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Sample records for intake sun exposure

  1. Relative importance of summer sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and genes to vitamin D status in Dutch older adults: The B-PROOF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; Vaes, A.M.M.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Swart, K.M.A.; Ham, A.C.; Dijk, van S.C.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Schoor, van N.M.; Velde, van der N.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Lips, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among seniors is high. Whereas sun exposure, vitamin D intake, genes, demographics, and lifestyle have been identified as being important determinants of vitamin D status, the impact of these factors is expected to differ across

  2. Relative importance of summer sun exposure, vitamin D intake, and genes to vitamin D status in Dutch older adults: The B-PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Vaes, Anouk M M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Enneman, Anke W; Sohl, Evelien; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Lips, Paul; Feskens, Edith J M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among seniors is high. Whereas sun exposure, vitamin D intake, genes, demographics, and lifestyle have been identified as being important determinants of vitamin D status, the impact of these factors is expected to differ across populations. To improve current prevention and treatment strategies, this study aimed to explore the main determinants of vitamin D status and its relative importance in a population of community-dwelling Dutch older adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in 2857 adults aged ≥65 years. Sun exposure was assessed with a structured questionnaire (n=1012), vitamin D intake using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (n=596), and data on genetic variation that may affect 25(OH)D status was obtained for 4 genes, DHCR7 (rs12785878), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), GC (rs2282679), and CYP24A1 (rs6013897) (n=2530). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations vitamin D supplements. Sun exposure (being outside daily during summer: 66±25nmol/L vs not being outside daily during summer: 58±27nmol/L, P=0.02) and vitamin D intake (per unit μg/day during winter/spring: 3.1±0.75nmol/L, PD concentrations. Major allele carriers of SNPs related to DHCR7, CYP24A1, and GC, as well as CYP2R1 minor allele carriers had the highest 25(OH)D concentrations. Together, sun (R 2 =0.29), vitamin D intake (R 2 =0.24), and genes (R 2 =0.28) explained 35% (R 2 =0.35) of the variation in 25(OH)D concentrations during summer/autumn period, when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and self-rated health status (n=185). The investigated determinants explained 35% of 25(OH)D status. Of the three main determinants under study, sun exposure still appeared to be an important determinant of serum 25(OH)D in older individuals, closely followed by genes, and vitamin D intake. Given the low frequency of vitamin D supplement use in this population, promoting supplement use may be an inexpensive, easy, and

  3. Seasonal changes in vitamin D status among Danish adolescent girls and elderly women: the influence of sun exposure and vitamin D intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, C; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To determine seasonal variation in vitamin D status in healthy Caucasian adolescent girls and elderly community-dwelling women living in Denmark, and to quantify the impact of sun exposure and intake on the seasonal changes in vitamin D status.Subjects/methods:A 1-year...... longitudinal observational study of 54 girls (11-13 years) and 52 women (70-75 years). The participants were examined three times (winter-summer-winter). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) concentration and vitamin D intake were measured at each visit. Sun exposure was measured during summer.Results:S-25OHD...... concentrations (winter, summer, winter) were median (25, 75 percentiles) 23.4 (16.5, 36.4), 60.3 (42.7, 67.7), 29.5 (22.2, 40.4) and 47.2 (27.3, 61.1), 67.3 (35.1, 79.2), 50.5 (32.7, 65.5) nmol/l for girls and women, respectively. The usual sun habits were determinant (P=0.002) for change in vitamin D status...

  4. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  5. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure Anyone working outdoors is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, even on cloudy ... nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, ...

  6. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  7. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  8. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  9. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toll on your skin and its underlying connective tissue. As a result, your skin may develop more wrinkles and lines. Too much sun exposure can also raise your risk for skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the ...

  10. Sun exposure, sun protection and sunburn among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Fioletov, Vitali

    2017-05-17

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and a history of sunburn are important risk factors for skin cancer. Sunburn is more common among men, younger age groups, and people in higher income households. Sun protection measures also vary by sex, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations between ambient UVR and sunburn and sun safety measures have not been quantified. A total of 53,130 respondents aged 18 or older answered a Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) module on sun safety, which was administered in six provinces from 2005 to 2014. The module contained questions about sunburn, time in the sun, and sun protection. These respondents were linked to an ambient erythemal UVR dataset representing the June-to-August mean. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine associations between population characteristics, sunburn, sun safety, time in the sun, and ambient UVR. Sunburn was reported by 33% of respondents and was more common among men, younger age groups, people who were not members of visible minorities, residents of higher income households, and individuals who were employed. On a typical summer day, a larger percentage of women than men sought shade and wore sunscreen, whereas a larger percentage of men wore a hat or long pants. As ambient summer UVR increased, women were more likely to apply sunscreen to their face, seek shade, or wear a hat (OR~1.02 to 1.09 per increase of 187 J/m² of erythemally-weighted UVR, or 5.4% of the mean); these associations were not observed among men. Findings related to sunburn and sun protection were similar to those of previous studies. The association between ambient UVR and women's precautionary measures suggests that information about UVR may influence their decision to protect their skin.

  11. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  12. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  13. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  14. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  15. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  16. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Cristina; Henriquez, Patricia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; del Burgo, Cristina López; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2011-11-02

    Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles) and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health). E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5) vs. lowest quintile (Q1), b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). For TFA intake (in quintiles), a significant inverse association was found for most of the mental domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). E.g. for vitality domain (Q5) vs. (Q1), b = -2.0, 95% CI = -3.4 to -0.6. We also found an inverse association between TFA intake and the bodily pain domain: (Q5 vs. Q1), b = -2.6; 95% CI = -4.4 to -0.8, with a statistically significant dose-response relationship (p for trend < 0.05). Except for TFA intake and the mental domains, the rest of the associations were attenuated when we repeated the analysis adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse

  17. Sun Protection Practices and Sun Exposure among Children with a Parental History of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Beth A.; Lin, Tiffany; Chang, L. Cindy; Okada, Ashley; Wong, Weng Kee; Glanz, Karen; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives of melanoma survivors have a substantially higher lifetime risk for melanoma than individuals with no family history. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary modifiable risk factor for the disease. Reducing UV exposure through sun protection may be particularly important for children with a parental history of melanoma. Nonetheless, limited prior research has investigated sun protection practices and sun exposure among these children. Methods The California Cancer Registry was used to identify melanoma survivors eligible to participate in a survey to assess their children's sun protection practices and sun exposure. The survey was administered by mail, telephone, or web to Latino and non-Latino white melanoma survivors with at least one child (0–17 years; N = 324). Results Sun exposure was high and the rate of sunburn was equivalent to or higher than estimates from average risk populations. Use of sun protection was suboptimal. Latino children were less likely to wear sunscreen and hats and more likely to wear sunglasses, although these differences disappeared in adjusted analyses. Increasing age of the child was associated with lower sun protection and higher risk for sunburn whereas higher objective risk for melanoma predicted improved sun protection and a higher risk for sunburns. Perception of high barriers to sun protection was the strongest modifiable correlate of sun protection. Conclusions Interventions to improve sun protection and reduce sun exposure and sunburns in high risk children are needed. Impact Intervening in high risk populations may help reduce the burden of melanoma in the U.S. PMID:25587110

  18. Sunburn, sun exposure, and sun sensitivity in the Study of Nevi in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Arora, Arshi; Marchetti, Michael A; Orlow, Irene; Dusza, Stephen W; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-11-01

    To examine the joint effect of sun exposure and sunburn on nevus counts (on the natural logarithm scale; log nevi) and the role of sun sensitivity. We describe an analysis of cross-sectional data from 443 children enrolled in the prospective Study of Nevi in Children. To evaluate the joint effect, we partitioned the sum of squares because of interaction between sunburn and sun exposure into orthogonal components representing (1) monotonic increase in log nevi with increasing sun exposure (rate of increase of log nevi depends on sunburn), and (2) nonmonotonic pattern. In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginally significant monotonic pattern of interaction (P = .08). In adjusted analyses, sun exposure was associated with higher log nevi among those without sunburn (P sunburn (P = .14). Sunburn was independently associated with log nevi (P = .02), even though sun sensitivity explained 29% (95% confidence interval: 2%-56%, P = .04) of its effect. Children with high sun sensitivity and sunburn had more nevi, regardless of sun exposure. A program of increasing sun protection in early childhood as a strategy for reducing nevi, when applied to the general population, may not equally benefit everyone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection. PMID:22851950

  20. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  1. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  3. Choctaw Nation Youth Sun Exposure Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy A. Rhoades

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is rising among American Indians (AI but the prevalence of harmful ultraviolet light (UVL exposures among AI youth is unknown. In 2013, UVL exposures, protective behaviors, and attitudes toward tanning were assessed among 129 AI and Non-Hispanic (NHW students in grades 8–12 in Southeastern Oklahoma. Sunburn was reported by more than half the AI students and most of the NHW students. One-third of AI students reported never using sunscreen, compared to less than one-fifth of NHW students, but racial differences were mitigated by propensity to burn. Less than 10% of students never covered their shoulders when outside. Girls, regardless of race, wore hats much less often than boys. Regardless of race or sex, more than one-fourth of students never stayed in the shade, and more than one-tenth never wore sunglasses. The prevalence of outdoor tanning did not differ by race, but more than three-fourths of girls engaged in this activity compared to less than half the boys. Indoor tanning was reported by 45% of the girls, compared to 20% of girls nationwide, with no difference by race. Nearly 10% of boys tanned indoors. Among girls, 18% reported more than ten indoor tanning sessions. Over one-quarter of participants agreed that tanning makes people look more attractive, with no significant difference by race or sex. Investigations of UVL exposures should include AI youth, who have not been represented in previous studies but whose harmful UVL exposures, including indoor tanning, may place them at risk of skin cancer.

  4. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  5. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Burning daylight: balancing vitamin D requirements with sensible sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalgis-Bilinski, Kellie L; Boyages, John; Salisbury, Elizabeth L; Dunstan, Colin R; Henderson, Stuart I; Talbot, Peter L

    2011-04-04

    To examine the feasibility of balancing sunlight exposure to meet vitamin D requirements with sun protection guidelines. We used standard erythemal dose and Ultraviolet Index (UVI) data for 1 June 1996 to 30 December 2005 for seven Australian cities to estimate duration of sun exposure required for fair-skinned individuals to synthesise 1000 IU (25 µg) of vitamin D, with 11% and 17% body exposure, for each season and hour of the day. Periods were classified according to whether the UVI was 60 min. Duration of sunlight exposure required to achieve 1000 IU of vitamin D synthesis. Duration of sunlight exposure required to synthesise 1000 IU of vitamin D varied by time of day, season and city. Although peak UVI periods are typically promoted as between 10 am and 3 pm, UVI was often ≥ 3 before 10 am or after 3 pm. When the UVI was sunlight exposure while avoiding its damaging effects. Physiological and geographical factors may reduce vitamin D synthesis, and supplementation may be necessary to achieve adequate vitamin D status for individuals at risk of deficiency. ©The Medical Journal of Australia 2011

  8. Trends in sunburns, sun protection practices, and attitudes toward sun exposure protection and tanning among US adolescents, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Weinstock, Martin; Glanz, Karen; Albano, Jessica; Ward, Elizabeth; Thun, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Sun exposure in childhood is an important risk factor for developing skin cancer as an adult. Despite extensive efforts to reduce sun exposure among the young, there are no population-based data on trends in sunburns and sun protection practices in the young. The aim of this study was to describe nationally representative trend data on sunburns, sun protection, and attitudes related to sun exposure among US youth. Cross-sectional telephone surveys of youth aged 11 to 18 years in 1998 (N = 1196) and in 2004 (N = 1613) were conducted using a 2-stage sampling process to draw population-based samples. The surveys asked identical questions about sun protection, number of sunburns experienced, and attitudes toward sun exposure. Time trends were evaluated using pooled logistic regression analysis. In 2004, 69% of subjects reported having been sunburned during the summer, not significantly less than in 1998 (72%). There was a significant decrease in the percentage of those aged 11 to 15 years who reported sunburns and a nonsignificant increase among the 16- to 18-year-olds. The proportion of youth who reported regular sunscreen use increased significantly from 31% to 39%. Little change occurred in other recommended sun protection practices. A small reduction in sunburn frequency and modest increases in sun protection practices were observed among youth between 1998 and 2004, despite widespread sun protection campaigns. Nevertheless, the decrease in sunburns among younger teens may be cause for optimism regarding future trends. Overall, there was rather limited progress in improving sun protection practices and reducing sunburns among US youth between 1998 and 2004.

  9. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  11. [Skin, sun exposure and vitamin D: facts and controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccia, M-T

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D plays a clearly defined role in phosphorus, calcium and bone metabolism. In addition to its effects on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and on immunity, it appears to exert other action, poorly understood to date, on human physiology and disease. A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective role of sun exposure with regard to the incidence of certain immune diseases and cancer, and upon the related mortality rates. Furthermore, over the last 10 years, studies have purported to find levels judged "inadequate" in numerous populations, and, in the absence of any strict scientific arguments, a correlation was established by certain authors between supposedly "inadequate" levels, sun exposure and risk of cancer. However, analysis of the literature shows that there is in fact no precise and consensual definition of normal ranges and that the notion of inadequacy was created artificially using assay techniques lacking in sensitivity and reproducibility. Photosynthesis of vitamin D can in fact be considered perfectly adequate in the majority of populations. However, greater care is needed with elderly subjects and with subjects exposed very little to sunlight. Current studies show that the means of photoprotection used in everyday life do not adversely affect such photosynthesis. In the event of documented vitamin D deficiency, oral supplements should be given, and exposure to natural or artificial UV radiation should not be prescribed. Ultraviolet radiation has been shown to be carcinogenic and responsible for the onset of most skin cancers, and the population must be warned against misleading advertising from the tanning industry. Care should also be taken with regard to the potential harmful effects of inappropriate vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. An Inexpensive High-Temporal Resolution Electronic Sun Journal for Monitoring Personal Day to Day Sun Exposure Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Downs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to natural sunlight, specifically solar ultraviolet (UV radiation contributes to lifetime risks of skin cancer, eye disease, and diseases associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Improved knowledge of personal sun exposure patterns can inform public health policy; and help target high-risk population groups. Subsequently, an extensive number of studies have been conducted to measure personal solar UV exposure in a variety of settings. Many of these studies, however, use digital or paper-based journals (self-reported volunteer recall, or employ cost prohibitive electronic UV dosimeters (that limit the size of sample populations, to estimate periods of exposure. A cost effective personal electronic sun journal (ESJ built from readily available infrared photodiodes is presented in this research. The ESJ can be used to complement traditional UV dosimeters that measure total biologically effective exposure by providing a time-stamped sun exposure record. The ESJ can be easily attached to clothing and data logged to personal devices (including fitness monitors or smartphones. The ESJ improves upon self-reported exposure recording and is a cost effective high-temporal resolution option for monitoring personal sun exposure behavior in large population studies.

  13. NURSING STUDENTSPERCEPTIONS ABOUTRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUN EXPOSURE AND SKIN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Azevedo Morégula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the behavioral profile and the level of knowledge that nursing students have about sun exposure and protective measures that prevent skin cancer and damage due to R-UV. A descriptive quantitative study was conducted from the answers of a questionnaire applied to 72 students, undergraduate nursing course of the State University of Santa Cruz. The issues considered include the perception of students about a tanned body, the use of sunscreen and use of other protective measures and knowledge about UVIndex. Most reported using sunscreen (94.3% with SPF higher than 15 (87.5%, however, do not use correctly these protectors. As for other protective measures, the most adopted by these students was sunglasses (43.1%. Regarding the perception of the appearance of a tanned body, 55.6% considered it beautiful and 26.4% considered it beautiful and healthy, about the know l edge about UV Index, 51.4% declared to know the meaning, however, there is no information about the level of know l edge. Therefore, this study reveals that the level of knowledge and the adoption of protective measures against skin cancer and other the harmful effects of the sun are still low. It shows the necessity to include this issue in courses of undergraduate nursing programs.

  14. One week's holiday sun exposure induces expression of photoaging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Rogowski-Tylman, Michal; Danilewicz, Marian; Wozniacka, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is accompanied by the upregulation of the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It was shown that exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may induce skin expression of MMPs and dysregulation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/Smad pathway. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of short holiday UVR exposure and lifetime UVR exposure, on the expression of MMP-8, TGF-β1, and Smad2 in human skin biopsies. Skin biopsies were taken from the outer upper arm of 15 elderly people with significant photoaging (mean age 64.1 years) (Group 1) and from 15 healthy young adult volunteers (mean age 24.1 y) who participated in a six-day sun holiday. Biopsies were taken twice: 24 hours before leaving for holiday (Group 2a) and 24 hours after returning (Group 2b). The expression of TGF-β1, Smad2, and MMP-8 was examined by immunochemistry and measured semiquantitatively by two independent pathologists. The mean expression of TGF-β1 in dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in Group 1 and Group 2b was significantly lower than in Group 2a (0.54% ± 0.44% and 0.48% ± 0.51% vs. 1.48% ± 0.72%, respectively). The percentage of Smad2 (+) cells in Group 1 and Group 2b was lower than in Group 2a (2.13% ± 1.39% and 1.81% ± 1.16% vs. 4.13% ± 1.58%, respectively). The MMP-8 expression in Group 2b was 1.36% ± 0.68% and was significantly higher than in Group 1 (0.34% ± 0.42%) and Group 2a in which the protein was not detected (p < 0.001). We conclude that the decrease in the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad2 is a persistent biomarker of skin photoaging, while the increased expression of MMP-8 in keratinocytes can be regarded as a marker of acute sun exposure.

