asia Pacific BMI cut points) and to compare the pregnancy outcomes in each of the different BMI categories. Retrospective records of 2728 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and private maternity centers in Chennai, South India, from January 2011 to January 2014 were studied. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in relation to BMI and weight gain across different BMI categories. Overweight and obese women who gained more weight during pregnancy were at high risk of delivering macrosomic infants (overweight - odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.2, P = 0.02 and obese - OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, P = 0.01). In addition, obese women who gained more weight were also at high risk of preterm labor (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; P = 0.01), cesarean section (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5; P women who gained less weight had a protective effect from cesarean section and macrosomia. Overweight/obese women who gained more weight than recommended are at a high risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Normal and overweight women who gained weight less than recommended have low risk for cesarean section and macrosomia. However, they have a higher (statistically insignificant) risk for low birth weight and preterm birth. This highlights the need for gaining adequate weight during pregnancy.

  10. Association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy, gestational weight gain and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinxo, Sonela; Bimbashi, Astrit; Z Kakarriqi, Eduard; Zaimi, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain affects the preterm birth. The association between maternal nutritional status of pre pregnancy and preterm birth appears to be complex and varied by studies from different countries, thus this association between the gestational weight gain and preterm birth is more consolidated. The study aims to determine any association between the pre pregnancy maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate in the Albanian context. In case control study, we analyzed women who have delivered in obstetric institutions in Tirana during the year 2012. Body mass index and gestational weight gain of 150 women who had a preterm delivery were compared with those of 150 matched control women who had a normal delivery regarding the gestation age. The self-reported pre pregnancy weight, height, gestational weight gain, age, education and parity are collected through a structured questioner. The body mass index and gestational weight gain are categorized based on the Institute of Medicine recommendation. The multiple logistic regression is used to measure the association between the nutritional status of pre pregnancy and gestational weight gain and the preterm birth rate. The women which have a underweight status or obese of pre pregnancy are more likely to have a preterm birth compared to the women of a normal pre-pregnancy nutritional status (respectively OR =2.7 and 4.3 pnutritional status and gestational weight gain affects the risk for preterm birth. Pre-pregnancy and gestation nutritional assessments should be part of routine prenatal visits.

  11. Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A; Malik, V S; Hao, T; Willett, W C; Mozaffarian, D; Hu, F B

    2013-10-01

    To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change. Prospective cohort studies of 50013 women aged 40-64 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52987 women aged 27-44 years in the NHS II (1991-2007) and 21988 men aged 40-64 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline. We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval, with changes in beverage intakes and other lifestyle behaviors during the same period. Multivariate linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-person repeated measures were used to evaluate the association. Results across the three cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Participants gained an average of 1.45 kg (5th to 95th percentile: -1.87 to 5.46) within each 4-year period. After controlling for age, baseline body mass index and changes in other lifestyle behaviors (diet, smoking habits, exercise, alcohol, sleep duration, TV watching), each 1 cup per day increment of water intake was inversely associated with weight gain within each 4-year period (-0.13 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to -0.08). The associations for other beverages were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.24-0.48), fruit juice (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.15-0.28), coffee (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09), tea (-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.01), diet beverages (-0.10 kg; 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), low-fat milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09) and whole milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). We estimated that replacement of 1 serving per day of SSBs by 1 cup per day of water was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.32-0.65) less weight gain over each 4-year period, and the replacement estimate of fruit juices by water was 0.35 kg (95% CI: 0.23-0.46). Substitution of SSBs or fruit juices by other beverages (coffee, tea, diet beverages, low-fat and whole milk) were all

  12. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI .../week, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain was associated with a higher infant birth weight z-score independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, HbA1c and insulin dose at last visit, ethnicity and parity [β=0.1 (95% CI 0.06-0.14), P

  13. Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, E.A.; Vaeth, M.; Baker, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although both maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may affect birth weight, their separate and joint associations with complications of pregnancy and delivery and with postpartum weight retention are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate...... the combined associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG with pregnancy outcomes and to evaluate the trade-offs between mother and infant for different weight gains. DESIGN: Data for 60892 term pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort were linked to birth and hospital discharge registers. Self...

  14. Weight six years after childbirth: a follow-up of obese women in a weight-gain restriction programmme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Josefsson, Ann; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2014-05-01

    to compare weight development in an intervention group and a control group, six years after participation in a gestational weight-gain restriction programme. follow-up of a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinics. a total of 129 women (88.4%) from the original intervention group and 166 women (88.8%) from the original control group. the women answered a study specific questionnaire, covering socio-demographic data and health- and weight status. after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, the mean weight was lower (4.1kg) among the women in the intervention group, compared to the controls (p=0.028). Furthermore, the mean weight change, e.g. the weight at the six year assessment compared with the weight at the start of the intervention at the first antenatal care visit, was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The women in the intervention group had a larger mean weight change (-5.2kg), e.g. weighed less than the women in the control group (-1.9kg) (p=0.046). Mean weight change expressed in 5kg classes also showed a significant difference between the two groups (p=0.030). the results indicate that attending a gestational weight-gain-restriction programme can have a positive effect on weight up to six years after the intervention. a restrictive gestational weight gain can result in a positive weight development during the first years after childbirth. It might provide both short- and long term medical health benefits for the mother as well as the child. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of honey compared to sucrose, mixed sugars, and a sugar-free diet on weight gain in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepulis, L M

    2007-04-01

    To determine whether honey, sucrose, and mixed sugars as in honey have different effects on weight gain, 40 6-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a powdered diet that was either sugar free or contained 8% sucrose, 8% mixed sugars as in honey, or 10% honey freely for 6 wk. Weight gain and food intake were assessed weekly, and at completion of the study blood samples were removed for measurement of blood sugar (HbA1c) and a fasting lipid profile. The animals were then minced and total percentage body fat and protein measured. Overall percentage weight gain was significantly lower in honey-fed rats than those fed sucrose or mixed sugars, despite a similar food intake. Weight gains were comparable for rats fed honey and a sugar free diet although food intake was significantly higher in honey-fed rats. HbA1c and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in all sugar treatments compared with rats fed a sugar free diet, but no other differences in lipid profiles were reported. No differences in percentage body fat or protein levels were reported.

  16. Genetic variation in the leptin receptor gene, leptin, and weight gain in young Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossum, Caroline T M; Hoebee, Barbara; van Baak, Marleen A; Mars, Monica; Saris, Wim H M; Seidell, Jacob C

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17,500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an average of 12.6 kg (range 5.5 to 33 kg) with 277 subjects who kept stable weight (range -2.6 to 3.1 kg) after a mean follow-up of 6.8 years. Three polymorphisms in the LEPR gene (Lys109Arg, Gln223Arg, and Lys656Asn) were determined. Weight gainers had significantly higher baseline leptin levels than those who kept stable weight (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5, per SD increase in log(e)-transformed leptin). Weight gainers with the Arg109 or the Arg223 alleles had higher leptin levels compared with the noncarriers of these alleles. Only among men, the association between leptin and weight gain tended to be stronger among those with an Arg223 allele compared with those without this mutation. Relatively high leptin levels predict weight gain, suggesting that leptin resistance plays a role in the development of obesity in the general population. Higher leptin levels for those with a Lys109Arg or Gln223Arg mutation (or a linked other marker) may imply that these subjects have a modified functional leptin receptor. However, the role of these mutations on weight gain is limited.

  17. Habitual active transport, TV viewing and weight gain: a four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations of TV viewing time and domain-specific physical activity with weight change; to determine whether domain-specific physical activity moderates the potential association of TV viewing time with weight change. We used four-year longitudinal data (baseline: 2003-2004, follow-up: 2007-2008) on 969 adults from selected neighborhoods in Adelaide, Australia (Age: 48.6 ± 10.6 years, 61% females). Mixed models examined four-year weight change as the dependent variable, with TV viewing time, habitual transport and past week domain-specific physical activity at baseline as independent variables. On average, participants gained 1.6 kg over four years. TV viewing time at baseline was positively associated with weight gain at follow-up. Each additional hour of TV viewing was associated with 0.24-0.27 kg of extra weight gain. This relationship was not moderated by recent recall of transport, leisure-time, and occupational physical activity, but was moderated by habitual transport: an additional hour of TV viewing time at baseline was significantly associated with an extra weight gain of 0.65 kg at follow-up among those who were inactive in everyday transport; TV time was not significantly associated with weight change among those who were regularly active in transport. Habitual active transport may protect adults against risk of weight gain associated with prolonged TV viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes between schizophrenia and overweight patients. Discussion Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogs are discussed. Conclusions We propose that adjunctive treatment with GLP-1 analogs may constitute a new avenue to treat and prevent metabolic and cerebral deficiencies in schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Clinical research to support this idea is highly warranted. PMID:22891821

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebdrup Bjørn H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes between schizophrenia and overweight patients. Discussion Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogs are discussed. Conclusions We propose that adjunctive treatment with GLP-1 analogs may constitute a new avenue to treat and prevent metabolic and cerebral deficiencies in schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Clinical research to support this idea is highly warranted.

  20. Facilitating Smoking Cessation and Preventing Relapse in Primary Care: Minimizing Weight Gain by Reducing Alcohol Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobell, Mark B; Peterson, Alan; Sobell, Linda C; Hunter, Christopher; Hunter, Christine

    2008-01-01

    .... Participants are randomly assigned to BCAP or to a Self-Guided Program (SGP) where they receive NRT and a pamphlet discussing change strategies for tobacco cessation, minimizing weight gain, and how to plan for and deal with possible relapses...

  1. Determinants of Weight Gain in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Chi-Chen

    2008-01-01

    .... The goals of the study are to examine weight gain in relation to treatment-related changes in sex hormone levels, and to genetic polymorphisms in sex hormone pathways, accounting for potential...

  2. Association between gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes in women with chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W

    2017-09-01

    Gestational weight gain above or below the 2009 National Academy of Medicine guidelines has been associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Although it has been well established that excess gestational weight gain is associated with the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, the relationship between gestational weight gain and adverse perinatal outcomes among women with pregestational (chronic) hypertension is less clear. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between gestational weight gain above and below National Academy of Medicine guidelines and perinatal outcomes in a large, population-based cohort of women with chronic hypertension. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of women with chronic hypertension who had term, singleton, vertex births in the United States from 2012 through 2014. Prepregnancy body mass index was calculated using self-reported prepregnancy weight and height. Women were categorized into 4 groups based on gestational weight gain and prepregnancy body mass index: (1) weight gain less than, (2) weight gain within, (3) weight gain 1-19 lb in excess of, and (4) weight gain ≥20 lb in excess of the National Academy of Medicine guidelines. The χ 2 tests and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used for statistical comparisons. Stratified analyses by body mass index category were additionally performed. In this large birth cohort, 101,259 women met criteria for inclusion. Compared to hypertensive women who had gestational weight gain within guidelines, hypertensive women with weight gain ≥20 lb over National Academy of Medicine guidelines were more likely to have eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.42) and cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-1.70). Excess weight gain ≥20 lb over National Academy of Medicine guidelines was also associated with increased odds of 5-minute Apgar gain 1-19 lb

  3. Forecast Accuracy and Economic Gains from Bayesian Model Averaging using Time Varying Weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); R.H. Kleijn (Richard); H.K. van Dijk (Herman); M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral Bayesian model combination schemes, including some novel approaches that simultaneously allow for parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty and robust time varying model weights, are compared in terms of forecast accuracy and economic gains using financial and macroeconomic time

  4. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weight gain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3 treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0% and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight and percentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goat was not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, was affected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in the R1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feed intake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38 g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 ration compared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher than those in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higher in goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content of goat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and water content was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can be concluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  5. Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, C

    2000-05-01

    1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

  6. Corrigendum - Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru O. Doma; Andreia B. Chirila; Eugenia Dumitrescu; Florin Muselin; ROMEO TEODOR CRISTINA

    2014-01-01

    In the article Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets first published in Vol 47, No 1 in Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, by a clerical error instead Novartis was presented Dopharma as producer of Tiamutin 10% oily injectable solution (1ml of solution containing 100 mg of tiamulin fumarate). This article corrects: Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets Vol. 47, Issue 1, p....