  15. Association of Vitamin D with Diet Quality, Sun Exposure, Physical Activity, Sociodemographic and Anthropometrics Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sharifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has been linked to health conditions and many serious diseases including cardiovascular, diabetes, and cancer. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between vitamin D with diet quality, sun exposure, physical activity, sociodemographic, and anthropometrics indices. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 180 subjects (90 males and 90 females aged from 14 to 57 years were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and anthropometric data, physical activity and food intake information. The correlation between serum vitamin D with these variables was analyzed. Results: Significant difference was noted between two genders regarding age, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, job, income, physical activity, LDL, HDL, TG, and cholesterol. Low quality diets denoted to a mean global score of 47±6.3 and 46±6.4 in male and females, respectively. No significant difference was found between diet quality, calcium intake (1310±734 mg, and vitamin D intake (1.8±1.5 mg with serum vitamin D level. Further analysis revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between cholesterol and saturated fat intake and serum vitamin D. Between two genders, the correlation between physical activity (p<0.005, sitting time(p<0.04, and income (p<0.04 with serum vitamin D level was significant. Conclusion: Based on significant correlation between serum vitamin D level, with cholesterol, saturated fat intake, physical activity and income, we can conclude that physical activity has correlation with a favorable vitamin D status.

  16. Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sheleigh; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Gallois, Cindy; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between sun protection and physical activity in young adults (18-30 years) involved in four organised sports. Participants (n=237) in field hockey, soccer, tennis and surf sports completed a self-administered survey on demographic and sun-protective behaviours while playing sport. Differences in sun-protective behaviour were explored by sport and by gender. Sunburn during the previous sporting season was high (69%). There were differences between sports for sunburn, sunscreen use and reapplication of sunscreen. Lifesaving had the highest rates compared with the other three sports. Hats and sunglasses worn by participants varied significantly by sports. A greater proportion of soccer and hockey players indicated they were not allowed to wear a hat or sunglasses during competition. For all sports, competition was played mainly in the open with no shade provision for competitors while they were playing. There were some gender differences within each of the sports. Female soccer and tennis players were more likely to wear sunscreen compared with males. Female hockey players were more likely to wear a hat compared with males. Our findings highlight that there is still room for improvement in sun-protective behaviours among young adult sport competitors. There is a need for a systematic approach to sun protection in the sporting environments of young adults. Health promotion efforts to increase physical activity need to be paired with sun protection messages.

  17. Influence of age, gender, educational level and self-estimation of skin type on sun exposure habits and readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2013-04-01

    Sun exposure habits and the propensity to undertake sun protection differ between individuals. Not least in primary prevention of skin cancer, aiming at reducing ultraviolet (UV) exposure, knowledge about these factors may be of importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a primary health care (PHC) population, the relationship between sun exposure habits/sun protection behaviour/readiness to increase sun protection and gender, age, educational level and skin UV-sensitivity. The baseline data from a previously performed RCT on skin cancer prevention was used. 415 patients, aged > 18 years, visiting a PHC centre in southern Sweden, filled-out a questionnaire mapping sun exposure, readiness to increase sun protection according to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), and the above mentioned factors. Female gender was associated with more frequent suntanning (p protection. Subjects with low educational level reported less frequent sunscreen use than those with higher educational level, and also chose lower SPF (p skin UV-sensitivity was associated with markedly lower sun exposure (p protection. Females and subjects with high educational level reported higher readiness to increase sunscreen use than males and subjects with lower educational level (p skin type appear to be important factors affecting sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour, which supports the idea of appropriate mapping of these factors in patients in order to individualise sun protection advice according to the individual patient situation and capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling the seasonal variation of vitamin D due to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, B L

    2010-06-01

    The current interest in vitamin D as a preventive agent in many chronic diseases has led to a reappraisal of adequate sun exposure. Yet just what constitutes adequacy remains to be clearly defined and validated. To do this requires an understanding of how behaviour outdoors during the year translates into seasonal changes in vitamin D status. To develop a model for estimating the changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels as a consequence of sun exposure throughout the year. A novel mathematical model is described that incorporates the changes in serum 25(OH)D following a single, whole-body exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation with daily sun exposure in order to estimate the annual variation in serum 25(OH)D. The model yields results that agree closely with measured data from a large population-based study. Application of the model showed that current advice about 10-20 min of daily sun exposure during the summer months does little in the way of boosting overall 25(OH)D levels, while sufficient sun exposure that could achieve a worthwhile benefit would compromise skin health. There is little in the way of public health advice concerning the benefits of sun exposure that can be given as an effective means of maintaining adequate vitamin D levels throughout the year. Instead it would seem safer and more effective to fortify more foods with vitamin D and/or to consider the use of supplements during the winter months. Messages concerning sun exposure should remain focused on the detrimental effects of excessive sun exposure and should avoid giving specific advice on what might be 'optimal' sun exposure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  20. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  1. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...

  2. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Levy-Shraga

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls.Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6 y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8 y and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8 y, Male = 67. Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires.Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82 minutes/day vs. 81±65 minutes/day; p = 0.83, while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85 minutes/day vs. 124±87 minutes/day; p = 0.02. Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02 and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01, and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures.Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed.

  3. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  4. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  5. Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Bright, Margaret; Knight, Libby; Perina, Heather; Vardon, Paul; Harper, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of self-reported participation in physical activity are encouraging and beneficial for health overall. However, the implications for sun safety need to be considered, particularly in Australia, which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and sunburn to determine if there is a need for integration of sun safety in physical activity promotion. During the 2009/10 southern hemisphere summer, 7802 adults aged 18 to 74 years participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview survey which included a range of self-reported health measures including physical activity, sunburn, skin type, sun protection behaviour and demographic questions. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between physical activity and sunburn. Those who reported doing any level of physical activity were significantly more likely to report having experienced sunburn in the past 12 months and on the last weekend, compared with those who did none, with the strongest association among those who undertook 7 hours or more. Each hour of physical activity was associated with a modest increase in the odds of experiencing sunburn in the previous 12 months (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.010-1.037) and weekend (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.023-1.065), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This study highlights the need for sun protection to be given more prominence in physical activity promotion in order to optimise health benefits without increasing the prevalence of sunburn and associated skin cancer risk.

  6. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  7. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  8. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  9. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  10. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  11. Sun Exposure, Shade and Vitamin D: A Practical Activity for the Australian Climate and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest rates of incidence and mortality due to skin cancer in the world. Exposure to the sun also has a beneficial side. The beneficial effects are relatively few, but they are essential to a person's well being. It is well known that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation are beneficial for the human body and…

  12. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Guo, Yuming

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18–83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: ► This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. ► This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. ► This study suggests that future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to youth group for skin cancer

  13. Summer weekend sun exposure and sunburn among a New Zealand urban population, 1994-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Geri F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob

    2013-08-30

    To describe summer weekend sun exposure and sunburn experience, 1994-2006, among urban New Zealanders (15-69 years) by sex, age group, skin type and outdoor activity type. A series of five telephone surveys undertaken in the summers of 1994, 1997, 1999-2000, 2002-3 and 2005-6 provided a sample of 6,195 respondents with usable data from five major cities (Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin). Respondents were administered a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) questionnaire which sought sociodemographic information, sun exposure, and sunburn experience during the most recent weekend. Overall, 69% of the sample had spent at least 15 minutes outdoors between 11am and 4pm. Weekend sunburn was reported by 21%, and was more common among males, young adults and those with highly sun-sensitive skin than females, older adults and those with less sensitive skin. The head/face/neck was the body area most frequently and severely sunburned. Sunburn was associated with greater time spent outdoors and occurred most frequently during water-based (29%) and passive recreational activities (25%) and paid work (23%). Sun protection strategies could usefully be targeted not only towards at-risk population groups, but also towards those activities and contexts most strongly associated with potentially harmful sun exposure.

  14. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooghe, M B; Haentjens, P; Nagels, G; Garmyn, M; De Keyser, J

    2012-04-01

    Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society, Belgium, and stratified data according to relapsing-onset and progressive-onset MS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 as outcome measure. Hazard ratios for the time from onset and from birth were calculated for the potentially predictive variables, adjusting for age at onset, gender and immunomodulatory treatment. 704 (51.3%) of the 1372 respondents had reached EDSS 6. In relapsing-onset MS, respondents reporting equal or higher levels of sun exposure than persons of the same age in the last 10 years had a decreased risk of reaching EDSS 6. In progressive-onset MS, increased sun sensitivity was associated with an increased hazard of reaching EDSS 6. The association of higher sun exposure with a better outcome in relapsing-onset MS may be explained by either a protective effect or reverse causality. Mechanisms underlying sun sensitivity might influence progression in progressive-onset MS.

  15. Sun exposure over the life course and associations with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlett, Helen; Zhu, Feng; Ascherio, Alberto; Munger, Kassandra L

    2018-04-03

    To examine sun exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) over the life course (ages 5-15 and 16-20 years, every 10 years thereafter). Cases with MS (n = 151) and age-matched controls (n = 235) from the Nurses' Health Study cohorts completed summer, winter, and lifetime sun exposure history questionnaires. Cumulative ambient ultraviolet (UV)-B (based on latitude, altitude, cloud cover) exposure before MS onset was expressed as tertiles. Seasonal sun exposure was defined as low vs high hours per week (summer [≤9 vs >10 h/wk]; winter [≤3 vs >4 h/wk]). Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated via conditional logistic regression with adjustment for body mass index, ancestry, smoking, and vitamin D supplementation. Most participants were white (98%); the mean age at MS onset was 39.5 years. Living in high (vs low) UV-B areas before MS onset was associated with a 45% lower MS risk (adjusted RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.73). Similar reduced risks (51%-52%) for medium or high exposure were observed at ages 5 to 15 years and at 5 to 15 years before MS onset (adjusted p sun exposure were associated with a lower MS risk (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.96). Living in high ambient UV-B areas during childhood and the years leading up to MS onset was associated with a lower MS risk. High summer sun exposure in high ambient UV-B areas was also associated with a reduced risk. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywanski, Jaroslaw; Mikulski, Tomasz; Krysztofiak, Hubert; Mlynczak, Marcel; Gaczynska, Ewa; Ziemba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure) and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OH)D Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral supplementation. Athletes should therefore routinely assess their

  17. Melanocytic Nevi Prevalence and the Relationship with Sun Exposure Among School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Şendur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Melanocytic nevi (MN count is known as the strongest risk factor for melanoma development. So it is important to know the MN count in public. We aimed to determine the MN prevalence in schoolchildren and also clarify the possible relation between MN counts, constitutional variables and sun exposure. Material and Method: In this randomized, cross-sectional study, a questionnaire asking skin phenotypes and sun exposure in previous summer was prepared for primary-school children. Nine hundred and sixty questionnaires distributed to the parents. Children who were given permission by parents for examination were examined for whole body MN. Results: Questionnaires were answered by parents of 939 children and 622 children (316 boys and 306 girls were examined. Mean age of children was 8.8±1.5 (6-12. Mean MN count was 19.6±16.6 and this count was increasing with age (p<0.001. MN count was significantly related with sex, skin phototype and skin colour. More MN were found in boys (p<0.001, children with sun sensitive phototypes (p=0.03 and light skin colour (p<0.001. Time spent outside on midday in previous summer was not related with the MN count (p=0.35. Sunburns experienced in previous summer were not related with MN count (p=0.11. MN were most densely located on the face, and then on upper extremity, trunk and lower extremity in decreasing order. There were more MN on the more sun exposed sites of the arms, hands and feet. Conclusion: It was found that previous summer sun exposure had no effect on MN count in schoolchildren. However, relation between MN count and skin phenotype and distribution of the MN on the body suggest that sun exposure could affect MN count and this effect could be seen in a long period of time.

  18. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Haentjens, P.; Nagels, G.; Garmyn, M.; De Keyser, J.

    Background: Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. Methods: We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS

  19. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  20. Schoolyard Shade and Sun Exposure: Assessment of Personal Monitoring During Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; McKercher, Grant R; Naughton, Kylie; Lochbaum, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally weighted UVR (UV E ry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, this study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UV E ry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX, in spring 2016. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of artificial shade on personal UV E ry exposures and to assess full sun exposure ratios (ERs) within the same playground microenvironment. On average, personal wrist dosimeters worn during play in the sun measured 18% of the total onsite UV E ry measured by a stationary UV pyranometer. Shade was found to significantly reduce the personal UV E ry exposures by 55%, UVB 280-315 nm exposures by 91%, and the overall solar radiation by 84%. Substantial benefits can be garnered through focused design of children's recreational space to utilize shade-both natural and artificial-to reduce UVR exposures during play, and to extend safe outdoor stays. Finally, although the wrist is a practical location for a dosimeter, it often underestimates full exposures, particularly during physical activity. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  2. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137 responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31 participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  3. Sun-exposure knowledge and protection behavior in a North Chinese population: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowei; Lian, Shi; Hao, Yongjing; Kang, Nan; Li, Shujuan; Nie, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan

    2010-08-01

    Sun exposure can cause a range of skin disorders. Skin damage can be prevented by following certain sun-protection measures. However, the majority of reported studies regarding sun-exposure knowledge and behavior have involved Caucasian populations. A self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions aimed at evaluating people's knowledge, awareness, and protection behavior regarding sun exposure, and their knowledge of sunscreens and sunscreen use. A total of 623 volunteers were enrolled, including 238 men (38.2%) and 385 women (61.8%). The percentages of correct answers regarding sun-exposure knowledge and awareness ranged from 50% to 80%. Overall, 58.8% used sunscreen as a sun-protection measure in daily life, followed by use of protective clothes (49.3%), sun umbrella (45.4%), sunglasses (45.3%), and hat (42.2%). Fifty-two percent thought that suntan was harmful or not attractive. The mean sun-protection factor (SPF) of the sunscreens used was 27.7 +/- 9.2 and the mean UVA protection grade (PA) was 2.3 +/- 0.6. Knowledge and awareness concerning the harmful effects of sun exposure are widespread among the Chinese population. Sunscreens with high SPF and PA are the most commonly used among Chinese people. Clear sex differences were observed. There is a significant difference in the attitude toward suntan between Chinese and Caucasian populations.

  4. Trends in sun exposure knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: 1986 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J K; Rigel, D S; Amonette, R A

    1997-08-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology's national program Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention, developed in response to the rising incidence of invasive melanoma in the United States, has annually during the past decade produced extensive print, radio, and television coverage about the dangers of sun exposure and benefits of sun protection. We measured the progress achieved in increasing the awareness and knowledge of skin cancer and changing the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that affect skin cancer risk. We also describe current sun-related behavior including sunburning, assess the likelihood of practicing sun protection strategies, and provide a baseline against which future changes in sun protection behavior may be evaluated. A 1996 telephone survey repeated questions used in 1986 to evaluate change and used classifying questions to better define attitudes and behaviors. From 1986 to 1996, the knowledge of the perceived harmful effects of the sun significantly broadened, but the UV exposure behavior as measured by sunburning (30% to 39%) and regular use of a tanning booth (2% to 6%) also increased. There was a decline in the attitude that having a tan was healthy; however, in 1996 having a tan was still considered to enhance appearance, particularly by men. Sunscreen use increased (35% to 53%). Women, younger persons, persons residing in areas with fewer sunny days, and whites were more likely to tan intentionally, but men who lived in the South were more likely to sunburn. During the past decade, the early process of change involving cognitive and emotional activities began. With this study, high-risk population subsets performing specific adverse behavior were identified. In the future, they can be targeted with messages that promote attitudinal and behavioral change.

  5. Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperature. They can also cause eye problems, wrinkles, skin spots, and skin cancer. To protect yourself Stay out of the ... protection Avoid sunlamps and tanning beds Check your skin ... feel of birthmarks, moles, and spots. Such changes are a sign of skin cancer. ...

  6. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  7. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlin, Michael G., E-mail: m.kimlin@qut.edu.au; Guo, Yuming, E-mail: guoyuming@yahoo.cn

    2012-05-15

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggests that future

  8. Occupation and factors associated with exposure to the sun among beach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects were selected from five urban beaches to characterize the type of work conducted on urban beaches in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and determine potential associated factors among workers exposed to the sun. Data collection was based on a validated questionnaire. Results were obtained for 362 workers. Individuals were predominantly male (72.6% who worked under direct exposure to the sun (87.8%. Almost 95% had no more than 6 years of schooling and 87.91% earned an average monthly income of $318.75 dollars or more. Photoprotection was reported by 80.1%, among which sunscreen and caps/hats were predominant. Around 25% smoked and more than half did not consume alcohol. Male gender, no more than 6 years of schooling, daily exposure for up to 6 hours and use of photoprotection were the factors associated with the outdoor work category.

  9. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers...

  10. Seasonal Vitamin D Status in Polish Elite Athletes in Relation to Sun Exposure and Oral Supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Krzywanski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D does not only influence the musculoskeletal health and mineral homeostasis but it also affects cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, immune and mental functions, thus it is of considerable importance for both physically active people and elite athletes. However, vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide and results from inadequate endogenous skin synthesis (insufficient ultraviolet B exposure and diet. To improve the vitamin D status elite athletes often travel to lower latitude during winter. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seasonal vitamin D status in Polish elite athletes according to the sun exposure and oral supplementation. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD was measured in the years 2010-2014 in 409 elite athletes, who were divided into the following groups: OUTD-outdoor sports, represented by track and field athletes, who trained in Poland; IND-weightlifters, handball and volleyball players who trained indoors in Poland; SUN-track and field athletes who trained during Polish winter in lower latitude with high sunshine exposure; SUPL-track and field athletes who trained in Poland, had an inadequate vitamin D status (25(OHD < 30 ng/ml and were supplemented orally. Inadequate Vitamin D status was observed in 80% of OUTD and 84% of IND athletes in winter, whereas in summer the values amounted to 42% and 83%, respectively. The athletes exposed to sun in winter had significantly higher vitamin D concentration than OUTD group. Oral supplementation improved vitamin D concentration by 45%, whereas winter sun exposure caused its increase by 85%. Except for a few summer months an inadequate status of vitamin D was found in the majority of Polish elite athletes, with the deficiency level being similar to the one observed in non-athletic population. The most serious deficiency was observed in indoor disciplines. Adequate vitamin D status can be achieved by both increased sun exposure, especially in winter, and oral

  11. Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of secondary school adolescents regarding protection from sun exposure: a survey in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2012-08-01

    Sun protection behavior is a proven intervention for aging skin and skin cancer prevention, especially if training on prolonged sun exposure can be performed early in life. Despite the fact that there are several study reports from multicenters in the West, there are limited data on sun protection in tropical countries where the prevalence of sunburn as well as sun protection behavior and knowledge are low. In Bangkok, sun protection behavior among adolescents is different from the studies performed in the West. Schools are key institutions in encouraging students to prevent themselves from acquiring problems of long-time sun exposure. To assess the amount of time exposed to the sun, sun protection behavior, attitudes, and knowledge about sun exposure protection among secondary school adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional survey. All students from seven secondary schools in Bangkok (public/private, male/female/coed) were recruited in to the study. A total of 10,387 students were enrolled in to the study; 6176 (59.5%) and 4211 (40.5%) students were from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12, respectively. Male students significantly lacked proper sun-protecting behaviors when compared to the female students in the use of sunscreen (9.4% vs. 28.0%, P protecting behaviors among junior high school students were deficient when compared to high school students in the use of sunscreen (57.1% vs. 60.6%, P protection behavior among adolescents in Bangkok was poor compared to Western countries. The attitudes and general knowledge about sun protection were significantly different among male and female students from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12. The limitation of the study is the use of self-reported questionnaires in assessing sun exposure and protection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Conjunctival Ultraviolet Autofluorescence as a Measure of Past Sun Exposure in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Pezic, Angela; Mackey, David A; Carlin, John B; Kemp, Andrew; Ellis, Justine A; Cameron, Fergus J; Rodda, Christine P; Dwyer, Terence; Coroneo, Minas T; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2017-07-01

    Background: Conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) area detected from UVAF photographs is a recently developed potential marker for past sun exposure, but its relationship with sun-related factors has not been fully investigated. Methods: The study included 339 healthy children ages 5 to 15 years in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected by questionnaire and examination at school. CUVAF area was measured using a computer program and analyzed as a continuous and dichotomous outcome (any/none). Results: Fifty-three children (15.6%) had detectable CUVAF, and the youngest age at which a child showed sun damage was 8 years. Compared with silicone skin cast score, there was good inter-grader agreement on CUVAF grading, with Cohen kappa 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.00] for total CUVAF area using both eye photographs. Perfect intra-grader agreement was achieved. Fairer pigmentation, including medium/fair skin color [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.42; 95% CI, 1.02-11.48 vs. dark/olive] and blue/gray eye color (AOR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.73-9.55 vs. brown) was associated with increased odds of CUVAF. Increasing lifetime sunburn number (e.g., AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.14-7.35 and 4.29; 1.04-17.76 for sunburns 2 to 4 and ≥ 5 times, respectively, vs. no sunburns, trend P = 0.004) and freckling by the end of last summer were associated with increased odds of CUVAF. Conclusions: CUVAF area can be an a priori objective measure of past sun exposure in pediatric populations for future research. Impact: To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric study that evaluated associations of sun-related risk factors with CUVAF. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1146-53. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Protein Characterization of Javan Cobra (Naja sputatrix) Venom Following Sun Exposure and Photo-Oxidation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Biki, R. S.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    Snake venom has always been known for its toxicity that can cause fatality, however, it is also one of the important biological resources to be used for disease treatment. In Indonesia, snake venom previously expose under the sun has been used for alternative treatment of some diseases such as dengue fever, atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes. There has been very little scientific evidence on the use of snake venom of Indonesia origin as well as its protein characteristic. Thus, the objective of this research is to characterize the protein content and the specific activity of the venom of Javan Cobra (N.sputatrix) when treated with sun exposure in comparison with photo-oxidation by ultraviolet. Qualitative analysis of protein contents was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). The L-amino acid oxidase activity (LAAO) and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were determined using spectrophotometry. The venom’s protein was separated into 5 main protein bands with molecular weight ranging from 14 to 108 kDa. A time course study showed that the venom lost 91% of its LAAO activity and 96% of PLA2 activity after 6 hours of sun exposure. UV photo-oxidation carried out for 3 hours decreased 91% of LAAO activity, and almost diminished all of PLA2 activity (99.8%). These findings suggest that the exposure of N. sputatrix venom under the sun and UV photo-oxidation decreased its toxicity as shown by the significant reduction of the enzymes activity, but did not affect the protein’s integrity. Therefore, these approaches produced N.sputatrix venom with less toxicity but still withheld other characters of intact proteins.

  15. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya; Sima, Camelia S.; Orlow, Irene; Mujumdar, Urvi; Coble, Joseph; Roy, Pampa; Yoo, Sarah; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative relation between sunlight exposure and breast cancer risk. The hypothesized mechanism is sunlight-induced cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Objectives: Our goal was to examine sun exposure and its interaction with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined sun exposure and breast cancer incidence among 31,021 private pesticide applicators’ wives, including 578 cases, enrolled in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort and followed 8.6 years on average. We estimated interactions between sun exposure, VDR variants, and breast cancer in a nested case–control study comprising 293 cases and 586 matched controls. Information on sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire at cohort enrollment. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for the cohort data and conditional logistic regression for the nested case–control data. Results: We observed a small decrease in breast cancer risk in association with usual sun exposure of ≥ 1 hr/day (versus sun exposure may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, but we did not find clear evidence of modification by VDR variants. Larger studies are warranted, particularly among populations in whom low levels of usual sun exposure can be more precisely characterized. Citation: Engel LS, Satagopan J, Sima CS, Orlow I, Mujumdar U, Coble J, Roy P, Yoo S, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC. 2014. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor genetic variants, and risk of breast cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:165–171; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206274 PMID:24252436

  16. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Verberne, L.D.M.; Irala, De J.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-Majem, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population.

  17. Use of social networking sites and associations with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure, and sun protection in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Gleaves, David H; Corsini, Nadia; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that greater exposure to traditional media (i.e. television, film, and print) predicted skin cancer risk factors in adolescents; however, the relationship between social media usage and these outcomes remains unexplored. We examined whether social networking site (SNS) usage, and the particular manner of this use, was associated with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure and sun protection among Australian adolescents. We also explored sex differences in SNS usage related to tanning. A total of 1856 South Australian secondary school students completed the Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug 2014 survey. SNS usage related to tanning comprised posting pictures, posting text, viewing pictures, viewing text and liking or sharing posts. Adolescents spent 214.56 minutes, on average, per day using SNSs. Behaviours related to tanning that involved pictures (i.e. viewing pictures, posting pictures, and liking or sharing content) were significantly associated with more skin tone dissatisfaction, more sun exposure and less sun protection. Females performed all SNS-linked behaviours more frequently than did males, with the exception of posting text. Australian adolescents spend a considerable amount of time using SNSs, and their behaviours related to tanning on these SNSs are significantly associated with skin cancer risk factors.

  18. Updates for responsible sun exposure behavior and photoprotection in the south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H; Diaz, James H

    2013-01-01

    In Louisiana, the "Sportsman's Paradise," and throughout the Southern United States (US), outdoor pursuits are among the most popular physical activities, despite well-documented associations between excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and skin cancer. Although there have been recent advances in broad-spectru m sunscreens, photoprotective clothing, and photoprotective sunglasses, few peer-reviewed publications have focused specifically on recommendations for responsible sun behavior and photoprotection for residents of the South. In response, the objectives of this review will be (1) to describe the adverse health effects of excessive UV radiation exposures; (2) to review recent cohort studies of public perceptions regarding sun behavior and photoprotection; (3) to identify special populations at increased risks of UV-associated skin cancers; and (4) to recommend responsible sun behavior and photoprotection strategies. Internet search engines were queried with the key words as search terms to examine the latest references on photoprotection and the epidemiology of UV-associated skin cancers and other adverse effects of UV-radiation exposures. Observational studies have demonstrated that the public knows little about proper sunscreen selection and UV protection, and cohort studies have identified populations at increased risks of UV-associated skin cancers. Southerners should avoid intense sunlight, wear photoprotective clothing, wear sunglasses, and select the right sunscreen for their skin type. Physicians should counsel their patients about responsible sun behavior and photoprotection and encourage them to take advantage of recent advances in the development of more effective broad-spectrum sunscreens and photoprotective clothing and sunglasses for themselves and their children.

  19. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk. © 2013 UICC.

  20. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J

    2018-06-01

    An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.

  1. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  2. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  3. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  4. Association of Sun Exposure, Skin Colour and Body Mass Index with Vitamin D Status in Individuals Who Are Morbidly Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Clare F; Bauer, Judith D; Martin, Ian; Rochester, Sharon; Duarte Romero, Briony; Prins, Johannes B; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-10-04

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, particularly in obese populations, and is tested by assessing serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the vitamin D status in fifty morbidly obese individuals recruited prior to bariatric surgery. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D concentrations, dietary and supplement intake of vitamin D, sun exposure measures, skin colour via spectrophotometry, and genotype analysis of several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway. Results showed a significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and age, and serum 25(OH)D and ITAC score (natural skin colour). Natural skin colour accounted for 13.5% of variation in serum 25(OH)D, with every 10° increase in ITAC score (i.e., lighter skin) leading to a 9 nmol/L decrease in serum 25(OH)D. Multiple linear regression using age, ITAC score, and average UV index in the three months prior to testing, significantly predicted serum 25(OH)D concentrations ( R ² = 29.7%). Single nucleotide polymorphisms for all vitamin D genes tested, showed lower serum 25(OH)D for those with the rare genotype compared to the common genotype; this was most pronounced for fok1 and rs4588 , where those with the rare genotype were insufficient (vitamin D status in individuals with morbid obesity requires testing of 25(OH)D, but potential risk factors for this population include natural skin colour and age.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  6. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Køster

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high.The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior.Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer.The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low. Keywords: Questionnaire, Validation, Reliability, Skin cancer, Prevention, Ultraviolet radiation

  7. Changing the risky beliefs of post-partum women about therapeutic sun-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L; Devine, Susan G; Saunders, Vicki L; Smith, Annika D; Buettner, Petra G; Nowak, Madeleine J

    2013-09-01

    Many post-partum women hold risky beliefs about perceived therapeutic benefits of sun-exposure in the post-partum period and infancy. Can a maternity hospital based educational intervention reduce the prevalence of such beliefs among post-partum women? In this outcome evaluation of an interventional study, two groups of healthy post-partum women (hospital inpatients) were interviewed, 1-4 days following delivery. The first cross-section (106 women) was recruited prior to in-services for maternity staff; the second (203 women) was recruited after completion of the in-services. Data were compared between the groups. More pre-intervention than post-intervention women reported they would expose their baby to sunlight to treat suspected jaundice (28.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) or help his/her skin adapt to the sun (10.5% vs. 2.5%; p=0.003); or use sunlight to manage breastfeeding-associated sore/cracked nipples (7.6% vs. 2%; p=0.026). This simple, effective educational intervention could be implemented in programmes for parents, health professionals and students. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients attending dermatology clinics at four hospitals in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Gavelan, Elizabeth; Sáenz-Anduaga, Eliana; Ramos, Willy; Sánchez-Saldaña, Leonardo; Sialer, María del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    To establish the knowledge, about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in four hospitals in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 364 patients selected using a systematic random sampling process in the four participating hospitals. The selected patients were interviewed to determine their knowledge, behavior and practices in relation to sun exposure and photoprotection. The chi-square test was used to identify any significant differences between knowledge and practices. The mean age of the patients in this sample was 45.1 ± 21.4 years. Of the 364 patients, 55.9% were women and 54.8% had skin phototype IV. The principal risks related to sun exposure were skin cancer (80.5%) and sunburn (77.8%). Knowledge regarding sun protection was more evident in individuals with university/college education (pphotoprotection, 38.4% used these products daily, while 61.6% used them only occasionally. The use of photo-protectors differed significantly in accordance with the individual's education level (psolar protection. The level of awareness of the outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in these four hospitals in Lima, Peru about the risks of sun exposure is acceptable; however, a large proportion fail to incorporate regular solar protection as a practice in their daily life.

  9. Vitamin D status and attitudes towards sun exposure in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hurst, Pamela R; Stonehouse, Welma; Coad, Jane

    2010-04-01

    To determine the vitamin D status of women of South Asian origin living in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate their attitudes and behaviours with regard to sun exposure. Cross-sectional study. Auckland, New Zealand. Women of South Asian origin (n 235) aged 20 years and older were tested for serum 25(OH)D, and 228 were included in these analyses. Of these, 140 completed a questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours to sun exposure, and health motivation. Exclusion criteria included high dose (>1000 IU/d) supplementation with 25(OH)D3, or any supplementation with 1,25(OH)2D3. As serum vitamin D concentrations were not normally distributed, data are reported as median (25th, 75th percentile). Median serum 25(OH)D3 was 27.5 (18.0, 41.0) nmol/l. Adequate concentrations (>50 nmol/l) were observed in only 16 % of the subjects. Concern about skin cancer and the strength of the New Zealand sun were the most prevalent reasons given for sun avoidance, with 65 % saying they did avoid the sun. However, a seasonal variation was observed, with concentrations reducing significantly (P < 0.001) from summer through to early spring by 19.5 nmol/l. The results of the present study suggest that South Asian women are at high risk of hypovitaminosis D, due, in part, to deliberate sun avoidance and an indoor lifestyle, and that they are especially vulnerable in winter and spring.