  7. Role of 5-HT2C receptor gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandl EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tessa JM Wallace, Clement C Zai, Eva J Brandl, Daniel J MüllerNeurogenetics Section, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medication that can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and non-compliance in patients. Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been studied for association with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in an attempt to find genetic predictors of this side effect. An ability to predict this side effect could lead to personalized treatment plans for predisposed individuals, which could significantly decrease the prevalence and severity of weight gain. Variations in the serotonin receptor 2c gene (HTR2C have emerged as promising candidates for prediction of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Specifically, the well-studied -759C/T promoter polymorphism has been associated with weight gain in diverse populations, although some studies have reported no association. This discrepancy is likely due to heterogeneity in study design with respect to ethnicity, treatment duration, and other variables. Notably, the association between HTR2C and antipsychotic-induced weight gain appears strongest in short-term studies on patients with limited or no previous antipsychotic treatment. Other, less extensively studied promoter polymorphisms (-697C/G, -997G/A, and -1165A/G have also emerged as potential predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Conversely, the well-studied intronic polymorphism Cys23Ser does not appear to be associated. With further research on both HTR2C and other genetic and environmental predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, a predictive test could one day be created to screen patients and provide preventative or alternative treatment for those who are predisposed to this serious side effect.Keywords: HTR2C, pharmacogenomics, promoter polymorphism

  8. Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breedveld Boudewijn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages of behaviour change were investigated. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese Dutch adults aged 25–35 years was conducted. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of Body Mass Index (BMI, demographic factors and psychosocial variables from the TPB with the intention to prevent weight gain. Differences in BMI, demographic and psychosocial factors between PAPM-stages were explored using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results Eighty-five percent of respondents intended to prevent weight gain. Age, attitudes and risk perceptions related to weight gain were the strongest correlates of intention (age: OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.04–1.20; attitude OR = 7.91, 95%CI: 5.33–11.74; risk perception OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.11–1.38. Significant differences were detected between the PAPM-stages in almost all variables. Notably, perceived behavioural control was lowest among people who had decided to prevent weight gain. Conclusion Messages to influence attitudes towards the prevention of weight gain and risk perception may affect people who are not yet motivated to prevent weight gain. Interventions increasing people's perceived behavioural control in overcoming barriers to prevent weight gain may help people to act on their intentions.

  9. Toward an understanding of antipsychotic drug induced weight gain - use of a rodent model

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanidis, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotic drug therapy is a fundamental tool in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Recent years have seen the development of new antipsychotic compounds with an improved acute adverse effect profile; however these are often associated with weight gain and increased risk of metabolic disturbances. Olanzapine, despite its considerable adverse impact on weight gain and associated pathologies, has been recognized as the most efficacious antipsychotic drug in the treatment of ...

  10. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Syrad, Hayley; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Johnson, Laura; Boniface, David; Jebb, Susan A.; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939 children aged 21 months from the Gemini twin cohort, we assessed prospective associations between meal size, meal frequency and weight gain from two to five years. Separate longitudinal analyses demo...

  11. [Plasma levels of insulin and leptin in patients with morbid obesity and anorexia nervosa after weight loss or gain, respectively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, L; Freire, J M; Girón, J A; Vázquez, J M; Pajares, M; Ortego, J; Gavilán, I; Chover, A J; Carrasco, M; Epinosa, R; Marín, F; Aguilar, M

    2000-06-01

    The present study was conducted in order to analyze the relationship existing between leptin and insulin levels in massive weight loss and weight recovery. Thirteen patients with severe obesity, 14 patients with anorexia nervosa and 13 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients with severe obesity underwent a vertical banded gastroplasty followed by an 800 kcal/day diet for 12 weeks. They were evaluated prior to (body mass index [BMI] 51.2 +/- 8.8 Kg/m2) and after drastic weight loss (BMI 40.6 +/- 6.7 Kg/m2). Patients with anorexia nervosa were treated exclusively with nutritional therapy during 12 weeks, and they were evaluated at their lowest weight status (BMI 16.2 +/- 2.2 Kg/m2) and after weight recovery (BMI 17.9 +/- 2.3 Kg/m2). The BMI of the normal subjects was in the normal range of 20 to 27 Kg/m2 (average 22.8 +/- 2.6 Kg/m2). BMI, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, and serum levels of leptin, insulin, and C-peptide were determined in each patient and normal subject. In severely obese patients, serum leptin and insulin decreased significantly after drastic weight reduction (leptin: from 51.8 +/- 22.3 to 23.7 +/- 10.2 ng/ml; insulin: from 27.1 +/- 13.3 to 17.2 +/- 7.2 mU/ml). In patients with anorexia nervosa, the mean serum leptin levels were significantly higher after weight recovery (5.5 +/- 3.2 vs 7.6 +/- 6 ng/ml). Serum leptin in the severe obesity group correlated positively with BMI, percentage body fat and waist circumference before and after weight loss. In those patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, serum leptin correlated positively with the BMI, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference in the low weight state and after weight recovery. In addition, their serum insulin correlated with BMI and waist circumference after weight recovery. These data reveal that serum leptin concentration correlates significantly with the BMI and body fat content 1) in subjects with a range of weight and caloric intake, 2) in obese

  12. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  13. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying

  14. Effect of massage stimulation on weight gain in full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Nursari Dewi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Massage is a tactile/kinesthetic stimulation with biochemical and physiological effects on the body. Newborn infant massage stimulation given by mothers may promote maternal-infant bonding and attachment, enhance infant weight gain and stimulate the production of breast milk. There have been few studies on the effect of massage stimulation on weight gain in full term infants, and this topic remains controversial. Objective To examine the effect of massage stimulation on weight gain in full term infants. Methods This quasi-experimental study was held in Sanglah Hospital and Bunda Setia Maternity Clinic. Massage stimulation was performed by mothers once daily for a four week period. Massage stimulation was given to 30 full term infants and their weight gain was compared to 31 control infants who did not receive massages. Results There were no differences in subject characteristics between the massage and control groups. Median weight gain in the massage group was 1230 grams, while that in the control group was 830 grams (P=0.028. Conclusion Weight gain in full term infants in the massage group was significantly greater than that in the control group after 4 weeks.

  15. Factors Related to Weight Gain/Loss among Emerging Adults with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ping H; Annesi, James J

    2018-05-01

    We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others. Nearly half reported having a weight loss goal. Most reported having used one or more weight loss methods. Few reached short-term weight loss but quickly regained the lost weight. Major reported barriers reflect a lack of self-regulation skills, negative mood and stress, and lack of self-efficacy for healthy eating or physical activity. Results suggest that the perceived ability to control one's behaviors and overcome barriers, self-efficacy, and mood are important in weight-related behaviors, weight, and weight loss success among emerging adults, especially those enrolled in college.

  16. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  17. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  18. Process Evaluation of an Occupational Health Guideline Aimed at Preventing Weight Gain Among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Lisanne M.; Proper, Karin I.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evuate the process of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Quantitative data on seven process items were assessed and linked to effects on employees' waist circumference and body weight at 6 months. Results: Occupational physicians (n = 7)

  19. Orally disintegrating olanzapine and potential differences in treatment-emergent weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagianis, Jamie; Hoffmann, Vicki Poole; Arranz, Belen; Treuer, Tamás; Maguire, Gerald A.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Chawla, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Several papers and communications have reported possible weight reduction or less weight gain when patients start or switch to orally disintegrating olanzapine, as contrasted with standard oral olanzapine tablets. In this paper, the current literature is reviewed and hypothesized mechanisms of

  20. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  1. Assessment of weight gain during pregnancy in general prenatal care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an emerging major health risk for women around the world. In this regard, little attention has been given to pregnancy, a moment of risk not only for major weight gain in these women, but also for macrosomia in their offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate weight gain during pregnancy. Data pertains to a cohort of pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six state capitals in Brazil, from 1991 to 1995. We studied women aged 20 years and over with singleton pregnancies and no diagnosis of diabetes outside pregnancy, enrolled at approximately 20 - 28 weeks of gestation. According to the Institute of Medicine criteria, 38% (95%CI: 36-40% of the women studied gained less and 29% (95%CI: 28-31% had more than the recommended total weight gain. These proportions vary according to pre-pregnancy nutritional status. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian women prior to pregnancy, and the lack of achievement of recommended weight gain during pregnancy, more effective means of managing weight gain during pregnancy are necessary.

  2. Algorithms for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity based on postnatal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil

    2013-06-01

    Current ROP screening guidelines represent a simple risk model with two dichotomized factors, birth weight and gestational age at birth. Pioneering work has shown that tracking postnatal weight gain, a surrogate for low insulin-like growth factor 1, may capture the influence of many other ROP risk factors and improve risk prediction. Models including weight gain, such as WINROP, ROPScore, and CHOP ROP, have demonstrated accurate ROP risk assessment and a potentially large reduction in ROP examinations, compared to current guidelines. However, there is a need for larger studies, and generalizability is limited in countries with developing neonatal care systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between gestational weight gain according to body mass index and postpartum weight in a large cohort of Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Bent; Damm, Peter; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2012-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PWR) in pre-pregnancy underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese women, with emphasis on the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We performed secondary analyses on data based on questionnaires from 1,898 women from the "Smoke-free Newborn Study" conducted 1996-1999 at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Relationship between GWG and PWR was examined according to BMI as a continuous variable and in four groups. Association between PWR and GWG according to IOM recommendations was tested by linear regression analysis and the association between PWR ≥ 5 kg (11 lbs) and GWG by logistic regression analysis. Mean GWG and mean PWR were constant for all BMI units until 26-27 kg/m(2). After this cut-off mean GWG and mean PWR decreased with increasing BMI. Nearly 40% of normal weight, 60% of overweight and 50% of obese women gained more than recommended during pregnancy. For normal weight and overweight women with GWG above recommendations the OR of gaining ≥ 5 kg (11 lbs) 1-year postpartum was 2.8 (95% CI 2.0-4.0) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-6.2, respectively) compared to women with GWG within recommendations. GWG above IOM recommendations significantly increases normal weight, overweight and obese women's risk of retaining weight 1 year after delivery. Health personnel face a challenge in prenatal counseling as 40-60% of these women gain more weight than recommended for their BMI. As GWG is potentially modifiable, our study should be followed by intervention studies focusing on GW.