  10. [The contribution of diet and sun exposure to the nutritional status of vitamin D in elderly Spanish women: the five countries study (OPTIFORD Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sangrador, M; Beltrán de Miguel, B; Quintanilla Murillas, L; Cuadrado Vives, C; Moreiras Tuny, O

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency represents an important public health problem, especially among elderly people, by increasing the morbimortality. Because of the importance of this, in the year 2001 the "Five Countries Study" was put in place, within the European OPTIFORD project (Towards a strategy for optimal vitamin D fortification). This cross-sectional and observational study aims at knowing the vitamin D status in adolescent and elder women from five European countries, including Spain, according to different dietary and behavioral habits. This work analyzes the relative contribution of sun exposure and diet to the vitamin D status in 53 Caucasian Spanish elder women (72 +/- 1.6 years), with an autonomous life, participating at the Five Countries Study. The information was gathered in summer and winter time, by using homologated and validated questionnaires: health status and life style questionnaire; assessment of sun exposure by a standardized test and using a Viospor UV dosimeter (only in summer time); biochemical analysis of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone; and questionnaire of frequency of selective intake. We observed a direct relationship between sun exposure measured with the dosimeter (741 +/- 624 J/m2) and the number of hours outdoors during the measuring week (3.4 +/- 1.9 hours/day) (p 50 nmol/L (p = 0.01). There is also a direct association between the number of hours outdoors and S-25-OHD (p = 0.09), with differences between the participants in the S-25-OHD 50 nmol/L group. In more than 95% of the sample, mean dietary intakes of vitamin D (5.17 +/- 4.84 microg/day in summer time and 4.70+/- 4.72 microg/day in winter time), the main source of which being fish, did not cover the Recommended Allowances. We did not observe a relationship between the dietary intake and blood levels of vitamin D. By contrast, those participants taking vitamin D supplements presented higher S-25-OHD levels (summer = 69.64 nmol/L and winter = 55 nmol/L) than

  11. Influence of maternal and own genotype at tanning dependence-related SNPs on sun exposure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouja, Jasmine; Lewis, Sarah J; Bonilla, Carolina

    2018-04-12

    Research suggests there may be a genetic influence on the likelihood of becoming tanning dependent (TD). The way in which mothers regulate their children's sun exposure may be affected by being TD. We investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to being TD and early sun exposure. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used. Associations between 17 TD related SNPs in children and their mothers and 10 sun exposure variables in children (assessed via questionnaire at age 8) were analyzed in logistic and ordinal logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for principal components of population structure and age (at time of questionnaire response). Models with additional adjustment for maternal or offspring genotypes were also tested. Secondary analyses included adjustment for sex and skin pigmentation. Among ALSPAC children, the rs29132 SNP in the Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein A (VAPA) gene was associated with five sun exposure variables whilst the rs650662 SNP in the Opioid Receptor Mu 1 (OPRM1) gene was associated with three. The remaining SNPs did not show associations beyond what was expected by chance. After Bonferroni correction one SNP in the children was associated with an increased likelihood of using sun cream whilst in the sun at 8 years old (rs60050811 in the Spermatogenesis and Centriole Associated 1 (SPATC1) gene, OR per C allele = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.62, p = .003). In the mothers, rs650662 in OPRM1 was associated with the use of a lower factor of sun cream in their children, (OR per A allele = 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96, p = .002). Whilst rs2073478 in the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member B1 (ALDH1B1) gene was associated with a reduced odds of their child using a sun block or cream with a 4 star rating (OR per T allele = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.88, p = .003). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the main findings in

  12. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

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    Ohn, Jung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, In Ho [Department of Dermatology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Eun-Gyoung, E-mail: hegletter@hallym.or.kr [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  13. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men

  14. Association of Sun Exposure, Skin Colour and Body Mass Index with Vitamin D Status in Individuals Who Are Morbidly Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare F. Dix

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, particularly in obese populations, and is tested by assessing serum 25(OHD concentrations. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the vitamin D status in fifty morbidly obese individuals recruited prior to bariatric surgery. Data collected included serum 25(OHD concentrations, dietary and supplement intake of vitamin D, sun exposure measures, skin colour via spectrophotometry, and genotype analysis of several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway. Results showed a significant correlation between serum 25(OHD concentrations and age, and serum 25(OHD and ITAC score (natural skin colour. Natural skin colour accounted for 13.5% of variation in serum 25(OHD, with every 10° increase in ITAC score (i.e., lighter skin leading to a 9 nmol/L decrease in serum 25(OHD. Multiple linear regression using age, ITAC score, and average UV index in the three months prior to testing, significantly predicted serum 25(OHD concentrations (R2 = 29.7%. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for all vitamin D genes tested, showed lower serum 25(OHD for those with the rare genotype compared to the common genotype; this was most pronounced for fok1 and rs4588, where those with the rare genotype were insufficient (<50 nmol/L, and those with the common genotype were sufficient (≥50 nmol/L. Assessing vitamin D status in individuals with morbid obesity requires testing of 25(OHD, but potential risk factors for this population include natural skin colour and age.

  15. Inconstant sun: how solar evolution has affected cosmic and ultraviolet radiation exposure over the history of life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, P Andrew

    2003-03-01

    Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.

  16. Melanocytic Nevi and Sun Exposure in a Cohort of Colorado Children: Anatomic Distribution and Site-Specific Sunburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Athena T.; Morelli, Joseph; Mokrohisky, Stefan T.; Asdigian, Nancy; Byers, Tim E.; Crane, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Sun exposure and high prevalence of melanocytic nevi are major risk factors for melanoma, but the relationship between them is not well understood. This study examines the relationship between sun exposure (detailed by anatomic location and history of site-specific sunburns) and the presence of melanocytic nevi on 743 White children in Denver, Colorado. Parental reports of site-specific sunburns were collected annually for 2 years starting at ages 5 to 6 years. In the third year, nevi were counted and mapped by anatomic location. Nevus density was higher for boys (36.0 nevi/m2) than for girls (31.0 nevi/m2; P = 0.04). Nevus density was highest on the face, neck, and lateral forearms and was significantly higher in chronically versus intermittently sun-exposed areas (P sunburn. The face, shoulders, and back were the most frequently sunburned areas of the body. When adjusted for host factors, total number of sunburns was significantly associated with higher total nevus prevalence (P = 0.01 for one burn). Site-specific sunburns were significantly associated with nevus prevalence on the back (P = 0.03 for three or more sunburns), but not on the face, arms, or legs. In this high-risk population, there is evidence for two pathways to nevus accumulation: by chronic sun exposure and by intermittent exposure related to sunburns. PMID:17932362

  17. SUN EXPOSURE AND PHOTOPROTECTION HABITS EVALUATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT ENIO PIPINO PUBLIC SCHOOL IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Bernardes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the sun exposure and photoprotection habits of high school students at Enio Pipino Public School in Sinop-MT. 140 surveys were answered by high school students from the urban area of Sinop-MT. From all the interviewed students, 42,14% were male, and 57,85% female, 63 students declared themselves brown, 53 white, and 42 black. Most of the students declared that they are exposed to sun for at least two hours weekly, and 60% of them between 10am and 3pm. Only 26,42% of the students wear sunscreen during the day, and from those, 8,57% re-apply the product, 52,85% of the students declared no knowledge about SPF. Most of the students do not use physical methods of protection although they assume to be aware about the damages caused by solar radiation expodure, and 13 of them declared to have skin cancer incidence in their families. Analyzing the results, it was possible to identify the studied population vulnerability about the risks of sun radiation exposure and it was also seen that there are very less attitudes for the self health care. It is remarkable yet the need of sun exposure habits changes, according to the time, frequency, and timing of exposure

  18. Sun Exposure, Tanning Beds, and Herbs That Cure: An Examination of Skin Cancer on Pinterest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Park, Sung-Eun

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer affecting the U.S. Pinterest.com, a virtual bookmarking social media site, has the potential to disseminate skin cancer-related information among young women, the group with the fastest increase in skin cancer diagnosis. This article presents a quantitative content analysis of pins about skin cancer on Pinterest guided by agenda-setting theory and the health belief model. Overall, sun exposure and tanning beds were most frequently discussed as the causes of skin cancer, and alternative therapies such as herbal medicine were discussed more than traditional biomedical treatment or prevention. Highly repinned pins tend to include more information than regular pins. Different types of skin cancer (melanoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, and basal-cell carcinoma) received the same amount of coverage; however, pins about nonmelanoma skin cancer (such as squamous-cell carcinoma and basal-cell carcinoma) were often information-poor. They were less likely to include information on the causes, prevention, and the biomedical treatment of skin cancer and were less likely to include health belief constructs associated with the promotion of skin cancer prevention and treatment.

  19. Sun exposure causes somatic second-hit mutations and angiofibroma development in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, Magdalena E.; Wang, Ji-an; Li, Shaowei; Thangapazham, Rajesh; Chekaluk, Yvonne; Moss, Joel; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Darling, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by the formation of tumors in multiple organs and is caused by germline mutation in one of two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 and TSC2. As for other tumor suppressor gene syndromes, the mechanism of somatic second-hit events in TSC tumors is unknown. We grew fibroblast-like cells from 29 TSC skin tumors from 22 TSC subjects and identified germline and second-hit mutations in TSC1/TSC2 using next-generation sequencing. Eighteen of 22 (82%) subjects had a mutation identified, and 8 of the 18 (44%) subjects were mosaic with mutant allele frequencies of 0 to 19% in normal tissue DNA. Multiple tumors were available from four patients, and in each case, second-hit mutations in TSC2 were distinct indicating they arose independently. Most remarkably, 7 (50%) of the 14 somatic point mutations were CC>TT ultraviolet ‘signature’ mutations, never seen as a TSC germline mutation. These occurred exclusively in facial angiofibroma tumors from sun-exposed sites. These results implicate UV-induced DNA damage as a cause of second-hit mutations and development of TSC facial angiofibromas and suggest that measures to limit UV exposure in TSC children and adults should reduce the frequency and severity of these lesions. PMID:24271014

  20. Melanoma markers in marathon runners: increase with sun exposure and physical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtig, Erika; Ambros-Rudolph, Christina M; Trapp, Michael; Lackner, Helmut K; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Kerl, Helmut; Schwaberger, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    Marathon runners seem to have an increased melanoma risk. To identify potential melanoma markers. 150 marathon runners volunteered to take part in the skin cancer screening campaign. After the runners completed a questionnaire about melanoma risk factors, types of sportswear and training programs, they received a total skin examination. The number of lentigines and nevi on the left shoulder and the left buttock were counted in each participant using templates in standardized positions. The potential association of training sportswear and training parameters with the number of lentigines and nevi on the left shoulder was evaluated. The mean number of lentigines on the left shoulder was 19.6 +/- 18.2 (SD), whereas no lentigines were found on the left buttock (p = 0.000). The number of nevi also differed significantly between the 2 localizations with higher numbers on the left shoulder (p = 0.000). While lifetime sunburn history and type of sportswear correlated with the number of lentigines, training parameters had an impact on the number of nevi. Independent of their mean weekly running time, runners with higher heart rates while training, higher training velocities and higher physical strain indexes showed more nevi on the shoulder than the other runners (p = 0.029, 0.046, 0.038, respectively). Sun exposure and high physical strain lead to an increase in melanoma markers such as lentigines and nevi in marathon runners. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Pigmentation Traits, Sun Exposure, and Risk of Incident Vitiligo in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Rachel; Wu, Shaowei; Wilmer, Erin; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Lajevardi, Newsha; Qureshi, Abrar

    2017-06-01

    Vitiligo is the most common cutaneous depigmentation disorder worldwide, yet little is known about specific risk factors for disease development. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 51,337 white women, we examined the associations between (i) pigmentary traits and (ii) reactions to sun exposure and risk of incident vitiligo. Nurses' Health Study participants responded to a question about clinician-diagnosed vitiligo and year of diagnosis (2001 or before, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2011, or 2012+). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident vitiligo associated with exposures variables, adjusting for potential confounders. We documented 271 cases of incident vitiligo over 835,594 person-years. Vitiligo risk was higher in women who had at least one mole larger than 3 mm in diameter on their left arms (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.83). Additionally, vitiligo risk was higher among women with better tanning ability (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.54) and in women who experienced at least one blistering sunburn (hazard ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-4.10). In this study, upper extremity moles, a higher ability to achieve a tan, and history of a blistering sunburn were associated with a higher risk of developing vitiligo in a population of white women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollution and Sun Exposure: a Deleterious Synergy. Mechanisms and Opportunities for Skin Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrot, Laurent

    2017-09-18

    Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure. Skin may thus be impacted by external influences through oxidation of some of its surface components. Moreover, internal contamination is highly probable since some pollutants present in plasma could be delivered by the circulation of the blood. In fact, aggravation of skin diseases such as atopy or eczema during peaks in pollution suggests that skin surface is not the only one to be impacted. Moreover, epidemiological data pointed to a significant correlation between exposure to pollution or cigarette smoke and early occurrence of aging markers. Oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic impairments are among the most probable mechanisms of pollution-derived dermatological hazards which might be amplified by the deleterious synergy of pollution and sun, particularly UVA. Protection strategies should thus combine surface protection (sunscreens with high UVA absorption, antioxidants preventing lipid peroxidation) and enhanced deeper skin tissue resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation, with antioxidants targeting mitochondria or the induction of natural antioxidation and detoxification such as the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization measurement of telomere length in skin with/without sun exposure or actinic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Aida, Junko; Hatamochi, Atsushi; Hamasaki, Yoichiro; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Poon, Steven S; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Tomita, Ken-Ichiro; Hiraishi, Naoki; Kuroiwa, Mie; Matsuura, Masaaki; Sanada, Yukihiro; Kawano, Youichi; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal and genomic instability due to telomere dysfunction is known to play an important role in carcinogenesis. To study telomere shortening in the epidermis surrounding actinic keratosis, we measured telomere lengths of basal, parabasal, and suprabasal cells in epidermis with actinic keratosis (actinic keratosis group, n = 18) and without actinic keratosis (sun-protected, n = 15, and sun-exposed, n = 13 groups) and in actinic keratosis itself as well as in dermal fibroblasts in the 3 groups, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Among the 3 cell types, telomeres of basal cells were not always the longest, suggesting that tissue stem cells are not necessarily located among basal cells. Telomeres of basal cells in the sun-exposed group were shorter than those in the sun-protected group. Telomeres in the background of actinic keratosis and in actinic keratosis itself and those of fibroblasts in actinic keratosis were significantly shorter than those in the controls. Our findings demonstrate that sun exposure induces telomere shortening and that actinic keratosis arises from epidermis with shorter telomeres despite the absence of any histologic atypia. © 2014.

  4. MS Sunshine Study: Sun Exposure But Not Vitamin D Is Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Risk in Blacks and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Langer-Gould

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS incidence and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels vary by race/ethnicity. We examined the consistency of beneficial effects of 25OHD and/or sun exposure for MS risk across multiple racial/ethnic groups. We recruited incident MS cases and controls (blacks 116 cases/131 controls; Hispanics 183/197; whites 247/267 from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California into the MS Sunshine Study to simultaneously examine sun exposure and 25OHD, accounting for genetic ancestry and other factors. Higher lifetime ultraviolet radiation exposure (a rigorous measure of sun exposure was associated with a lower risk of MS independent of serum 25OHD levels in blacks (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31–0.83; p = 0.007 and whites (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48–0.94; p = 0.020 with a similar magnitude of effect that did not reach statistical significance in Hispanics (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42–1.04; p = 0.071. Higher serum 25OHD levels were associated with a lower risk of MS only in whites. No association was found in Hispanics or blacks regardless of how 25OHD was modeled. Lifetime sun exposure appears to reduce the risk of MS regardless of race/ethnicity. In contrast, serum 25OHD levels are not associated with MS risk in blacks or Hispanics. Our findings challenge the biological plausibility of vitamin D deficiency as causal for MS and call into question the targeting of specific serum 25OHD levels to achieve health benefits, particularly in blacks and Hispanics.

  5. MS Sunshine Study: Sun Exposure But Not Vitamin D Is Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Risk in Blacks and Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Gould, Annette; Lucas, Robyn; Xiang, Anny H; Chen, Lie H; Wu, Jun; Gonzalez, Edlin; Haraszti, Samantha; Smith, Jessica B; Quach, Hong; Barcellos, Lisa F

    2018-02-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels vary by race/ethnicity. We examined the consistency of beneficial effects of 25OHD and/or sun exposure for MS risk across multiple racial/ethnic groups. We recruited incident MS cases and controls (blacks 116 cases/131 controls; Hispanics 183/197; whites 247/267) from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California into the MS Sunshine Study to simultaneously examine sun exposure and 25OHD, accounting for genetic ancestry and other factors. Higher lifetime ultraviolet radiation exposure (a rigorous measure of sun exposure) was associated with a lower risk of MS independent of serum 25OHD levels in blacks (adjusted OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31-0.83; p = 0.007) and whites (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94; p = 0.020) with a similar magnitude of effect that did not reach statistical significance in Hispanics (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42-1.04; p = 0.071). Higher serum 25OHD levels were associated with a lower risk of MS only in whites. No association was found in Hispanics or blacks regardless of how 25OHD was modeled. Lifetime sun exposure appears to reduce the risk of MS regardless of race/ethnicity. In contrast, serum 25OHD levels are not associated with MS risk in blacks or Hispanics. Our findings challenge the biological plausibility of vitamin D deficiency as causal for MS and call into question the targeting of specific serum 25OHD levels to achieve health benefits, particularly in blacks and Hispanics.

  6. Analysis of the B-RAFV600E mutation in cutaneous melanoma patients with occupational sun exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    CANDIDO, SAVERIO; RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; MARCONI, ANDREA; MALAPONTE, GRAZIA; BEVELACQUA, VALENTINA; GANGEMI, PIETRO; SCALISI, AURORA; McCUBREY, JAMES A.; MAESTRO, ROBERTA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; FENGA, CONCETTINA; LIBRA, MASSIMO

    2014-01-01

    Sun-exposure is one of the risk factors associated with the development of a cutaneous neoplasm. In melanoma, the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK (MAPK) signaling pathway is constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms, including B-RAF mutation. It has been hypothesized that B-RAF mutations in melanocytic lesions arise from DNA damage induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, it is still discussed if B-RAF mutations are associated with melanoma patients exposed to the sun. Therefore, in the present study, the known B-RAFV600E mutation was analysed in melanoma samples from 30 indoor and 38 outdoor workers. B-RAFV600E mutation was detected in 52 and 73% of outdoor workers and indoor workers, respectively. Of note, this mutation was identified in 12 of 14 (85%) melanoma of the trunk diagnosed in indoor workers and in 9 of 19 (47%) samples from outdoor workers (p=0.03). By analyzing melanomas of other body sites, no statistical difference in the frequency of B-RAFV600E mutation was identified between the groups of workers. It appears that the mutation detected among indoor workers may be associated with a recreational or intermittent exposure to the sun, as usually the trunk is a sun-protected body site. Overall, these data indicate that the B-RAFV600E mutation detected in melanoma is not associated with a chronic exposure to the sun. Mutations detected in other genes may also contribute to melanoma development in the subset of patients exposed to UV radiation. PMID:24424406

  7. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  9. Sun exposure habits and health risk-related behaviours among individuals with previous history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Faresjö, Ashild; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between UV exposure and other health risk behaviours in different social environments and in regard to previous history of skin cancer. In two closely-located, equally-sized cities in Sweden, representing different social environments (blue collar and white collar), patients aged 55-69 years, diagnosed with skin cancer (study group, n=489) or seborrhoeic keratosis (control group, n=664), were identified through a regional Health Care Register, and were given a questionnaire mapping for sun habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity. A previous history of skin cancer was associated with reduced UV exposure (phistory of skin cancer appears to promote increased UV protection. In contrast to alcohol/smoking habits, no association between social environment and sun habits was found.