  4. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults-a multi-center cohort approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika

    2017-08-01

    A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score's discriminatory accuracy. The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67-0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  5. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults—a multi-center cohort approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. Methods We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score’s discriminatory accuracy. Results The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67–0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. Conclusions The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. PMID:28013243

  6. Pre-pregnancy BMI-specific optimal gestational weight gain for women in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Morisaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. Methods: We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005–2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0–18.4, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.9, 23–24.9, and 25–27.4 kg/m2, we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications using multivariate regression. Results: Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m2, and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m2. Conclusion: Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines.

  7. Pre-pregnancy BMI-specific optimal gestational weight gain for women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Nagata, Chie; Jwa, Seung Chik; Sago, Haruhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Oken, Emily; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005-2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0-18.4, 18.5-19.9, 20-22.9, 23-24.9, and 25-27.4 kg/m 2 ), we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications) using multivariate regression. Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks) for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m 2 , and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 . Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoperative weight gain after standard Whipple's procedure versus pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: the influence of tumour status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berge Henegouwen, M. I.; Moojen, T. M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest a better postoperative weight gain after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) compared with standard pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Factors that could also influence postoperative weight gain, such as tumour-positive resection margins and tumour recurrence,

  9. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 gestation, when obese...

  10. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zavala, Rolando G; Castro-Cantú, María F; Valencia, Mauro E; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Haby, Michelle M; Esparza-Romero, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p 0.05) during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies), as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p holidays (phone calls and daily mailing) appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  11. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando G. Díaz-Zavala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p0.05 during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies, as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p<0.001. Programs focused on self-monitoring during the holidays (phone calls and daily mailing appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  12. Hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in the Siberian hamster increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E; Brameld, John M; Hill, Phil; Cocco, Cristina; Noli, Barbara; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J P; Jethwa, Preeti H

    2017-01-01

    VGF (non-acronymic) was first highlighted to have a role in energy homeostasis through experiments involving dietary manipulation in mice. Fasting increased VGF mRNA in the Arc and levels were subsequently reduced upon refeeding. This anabolic role for VGF was supported by observations in a VGF null (VGF-/-) mouse and in the diet-induced and gold-thioglucose obese mice. However, this anabolic role for VGF has not been supported by a number of subsequent studies investigating the physiological effects of VGF-derived peptides. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of TLQP-21 increased resting energy expenditure and rectal temperature in mice and protected against diet-induced obesity. Similarly, ICV infusion of TLQP-21 into Siberian hamsters significantly reduced body weight, but this was due to a decrease in food intake, with no effect on energy expenditure. Subsequently NERP-2 was shown to increase food intake in rats via the orexin system, suggesting opposing roles for these VGF-derived peptides. Thus to further elucidate the role of hypothalamic VGF in the regulation of energy homeostasis we utilised a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector to over-express VGF in adult male Siberian hamsters, thus avoiding any developmental effects or associated functional compensation. Initially, hypothalamic over-expression of VGF in adult Siberian hamsters produced no effect on metabolic parameters, but by 12 weeks post-infusion hamsters had increased oxygen consumption and a tendency to increased carbon dioxide production; this attenuated body weight gain, reduced interscapular white adipose tissue and resulted in a compensatory increase in food intake. These observed changes in energy expenditure and food intake were associated with an increase in the hypothalamic contents of the VGF-derived peptides AQEE, TLQP and NERP-2. The complex phenotype of the VGF-/- mice is a likely consequence of global ablation of the gene and its derived peptides during development, as well

  13. Effects of chronic systemic administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake and body weight in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2010-06-10

    The effects of daily administration of physiological saline of baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats in Experiment 1. Baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg) significantly increased daily short-term food intake when measured at 30min (F((2,15))=11.011, P<0.01) and 90min (F((2,15))=7.3801, P<0.01) over the 27 day experimental period.. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effects of baclofen. Baclofen (1mg/kg) had no significant effects on body weight gain of the rats compared with controls. By contrast, baclofen (4mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the body weight gain of the animals. In Experiment 2, the effect of daily administration of baclofen (4mg/kg, i.p.) for 24 days was investigated on 24h food intake in rats measured after the first, eight, fifteenth and twenty second injections. The 24h food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats on any of the measurement days (F((1,14))=1.602, ns). However, the body weight gain of the rats chronically treated with baclofen (4mg/kg) was significantly reduced. (F((1,14))=14.011, P<0.01). The observations that chronic administration of baclofen (4mg/kg) stimulates short-term food intake without affecting long term (24h) feeding, but decreases body weight gain, suggest that baclofen may act through different mechanisms to influence food intake and body weight.

  14. Adult weight gain and colorectal adenomas-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Abar, L; Vieria, A R; Vingeliene, S; Polemiti, E; Stevens, C A T; Greenwood, D C; Chan, D S M; Aune, D; Norat, T

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal adenomas are known as precursors for the majority of colorectal carcinomas. While weight gain during adulthood has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the association is less clear for colorectal adenomas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the evidence on this association. We searched Medline up to September 2016 to identify observational (prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective) studies on weight gain during adulthood and colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence. We conducted meta-analysis on high weight gain versus stable weight, linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using a random effects model. For colorectal adenoma occurrence, the summary OR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17-1.65; I2: 43%, N = 9 studies, cases = 5507) comparing high (midpoint: 17.4 kg) versus stable weight gain during adulthood and with each 5 kg weight gain the odds increased by 7% (2%-11%; I2: 65%, N = 7 studies). Although there was indication of non-linearity (Pnon-linearity firm conclusions. Even a small amount of adult weight gain was related to a higher odds of colorectal adenoma occurrence. Our findings add to the benefits of weight control in adulthood regarding colorectal adenoma occurrence, which might be relevant for early prevention of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Depressive symptoms and poorer performance on the Stroop Task are associated with weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Emma J; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2018-03-15

    Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight. Poorer Stroop and WCST performance associated with higher BMI whereas poorer IGT and WCST performance associated with higher body fat (%; all p's≤0.05). Stroop interference (p=0.04; p=0.05) and IDS-SR (p=0.06; p=0.02) associated with increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr). In a multivariate linear model Stroop interference (β=0.40, p<0.01; β=0.35, p<0.01) and IDS-SR (β=0.38, p<0.01; β=0.37, p<0.01) independently predicted increased BMI and weight gain (%/yr) even after controlling for baseline weight and glucose levels. Poorer response inhibition and depressive symptoms, but not glucose levels, predicted weight gain. Evaluating neurocognitive and mood deficits could improve current treatment strategies for weight loss. Clinical Trial Registration Numbers NCT00523627, NCT00342732, NCT01224704. clinicaltrials.gov. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Self-reported causes of weight gain: among prebariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Al-Rehany, Layla; Tang, Cathy; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Madill, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is accepted by the medical community as the most effective treatment for obesity; however, weight regain after surgery remains common. Long-term weight loss and weight maintenance may be aided when dietitians who provide perioperative care understand the causes of weight gain leading to bariatric surgery. In this study, the most common causes for weight gain were examined among prebariatric surgery patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 160 patients enrolled in a bariatric surgery program. Data were collected for 20 variables: puberty, pregnancy, menopause, change in living environment, change in job/career, financial problems, quitting smoking, drug or alcohol use, medical condition, surgery, injury affecting mobility, chronic pain, dieting, others' influence over diet, abuse, mental health condition, stress, death of a loved one, divorce/end of a relationship, and other causes. Frequency distribution and chi-square tests were performed using SPSS. Sixty-three percent of participants selected stress as a cause of weight gain, while 56% selected dieting. Significant differences existed between women and men in the selection of dieting and change in living environment. This information may allow dietitians to better identify causes for weight gain leading to bariatric surgery, and to address these causes appropriately before and after surgery.

  17. Rational and design of an overfeeding protocol in constitutional thinness: Understanding the physiology, metabolism and genetic background of resistance to weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yiin; Galusca, Bogdan; Hager, Jorg; Feasson, Leonard; Valsesia, Armand; Epelbaum, Jacques; Alexandre, Virginie; Wynn, Emma; Dinet, Cécile; Palaghiu, Radu; Peoc'h, Michel; Boirie, Yves; Montaurier, Christophe; Estour, Bruno; Germain, Natacha

    2016-10-01

    Constitutional thinness (CT) is a natural state of underweight (13-17.5kg/m 2 ) without the presence of any eating disorders and abnormal hormonal profile, and with preserved menses in women. We previously conducted a four-week fat overfeeding study showing weight gain resistance in CT women and one of our main results was the identification of an energy gap: a positive energy balance (higher energy intake than energy expenditure). This new overfeeding study is designed to confirm the energy gap and propose mechanistic hypothesis. A 2-week overfeeding (daily consumption of one bottle of Renutryl ® Booster (600kcal, 30g protein, 72g carbohydrate, 21g fat) on top of the dietary intake) is performed to compare 15 women and men in each CT group (Body Mass Index [BMI]controls (BMI 20-25kg/m 2 ). Bodyweight, food intake, energy expenditure (canopy, calorimetric chamber and Actiheart), body composition (DXA), appetite regulatory hormone profiles after a test meal, proteomics, metabolomics, urinary metabolic profiles, stool microbiome and lipids, fat and muscle transcriptomics are monitored before and after overfeeding. Data inter-linking will be able to be established with results of this study. The findings could possibly open to therapeutic approaches to help CT patients to gain weight as well as provide a better understanding of energy regulation with regard to treat obesity (resistance to weight loss), a mirror image of CT (resistance to weight gain). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho

    2018-04-01

    Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.

  19. Attitudes to body weight, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S; King, W; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1994-12-01

    The eating behavior and attitudes to body weight of 100 healthy women were studied 3 days after the birth of their first child. During pregnancy women 'watch their weight' and use a range of methods of weight control which include cigarette smoking and inducing vomiting. During pregnancy 41 women reported weight control problems and 20 women considered their weight and eating problems to be greater than at any previous time. Picking was the most common unwanted behavior. Binge eating was experienced by 44 women, nine of whom reported it to be a 'severe' problem. Although women were ambivalent about being weighed at each antenatal visit, 81 recommended weighing once each month. The women held differing opinions on the effects of breastfeeding on body weight and on the need for nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Women reporting 'disordered eating' were more likely to have antenatal complications and give birth to low birthweight babies. The results suggest good obstetric care should include a history of the woman's eating behavior and body weight.

  20. Interdelivery weight gain and risk of cesarean delivery following a prior vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ 2 statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m 2 to gained 2 kg

  1. Metformin for olanzapine-induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Jana, Amlan Kusum; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is useful in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, but its use is associated with troublesome weight gain and metabolic syndrome. A variety of pharmacological agents has been studied in the efforts to reverse weight gain induced by olanzapine, but current evidence is insufficient to support any particular pharmacological approach. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of metformin for the treatment of olanzapine-induced weight gain. Systematic review of the literature revealed 12 studies that had assessed metformin for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, four studies (n= 105) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of the treatment on body weight, waist circumference and body-mass index (BMI). Weighted mean difference (WMD) for body weight was 5.02 (95% CI 3.93, 6.10) kg lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For waist circumference, the test for heterogeneity was significant (P= 0.00002, I(2) = 85.1%). Therefore, a random effects model was used to calculate WMD, which was 1.42 (95% CI 0.29, 3.13) cm lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For BMI, WMD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.44, 2.19) kg m(-2) lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Existing data suggest that short term modest weight loss is possible with metformin in patients with olanzapine-induced weight gain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2003-01-01

    compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...