  10. [Sun exposure at school: Evaluation of risk (erythema dose), benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) and behaviour among children in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, E; de Paula Corrêa, M; Vouldoukis, I; Godin-Beekmann, S; Sigal, M-L; Beauchet, A

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the potential risk associated with sun exposure during the school year, we decided to evaluate behaviour, risk [UV index (UVI), minimal erythema dose (MED)] and benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) of sun exposure in primary schoolchildren in France, as well as the various sun protection methods used for children. We performed the study on a sunny day (July 24) in a school in Antony (France). Evaluation of UVI (with calculation of MED) and the amount of vitamin D synthesized according to exposed body surface area and phototype were performed every 15minutes from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The effects of albedo and shade on UVI were assessed in 8 different locations at the school. The sun-protection measures used by the children were systematically evaluated. Fifty-seven children were evaluated; the maximum UVI was 7.2 and the maximum temperature was 30.7°C. Irrespective of phototype and clothing, 1 MED was reached and an adequate level of vitamin D was synthesized in the skin before midday. Albedo had little impact on irradiation. The amount of protection afforded by shadow varied greatly, with the highest level occurring in the covered courtyard (99.5% reduction of UVI) and the lowest in the shadow of buildings (53.7% reduction of UVI). With strict sun protection measures concerning dress, children reached 1 MED before synthesizing 1000IU of vitamin D, but with clothing "suited to high temperatures", 1000IU of vitamin D were synthetized before 1 MED was reached. Compliance with photoprotection measures was poor. Regardless of duration of exposure during the day (minimal model: two play breaks+lunchtime break) and of skin phototype, at least 1.5 MED was reached during the day. This was an experimental study ignoring children's actual behaviour (movement, sweating, application of sun protection products, etc.). Moreover, due to weather conditions, the study was performed at a recreation centre in July and not during the "standard" school year. Sun

  11. The measurement of constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation and estimation of sun exposure in Caucasians with basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1998-01-01

    but indicated high exposure levels in childhood and youth and in adult leisure time. Sun exposure estimated by increase in facultative pigmentation above the constitutive level (the Sun Exposure Index) was not significantly different between BCC patients and controls, whereas CMM men patients had higher...... and 174 matched controls and in 168 CMM patients and 176 matched controls. Measurements were performed at the forehead, the upper chest, the upper back, the lateral and medial aspects of the upper arm, and the buttocks. Self-estimation of sun exposure in childhood, in youth and in adulthood was performed...... between BCC patients and controls except that women patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. For CMM, men patients had higher pigmentation at the lateral side of the upper arm. Self-estimations of sun exposure did not show differences between patients and controls...

  12. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....

  13. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-04

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  14. Skin pigmentation, sun exposure and vitamin D levels in children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Ness, Andrew R; Wills, Andrew K; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George

    2014-06-12

    It has been hypothesised that light skin pigmentation has arisen to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D as human populations moved out of Africa and into higher latitudes. Vitamin D, which is primarily obtained through exposure to sunlight (specifically ultraviolet radiation B (UVR-B)), has been inversely associated with several complex diseases. Greater sun exposure, on the other hand, is a well-known cause of skin cancer. The potential of UVR to be beneficial for some health outcomes but detrimental for others has prompted a public health debate on how to balance the positive and negative consequences of sun exposure. In this study we aimed to determine the validity of the evolutionary hypothesis linking lighter skin with higher vitamin D concentrations in a European population. Additionally, we aimed to examine the influence of pigmentation on personal behaviour towards sunlight exposure and the effects of this behaviour on vitamin D. We combined genetic variants strongly associated with skin colour, tanning or freckling to create genetic scores for each of these phenotypes. We examined the association of the scores with pigmentary traits, sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels among children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 661 to 5649). We found that fairer-skinned children, i.e. those with higher pigmentation score values, had higher levels of 25(OH)D (0.6 nmol/l; 95% CI 0.2, 1.0; per unit increase in skin colour score; N = 5649). These children also used more protection against the damaging effects of UVR. In this population taking protective measures against sunburn and skin cancer does not seem to remove the positive effect that having a less pigmented skin has on vitamin D production. Our findings require further replication as skin pigmentation showed only a small effect on circulating 25(OH)D.

  15. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction...... of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example...... modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products...

  16. Intake, Rumen Degradation and Utilisation of Urea-Ammoniated Grass Hay by Kacang Goats as Affected by Supplementation of Sun-dried Fish or Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Weibsjerg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Six mature male Kacang goats were involved in an experiment arranged following a duplicate 3 x 3 Latin Square Design. The objectives of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of dried fish as compared to fishmeal on intake, digestion, rumen environment and nitrogen used by the local meat type Kacang goats maintained on urea-treated low quality grass hay. The treatments were G: goats were fed with ad libitum access of urea treated grass hay and 100 g/d putak, SDF: G plus 18.4 g sun dried fish, and FM: G plus 19.7 g/d fishmeal. The supplement in SDF and FM were at equal CP level. Intake of urea treated grass hay tended to increase (P=0.08 with supplementation. Dry matter digestibility particularly that of CP was improved by supplementation. Rumen environment was slightly modified by supplementation. Rumen pH was reduced while ammonia concentration was increased. Rumen degradation of the treated grass hay did not differ when incubated in the rumen of goats with different diets. Nitrogen balance was significantly improved (P<0.05 by fishmeal supplementation. In all parameters measured in this experiment, the incremental effects did not differ between fishmeal type. This indicate that there is no further advantage of preparing fishmeal other than sun-drying in improving the utilisation of low quality urea-treated grass hay.

  17. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  18. Simple intake and pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Americans to perfluoroctanoic acid, PFOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Egeghy, Peter P

    2011-10-01

    Models for assessing intakes of perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, are described and applied. One model is based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates. This model is applied to general population exposures for adults and 2-year old children. The other model is a simple one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Parameters for this model include a rate of elimination of PFOA and a blood volume of distribution. The model was applied to data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, NHANES, to backcalculate intakes. The central tendency intake estimate for adults and children based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates were 70 and 26 ng/day, respectively. The central tendency adult intake derived from NHANES data was 56 and 37 ng/day for males and females, respectively. Variability and uncertainty discussions regarding the intake modeling focus on lack of data on direct exposure to PFOA used in consumer products, precursor compounds, and food. Discussions regarding PK modeling focus on the range of blood measurements in NHANES, the appropriateness of the simple PK model, and the uncertainties associated with model parameters. Using the PK model, the 10th and 95th percentile long-term average adult intakes of PFOA are 15 and 130 ng/day.

  19. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  20. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-10-15

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for children and around 8% for adults. It is confirmed that the critical route of exposure is via ingestion, accounting for 99% of total lead intake, while inhalation contributes only to 1% of total lead intake. The resulting lead levels in the blood after 2 years of exposure to actual contamination conditions have been estimated as up to 2.2μg/dl in children and almost 1μg/dl in adults. Impacts from lead can occur even at such levels. The role of historical and present sources to lead in the environment is discussed, and, for specific child and adult exposure scenarios, external-internal concentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resulting concentrations of lead in blood are then presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. People maintain their sun exposure behaviour in a 5-7-year follow-up study using personal electronic UVR dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Heydenreich, Jakob; Philipsen, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether people change their sun behaviour over a period of 7 years. Thus 32 volunteers, who had all participated in earlier sun exposure studies in 1999-2001, were enrolled in a follow-up study in 2006. They were selected to represent a previous low......, medium and high UVR exposure. They participated for mean 121 days (range 65-157 days) wearing a personal, electronic wrist-borne UVR dosimeter and completed sun exposure diaries. No statistically significant differences were seen from year to year in the estimated annual UVR dose, mean UVR dose per day...... they received a mean for the previous participation years (1999-2001) of 236 SED (median 153 SED, range 24-980 SED). The estimated annual UVR dose for each of the previous sun years and the estimated annual dose for 2006 correlated significantly (R(2) = 0.51; p...

  2. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  3. Exposure to sun radiation as a risk factor for the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in the Montenegrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound/aim: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent form of carcinomas in the whites. Among the environmental factors, the most important risk factor for its occurrence is the exposure to sun radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the sun radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma BCC in the Montenegrian population. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a period from 2002-2003. The study group included 100 histopatologically confirmed cases with BCC, while the control group included 100 patients from the same population, who did not present skin cancer and who were individually matched with the cases from the study group by sex and age (± 5 years. All the participants were interviewed using an epidemiological questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the χ2 test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. The risk for development of BCC was increased in the persons: that always had burns with no tan during the exposure to sunlight (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.20-2.55; p = 0.003; that developed sunburns after two hours of the exposure to sunlight (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.39-5.79; p < 0.001 that kept light tan or remained without changes in childhood and adolescence after the repeated exposures to sunlight (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.89-4.52; p < 0.001 that often had severe and painful sunburns (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.74-7.33; p < 0.001. Conclusion. Our study confirmed the significance of sunlight exposure for the development of BCC.

  4. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Christensen, Karl Bang; Allen, Martin; Olsen, Anja; Bentzen, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. 'Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting exposure to UVR, use of protection and sunburn are important for planning of preventive interventions and melanoma research.

  5. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Santos, Iná da Silva dos; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.

  6. Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ≥ 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index. PMID:24068126

  7. Sun exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been based primarily on questionnaires. Objective measures are needed....

  8. Beneficial effects of low alcohol exposure, but adverse effects of high alcohol intake on glymphatic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-02-02

    Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.

  9. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  10. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  11. Determinants of personal ultraviolet-radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A

    2013-01-01

    A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet-radiation (UVR) exposure doses. This is important because such exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, and studies have...

  12. Assessment of knowledge of skin cancer prevention and its relation with sun exposure and photo protection amongst gym academy members on the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Mariana Rocha; Durães, Edson Souza Machado; Martignago, Beatriz Castellar de Faria; Blanco, Luiz Felipe de Oliveira; Fabris, Thiago Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in several parts of the world and also in Brazil. There is evidence of an increase in morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. Although the incidence of skin cancer is increasing, it is estimated that 45% of all preventable cancers worldwide are skin neoplasias. Several studies have emphasized the need for campaigns to encourage sun protection. To assess the knowledge about skin cancer prevention and its association with sun exposure and photo protection in gym members. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study during January to July 2009, including gym members of both sexes in the city of Criciuma. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The statistical analysis was conducted in a descriptive way in regards to the absolute and relative frequencies of the variables under study. Of the 317 questionnaires studied, 62% were from women and 38% from men. Skin types II and III predominated, and the average age was 27.6 years. 94.3% of the participants reported that they had heard about the risks of sun exposure, mostly in terms of skin cancer risk (80.8%). Most participants, especially women, reported some form of sun protective measure. The population studied, similar to that in other regions of Brazil and the world, is aware of the risks of excessive sun exposure and skin cancer prevention, but has not yet incorporated appropriate sun protection measures into their daily habits.

  13. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... occur within a 100 km radius from the source. This suggests that, by neglecting distant low-level exposure, local assessments might only account for fractions of global cumulative intakes. We also study ~10,000 emission locations covering France more densely to determine per chemical and exposure route...

  14. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design with both descriptive and analytic components. A total of 170 ... data were used to convert dietary intake into nutrient content. The mean (SD) ... urban centers or those wearing clothing that concealed most of the skin from sun exposure.

  15. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...... towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting...

  16. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  17. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  18. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hacon S.S.; Mourão D. S.; Oliveira B.; Silva G..P.; Freitas M. F.; Vega C.; Gonçalves R.; Mariani C.F.; Gomes N.; Souza A.V.; Bastos W.

    2014-01-01

    High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs) and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Ama...

  19. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A.; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Objectives: Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-b...

  20. Beneficial changes in food consumption and nutrient intake after 10 years of follow-up in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de la Fuente-Arrillaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of changes in dietary habits provides interesting information on whether or not the observed trends are in line with accepted nutritional guidelines. The objective was to evaluate within-subject longitudinal changes in food consumption and nutrient intake and in a 10-year follow-up study. Methods The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a prospective Spanish cohort study. Diet was assessed using a 136-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ, previously validated in Spain. The participants were 3036 university graduates (55.8 % women of Spain and the main outcome measures the changes in dietary quality and in food consumption and nutrient intake. Paired t-tests and conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate within-subject longitudinal dietary changes and the risk of inadequacy respectively, after 10 years of follow-up. Results During follow-up, participants showed a relevant and significant increase (p < 0.001 in the consumption of fruits (7.4 %, vegetables (8.6 %, low-fat dairy products (35.2 %, lean meat (12.4 %, fish (2.9 %, whole grains (53.2 %, nuts (52.4 % and a significant decrease in legumes (−7.4 %, whole-fat dairy products (−44.2 %, red meat (−17.6 %, sugar-sweetened beverages (−58.7 % and wine (−11.9 %. With respect to nutrients, we found a higher proportion of carbohydrates (3.6 % and fiber (7.4 % and a decrease in total energy intake (2.7 %, total fat (−4.5 %, SFA (−9.4 %, MUFA (−4.9 %, PUFA (−12.7 %, w-3 and w-6 fatty acids (−9.1 and −20.5 % respectively and cholesterol (−9.6 %. Conclusions In this Mediterranean cohort study, mainly beneficial changes in the consumption of most foods and macronutrients were observed after 10 years of follow-up.

  1. The root of the problem: increasing root vegetable intake in preschool children by repeated exposure and flavour flavour learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Sara M; Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2014-09-01

    Children's vegetable consumption falls below current recommendations, highlighting the need to identify strategies that can successfully promote intake. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of flavour-flavour learning as one such strategy for increasing vegetable intake in preschool children. Children (N = 29) aged 15 to 56 months were recruited through participating nurseries. Each received a minimum of six and maximium eight exposures to a root vegetable puree with added apple puree (flavour-flavour learning) alternating with six to eight exposures to another with nothing added (repeated exposure). A third puree acted as a control. Pre- and post-intervention intake measures of the three purees with nothing added were taken to assess change in intake. Follow-up measures took place 1 month (n = 28) and 6 months (n = 10) post-intervention. Intake increased significantly from pre- to post-intervention for all purees (~36 g), with no effect of condition. Magnitude of change was smaller in the control condition. Analysis of follow-up data showed that intake remained significantly higher than baseline 1 month (p exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in young children. Results also suggest that mere exposure (to the food, the experimenters, the procedure) can generalise to other, similar vegetables but the addition of a familiar flavour confers no added advantage above mere exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Kogan, Vladimir; Shelton, Janie F; Delwiche, Lora; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Ma, Claudia C; McCanlies, Erin C; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Tancredi, Daniel J; Volk, Heather E

    2017-09-08

    Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures. Maternal supplemental FA and household pesticide product use were retrospectively collected in telephone interviews from 2003-2011. High vs. low daily FA intake was dichotomized at 800μg (median). Mothers' addresses were linked to a statewide database of commercial applications to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure. High FA intake (≥800μg) during the first pregnancy month and no known pesticide exposure was the reference group for all analyses. Compared with this group, ASD was increased in association with pesticide exposure {adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.7]} compared with low FA [OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.2)] or indoor pesticides [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)] alone. ORs for the combination of low FA and regular pregnancy exposure (≥6 mo) to pet pesticides or to outdoor sprays and foggers were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4, 11.5) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.1), respectively. ORs for low maternal FA and agricultural pesticide exposure 3 mo before or after conception were 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 6.5) for chlorpyrifos, 2.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 5.3) for organophosphates, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) for pyrethroids, and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8) for carbamates. Except for carbamates, these ORs were approximately two times greater than those for either exposure alone or for the expected ORs for combined exposures under multiplicative or additive models. In this study population, associations between pesticide exposures and ASD

  3. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  5. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  6. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  7. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure due to radioactive materials can occur as a result of various human activities. These include work associated with the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, scientific research, agriculture and industry, and occupations which involve the handling of materials containing enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to control this exposure, it is necessary to be able to assess the magnitude of the doses involved. Three interrelated Safety Guides, prepared jointly by the IAEA and the International Labour Office (ILO), provide guidance on the application of the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards with respect to occupational exposure. Reference [3] gives general advice on the exposure conditions for which monitoring programmes should be set up to assess radiation doses arising from external radiation and from intakes of radionuclides by workers. More specific guidance on the assessment of doses from external sources of radiation can be found in Ref. [4] and the present Safety Guide deals with intakes of radioactive materials. Recommendations related to occupational radiation protection have also been developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [5]. These and other current recommendations of the ICRP [6] have been taken into account in preparing this Safety Guide. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance for regulatory authorities on conducting assessments of intakes of radioactive material arising from occupational exposure. This Guide will also be useful to those concerned with the planning, management and operation of occupational monitoring programmes, and to those involved in the design of equipment for use in internal dosimetry and workplace monitoring

  9. Aging and photo-aging DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-Evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, Chloe; Masson-Genteuil, Gwenaeelle [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, CEA, DSV, IRCM, SREIT, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex F-92265 (France); Sarrazy, Fanny [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sauvaigo, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.sauvaigo@cea.fr [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of aging on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to aging, consequences of photo-exposure on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of aging and of chronic and/or acute photo-exposure on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-exposure disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-exposure induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB exposure and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental exposure on DNA repair pathways.