  3. Clusters of week-specific maternal gestational weight gain pattern and their association with birthweight: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huan; Yin, Chuanmin; Dong, Xinran; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-10-01

    Gestational weight gain varies widely among different populations, and an inappropriate gestational weight gain is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate week-specific serial changes in gestational weight gain in an urban Chinese population to derive clusters of gestational weight gain patterns and explore the impact of gestational weight gain patterns on birthweight. This was an observational cohort study of 6130 women delivered at a university hospital in Shanghai, China. Pre-pregnancy bodyweight, height, week-specific and total gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome and birthweight were extracted using electronic medical records. The association between gestational weight gain and gestational age was tested using linear regression, and week-specific reference percentiles for gestational weight gain were calculated. Hierarchical clustering was used to derive gestational weight gain clusters. Mean birthweight among the clusters was compared using Dunnet's test. We found a significant linear association between gestational weight gain and gestational age (r = 0.56; p gain pattern were identified. The birthweight significantly correlated with gestational weight gain (r = 0.28; p gain throughout the pregnancy, the mean birthweight among the clusters that had abnormal gestational weight gain (inadequate or excessive) in the third trimester was significantly different (p gain (between 5 and 95 percentile) in the third-trimester had similar mean birthweight. Women with abnormal gestational weight gain before the third-trimester still had a fair chance of delivering a normal birthweight baby if their gestational weight gain was normal in the third-trimester, suggesting that interventions started even late in pregnancy may have a positive effect on fetal growth. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Relationship between health services, socioeconomic variables and inadequate weight gain among Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A C; Peterson, K E; Cufino, E; Gardner, J; Craveiro, M V; Ascherio, A

    1999-01-01

    This ecological analysis assessed the relative contribution of behavioural, health services and socioeconomic variables to inadequate weight gain in infants (0-11 months) and children (12-23 months) in 140 municipalities in the State of Ceara, north-east Brazil. To assess the total effect of selected variables, we fitted three unique sets of multivariate linear regression models to the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and in children. The final predictive models included variables from the three sets. Findings showed that participation in growth monitoring and urbanization were inversely and significantly associated with the prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants, accounting for 38.3% of the variation. Female illiteracy rate, participation in growth monitoring and degree of urbanization were all positively associated with prevalence of inadequate weight gain in children. Together, these factors explained 25.6% of the variation. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the average municipality-specific female illiteracy rate, in combination with participation in growth monitoring, may be effective in reducing municipality-level prevalence of inadequate weight gain in infants and children in Ceara.

  5. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Weight Gaining of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Basiry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:The quality of life and standard of health care in a society is measured  by its preterm infants' mortality rate. The popularity and credibility of alternative treatment such as touch therapy may be effective in preterm and low birth weightinfants in order to increase their survival rate.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of touch intervention on the weight gain of preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unite(NICU. Methods:This study was a randomized controlled trial performed in NICU of  Emamreza hospital,Mashhad,Iran,from July 2007 to November 2007. There were two groups (the control group and the case group and one response variable (weight gain.Infants in the control group received routine nursing care. Infants in the case  group,in addition to the routine care,received stroking/passive limb movement therapy  for three 15 minute sessions per day for a 10 day period.Then weight gaining was compared between the two groups .  Results:The weight gain data was analyzed by SPSS software. Over the 10 day study period, the case group gained significantly more weight compared to the control  group (p(p<0.001(.Conclusion:The data suggest that stroking/passive limb movement can be an efficientand cost effective way of enhancing growth in stable preterm infants .

  6. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-II Antagonist Reduces Body Weight Gain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Asagami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that mifepristone can prevent and reverse weight gain in animals and human subjects taking antipsychotic medications. This proof-of-concept study tested whether a more potent and selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist could block dietary-induced weight gain and increase insulin sensitivity in mice. Ten-week-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat calories and water supplemented with 11% sucrose for 4 weeks. Groups (=8 received one of the following: CORT 108297 (80 mg/kg QD, CORT 108297 (40 mg/kg BID, mifepristone (30 mg/kg BID, rosiglitazone (10 mg/kg QD, or vehicle. Compared to mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus vehicle, mice receiving a high-fat, high-sugar diet plus either mifepristone or CORT 108297 gained significantly less weight. At the end of the four week treatment period, mice receiving CORT 108297 40 mg/kg BID or CORT 108297 80 mg/kg QD also had significantly lower steady plasma glucose than mice receiving vehicle. However, steady state plasma glucose after treatment was not highly correlated with reduced weight gain, suggesting that the effect of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist on insulin sensitivity may be independent of its mitigating effect on weight gain.

  7. Weight Gain and Obesity in Infants and Young Children Exposed to Prolonged Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M Bruce; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2017-02-01

    An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. Secondary analysis of data from the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux Study, a 2-year randomized clinical trial that enrolled participants from 2007 to 2011. All 607 children who were randomized to receive antibiotic (n = 302) or placebo (n = 305) were included. Children with urinary tract anomalies, premature birth, or major comorbidities were excluded from participation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or placebo taken orally, once daily, for 2 years. Weight gain as measured by change in weight-for-age z score from baseline to the end-of-study visit at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight gain at 6, 12, and 18 months and the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months. Participants had a median age of 12 months (range, 2-71 months) and 558 of 607 (91.9%) were female. Anthropometric data were complete at the 24-month visit for 428 children (214 in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and 214 in the placebo group). Weight gain in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and the placebo group was similar (mean [SD] change in weight-for-age z score: +0.14 [0.83] and +0.18 [0.85], respectively; difference, -0.04 [95% CI, -0.19 to 0.12]; P = .65). There was no significant difference in weight gain at 6, 12, or 18 months or in the prevalence of overweight or obesity at 24 months (24.8% vs 25.7%; P = .82). Subgroup analyses showed no significant interaction between weight gain effect and age, sex, history of breastfeeding, prior antibiotic use, adherence to study

  8. Body weight gain induced by a newer antipsychotic agent reversed as negative symptoms improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, M; Nakayama, K

    2005-07-01

    We describe a patient in whom improvement in negative symptoms contributed to early weight loss and subsequent long-term improvement in weight management. Case report. A 26-year-old woman with schizophrenia gained 7 kg over the course of 1 year after starting treatment with olanzapine. However, as negative symptoms gradually improved with treatment, she became motivated to diet and exercise regularly. She quickly lost 9 kg and subsequently maintained optimal weight (55 kg; body mass index, 24.1 kg/m(2) ). Important strategies for minimizing weight gain in patients taking antipsychotic agents include improving negative symptoms of avolition and apathy, regular monitoring of body weight and potential medical consequences of overweight and obesity, and educating the patient about the importance of diet and regular exercise.

  9. The association between weight gain during pregnancy and intertwin delivery weight discordance using 2011-2015 birth registration data from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanni; Shen, Minxue; Ma, Shujuan; Tao, Xuan; Wen, Shi Wu; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2018-06-01

    To assess the effect of weight gain during pregnancy on intertwin delivery weight discordance. In the present retrospective cohort study using twin delivery records, data were extracted from the 2011-2015 USA birth registration dataset created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The outcome variable was delivery weight discordance. The nonlinear association of weight gain during pregnancy with delivery weight discordance was examined using a generalized additive model, adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 255 627 twin pairs were included in this analysis. Weight gain during pregnancy showed an inverse, yet nonlinear, association with intertwin delivery weight discordance. Women with weight gain of approximately 25 kg exhibited the lowest level of discordance. When stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index, the association of weight gain with discordance became insignificant among obese women. When categorizing weight gain according to recommendations from the Institute of Medicine, inadequate weight gain was associated with increased risk of discordance among women of any pre-pregnancy body mass index. Twin pregnancies with maternal weight gain of approximately 25 kg demonstrated the lowest risk of developing intertwin delivery weight discordance, while inadequate weight gain was a risk factor for delivery weight discordance in all pre-pregnancy body mass index categories. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children: the Viva la Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Cai, Guowen; Cole, Shelley A; Wilson, Theresa A; Fisher, Jennifer O; Zakeri, Issa F; Ellis, Kenneth J; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hispanic children studied longitudinally. Subjects (n = 879) were siblings from 319 Hispanic families enrolled in the Viva la Familia Study. Families were required to have at least one overweight child aged 4-19 y. One-year changes in weight and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Data were from parental interviews, birth certificates, multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls, 3-d accelerometry, 24-h respiration calorimetry, measurements of eating in the absence of hunger, and measurement of fasting blood biochemistry indexes by radioimmunoassay. Generalized estimating equations and principal component analysis were applied. Weight gain increased with age (P = 0.001), peaking at approximately 10 y of age in girls and approximately 11 y of age in boys. Mean (+/-SD) weight gain was significantly higher in overweight (7.5 +/- 3.7 kg/y) than in nonoverweight (4.4 +/- 2.4 kg/y) children and in boys than in girls. When adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and Tanner stage, the final model indicated a child's body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) status, maternal BMI, energy expenditure (total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate, and sleeping metabolic rate), and fasting blood biochemistry indexes (total triiodothyronine, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin) as independent, positive predictors of weight gain (P = 0.01-0.001). Knowledge of the metabolic and behavioral predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children will inform prevention and treatment efforts to address this serious public health problem in the United States.

  11. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in 481 Obese Glucose-Tolerant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester......-weight women (3,478 g). In multivariate analyses, increasing weight gain was associated with significantly higher rates of hypertension (OR 4.8 [95% CI for group 4 vs. group 1: 1.7-13.1]), cesarean section (3.5 [1.6-7.8]), induction of labor (3.7 [1.7-8.0]), and large-for-gestational-age infants (4.7 [2.......0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...

  12. Gestational Weight Gain-for-Gestational Age Z-Score Charts Applied across U.S. Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Gestational weight gain may be a modifiable contributor to infant health outcomes, but the effect of gestational duration on gestational weight gain has limited the identification of optimal weight gain ranges. Recently developed z-score and percentile charts can be used to classify gestational weight gain independent of gestational duration. However, racial/ethnic variation in gestational weight gain and the possibility that optimal weight gain differs among racial/ethnic groups could affect generalizability of the z-score charts. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply the weight gain z-score charts in two different U.S. populations as an assessment of generalisability and (2) to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies the weight gain range associated with minimal risk of preterm birth. The study sample included over 4 million live, singleton births in California (2007-2012) and Pennsylvania (2003-2013). We implemented a noninferiority margin approach in stratified subgroups to determine weight gain ranges for which the adjusted predicted marginal risk of preterm birth (gestation gain between California and Pennsylvania births, and among several racial/ethnic groups in California. The optimal ranges decreased as severity of prepregnancy obesity increased in all groups. The findings support the use of weight gain z-score charts for studying gestational age-dependent outcomes in diverse U.S. populations and do not support weight gain recommendations tailored to race/ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  14. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  15. Could Reward-disturbances caused by antipsychotic medication lead to weight gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Ødegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Nørbak-Emig, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The reward system is known to be central to the regulation of appetite. Further, disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to play an important role in the development of central psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medication partly acts by modulating...... the reward system and most antipsychotics cause some degree of weight gain. Recently, a relation between weight gain caused by one week of olanzapine treatment and change in reward signalling was found in healthy volunteers1. To our knowledge there are no previous studies examining how the effect...... of antipsychotic treatment on the reward system relate to weight gain in patients. METHODS 50 antipsychotic-naïve first-episode patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls were included in the study at baseline. 38 patients and 31 healthy controls were re-examined after six weeks where patients were...

  16. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  17. Olanzapine-induced weight gain: lessons learned from developing rat models

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaal, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an effective and commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug, used for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Unfortunately significant weight gain is a common side effect. In order to effectively address this side effect, it is crucial to gain insight into the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, this thesis describes the development of a number of rat models that were designed to determine the effects of olanzapine on different aspects of energy balance. In both short- a...

  18. Relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and optimal weight gain in singleton pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Robillard

    2018-05-01

    Interpretation: IOM-2009 recommendations are adequate for normal and over-weighted women but not for thin and obese women: a thin woman (17 kg/m2 should gain 21.6 ± 2 kg (instead of 12.5–18. An obese 32 kg/m2 should gain 3.6 kg (instead of 5–9. Very obese 40 kg/m2 should lose 6 kg.

  19. Metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Tong, Jian-hua; Zhu, Gang; Liang, Guang-ming; Yan, Hong-fei; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Seventy-two patients with first-episode schizophrenia who gained more than 7% of their predrug weight were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg/d of metformin or placebo in addition to their ongoing treatment for 12 weeks using a double-blind study design. The primary outcome was change in body weight. The secondary outcomes included changes in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance index. Of the 72 patients who were randomly assigned, 66 (91.6%) completed treatments. The body weight, body mass index, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index decreased significantly in the metformin group, but increased in the placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. Significantly more patients in the metformin group lost their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight loss. Metformin was tolerated well by majority patients. Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating antipsychotic-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to metformin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibrating care in midwifery : weighing the evidence on weight and weight gain for pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darie Daemers

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty first century obesity entered Dutch maternity care as a ‘new illness’ challenging maternity care professionals in providing optimal care for women with higher BMI’s. International research revealed that obese women had more perinatal problems than normal weight women.

  1. Ten-year weight gain is associated with elevated fasting insulin levels and precedes glucose elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Nicholas; Jaber, Johnny; Ahiawodzi, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the relationship between endogenous insulin and weight change with mixed results. This study examined the relationship between fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance (IR), and 10-year weight change by glycaemic stage. Using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, 3840 participants were divided into 6 groups based on fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels. Fasting insulin concentrations were dichotomized into <25th percentile (normal) and ≥25th percentile (elevated). Ten-year weight change associated with fasting insulin was assessed by glycaemic stage. Average weight change over a 10-year period was higher in individuals with elevated insulin levels compared to the first quartile (1.40 lbs. vs 11.12 lbs, P < .0001). Across all groups, a 1 μU increase in fasting insulin levels resulted in a 0.52-pound increase in weight (P < .0001). Similarly, an increase in HOMA-IR was associated with increase in weight (1.32 lbs per IR unit, P < .0001). Marginal increases in weight were most pronounced in the normal insulin groups compared to elevated insulin groups and diminished as glycaemic stage progressed. Elevated fasting insulin level was positively associated with weight gain. The impact of fasting insulin and IR on weight gain preceded hyperglycaemia and diminished as glycaemic stage progressed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON PRE-WEANING DAILY WEIGHT GAIN IN TEDDY GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ullah Hyder, Pervez Akhtar and Omer Usman Haider

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Records belonging to 1248 Teddy goats kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, (Okara, Pakistan were analyzed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting pre-weaning average daily weight gain. Sex of kid, season and year of kidding affected average daily weight gain significantly (P<0.01. Male kids gained at a faster rate (111.00 ± 6.01 g/day than female kids (106.00 ± 6.06 g per day. The kids born in summer gained 108.90 + 1.3 g per day, which. was lower (P<0.01 than winter born kids ( 115.4 ± 1.4 9 per day. Different years of birth had shown gradual decrease in pre-weaning average daily gains. The effects of. parity of dam and birth type were found to be non-significant. Habitability estimate for daily weight gain was 0.12 ± 0.06. The phenotypic and genetic trends were negative.

  3. Corrigendum - Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru O. Doma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets first published in Vol 47, No 1 in Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, by a clerical error instead Novartis was presented Dopharma as producer of Tiamutin 10% oily injectable solution (1ml of solution containing 100 mg of tiamulin fumarate. This article corrects: Influence of Tiamulin Therapy on Weight Gain in Brachyspira Dysentery in Piglets Vol. 47, Issue 1, p. 372-376. Article first published online: 30 May 2014

  4. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE...... by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P

  5. Gain and exposure scheduling to compensate for photorefractive neural-network weight decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam A.; Petrisor, Gregory C.; Jenkins, B. Keith

    1995-03-01

    A gain and exposure schedule that theoretically eliminates the effect of photorefractive weight decay for the general class of outer-product neural-network learning algorithms (e.g., backpropagation, Widrow-Hoff, perceptron) is presented. This schedule compensates for photorefractive diffraction-efficiency decay by iteratively increasing the spatial-light-modulator transfer function gain and decreasing the weight-update exposure time. Simulation results for the scheduling procedure, as applied to backpropagation learning for the exclusive-OR problem, show improved learning performance compared with results for networks trained without scheduling.

  6. Discrimination and excessive weight gain during pregnancy among Black and Latina young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  8. Long-term weight gain and economic impact in pigs castrated under local anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Telles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Castration is a controversial practice in swine production because in some countries is still performed without anaesthesia, and therefore causes intense suffering and stress to animals. This study investigated the effect of pre-surgical administration of local anaesthesia (LA on the growth performance of piglets until the end of the growth phase (102 days. Piglets aged 3 to 5 days were selected in pairs of similar weights and same age. They were originated from 22 litters. The groups were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Castration was performed with (LA; n = 45 or without (NLA; n = 45 intra-testicular administration of 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine plus adrenaline per testicle, administered by an automatic repeating vaccinator. Castration was performed 10 min later. Average daily weight gain and economic impact were evaluated between the intervals before castration until 21 (weaning phase, before castration until 60 (end of the initial nursery phase and before castration until 102 (growth phase days of age. Average daily weight gain data were analyzed by comparing the average daily weight gain between the weaning phase, 60 and 102 days of age versus the initial weight (pre-castration. At the end of the growing phase, animals treated with LA showed greater weight gain than animals castrated without anaesthesia. LA also showed improved cost:benefit ratio and theore might provide greater economic benefit under the conditions used in this study. Our findings have proved that castration with LA improves long-term weight gain of piglets.

  9. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  10. Early rapid weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity in middle childhood in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Mary E; Jimenez, M Michelle; Marin, R Margot

    2016-01-01

    Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it's unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1 year (infancy) and from 1 to 5 years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8 years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed for overweight and obesity, obesity alone and waist circumference at 8 years versus rapid weight gain in infancy, and early childhood including adjusted models to account for confounders. Rapid weight gain in both periods was associated with double the risk of overweight and obesity, obesity alone at 8 years and increased waist circumference even after controlling for maternal BMI and education level, sex of child, height-for-age at 8 years, consumption of "fast food" and number of days of active exercise. The association was significant, with some differences, for children in both rural and urban environments. Rapid weight gain in infancy and in early childhood in Peru is associated with overweight and obesity at age 8 years even when considering other determinants of childhood obesity.

  11. Weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors during smoking cessation with bupropion or nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Martín, I; Valero, A M; Alvarez, F; García, G; Varela, C; Cantarero, M

    2004-03-01

    Weight gain is frequent after smoking cessation, and may limit patient's will to quit and long-term success. Nicotine and bupropion are effective drugs for smoking withdrawal. However, their influence on weight gain, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, as well as possible differences in obese and lean subjects, have not been fully evaluated. We randomised 25 lean and 25 obese smokers to receive either bupropion or nicotine patches. Clinical evaluation and lipid profile were performed at baseline and after treatment. Insulin resistance was also assessed at the end. Weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure increased (p < 0.005), whereas lipid profile improved (p < 0.001) after smoking cessation independently of obesity at baseline or drug used. Obese patients had higher insulin resistance at the end (p < 0.05) regardless of drug used. Weight gain was inversely related to age (beta= - 0.125, R = 0.38, p = 0.046), and insulin resistance was related to obesity at baseline (beta = 0.85, R = 0.46, p = 0.02). In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation is not dependent on obesity or drug taken. A beneficial lipid profile is achieved after quitting smoking with either bupropion or nicotine patch in both obese and lean subjects.

  12. The influence of place on weight gain during early childhood: a population-based, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Megan Ann; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S; Taljaard, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of place factors on weight gain in a contemporary cohort of children while also adjusting for early life and individual/family social factors. Participants from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development comprised the sample for analysis (n = 1,580). A mixed-effects regression analysis was conducted to determine the longitudinal relationship between these place factors and standardized BMI, from age 4 to 10 years. The average relationship with time was found to be quadratic (rate of weight gain increased over time). Neighborhood material deprivation was found to be positively related to weight gain. Social deprivation, social disorder, and living in a medium density area were inversely related, while no association was found for social cohesion. Early life factors and genetic proxies appeared to be important in explaining weight gain in this sample. This study suggests that residential environments may play a role in childhood weight change; however, pathways are likely to be complex and interacting and perhaps not as important as early life factors and genetic proxies. Further work is required to clarify these relationships.

  13. Weight gain in mid-childhood and its relationship with the fast food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Matthew; Bray, Isabelle; Horswell, Michael

    2017-09-10

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue. Understanding environmental factors and their contribution to weight gain is important if interventions are to be effective. The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship between weight gain in children and accessibility of fast-food outlets. A longitudinal sample of 1577 children was created using two time points from the National Child Measurement Programme in South Gloucestershire (2006/7 and 2012/13). A spatial analysis was conducted using a weighted accessibility score on the number of fast-food outlets within a 1-km network radius of each child's residence to quantify access to fast food. The mean accessibility score for all children was 0.73 (standard deviation: 1.14). Fast-food outlets were more prevalent in areas of deprivation. A moderate association was found between deprivation score and accessibilty score (r = 0.4, P fast-food outlets were more likely (odds ratio = 1.89, P = 0.04) to gain significant weight (>50 percentile points) compared to children who had no access to fast-food outlets. This paper supports previous research that fast-food outlets are more prevalent in areas of deprivation and presents new evidence on fast-food outlets as a potential contributor towards weight gain in mid-childhood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Influência do estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso e consumo energético sobre o crescimento fetal, em gestações de alto risco Influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy intake on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso e consumo energético sobre o crescimento fetal em gestações de alto risco. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de agosto de 2009 a agosto de 2010, com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: puérperas até o 5º dia; gestação de alto risco (caracterizada por complicações médicas ou obstétricas durante a gravidez; feto único e vivo no início do trabalho de parto; parto na instituição; peso materno aferido no dia do parto, e presença de intercorrência clínica e/ou obstétrica caracterizando a gravidez como de alto risco. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e no final da gestação, sendo as pacientes classificadas em: baixo peso, adequado, sobrepeso e obesidade. Para avaliação do consumo energético foi aplicado o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar. Foram investigados o ganho de peso materno, dados do parto e resultados perinatais, investigando-se o crescimento fetal pela ocorrência de neonatos pequenos para a idade gestacional e grandes para a idade gestacional. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas 374 gestantes que constituíram 3 grupos de estudo, de acordo com a adequação do peso do recém-nascido: idade gestacional adequada (270 casos, 72,2%, pequenos para a idade gestacional (91 casos, 24,3% e grandes para a idade gestacional (13 casos, 3,5%. Na análise univariada, as mulheres com neonatos pequenos para a idade gestacional apresentaram média significativamente menor do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional (23,5 kg/m², pPURPOSE: To analyze the influence of maternal nutritional status, weight gain and energy consumption on fetal growth in high-risk pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective study from August 2009 to August 2010 with the following inclusion criteria: puerperae up to the 5th postpartum day; high-risk singleton pregnancies (characterized by medical or obstetrical complications during

  15. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early rapid weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity in middle childhood in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Penny, Mary E.; Jimenez, M. Michelle; Marin, R. Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it?s unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1?year (infancy) and from 1 to 5?years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8?years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru. M...