  10. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high and low exposure communities in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined 1) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high and low exposure communities in Guatemala, 2) the FB levels in maize, 3) the stoichiometric relationship between UFB and FB intake, and 4) the relative excreti...

  11. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low ...

  12. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, H; Mikkelsen, K; Poulsen, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sunlight exposure of the skin is known to be the most important source of vitamin D. The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate vitamin D status amongst sunlight-deprived individuals (veiled Arab women, veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women and Danish controls); and (ii) through food...... intake analysis to estimate the oral intake of vitamin D necessary to keep a normal vitamin D status in sunlight-deprived individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study amongst randomly selected Moslem women of Arab origin living in Denmark. Age-matched Danish women were included as controls. To control...... for racial differences, a group of veiled ethnic Danish Moslem women (all Caucasians) was included. SETTING: Primary Health Care Centre, City Vest and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixty-nine Arab women (60 veiled...

  13. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  14. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  16. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of oral exposure duration and gastric energy content on appetite ratings and energy intake in lean men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlens, Anne G.M.; Graaf, de Kees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in

  18. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  19. Constitutive melanin density is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and potentially total body BMD in older Caucasian adults via increased sun tolerance and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M J W; Jones, G; Aitken, D A

    2018-06-01

    Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk. This study aimed to describe the relationship between spectrophotometrically determined constitutive melanin density, osteoporotic risk factors and potential intermediaries in a cohort of exclusively older Caucasian adults. One thousand seventy-two community-dwelling adults aged 50-80 years had constitutive melanin density quantified using spectrophotometry. Sun exposure, skin phenotype, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) prevalence and smoking status were assessed by questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), falls risk, physical activity and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured using DXA, the short form Physiological Profile Assessment, pedometer and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Higher melanin density was independently associated with greater ability to tan (RR = 1.27, p density and sun exposure (RR = 1.05-1.11, p density (β = 1.71-2.05, p = 0.001). The association between melanin density and total body BMD (β = 0.007, p = 0.04) became non-significant after adjustment for 25-hydroxyvitamin D. There was no association between melanin density and physical activity, falls risk or BMD at other sites. Our data support a model of higher constitutive melanin density underpinning a less photosensitive skin phenotype, permitting greater sun exposure with fewer sequelae and yielding higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D and, potentially, total body BMD.

  20. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. 'Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between...... 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...

  1. Associations of Sun Exposure with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in a Cohort of Hypertensive Patients: The Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pilz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight-induced vitamin D, synthesis in the skin is the major source of vitamin D, but data on the relationship of sun-related behaviour with vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH levels are relatively sparse. We evaluated whether habitual sun exposure is associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and PTH levels and whether there exist seasonal variations. We examined 111 hypertensive patients in Austria (latitude 47° N. Frequent sunbathing at home and outdoor sports were associated with higher 25(OHD levels (P<0.05 for both. Red or blond scalp hair as a child, memory of sunburns, preferring sunbathing, frequent stays on the beach or in open-air pools, and solarium use were associated with lower PTH levels (P<0.05 for all. Multiple linear regression analyses including age, sex, and body mass index showed that sun exposure score was significantly associated with 25(OHD (beta coefficient=0.27; P=0.004 and by trend with PTH (beta coefficient=−0.16; P=0.09. These associations were more prominent in summer in which 25(OHD levels were significantly higher compared to winter. Translation of these findings into recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency remains a challenge for the future.

  2. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  3. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacon S.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Amazon ecosystem with direct influence in the food chain. These changes in Amazon scenario increase complexity of environmental issue and mercury may become a threat for susceptible exposure groups. This study evaluated mercury exposure scenarios for susceptible groups around the hydroelectric plant to calculate toxicological risk before damming. During the period of 2009 to 2011, about 771 children under 16 years age and 276 female in reproductive age (from 16 to 40 years old were assessed. Besides, regular fish samples (n=1580 were collected for total mercury determination. The mercury concentration in fish ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 mg/kg. For the current scenario the toxicological risk ranged from 3.5 to 24 for mercury for the susceptible groups. Regarding the critical scenario after 3 years flooding, the area is expected to double the risk for the same group, especially for the communities downstream, which may represent a critical situation.

  4. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  5. baonan sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BAONAN SUN. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 90 Issue 2 February 2018 pp 23 Research Article. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq system · BAONAN SUN ZHAN LIAN.

  6. Fengrui Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Fengrui Sun. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 851-864. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle · Kang Ma Lingen Chen Fengrui Sun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Finite-time exergoeconomic ...

  7. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Fenske, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce ("conventional consumers"), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs.

  8. The association between osteoporotic hip fractures and actinic lesions as a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure in older people-a retrospective case-control study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, H A; Dagatti, M S; Amigot, B; Levit, G P; Tomat, M F; Morosano, M E; Masoni, A M; Pezzotto, S M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the presence of actinic lesions (solar keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer) and osteoporotic hip fractures in older patients. Both pathologies are common conditions in this age group. Since cumulative sun exposure is difficult to quantify, the presence of actinic lesions can be used to indirectly analyze the association between ultraviolet radiation and osteoporotic hip fractures. This was an observational case-control study. We reviewed the centralized medical records of patients with hip fracture (cases, n = 51) and patients with other diseases hospitalized in the same institution and period (controls, n = 59). The mean age of the patients was 80 ± 8.3 years (range 50-103 years). Differences in maternal hip fracture history were found between cases and controls (14.8 and 8 %, respectively; p = 0.047). Falls history in the past year was higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Actinic lesions were observed in 32.7 % of patients (prevalence rate 23.5 % in cases, 40.7 % in controls; p = 0.04). When considering patients with actinic lesions, controls have a higher FRAX score compared with cases. Although sun exposure is recommended for bone health, it represents a risk factor for actinic lesions. The presence of actinic lesions may indicate a lower osteoporotic hip fracture risk. A balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects is required for each patient, in the context of geographic location.

  9. Intake during repeated exposure to low- and high-energy-dense yogurts by different means of consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C.de

    2010-01-01

    Background: An important question in the regulation of energy intake is whether dietary learning of energy content depends on the food's characteristics, such as texture. Texture might affect the duration of sensory exposure and eating rate. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether a long

  10. Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. Objectives We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Methods Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce (“conventional consumers”), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Results Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p Fenske RA, Fitzpatrick AL, Lu C, Nettleton JA, Kaufman JD. 2015. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ Health Perspect 123:475–483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408197 PMID:25650532

  11. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  12. A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Serap; Buchanan, Susan N

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities. We also estimated hazard quotients for each exposure pathway and hazard indices for exposure conditions representative of central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. The exposure pathways considered were uptake of fluoride via fluoridated drinking water, beverages, cow's milk, foods, and fluoride supplements for both age groups. Additionally, consumption of infant formula for infants and inadvertent swallowing of toothpaste while brushing and incidental ingestion of soil for children were also considered. The cumulative daily fluoride intake in fluoridated areas was estimated as 0.20 and 0.11 mg/kg-day for RME and CTE scenarios, respectively, for infants. On the other hand, the RME and CTE estimates for children were 0.23 and 0.06 mg/kg-day, respectively. In areas where municipal water is not fluoridated, our RME and CTE estimates for cumulative daily average intake were, respectively, 0.11 and 0.08 mg/kg-day for infants and 0.21 and 0.06 mg/kg-day for children. Our theoretical estimates are in good agreement with measurement-based estimates reported in the literature. Although CTE estimates were within the optimum range for dental caries prevention, the RME estimates were above the upper tolerable intake limit. This suggests that some children may be at risk for fluorosis.

  13. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Methods Included in the study were 2,543 polyp patients [(1,881 with adenomas, and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results High intake of red meat and processed meat (P-trend meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P-trend ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the positive association with red-meat intake and heterocyclic amine exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than single adenoma and serrated than non-serrated adenomas. Conclusion This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor. PMID:21803984

  14. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  15. Squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma of the skin in relation to radiation therapy and potential modification of risk by sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Zens, Michael S; Linet, Martha; Stukel, Therese A; Spencer, Steve; Applebaum, Katie M; Mott, Leila; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently find enhanced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation, but it is unclear whether the radiation effect occurs for squamous cell carcinoma. It is also not known whether subgroups of individuals are at greater risk, eg, those with radiation sensitivity or high ultraviolet radiation exposure. We analyzed data from a case-control study of keratinocyte cancers in New Hampshire. Incident cases diagnosed in 1993-1995 and 1997-2000 were identified through a state-wide skin cancer surveillance system, and controls were identified through the Department of Transportation and Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service Files (n = 1121 basal cell carcinoma cases, 854 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 1049 controls). We found an association between history of radiation treatment and basal cell carcinoma. The association was especially strong for basal cell carcinomas arising within the radiation treatment field (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.5-4.3), and among those treated with radiation therapy before age 20 (3.4; 1.8-6.4), those whose basal cell carcinomas occurred 40 or more years after radiation treatment (3.2; 1.8-5.8), and those treated with radiation for acne (11; 2.7-49). Similar age and time patterns of risk were observed for squamous cell carcinoma, although generally with smaller odds ratios. For basal cell carcinoma, early exposure to radiation treatment was a risk factor largely among those without a history of severe sunburns, whereas for squamous cell carcinoma, radiation treatment was a risk factor primarily among those with a sun-sensitive skin type (ie, a tendency to sunburn). Radiation treatment, particularly if experienced before age 20, seems to increase the long-term risk of both basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. These risks may differ by sun exposure or host response to sunlight exposure.

  16. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Workshop on intakes of radionuclides: occupational and public exposure, Avignon, 15-18 September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Phipps, A.W.; Harrison, J.D.; Jones, D.G.; Stradling, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    This meeting was the fourth in this series of Workshops, previous meetings having been held in Versailles, France in 1988, in Elmau, Germany in 1991, and in Bath, UK in 1993. The Avignon meeting comes at a time of intense activity in internal dosimetry. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently completed development and publication of a series of physiologically based age-dependent biokinetic models for a range of important radionuclides. This followed the publication in 1994 of the new Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM). These models have now been used to determine the dose coefficients that are given in the EURATOM Directive and in the International Basic Safety Standards. A forthcoming ICRP publication will present predictions of the new models for bioassay quantities of interest, and will give revised guidance on the design and interpretation of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes. Another will give technical guidance on the use of the HRTM in practical situations. Looking further into the future, work on the development of a new age-dependent dosimetric model for the gastro-intestinal tract is now under way. With so many recent and forthcoming developments in modelling, it is not surprising that one of the unifying themes of the meeting was the impending need for internal dosimetry practitioners to be able to use the new models for assessments of doses in the workplace. The meeting's main sessions were organised under five headings: occupational exposure to radionuclides, public exposure to radionuclides, developments in modelling, physical dosimetry and treatment of accidental intakes

  18. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  19. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  20. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-26

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  1. Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob

    2014-06-01

    Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in lercanidipine systemic exposure when administered according to labelling: in fasting state and 15 minutes before food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Covadonga; Gómez, Estrella; Simón, Marta; Govantes, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Frías, Jesús; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the systemic exposure of lercanidipine (Zanidip) after oral administration in the fasted state and 15 min before food intake (meals) to investigate if the recommendations in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) with respect to the intake of meals are adequate. The results of three pilot bioequivalence studies performed to develop a lercanidipine generic product, where Zanidip was administered consistently as reference product in the fasted state or 15 min before a standard breakfast, were compared to estimate the drug–food interaction and the similarity of the methods of administration defined in the SPC. The ingestion of a standard (non-high-fat, non-high-calorie) meal 15 min after drug intake increased the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0-t)) of S-lercanidipine by 1.78-fold [90% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–2.15, Pfood intake does not seem to be consistent with this recommendation. The Marketing Authorisation Holder should clarify the dosing instructions in relation to meals and identify a sufficient time-lapse to ensure an exposure similar to that obtained in phase III clinical efficacy studies.

  3. effect of rate of inclusion of fishmeal prepared by cooking and sun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    SUN DRYING OF FISH OFFAL ON FEED INTAKE AND NUTRIENT RETENTION OF. GROWING ... ABSTRACT: Effect of cooked and sun dried fish offal on intake and nutrient retention of growing. Rhode Island Red ..... hematology and serum.

  4. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  5. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Davidson, Barbara; Woo, Jessica G; Peng, Yong-Mei; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; de Lourdes Guerrero, Maria; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-02-05

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n=112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n=119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n=113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (obesity (p=0.03), season (p=0.001) and sites (p<0.001) predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p<0.001). Season (p=0.022), adding formula feeding (p<0.001) and a higher sun index (p=0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  6. Intake of High-Fat Yogurt, but Not of Low-Fat Yogurt or Prebiotics, Is Related to Lower Risk of Depression in Women of the SUN Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Molero, Patricio; Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2016-09-01

    Yogurt and prebiotic consumption has been linked to better health. However, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study has assessed the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk. We longitudinally evaluated the association of yogurt and prebiotic consumption with depression risk in a Mediterranean cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project is a dynamic, prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates. A total of 14,539 men and women (mean age: 37 y) initially free of depression were assessed during a median follow-up period of 9.3 y. Validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline and after a 10-y follow-up were used to assess prebiotic (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharide) intake and yogurt consumption (yogurt intake was associated with reduced depression risk: HR for the highest [≥7 servings/wk (1 serving = 125 g)] compared with the lowest (yogurt consumption was associated with a higher incidence of depression (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.65; P-trend = 0.001), although this association lost significance after the exclusion of early incident cases, suggesting possible reverse causation bias. Prebiotic consumption was not significantly associated with depression risk. Our study suggests that high consumption of whole-fat yogurt was related to a lower risk of depression in women of the SUN cohort. No association was observed for prebiotics. Further studies are needed to clarify why the yogurt-depression association may differ by fat content of the yogurt. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  8. yimin sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YIMIN SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 687-693 RESEARCH NOTE. The association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified risk variants of the GLI3 gene in a Chinese population · YIRUI WANG YIMIN SUN ...

  9. jianhua sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JIANHUA SUN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 575-584 Article. MicroRNA-486-5p suppresses TGF-b2-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells by targeting Smad2.

  10. Relation between dietary cadmium intake and biomarkers of cadmium exposure in premenopausal women accounting for body iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julin Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant with adverse effects on kidneys and bone, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of end-stage renal diseases, fractures and cancer. Urinary cadmium is considered a valid biomarker of lifetime kidney accumulation from overall cadmium exposure and thus used in the assessment of cadmium-induced health effects. We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary cadmium intake assessed by analyses of duplicate food portions and cadmium concentrations in urine and blood, taking the toxicokinetics of cadmium into consideration. Methods In a sample of 57 non-smoking Swedish women aged 20-50 years, we assessed Pearson's correlation coefficients between: 1 Dietary intake of cadmium assessed by analyses of cadmium in duplicate food portions collected during four consecutive days and cadmium concentrations in urine, 2 Partial correlations between the duplicate food portions and urinary and blood cadmium concentrations, respectively, and 3 Model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration predicted from the dietary intake using a one-compartment toxicokinetic model (with individual data on age, weight and gastrointestinal cadmium absorption and urinary cadmium concentration. Results The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was 0.18 (+/- s.d.0.12 μg/g creatinine and the model-predicted urinary cadmium concentration was 0.19 (+/- s.d.0.15 μg/g creatinine. The partial Pearson correlations between analyzed dietary cadmium intake and urinary cadmium or blood concentrations were r = 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. The correlation between diet and urinary cadmium increased to r = 0.54 when using a one-compartment model with individual gastrointestinal cadmium absorption coefficients based on the women's iron status. Conclusions Our results indicate that measured dietary cadmium intake can reasonably well predict biomarkers of both long-term kidney accumulation

  11. Low vitamin C intake increases risk of pre-eclampsia in high pesticide exposure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifatul Masrikhiyah

    2016-08-01

    Low vitamin C intake played the most important role toward pre-eclampsia. Greater caution is needed when issuing recommendations regarding the consumption of vitamin supplements in pregnancy, as high doses of some vitamins may be deleterious.