  17. The effect of sex, slaughter weight and weight gains in PEN-AR-LAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, body weight and growth rates on basic fattening and slaughter indexes in PEN-AR-LAN fatteners. The research was conducted on 274 PEN-ARLAN hybrid fatteners coming from sows of the Naïma maternal line and was sired by boars of the P-76 meat line. Recorded ...

  18. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær; Langberg, Henning; Ottesen, Bent; Damm, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary women, light exercisers, moderate exercisers and competitive athletes. The results showed that sedentary women on average gained 14.1 kg during pregnancy, whereas light exercisers gained 13.7 kg, moderate exercisers gained 14.3 kg and competitive athletes 16.1 kg. Competitive athletes had an increased risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement What is already known on this subjectPrevious studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed no association between the pre-pregnancy level of physical activity and mean birth weight. What the results of this study addWe found that women classified as competitive exercisers had a 2.6-fold increased risk of gaining more weight than recommended compared to light exercisers. Nearly 6 out of 10 women among the competitive exercisers gained more weight than recommended by IOM. Surprisingly, this did not appear to increase birth weight or post-partum weight gain, but other adverse effects cannot be excluded. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further researchIn the clinical practice it may be relevant to focus on and advise pre-pregnancy competitive exercisers in order to prevent excessive gestational weight gain.

  19. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine for clozapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D C; Fan, X; Copeland, P M; Borba, C P; Daley, T B; Nguyen, D D; Zhang, H; Hayden, D; Freudenreich, O; Cather, C; Evins, A E; Goff, D C

    2007-02-01

    This study sought to examine the effectiveness of sibutramine, a weight loss agent, on clozapine-associated weight gain. This was a 12-week double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial of sibutramine for weight loss in obese clozapine-treated schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder subjects. Ten patients were enrolled into the placebo group and 11 patients into the sibutramine group. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on age, gender, education, ethnicity, diagnosis, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. At week 12, there were no significant differences in changes in weight, BMI, abdominal and waist circumferences, Hba1c, fasting glucose, or cholesterol levels. Sibutramine treatment did not show significant weight loss compared with placebo in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further research with a larger sample size and longer follow-up duration is warranted.

  1. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Kubo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10. Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR and their 95% confidence interval (CI. Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, there was a significant association between high (Q4 PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1 [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2, there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.

  2. Predictors of treatment failure, incipient hypothyroidism, and weight gain following radioiodine therapy for Graves' thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, F W; Zammitt, N N; Beckett, G J; Strachan, M W J

    2013-10-01

    Following radioiodine ((131)I) therapy, both late recognition of hypothyroidism and treatment failure may result in adverse outcomes. We sought to assess indicators of both incipient hypothyroidism and treatment failure following (131)I and determine factors predictive of weight gain. Retrospective study of 288 patients receiving (131)I for treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis. Primary outcome measures were thyroid status and weight change at 1 yr following (131)I. The treatment failure rate at 1 yr was 13.5%. Hypothyroidism developed in 80.9%, with 58.5% of patients having levels of free T4 (fT4) treatment failure (23.3%) than those with no thionamide exposure (6.3%, p=0.003), but also had more active Graves' disease. Following (131)I, development of a detectable TSH or low-normal fT4 levels was not associated with recurrent thyrotoxicosis. Median weight gain was 5.3 kg, although patients with nadir fT4 levels 6 pmol/l (p=0.05). The main predictor of weight gain was fT4 level immediately prior to treatment; those in the lowest tertile gained a median 3.1 kg whilst those in the highest tertile gained 7.4 kg (median difference 4.3 kg; 95% confidence interval: 2.5-6.2). Marked hypothyroidism following (131)I is common and often occurs early. Simple biochemical parameters may help identify incipient hypothyroidism and potentially limit excess weight gain. Treatment failure is common in patients with severe thyrotoxicosis and in such cases larger doses of (131)I may be warranted.

  3. Effectiveness of a structured diet program in antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Nese; Ucok, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Objective.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured diet program in weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. Methods. A total of 38 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV and who had complaints of weight gain during treatment with various antipsychotic drugs were invited to participate in a 3-month structured diet program. Thirty-two patients and another 40 patients were included as the control group. At the beginning of the diet program, the patients were given a form in order to evaluate their eating habits, and blood samples were taken to measure plasma lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) level. Patients' baseline weight, body mass index (BMI), and basal metabolism rate (BMR) were recorded. Results. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia, who attended a 3-month structured diet program had mean weight loss of 6.19 kg, whereas patients in the control group gained 1.6 kg. Conclusion. Our findings show that a diet program is effective in managing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The degree of weight loss seems to be correlated with the duration in which the patient is on the diet program. However; younger patients had less benefit from the diet program.

  4. A conceptual model of psychosocial risk and protective factors for excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette

    2013-02-01

    nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role of hypoadipone......Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...

  6. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  7. Dairy Attenuates Weight Gain to a Similar Extent as Exercise in Rats Fed a High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Sarah K; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Knuth, Carly M; Townsend, Logan K; Peppler, Willem T; Mikhaeil, John S; Leveille, Cam F; LeBlanc, Paul J; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A; Wright, David C

    2017-10-01

    To compare the individual and combined effects of dairy and endurance exercise training in reducing weight gain and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. An 8-week feeding intervention of a high-fat, high-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups for 6 weeks: (1) casein sedentary (casein-S), (2) casein exercise (casein-E), (3) dairy sedentary (dairy-S), and (4) dairy exercise (dairy-E). Rats were exercise trained by treadmill running 5 d/wk. Dairy-E prevented weight gain to a greater extent than either dairy or exercise alone. Adipose tissue and liver mass were reduced to a similar extent in dairy-S, casein-E, and dairy-E groups. Differences in weight gain were not explained by food intake or total energy expenditure. The total amount of lipid excreted was greater in the dairy-S compared to casein-S and dairy-E groups. This study provides evidence that dairy limits weight gain to a similar extent as exercise training and the combined effects are greater than either intervention alone. While exercise training reduces weight gain through increases in energy expenditure, dairy appears to increase lipid excretion in the feces. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Antibiotic Exposure During the First 6 Months of Life and Weight Gain During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey S; Bryan, Matthew; Ross, Rachael K; Daymont, Carrie; Parks, Elizabeth P; Localio, A Russell; Grundmeier, Robert W; Stallings, Virginia A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    Early-life antibiotic exposure has been associated with increased adiposity in animal models, mediated through the gut microbiome. Infant antibiotic exposure is common and often inappropriate. Studies of the association between infant antibiotics and childhood weight gain have reported inconsistent results. To assess the association between early-life antibiotic exposure and childhood weight gain. Retrospective, longitudinal study of singleton births and matched longitudinal study of twin pairs conducted in a network of 30 pediatric primary care practices serving more than 200,000 children of diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds across Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware. Children born between November 1, 2001, and December 31, 2011, at 35 weeks' gestational age or older, with birth weight of 2000 g or more and in the fifth percentile or higher for gestational age, and who had a preventive health visit within 14 days of life and at least 2 additional visits in the first year of life. Children with complex chronic conditions and those who received long-term antibiotics or multiple systemic corticosteroid prescriptions were excluded. We included 38,522 singleton children and 92 twins (46 matched pairs) discordant in antibiotic exposure. Final date of follow-up was December 31, 2012. Systemic antibiotic use in the first 6 months of life. Weight, measured at preventive health visits from age 6 months through 7 years. Of 38,522 singleton children (50% female; mean birth weight, 3.4 kg), 5287 (14%) were exposed to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life (at a mean age of 4.3 months). Antibiotic exposure was not significantly associated with rate of weight change (0.7%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 1.5%; P = .07, equivalent to approximately 0.05 kg; 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.11 kg of added weight gain between age 2 years and 5 years). Among 92 twins (38% female; mean birth weight, 2.8 kg), the 46 twins who were exposed to antibiotics during the first 6 months of life

  9. the influence of live weight on the voluntary intake of low quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trial. From then onwards their averagelive weight remain· ed more or less constant at about 50 kg. Although their averagedaily feed intakes fluctuated considerably the gener- al trend was constant. During the second period ofad lib. feeding the average live weight of the sheep remained constant at approximate- ly 36,4 kg.

  10. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Z. Braunstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PC remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT. BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83% received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70% were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; P=0.04, whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; P=0.04. Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected.

  11. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus Corriente steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Criollo cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Raramuri Criollo (RC) steers are commonly raised for beef and finished on rangelands, while Corriente (CR) are often raised for rodeo sports. No data exist on weight gains and grazing behavior of ran...

  12. 2009 IOM guidelines for gestational weight gain: how well do they predict outcomes across ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Hanley, Gillian E; Koupil, Ilona; Janssen, Patricia A

    2017-11-13

    To determine whether the Institute Of Medicine's (IOM) 2009 guidelines for weight-gain during pregnancy are predictive of maternal and infant outcomes in ethnic minority populations. We designed a population-based study using administrative data on 181,948 women who delivered live singleton births in Washington State between 2006-2008. We examined risks of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean delivery, and extended hospital stay in White, Black, Native-American, East-Asian, Hispanic, South-Asian and Hawaiian/Pacific islander women according to whether they gained more or less weight during pregnancy than recommended by IOM guidelines. We also examined risks of neonatal outcomes including Apgar score IOM guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy reduces risk for various adverse maternal outcomes in all ethnic groups studied. However, the guidelines were less predictive of infant outcomes with the exception of small and large for gestational age. GWG: Gestational weight gain; IOM/NRC; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council; NICU: Neonatal intensive care need for ventilation; SGA: Small for gestational age; LGA: Large for gestational age; BERD: Birth Events Records Database; CHARS: Comprehensive Hospital Discharge Abstract Reporting System; ICD: International Classification of Disease; LMP: Last menstrual period; OR: Odds ratio.