  12. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate Vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment....

  13. Developmental lead exposure induces opposite effects on ethanol intake and locomotion in response to central vs. systemic cyanamide administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattalloni, Mara Soledad; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Albrecht, Paula Alejandra; Cancela, Liliana Marina; Virgolini, Miriam Beatriz

    2017-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects. To evaluate the impact on a 2-h chronic voluntary ethanol intake test, developmentally Pb-exposed and control rats were administered with cyanamide (CY, an ALDH inhibitor) either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the last 4 sessions of the experiment. Furthermore, on the last session and after locomotor activity was assessed, all animals were sacrificed to obtain brain and liver samples for ALDH2 and CAT activity determination. Systemic CY administration reduced the elevated ethanol intake already reported in the Pb-exposed animals (but not in the controls) accompanied by liver (but not brain) ALDH2 inactivation. On the other hand, a 0.3 mg i.c.v. CY administration enhanced both ethanol intake and locomotor activity accompanied by brain ALDH2 inactivation in control animals, while an increase in ethanol consumption was also observed in the Pb-exposed group, although in the absence of brain ALDH2 blockade. No changes were observed in CAT activity as a consequence of CY administration. These results support the participation of liver and brain ACD in ethanol intake and locomotor activity, responses that are modulated by developmental Pb exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  15. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  16. Urinary fumonisin B1 and estimated fumonisin intake in women from high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Olga; Matute, Jorge; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R; Gregory, Simon G; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Showker, Jency L; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Voss, Kenneth A; Riley, Ronald T

    2014-05-01

    Fumonisin (FB) intake can be high when maize is a dietary staple. We determined (i) urinary FB (UFB) in women consuming maize in high- and low-exposure communities in Guatemala, (ii) the FB levels in maize, (iii) the relationship between UFB and FB intake, and (iv) the relative excretion of UFB1 , UFB2 , and UFB3 . Urine and maize were analyzed for FB for 1 year in three departments. Maize consumption was estimated by an interview questionnaire. Fumonisin B1 , B2 , and B3 (FB1 , FB2 and FB3 ), were detected in 100% of maize samples. FB1 in maize and urine was significantly higher in Jutiapa compared to Chimaltenango or Escuintla. The FB intake paralleled UFB1 in a dose-dependent manner but UFB1 was present in much higher levels than UFB2 or UFB3 compared to maize. In Jutiapa, agroecological conditions favored FB production. UFB1 mirrored the estimated FB intake. UFB1 > 0.1 ng/mL resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the risk of exceeding FB intake of 2 μg/kg b.w./day compared to women with no detectable UFB1 . More than 50% exceeded 2 μg/kg b.w./day when UFB1 was >0.5 ng/mL. UFB2 and UFB3 were rarely detected confirming that FB1 is either absorbed better or preferentially excreted in urine. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Mark D; Webb, Ann R; Kift, Richard; Durkin, Marie T; Allan, Donald; Herbert, Annie; Berry, Jacqueline L; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2013-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status. We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity. In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated. At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations 10 ng/mL. Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297.

  18. Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhigang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31 ± 1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0 ± 2.2%) or normal (20 ± 2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1 ± 4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P feed intake (P feed efficiency (P feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature.

  19. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  20. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Sleiman, Mohamad; Montesinos, V Nahuel; Russell, Marion L; Litter, Marta I; Benowitz, Neal L; Gundel, Lara A; Destaillats, Hugo

    2017-08-15

    E-cigarettes likely represent a lower risk to health than traditional combustion cigarettes, but they are not innocuous. Recently reported emission rates of potentially harmful compounds were used to assess intake and predict health impacts for vapers and bystanders exposed passively. Vapers' toxicant intake was calculated for scenarios in which different e-liquids were used with various vaporizers, battery power settings and vaping regimes. For a high rate of 250 puff day -1 using a typical vaping regime and popular tank devices with battery voltages from 3.8 to 4.8 V, users were predicted to inhale formaldehyde (up to 49 mg day -1 ), acrolein (up to 10 mg day -1 ) and diacetyl (up to 0.5 mg day -1 ), at levels that exceeded U.S. occupational limits. Formaldehyde intake from 100 daily puffs was higher than the amount inhaled by a smoker consuming 10 conventional cigarettes per day. Secondhand exposures were predicted for two typical indoor scenarios: a home and a bar. Contributions from vaping to air pollutant concentrations in the home did not exceed the California OEHHA 8-h reference exposure levels (RELs), except when a high emitting device was used at 4.8 V. In that extreme scenario, the contributions from vaping amounted to as much as 12 μg m -3 formaldehyde and 2.6 μg m -3 acrolein. Pollutant concentrations in bars were modeled using indoor volumes, air exchange rates and the number of hourly users reported in the literature for U.S. bars in which smoking was allowed. Predicted contributions to indoor air levels were higher than those in the residential scenario. Formaldehyde (on average 135 μg m -3 ) and acrolein (28 μg m -3 ) exceeded the acute 1-h exposure REL for the highest emitting vaporizer/voltage combination. Predictions for these compounds also exceeded the 8-h REL in several bars when less intense vaping conditions were considered. Benzene concentrations in a few bars approached the 8-h REL, and diacetyl levels were close to the lower limit

  1. The Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejna, L.; Sobotka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 50 papers classified in six parts. The introductory paper is devoted to magnetic fields of the Sun and of low-mass main-sequence stars. 7 papers discuss the morphology and fine structure of solar active regions, 9 papers deal with evolutionary aspects of the regions, 6 papers with observations and theories of the solar magnetic field, 9 deal with velocity fields, oscillations and waves in the active regions and 18 papers discuss the physical structure of active regions and its diagnostics. (M.D.). 218 figs., 19 tabs., 1,317 refs

  2. Age dependent values of dietary intake for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed information concerning human food consumption patterns necessary for relating pollutant body burdens to environmental contamination levels was compiled to be used in lieu of site-specific data for calculating health impacts arising from the ingestion of food containing various levels of such pollutants as radionuclides, toxic heavy metals, insecticides and many others. This paper examines available data on human food consumption rates and estimates dietary intake rates by individuals of various ages. Ingestion parameters include intake rates of water and other beverages, milk, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry, grain and fish. Information was analyzed from documented surveys of individuals within households and from interviews and personal communications. Although average intake rates are often the only data reported in the literature, ranges as well as averages are included in this paper whenever possible. Various results are tabulated including per capita food consumption in 1955 and 1965 and changes in per capita consumption as well as changes by urbanization. Details of milk consumption are presented by selected sex-age groups. Solid food intake is given by age group. Market basket quantities of foods consumed daily are also tabulated. (author)

  3. Memory and food intake in sheep: Effects of previous exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal behaviour pattern was monitored once every 5 min, over an 8-h period, immediately after first confinement. Frequency of eating, idling, ruminating, or drinking were all found to be significantly greater (P<0.001) for previously exposed lambs. Intakes of OM, N, DOM, and leaf fraction in straw were also significantly ...

  4. Serum vitamin D levels in kidney transplant recipients: the importance of an immunosuppression regimen and sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Ophir; Aharon, Michal; Safadi, Rifaat; Elhalel, Michal Dranitzki

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was shown to be prevalent among renal transplant recipients in northern countries, but little is known regarding risk factors. To test vitamin D levels in kidney transplant recipients residing closer to the equator, compare them to levels in liver transplant recipients and hemodialysis patients, and identify possible risk factors. In a cross-sectional study 103 kidney transplant recipients, 27 liver transplant recipients and 50 hemodialysis patients followed at our institute were tested for vitamin D levels. Demographic data, medical history and current treatment were recorded from the medical files. Inadequate vitamin D levels (Vitamin D levels were higher among dialysis patients than transplant recipients, though deficiency rates were similar. No association was found between kidney function and vitamin deficiency. Deficiency was associated with higher prednisone doses, use of mycophenolate sodium, tacrolimus, and iron supplements, or lower doses of vitamin D supplementation. Despite potential higher ultraviolet B exposure, inadequate vitamin D levels were prevalent in our study group. Importantly, some immunosuppressive medications were associated with vitamin D deficiency and high doses of vitamin D were associated with less deficiency.

  5. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An assessment of the exposure of Americans to perfluorooctane sulfonate: a comparison of estimated intake with values inferred from NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeghy, Peter P; Lorber, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    To better understand human exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), a model that assesses exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its precursors from both an intake and a body burden perspective and combines the two with a simple pharmacokinetic (PK) model is demonstrated. Exposure pathways were modeled under "typical" and "contaminated" scenarios, for young children and adults. A range of intakes was also estimated from serum concentrations of PFOS reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) using a first-order 1-compartment PK model. Total PFOS intakes (medians summed over all pathways) were estimated as: 160 and 2200 ng/day for adults and 50 and 640 ng/day for children under typical and contaminated scenarios, respectively. Food ingestion appears to be the primary route of exposure in the general population. For children, the contribution from dust ingestion is nearly as great as from food ingestion. Pathway-specific contributions span several orders of magnitude and exhibit considerable overlap. PK modeling suggests central tendency PFOS intakes for adults range between 1.6 and 24.2 ng/kg-bw/day, and the forward-based intake estimates are within this range. The favorable comparison reported between the forward-modeled and the back-calculated range of intake predictions lends validity to the proposed framework.

  7. Increased preference for ethanol in the infant rat after prenatal ethanol exposure, expressed on intake and taste reactivity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure during gestational days 17 to 20 to low or moderate doses of ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) increases alcohol intake in infant rats. Taking into account that higher consumption does not necessarily suggest a preference for alcohol, in the present study, the hedonic nature of the prenatal experience was analyzed further with the use of a taste reactivity test. General activity, wall climbing, passive drips, paw licking, and mouthing in response to intraoral infusions of alcohol, water, and a sucrose-quinine solution (which resembles alcohol taste in rats) were tested in 161 preweanling 14-day-old rat pups that were prenatally exposed to 0, 1, or 2 g/kg of alcohol during gestational days 17 to 20. Consumption of those substances was measured during the taste reactivity test and on postnatal day 15. Pups that were prenatally exposed to both doses of ethanol displayed lower levels of general activity and wall climbing than controls in response to ethanol. Infant rats that were treated prenatally with both doses of ethanol showed higher intake of the drug and also more mouthing and paw licking in response to ethanol taste. Only pups that were exposed to the higher ethanol dose in utero generalized those responses to the sucrose-quinine compound. These results seem to indicate that for the infant rat, the palatability of ethanol is enhanced after exposure to the drug during the last days of gestation.

  8. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  9. Characterizing Aggregated Exposure to Primary Particulate Matter: Recommended Intake Fractions for Indoor and Outdoor Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier; Apte, Joshua Schulz

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_(2.5)) from indoor and outdoor sources is a leading environmental contributor to global disease burden. In response, we established under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative a coupled indoor-outdoor emission-to-exposure framework to provide...

  10. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thune, P.

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab

  11. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    , and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead......Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure......–internalconcentration relationships for the direct linkage between lead in environmental media and resultingconcentrations of lead in blood are then presented....

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-03-13

    To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. One university in the West Midlands, UK. 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18-22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences . All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed from the media, peers and family, and particularly from

  13. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Food contact materials (FCM), e.g. bottles and food handling gloves, can contain potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP, CAS: 117-81-7). To investigate the contribution of FCM to dietary DEHP exposure we apply...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...... than 5% would cause exceedance of US EPA threshold when used with certain food items,e.g. radishes based on PiF calculated here. The PiF used in thís context has applications for regulations related to FCM and exposure assessments on a per unit kilo basis....

  14. Exposure to contaminants and nutritional intakes in a French vegetarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, S; Rivière, G; Allès, B; Kesse-Guyot, E; Méjean, C; Hercberg, S; Touvier, M; Bemrah, N

    2017-11-01

    The NutriNet Santé study collected, on a voluntary basis, the dietary consumption of French vegetarian populations (N = 1766, including 188 vegan individuals) from 18 to 81 years (18-77 years for the vegan). Taking advantage of the availability of contamination data generated in the context of the second French total diet study, dietary exposures of French vegetarian populations to several contaminants were estimated. Results showed that exposures to persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs for instance) was dramatically lower than those of the general French population due to the non consumption of food of animal origins. On the other hand, exposures to phytoestrogens, some mycotoxins (T2 and HT2 toxins) and some trace elements (Cd, Al, Sn, Ni) were higher in the vegetarian population compared to those of the general population. Despite some limitations of this approach (both the consumption study and the total diet study were not aimed to estimate dietary exposure of the vegetarian populations), this study showed that dietary habits can dramatically influence the exposure of some contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You also can check for new or changing skin spots at home. Contact your doctor if you notice ... considered healthy? How do I know if a skin spot, like a mole, is abnormal? Resources American Academy ...

  16. Food environments and dietary intakes among adults: does the type of spatial exposure measurement matter? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivoltsis, Alexia; Cervigni, Eleanor; Trapp, Gina; Knuiman, Matthew; Hooper, Paula; Ambrosini, Gina Leslie

    2018-06-09

    The relationships between food environments and dietary intake have been assessed via a range of methodologically diverse measures of spatial exposure to food outlets, resulting in a largely inconclusive body of evidence, limiting informed policy intervention. This systematic review aims to evaluate the influence of methodological choice on study outcomes by examining the within-study effect of availability (e.g., counts) versus accessibility (e.g., proximity) spatial exposure measures on associations with diet. (PROSPERO registration: CRD42018085250). PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were searched for empirical studies from 1980 to 2017, in the English language, involving adults and reporting on the statistical association between a dietary outcome and spatial exposure measures of both availability and accessibility. Studies were appraised using an eight-point quality criteria with a narrative synthesis of results. A total of 205 associations and 44 relationships (i.e., multiple measures of spatial exposure relating to a particular food outlet type and dietary outcome) were extracted from 14 eligible articles. Comparative measures were dominated by counts (availability) and proximity (accessibility). Few studies compared more complex measures and all counts were derived from place-based measures of exposure. Sixteen of the 44 relationships had a significant effect involving an availability measure whilst only 8 had a significant effect from an accessibility measure. The largest effect sizes in relationships were mostly for availability measures. After stratification by scale, availability measure had the greatest effect size in 139 of the 176 pairwise comparisons. Of the 33% (68/205) of associations that reached significance, 53/68 (78%) were from availability measures. There was no relationship between study quality and reported study outcomes. The limited evidence suggests that availability measures may produce significant and greater

  17. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  18. Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kramer, F Matthew; Meiselman, Herbert L; Lesher, Larry L; Baker-Fulco, Carol; Hirsch, Edward S; Warber, John

    2005-02-01

    Laboratory data with single exposures showed that palatability has a positive relationship with food intake. The question addressed in this study is whether this relationship also holds over repeated exposures in non-laboratory contexts in more natural environments. The data were collected in four field studies, lasting 4-11 days with 307 US Army men and 119 Army women, and comprised 5791 main meals and 8831 snacks in total. Acceptability was rated on the nine point hedonic scale, and intake was registered in units of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or 1 or more times of the provided portion size. Correlation coefficients between individual acceptability ratings and intakes varied from 0.22 to 0.62 for the main meals (n=193-2267), and between 0.13 and 0.56 for the snacks (n=304-2967). The likelihood of choosing a meal for the second time was positively related to the acceptability rating of the meal when it was consumed for the first time. The results reinforce the importance of liking in food choice and food intake/choice behavior. However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice.

  19. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  20. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  1. Sun behaviour in Canadian children: results of the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora, Erin C; Marrett, Loraine D

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is a particularly important determinant of skin cancer, yet little data are available for children. This paper describes sun behaviour among Canadian children for the summer of 2006. As part of the Second National Sun Survey (NSS2), 1,437 parents reported on the time spent in the sun, and the frequency of sun protection behaviours and sunburning for one of their children aged 1 to 12 years. Analysis was carried out using complex survey procedures in SAS and STATA. The majority of children (94%) spend at least 30 minutes in the sun on a typical summer day; however, regular sun protection is only commonly reported for young children (1 to 5 years) and involves covering their heads and wearing sunscreen (85%). The frequency of other protective behaviours is much lower, and sun protection decreases with age. Older children are also twice as likely to spend extended time in the sun and to get a sunburn. Among older children, boys are more likely to cover their heads and girls are more likely to wear sunscreen. Regular sun protection among Canadian children is low, given their sun exposure. Heavy reliance on sunscreen is consistent with previous reports and indicates that other measures, such as seeking shade and wearing protective clothing, need to be promoted. Riskier sun behaviour among older children may reflect decreased parental control, as well as changing attitudes and peer pressure, and highlights the importance of adult role models and targeted interventions for this age group.

  2. Sun Protection for Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shafie Pour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging, dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.