  13. Weight Gain in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate without Use of Palatal Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Freitas, Renato; Lopes-Grego, Andrey Bernardo; Dietrich, Helena Luiza Douat; Cerchiari, Natacha Regina de Moraes; Nakakogue, Tabatha; Tonocchi, Rita; Gabardo, Juarez; da Silva, Éder David Borges; Forte, Antonio Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Goals/Background. To evaluate children's growth in the first year of life, who have cleft palate and lip, without the use of palatal plates. Materials/Method. Chart review was conducted, retrospectively, in the Center for Integral Assistance of Cleft Lip and Palate (CAIF), in Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Results for both genders were compared to the data published by the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding average weight gain in children during their first year of life. Results. Patients with syndromic diagnosis and with cleft classified as preforamen were excluded, resulting in a final number of 112 patients: 56 male and 56 female. Similar patterns were seen comparing the two genders. Although it was observed weight gain below the average until the 11th month in male patients and until 9 months in female patients, both genders remained at the 50th percentile (p50) and improved after the 4th month of age for boys and the 9th month of age for girls. Conclusion. Children with cleft palate weigh less than regular children during their first months of life. At the end of the first year, weight gain is similar comparing normal and affected children. However, factors that optimized weight gain included choosing the best treatment for each case, proper guidance, and multiprofessional integrated care. PMID:23304489

  14. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  15. S-phenylpiracetam, a selective DAT inhibitor, reduces body weight gain without influencing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Vavers, Edijs; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Liepins, Vilnis; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-01

    S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively. Weight gain and plasma metabolites reflecting glucose metabolism were measured. Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass increase in the obese Zucker rats and in the WD-fed mice. In addition, S-phenylpiracetam reduced the plasma glucose and leptin concentration and lowered hyperglycemia in a glucose tolerance test in both the mice and the rats. S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate that S-phenylpiracetam reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that selective DAT inhibitors, such as S-phenylpiracetam, could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. of reference centiles with an application to weight gain in pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight gain in pregnancy, should one exclude women with diabetes mellitus? Each of these choices has an impact on the interpretation of the resulting centile values ..... eclamp. S Afr M. Plasma develop raised w raised, e. Plasma patients birth we levels ha. reHabty. pregnan in patien. Depar. Stellen. H J Od. MRC P. M E Pie.

  17. Meal size is a critical driver of weight gain in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Johnson, L.; Boniface, D.; Jebb, S.A.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Larger serving sizes and more frequent eating episodes have been implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity at a population level. This study examines the relative contributions of meal size and frequency to weight gain in a large sample of British children. Using 3-day diet diaries from 1939

  18. Parent-Reported Bullying and Child Weight Gain between Ages 6 and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this association. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children (N = 3929) were measured every 2 years; BMI and waist circumference were available from ages 4 to 15. Parents reported on bullying at age 6. Children reported on their depressive symptoms at ages 12-13. Participants who weighed in the obese category at age 4 had an over 50% increased risk of being bullied in school at age 6. Being bullied at age 6 was associated with excess weight gain between ages 6 and 15, defined as either BMI or waist circumference. Depressive symptoms at age 12 partially explained the association between bullying and increases in adiposity. None of the associations varied by gender. Similar to other forms of peer victimization, bullying early in school is associated with greater weight gain through early adolescence; depressive symptom is one mechanism that contributes to this association.

  19. Pattern of Weight Gain in Pregnant Women in a Rural Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal nutritional state is important for the health and quality of life of women. Nutritional status of women has been considered an important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcome. The study aims to show the pattern of weight gain during pregnancy. Methodology: Five hundred (500) women attending ...

  20. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  1. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  2. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lafontan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity, water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols.

  3. Opportunities for Intervention Strategies for Weight Management: Global Actions on Fluid Intake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontan, Max; Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Yumuk, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Water is an essential nutrient for all physiological functions and particularly important for thermoregulation. About 60% of our body weight is made of water. Under standard conditions (18-20 °C and moderate activity), water balance is regulated within 0.2 % of body weight over a 24-hour period. Water requirement varies between individuals and according to environmental conditions. Concerning considerations related to obesity, the health impact of fluid intake is commonly overlooked. Fluid intake advices are missing in most of food pyramids offered to the public, and water requirements and hydration challenges remain often neglected. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize and discuss the role of water consumption in the context of other important public health measures for weight management. Attention will be focused on fluid intake patterns and hydration-related questions in the context of global interventions and/or physical activity programs settled in weight management protocols. PMID:25765164

  4. Water intake and consumption in sheep differing in growth potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (water intake&g weight gain) than the Dorper and Mutton Merino, respectively. By means of ... To avoid obesity they were exercised ... Body weights, weight gain, means for cumulative feed and ..... water loss, may provide a logical explanation.

  5. Reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a patient with schizophrenia by switching to asenapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Okazaki, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aims: Antipsychotics are effective for treating schizophrenia, but atypical antipsychotics can cause several adverse side effects including weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Moreover, weight gain increases the risk of metabolic diseases.Methods: We treated a case of olanzapine-induced weight gain in a 41-year-old man with schizophrenia by switching his medication from olanzapine to asenapine.Results: The weight gain improved after switching the medication, from 80.3 to 75.0 kg, a weight loss of 6.6%, and there was no significant worsening of psychological symptoms or other adverse effects.Conclusions: Asenapine might be effective for treating patients with schizophrenia who experience olanzapine-induced weight gain. Keywords: olanzapine, weight gain, schizophrenia, asenapine

  6. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Weight gain in pregnancy and application of the 2009 IOM guidelines: toward a uniform approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Redman, Leanne M

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to adopt standardized nomenclature as it relates to gestational weight gain (GWG), a more uniform approach to calculate it, and hence quantifying adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. This perspective highlights the varying methods used to estimate GWG and discuss the advantages and limitations of each. While these calculations could be argued to have a minimal impact on data at the population level, on the patient level, incorrectly estimating weight at conception can result in misclassification of preconception body mass index (BMI) and assignment of the IOM guidelines which inherently affect the prospective management of weight gain (and potential outcomes) during the current pregnancy. This study recommends that preconception BMI and total GWG be determined objectively and total GWG be adjusted for length of gestation before assessing adherence to the IOM GWG guidelines. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Body weight gain after radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism; Koerpergewichtsentwicklung nach Radioiodtherapie einer Hyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidhauer, K.; Odatzidu, L.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kiencke, P. [Koeln Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie (IMSIE)

    2002-02-01

    Aim: Analysis and follow up of body weight after radioiodine therapy (RITh) of hyperthyroidism, since excessive weight gain is a common complaint among these patients. Methods: Therapy and body weight related data of 100 consecutive RITh-patients were retrospectively analysed from the time before up to three years after RITh. All patients suffered from hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease or autonomy), but were adjusted to euthyroid levels after RITh. Patients' data were compared to a control group of 48 euthyroid patients out of the same ambulance and during the same time scale. Results: All patients (RITh and controls) gained weight over the time. There was no statistically significant difference in BMI development over three years between RITh-patients and controls (5.5% resp. 4.9% increase). In the first year after RITh, weight gain of the RITh patients was higher indeed, but lower in the follow up, resulting in the same range of weight gain after three years as the controls. Besides that women showed a slightly higher increase of BMI than men, and so did younger patients compared to elder as well as patients with overweight already before RITh. Conclusions: An initially distinct increase of body weight after RITh of hyperthyroidism is mainly a compensation of pretherapeutic weight loss due to hyperthyroidism. Presupposing adequate euthyroid adjustment of thyroid metabolism after therapy, RITh is not responsible for later weight gain and adipositas. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung der Entwicklung des Koerpergewichtes nach {sup 131}I-Therapie einer Hyperthyreose, da der Radioiodtherapie (RITh) haeufig eine exzessive posttherapeutische Gewichtszunahme angelastet wird. Methoden: Retrospektiv wurden therapie- und koerpergewichtsbezogene Daten von 100 konsekutiven Patienten vor und bis drei Jahre nach RITh einer Hyperthyreose (Morbus Basedow oder funktionelle Autonomie) erfasst und mit denen einer euthyreoten Kontrollgruppe (n = 48) verglichen. Die

  9. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  10. Impact of demographic, genetic, and bioimpedance factors on gestational weight gain and birth weight in a Romanian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Bănescu, Claudia; Meliţ, Lorena; Tripon, Florin; Iancu, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW). We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I—141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II—168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group. The groups were evaluated regarding demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference, tricipital skinfold thickness, weight, height [H]), clinical, paraclinical, genetic (interleukin 6 [IL-6]: IL-6 -174G>C and IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphisms), and BIA parameters. We noticed that fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM), bone mass (BM), total body water (TBW), basal metabolism rate (BMR) and metabolic age (P mothers with high GWG. BW was positively correlated with mothers’ FM (P G polymorphism was higher in the control group (P = 0.042). We observed that high GWG may be an important predictor factor for the afterward BW, being positively correlated with FM, TBW, BMR, metabolic age of the mothers, and negatively with the mother's smoking status. Variant genotype (GG+GC) of the IL-6 -572C>G gene polymorphism is a protector factor against obesity in mothers. All the variables considered explained 14.50% of the outcome variance. PMID:27399105

  11. Rapid weight gain in professional boxing and correlation with fight decisions: analysis from 71 title fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Gianlorenzo; Weinstein, Richard N; Wallace, Paul Wesley; Palmieri, Vincenzo; Bianco, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Boxing is a sport where athletes compete in several weight categories. Professional boxers typically dehydrate to cut their weight for the weigh-in (24 h before the contest) and then rehydrate before the fight. The International Boxing Federation (IBF) mandates a second weigh-in 12 h before the fight. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify the weight gain (WG) from the 1st to the 2nd weigh-in; 2) to investigate whether rapid WG affects boxing performance (win/loss rate) and 3) whether weight discrepancy (WD) 15 between boxers exposes them to increased health risks (rate of fights ended before time limit). From official weigh-in reports of 71 IBF fights (142 fighters) the following data were gathered/calculated for each boxer: age, weight division, 1st weight, 2nd weight, WG between weigh-ins (kg and %), WD between opponents, and fight decision. Between the weigh-ins, the average WG was 2.52 ± 1.37 kg (range -0.3/6.4 kg) and 3.8 ± 2.2% of the initial body weight (range -0.4/9.3%) and the average WD 1.94 ± 1.50 kg (maximum 7.10 kg). Both WG and WD did not affect match outcomes. We observed tendencies for higher loss rate among boxers gaining more weight, and for higher victory rate in boxers with larger WD, however without reaching significance. A significant negative correlation was found between the 1st weight and the WG, both in absolute (r = -0.278, p = 0.001) and relative value (r = -0.497, p boxing performance were not found, single cases with an alarming high WG and WD were noted.

  12. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Beeken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.

  13. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  14. Association of gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index with adverse pregnancy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munim, S.; Maheen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between gestation weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcome in a Pakistani population. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from February 2003 to 2007. Methodology: This study used secondary data of 4,735 women from a large cohort study on fetal growth. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the recommendations from the institute of medicine (IOM, 2009) and gestation weight gain (GWG) was noted. Chi-square test was used to find the association of GWG and pre-pregnancy BMI with low birth, large for gestational age (LGA), and caesarean section. Logistic regression analysis was weight (LBW), preterm delivery performed to control for confounders like age, parity, working status and ethnicity. Results: The prevalence of LBW decreased with increasing BMI. GWG of the population was noted as 8.5 kg. LBW was omen below the age of 19 were twice more likely to have LBW than observed to have an inverse relationship with GWG. W above 35 years of age. Weight gain above the recommended range were twice more likely to have large for dates. Overweight women were 1.5 times more likely to deliver preterm whereas obese women were 1.4 times more likely to undergo caesarean section than women with normal BMI. Conclusion: The optimal weight gain was estimated to be 8.5 kg to prevent low birth weight in our population. Obese women are more likely to have LGA, caesarean sections and pre-term deliveries. (author)

  15. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P 06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems.

  16. Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buijsse, Brian; Feskens, Edith J M; Schulze, Matthias B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High fruit and vegetable intakes may limit weight gain, particularly in susceptible persons, such as those who stop smoking. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the association of fruit and vegetable intake with subsequent weight change in a large-scale prospective study. DESIGN...... regression was used to evaluate whether fruit and vegetable intake relates to weight gain, weight loss, or both. RESULTS: Per 100-g intake of fruit and vegetables, weight change was -14 g/y (95% CI: -19, -9 g/y). In those who stopped smoking during follow-up, this value was -37 g/y (95% CI: -58, -15 g/y; P...... > or =0.5 kg/y. In those who stopped smoking during follow-up, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.88, 0.99), 0.87 (0.81, 0.92), and 0.97 (0.88, 1.07), respectively (P for interaction

  17. THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED OIL PALM FRONDS IN DIET ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND MEAT QUALITY OF GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Musnandar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to evaluate the use of fermented of oil palm fronds (FOPF on body weightgain and meat quality of goat. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design with 3treatments i.e. R1 (grass 0%: FOPF 100%, R2 (grass 50%: FOPF 50% and R3 (grass 100%: FOPF 0%and 5 replications. The parameters of the study were feed intake, average daily gain (ADG, weight andpercentage of carcass and meat quality. The results indicated that feed intake and meat quality of goatwas not affected by treatment, but the average daily gain, carcass weight, and percentage of carcass, wasaffected by the differences of percentage of FOPF in the pellet complete feed. The best ration was in theR1 ration (grass 0%: FOPF 100% that significantly different (P<0.05 from the other rations. The feedintake tended to be higher in goat fed R1 (895.87 g/d compared to those in goat with the R2 (854.38g/d and R3 (851.53 g/d. The average daily gain and carcass weight were higher in goat fed R1 rationcompared to those in goat fed R2 and R3. Consequently, the carcass percentage in R1 was higher thanthose in R2 and R3. The carcass percentage was ranged from 38.41-41.38%. The Ribeye area was higherin goat fed R1 (9.73 cm2 than R2 (8.34 cm2 and R3 (7.76 cm2. In this study, the protein content ofgoat meat was ranged from 19.06 to 20.71%, lipid content was ranged from 0.703 to 1.106% and watercontent was range from 72.45% to 74.12%, in which were not different among the treatments. It can beconcluded that the use of FOPF in a complete feed could improve performance and meat quality of goat.

  18. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  19. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Tetens, Inge; Hels, Ole

    2009-01-01

    intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences......Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published...... and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body...

  20. [Evaluation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain among urban and rural women from southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhengyan; Li, Ming; Rui, Li; Sun, Xiaohong; Pang, Xuehong; Zhou, Lan; Zeng, Guo

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the situation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) of women in the urban and rural areas of southwest of China. Total 3391 women whose infants and young children aged 6 - 24 months were selected from urban and rural areas of Kunming, Guiyang and Chengdu cities by stratified cluster random sampling. Data of pre-pregnancy height and weight, prenatal weight and pregnancy age for subjects was obtained using a questionnaire. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated. According to the BMI standard for adults from WHO and GWG Guidelines from IOM (2009), the status of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG were assessed. Average BMI of pre-pregnancy for them is (20.3 +/- 2.4). Percentage of normal weight, underweight, and overweight/obesity of pre-pregnancy were 72.7%, 24.1% and 3.2% respectively. The average GWG was (14.9 +/- 6.0) kg, and there was a significant difference between urban and rural group (P lower (P women aged below 23 years old (P women aged 24 - 34 years old (P pay more attention to improve the underweight of pre-pregnancy and abnormal GWG among women in the southwest of China.

  1. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy and ileal transposition, alone and in combination, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nausheen, S; Shah, I H; Pezeshki, A; Sigalet, D L; Chelikani, P K

    2013-08-15

    Bariatric surgeries are hypothesized to produce weight loss and improve diabetes control by multiple mechanisms including gastric restriction and lower gut stimulation; the relative importance of these mechanisms remains poorly understood. We compared the effects of a typical foregut procedure, sleeve gastrectomy, (SG) with a primarily hindgut surgery, ileal transposition (IT), alone and together (SGIT), or sham manipulations, on food intake, body weight, gut hormones, glucose tolerance, and key markers of glucose homeostasis in peripheral tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (450-550 g, n = 7-9/group). SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced transient reduction in food intake and weight gain; the effects of SG and IT on intake and body weight were nonadditive. SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries resulted in increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of the lower gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY and decreased plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, and leptin concentrations. Despite transient effects on intake and weight gain, the SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries produced a significant improvement in glucose tolerance. In support of glycemic improvements, the protein abundance of key markers of glucose metabolism (e.g., GLUT4, PKA, IRS-1) in muscle and adipose tissue were increased, whereas the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme in liver (G-6-Pase) were decreased following the surgeries. Therefore, our data suggest that enhanced lower gut stimulation following SG, IT, and SGIT surgeries leads to transient reduction in food intake and weight gain together with enhanced secretion of lower gut hormones and improved glucose clearance by peripheral tissues.

  2. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  3. Weight Gain, Schizophrenia and Antipsychotics: New Findings from Animal Model and Pharmacogenomic Studies

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    Fabio Panariello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess body weight is one of the most common physical health problems among patients with schizophrenia that increases the risk for many medical problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, and hypertension, and accounts in part for 20% shorter life expectancy than in general population. Among patients with severe mental illness, obesity can be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle, personal genetic profile, as well as the effects of psychotropic medications, above all antipsychotic drugs. Novel “atypical” antipsychotic drugs represent a substantial improvement on older “typical” drugs. However, clinical experience has shown that some, but not all, of these drugs can induce substantial weight gain. Animal models of antipsychotic-related weight gain and animal transgenic models of knockout or overexpressed genes of antipsychotic receptors have been largely evaluated by scientific community for changes in obesity-related gene expression or phenotypes. Moreover, pharmacogenomic approaches have allowed to detect more than 300 possible candidate genes for antipsychotics-induced body weight gain. In this paper, we summarize current thinking on: (1 the role of polymorphisms in several candidate genes, (2 the possible roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in this adverse drug reaction, and (3 the state of development of animal models in this matter. We also outline major areas for future research.

  4. Dehydration and acute weight gain in mixed martial arts fighters before competition.

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    Jetton, Adam M; Lawrence, Marcus M; Meucci, Marco; Haines, Tracie L; Collier, Scott R; Morris, David M; Utter, Alan C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the magnitude of acute weight gain (AWG) and dehydration in mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status and body mass were determined approximately 24 hours before and then again approximately 2 hours before competition in 40 MMA fighters (mean ± SE, age: 25.2 ± 0.65 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.01 m, body mass: 75.8 ± 1.5 kg). The AWG was defined as the amount of body weight the fighters gained in the approximately 22-hour period between the official weigh-in and the actual competition. On average, the MMA fighters gained 3.40 ± 2.2 kg or 4.4% of their body weight in the approximately 22-hour period before competition. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased (p 1.021 immediately before competition indicating significant or serious dehydration. The MMA fighters undergo significant dehydration and fluctuations in body mass (4.4% avg.) in the 24-hour period before competition. Urinary measures of hydration status indicate that a significant proportion of MMA fighters are not successfully rehydrating before competition and subsequently are competing in a dehydrated state. Weight management guidelines to prevent acute dehydration in MMA fighters are warranted to prevent unnecessary adverse health events secondary to dehydration.

  5. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  6. Inappropriate gestational weight gain among teenage pregnancies: prevalence and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivatkusol Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yada Vivatkusol, Thaovalai Thavaramara, Chadakarn Phaloprakarn Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG among teenage pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG.Results: Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001. The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different.Conclusion: More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes. Keywords: prevalence, pregnancy outcome, inappropriate gestational weight gain, teenage pregnancy

  7. Extended vs. brief intermittent access to palatable food differently promote binge-like intake, rejection of less preferred food, and weight cycling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisler, A D; Garcia, M G; Spierling, S R; Hui, B E; Zorrilla, E P

    2017-08-01

    Palatable food access promotes obesity leading some to diet. Here, we modeled the roles of duration, intermittency and choice of access in bingeing, escalation of daily intake, and underacceptance of alternatives. Female rats with ("Choice") or without continuous chow access, received chow or continuous (Chocolate), intermittent (MWF) long (24h, Int-Long), or intermittent short (30min, Int-Short) access to a sucrose-rich, chocolate-flavored diet (CHOC). Int-Long rats showed cycling body weight; they overate CHOC, had increased feed efficiency on access days and underate chow and lost weight on non-access days, the latter correlating with their reduced brown fat. Int-Short rats had the greatest 30-min intake upon CHOC access, but did not underaccept chow or weight cycle. Individual vulnerability for intermittent access-induced feeding adaptations was seen. Continuous access rats gained fat disproportionate, but in direct relation, to their normalized energy intake and persistently underaccepted chow despite abstinence and return to normal weight. Abstinence reduced the binge-like CHOC intake of Int-Short rats and increased that of continuous access rats, but not to levels associated with intermittent access history. Choice increased daily CHOC intake under Continuous access and binge-like intake under Int-Short access. Intermittency and duration of past access to palatable food have dissociable, individually-vulnerable influences on its intake and that of alternatives. With extended access, daily intake reflects the palatability of available food, rather than metabolic need. Ongoing restrictedness of access or a history of intermittency each drive binge-like intake. Aspects of palatable food availability, similar and different to drug availability, promote disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of an education intervention using email for the prevention of weight gain among adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.

  9. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  10. Alterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.

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    Katrina Weston-Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, neuropeptide Y (NPY and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65, enzyme for GABA synthesis mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R binding density (using [(3H]SR-141716A were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and dorsal vagal complex (DVC of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3×/day, 14-days. Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65 mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.

  11. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Wise, Lauren A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in black compared to white women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. Design We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged less than age 55 in the longitudinal Black Women’s Health Study which began in 1995. Main Outcome Measures We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). Results The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity for was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Conclusions Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk. PMID:22764643

  12. Lifecourse educational status in relation to weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia E; Wise, Lauren A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of obesity from childhood through adulthood and those who are disadvantaged across the lifecourse are at highest risk. The effect of lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) is particularly important for Black women due to the higher prevalence of low SES and obesity in Black compared to White women. We assessed associations of lifecourse SES, as indicated by educational status, with adult weight in African American women. We assessed the associations of parental education, current education (education of participant or her spouse), and a combination of parental and current education (lifecourse education) with weight gain among 21,457 women aged Women's Health Study, which began in 1995. We estimated the mean difference in weight gain between age 18 and age in 2009, and risk ratios for obesity in 2009, in each level of education compared to the highest level (college graduate). The age- and height-adjusted differences in mean weight gain for the lowest levels of parental and current education compared to the highest levels were 3.29 and 4.49 kg, respectively. The age-adjusted risk ratios for obesity for the lowest level of parental and current education were 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.57) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.57-1.95), respectively. Risk of obesity was lowest among those with current education of college graduate, regardless of parental education. Educational level of college graduate may overcome the adverse effects of low parental education on weight gain and obesity risk.

  13. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  14. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected ga