  3. Gaussian Quadrature is an efficient method for the back-transformation in estimating the usual intake distribution when assessing dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, A L M; Slob, W

    2012-10-01

    In dietary exposure assessment, statistical methods exist for estimating the usual intake distribution from daily intake data. These methods transform the dietary intake data to normal observations, eliminate the within-person variance, and then back-transform the data to the original scale. We propose Gaussian Quadrature (GQ), a numerical integration method, as an efficient way of back-transformation. We compare GQ with six published methods. One method uses a log-transformation, while the other methods, including GQ, use a Box-Cox transformation. This study shows that, for various parameter choices, the methods with a Box-Cox transformation estimate the theoretical usual intake distributions quite well, although one method, a Taylor approximation, is less accurate. Two applications--on folate intake and fruit consumption--confirmed these results. In one extreme case, some methods, including GQ, could not be applied for low percentiles. We solved this problem by modifying GQ. One method is based on the assumption that the daily intakes are log-normally distributed. Even if this condition is not fulfilled, the log-transformation performs well as long as the within-individual variance is small compared to the mean. We conclude that the modified GQ is an efficient, fast and accurate method for estimating the usual intake distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  5. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  6. Reliability of attitude and knowledge items and behavioral consistency in the validated sun exposure questionnaire in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2018-01-01

    in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability......An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed...... questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly...

  7. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy∗incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day∗energy∗incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13 years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7 months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...... of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.......Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age....... For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  10. PCDD and PCDF exposures among fishing community through intake of fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Nasir, Nurul Nadiah Mohamad; Shamsudin, Norashikin; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-07-21

    Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community. The risk of fish and shellfish consumption and exposure to PCDD/PCDF among fishermen living in coastal areas of the Straits were evaluated based on a cross-sectional study involving face to face interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and administration of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Skin examination was done by a dermatologist after the interview session. Determination of 17 congeners of PCDD/PCDF in 48 composite samples of fish and shellfish was performed based on HRGC/HRMS analysis. The total PCDD/PCDF in the seafood samples ranged from 0.12 to 1.24 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (4.6-21.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). No significant difference found for the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF between the same types of seafood samples obtained from the three different regions. The concentrations of the most potent congener, 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the seafood samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 pg WHO-TEQ/g FW (1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A positive moderate correlation was found between the fat contents and concentrations of PCDD/PCDF determined in the seafood samples. The total PCDD/PCDF in all seafood samples were below the 1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, with the exception of grey eel-catfish. The respondents had consumed fish and shellfish with the amounts ranging between 2.02 g and 44.06 g per person per day. The total PCDD/PCDF exposures through consumption of fish and shellfish among the respondents were between 0.01 and 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg BW/day. With regard to the two PCDD/PCDF-related skin diseases, no chloracne case was found among the respondents, but 2.2% of the respondents were diagnosed to have

  11. Intake, distribution, and metabolism of decabromodiphenyl ether and its main metabolites in chickens and implications for human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Xin; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Shi, Lei; Wong, Charles S.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Diet is considered as the most important human exposure pathway for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Metabolism and accumulation patterns of PBDEs in different growth periods of chickens are helpful for evaluating human dietary exposure, but such information is scarce. In this study, female chickens were fed with food spiked with BDE-209 at 85 mg kg −1 , and the intake, accumulation, and excretion of BDE-209 and its main metabolites in various tissues were examined. Concentrations of BDE-209 in chicken tissues increased over time in a tissue-specific manner; they were the greatest in liver and generally the lowest in breast meat during the entire exposure period. The kinetic patterns were dependent on both growth-dilution effects and accumulated concentrations of BDE-209. Tissue concentrations of ∑ 8 PBDE (sum of BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) followed the sequence of liver > blood > skin > intestine > stomach > leg meat > breast meat. Different tissue partition coefficients and perfusion rates for blood may have resulted in different PBDE concentrations in tissues. The absorption efficiency of BDE-209 in chicken tissues followed the sequence of liver (0.15 ± 0.032%) > skin (0.14 ± 0.038%) > intestine (0.071 ± 0.021%) > breast meat (0.062 ± 0.020%) > leg meat (0.059 ± 0.016%) > stomach (0.021 ± 0.0095%), likely due in part to facilitated absorption of BDE-209 by transport proteins (P-glycoproteins). On average, 9.3 ± 1.7% of BDE-209 was excreted in feces. Estimated human average dietary intake via the consumption of chicken tissues of ∑ 8 PBDE for adults and children was 319 and 1380 ng day −1 for liver, 211 and 632 ng day −1 for leg meat, and 104 and 311 ng day −1 for breast meat from the contaminated group. Liver clearly poses the highest exposure risk for human consumption, particularly if chickens are fed with contaminated feed. - Highlights: • BDE-209 is the most abundant

  12. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-02-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a childcare setting. Two hundred fifty children (mean age 25 months; 57% boys) participated in a pre-test and a post-test, where they were offered pumpkin, courgette, and white radish. The intervention group (N = 125) participated in a 5-month exposure period, where they were exposed repeatedly (∼12x) to the vegetables: pumpkin blanched and as a cracker spread; courgette blanched and as soup; white radish raw and as a cracker spread. The control group (N = 125) maintained their normal routine. Mixed model analyses were used to analyse intake data and Chi-square analyses for willingness to taste. At pre-test, children ate about 20 g of pumpkin and courgette, whereas white radish intake was approximately 10 g. There was a significant positive effect of the intervention for pumpkin (+15 g; p < 0.001) and white radish (+16 g; p = 0.01). Results for willingness to taste were in the same direction. There was no repeated exposure effect for courgette (p = 0.54); this may have been due to its less distinct taste profile or familiarity with boiled courgette. From our findings, we conclude that repeated exposure to multiple unfamiliar vegetable tastes within the daily routine of a childcare setting is effective in improving children's willingness to taste and intake of some of these vegetables. However, repeated exposure may not be sufficient for more familiar or blander tasting vegetables. This implies that one size does not fit all and that additional strategies are needed to increase children's intake of these vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  15. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  16. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  17. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  18. The star ''Sun''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives a resume of our knowledge of the Sun. In particular, he discusses the mass, luminosity and chemical composition of the Sun, and then asks what an observer from Sirius would think about the Sun. (G.T.H.)

  19. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  20. Dietary exposure to cadmium at close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake does not affect renal function among female Japanese farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Kayoko; Ikeda, Yoko; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio

    2004-01-01

    Dietary cadmium (Cd) exposure and renal tubular function were investigated in 1381 female farmers from five districts in Japan (Japanese Multi-centered Environmental Toxicant Study project; JMETS). Dietary Cd exposure of the five populations was assessed from the individual Cd concentrations of the rice consumed by the study participants and the quantities of rice consumed daily. The populations showed a sequential difference in dietary Cd exposure, ranging from a level as low as that of the general Japanese population to one close to the current provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The levels of urinary Cd excretion, an indicator of Cd accumulation in the kidneys, increased along the same sequential pattern as dietary Cd exposure. However, no differences were observed among the populations in levels of urinary α 1 -microglobulin and β 2 -microglobulin excretion, which are indicators of renal tubular function. These results indicate that the current PTWI is sufficient to prevent Cd-induced renal dysfunction among the general population

  1. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  2. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  3. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity

  4. Estudo de distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos em pele com e sem exposição solar Melanocytes distribution and morphology analysis in skin with and without sun exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mayumi Takano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Acredita-se que a exposição solar possa alterar número, distribuição e morfologia dos melanócitos na pele humana, muitas vezes dificultando a interpretação de biópsias de pele, principalmente para o diagnóstico de lesões melanocíticas iniciais e para a avaliação precisa de margens de ressecção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os melanócitos da pele humana em área exposta e não exposta ao sol. MÉTODOS: Realizada análise histológica de 60 fragmentos de biópsias de pele obtidas do antebraço (área fotoexposta e região glútea (área coberta de cadáveres do Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos de Recife-PE. A estatística foi realizada com o SPSS Windows versão 12.0. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um número bastante variável de melanócitos nos fragmentos de pele, com maior concentração destes na região do antebraço (área de maior fotoexposição (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: It is believed that sun exposure can change the number, distribution and morphology of melanocytes in human skin, which often hinders the interpretation of skin biopsies, mainly as to diagnosis of initial melanocytic lesions and accurate assessment of resection margins. Our objective was to evaluate melanocytes in sun-exposed and non-exposed skin. METHODS: It was conducted the histological analysis of 60 skin biopsy samples resected from cadaver forearm (sun-exposed skin and cadaver buttock (non-exposed skin from the Death Verification Service (Serviço de Verificação de Óbitos of Recife, state of Pernambuco. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Windows version 12.0. RESULTS: There was considerable variability in melanocyte density, with a higher concentration of these cells in sun-exposed areas (p < 0.001. There was also an irregular distribution of melanocytes along the epidermal basal layer, occasionally with cells arranged side by side. This confluence was identified with a higher frequency in sun

  5. Our turbulent sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The quest for a new understanding of the sun and its surprising irregularities, variations, and effects is described. Attention is given to the sun's impact on life on earth, the weather and geomagnetic storms, sunspots, solar oscillations, the missing neutrinos in the sun, the 'shrinking sun', the 'dance' of the orbits, and the search for the 'climate connection'. It is noted that the 1980s promise to be the decade of the sun: not only because solar power may be a crucial ingredient in efforts to solve the energy crisis, but also because there will be brilliant auroras over North America, because sunspot activity will be the second highest since the 17th century, and because an unmanned spacecraft (i.e., the solar polar mission) will leave the plane of the solar system and observe the sun from above and below

  6. Sun's dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavanescu, Adela; Rusu, Mircea V.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis processes in the sun are one of the main results related to the evolution of the Sun. Dynamics and energetics of the Sun could be studied indirectly by their elements products in produced by nucleosynthesis. Also solar atmosphere and its characteristics reveled in its full development is observed during the solar eclipses. We try to correlate these facts in order to obtained data to be used in solar models. (authors)

  7. An integrated effect of protein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Noji, Teruki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0-6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0-6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2-6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6+/-3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (pbreakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.

  8. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Faid; Ismail, Ahmad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Hussin, Mohamed Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the Milky stork's diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to assess heavy metal exposure risk to the population. Lead level (5.5-7.98 mg kg -1 ) in particular was relatively high compared to Cd (0.08-0.33 mg kg -1 ). This was probably related to the different niches occupied by the species in the aquatic environment. The results further show that the predicted exposure doses (through intake of both food and water) for all metals are much lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. The total exposure dose for Cd was 0.11 mg kg -1  d -1 with TDI value of 0.54 mg kg -1  d -1 while Pb total exposure dose was 0.31 mg kg -1  d -1 with TDI value of 0.64 mg kg -1  d -1 . Several possible factors that could lead to the observed pattern were discussed. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork's habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity.

  9. Kug Sun Hong

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Kug Sun Hong. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 43-47 Composites. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites · Asit Kumar Khanra Hwa Chul Jung Seung Hoon Yu Kug Sun Hong Kwang Seon Shin.

  10. F F Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. F F Sun. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 71-76. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film · H N Zhang J Wang F F Sun D Liu H Y Wang F Wang.

  11. Efficacy of repeated exposure and flavour-flavour learning as mechanisms to increase preschooler's vegetable intake and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Dutch children's diets, like the diets of many children in Europe and the US are not balanced, do not contain enough vegetables and have been associated with a high prevalence of childhood obesity. Promoting children's vegetable intake is challenging. Objective - We investigated the

  12. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.; Graaf, de C.; Jager, G.

    2013-01-01

    Children’s consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children’s intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an

  13. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children's FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Cross-sectional survey conducted April-December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child's TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children's TV channels during the same period to calculate children's exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald's, Subway and Wendy's (MSW). Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Children's mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald's accounted for over 70 % of children's MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children's MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing.

  14. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children’s FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Design Cross-sectional survey conducted April–December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child’s TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children’s TV channels during the same period to calculate children’s exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald’s, Subway and Wendy’s (MSW). Setting Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Subjects Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Results Children’s mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald’s accounted for over 70 % of children’s MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children’s MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Conclusions Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing. PMID:28416041

  15. The association between personal sun exposure, serum vitamin D and global methylation in human lymphocytes in a population of healthy adults in South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini, E-mail: visalinin@nswcc.org.au [Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (Australia); Dhillon, Varinderpal [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia); Clements, Mark [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Armstrong, Bruce K. [Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Solar UV exposure is positively correlated with LINE 1 hypomethylation. • This was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. • There was no evident effect modification by serum vitamin D (25OHD) levels. • This was observed in a population of healthy adults from South Australia. - Abstract: Background: There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Method: Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Results: Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease = 0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI: −0.7 to −0.2 p{sub value} = 0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95%CI: 0.6–8.1 p-value = 0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI: 1.9–6.8 p-value = 0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; or did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Conclusion: Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.

  16. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  17. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drosophila larvae food intake cessation following exposure to Erwinia contaminated media requires odor perception, Trpa1 channel and evf virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Seydou; Masuzzo, Ambra; Royet, Julien; Kurz, C Leopold

    2017-05-01

    When exposed to microorganisms, animals use several protective strategies. On one hand, as elegantly exemplified in Drosophila melanogaster, the innate immune system recognizes microbial compounds and triggers an antimicrobial response. On the other hand, behaviors preventing an extensive contact with the microbes and thus reducing the risk of infection have been described. However, these reactions ranging from microbes aversion to intestinal transit increase or food intake decrease have been rarely defined at the molecular level. In this study, we set up an experimental system that allowed us to rapidly identify and quantify food intake decreases in Drosophila larvae exposed to media contaminated with bacteria. Specifically, we report a robust dose-dependent food intake decrease following exposure to the bacteria Erwinia carotovora carotovora strain Ecc15. We demonstrate that this response does not require Imd innate immune pathway, but rather the olfactory neuronal circuitry, the Trpa1 receptor and the evf virulence factor. Finally, we show that Ecc15 induce the same behavior in the invasive pest insect Drosophila suzukii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements and evaluation of the risks due to external radiation exposures and to intake of activated elements for operational staff engaged in the maintenance of medical cyclotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Parisi, R; Todde, S; De Felice, P; Savi, A; Pepe, A; Mrskova, A

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the activation phenomena and to evaluate the risk of external exposure and intake doses for the maintenance staff of two medical cyclotrons. Two self-shielded cyclotrons are currently operating in the facility for the routine production of (11)C and (18)F. Four radiochemistry laboratories are linked to the cyclotrons by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared both for the PET Diagnostic Department, where four CT-PET scanners are operating with a mean patient workload of 40 d(-1) and for [(18)F]FDG external distribution, to provide radiopharmaceuticals for other institutions. In spite of the fact that air contamination inside the radiochemistry laboratories during the synthesis represents the largest 'slice of the pie' in the evaluation of annual intake dose, potential contamination due to the activated particulate, generated during cyclotron irradiation by micro-corrosion of targets and other components potentially struck by the proton beam and generated neutrons, should be considered. In this regard, the most plausible long-lived (T(1/2) > 30 d) radioisotopes formed are: (97)Tc, (56)Co, (57)Co, (58)Co, (60)Co, (49)V, (55)Fe, (109)Cd, (65)Zn and (22)Na. The results for the operating personnel survey has revealed only low-level contamination for (65)Zn in one test, together with minor (18)F intake, probably due to the environmental dispersion of the radioisotope during the [(18)F]FDG synthesis.

  20. Stress-Induced Enhancement of Ethanol Intake in C57BL/6J Mice with a History of Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Involvement of Kappa Opioid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS) prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 h/day × 4 days/week) to ethanol vapor (CIE group) or air (CTL group). Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 h access to 15% ethanol). Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min), the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg), or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition) prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg) 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) 1 h prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS). All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was blocked by LY

  1. Stress-induced enhancement of ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic ethanol exposure: Involvement of kappa opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 hr/day x 4 days/week to ethanol vapor (CIE group or air (CTL group. Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 hour access to 15% ethanol. Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min, the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg, or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0,1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg one hour prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS. All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was

  2. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically

  3. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  4. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  5. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambalov, V.; Rijchev, V.; Botyanski, P.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  6. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  7. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid Rahman

    Full Text Available The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the Milky stork’s diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to assess heavy metal exposure risk to the population. Lead level (5.5–7.98 mg kg−1 in particular was relatively high compared to Cd (0.08–0.33 mg kg−1. This was probably related to the different niches occupied by the species in the aquatic environment. The results further show that the predicted exposure doses (through intake of both food and water for all metals are much lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI values. The total exposure dose for Cd was 0.11 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.54 mg kg−1 d−1 while Pb total exposure dose was 0.31 mg kg−1 d−1 with TDI value of 0.64 mg kg−1 d−1. Several possible factors that could lead to the observed pattern were discussed. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to improve the current habitat quality to protect the endangered species. The authors also emphasized on the protection of remaining Milky stork’s habitats i.e. mudflats and mangroves and the creation of buffer zone to mitigate the negative impacts that may arise from pollution activity. Keywords: Milky stork, Heavy metals, Exposure dose, Integrated assessment, Ecotoxicology, Pollution

  8. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  9. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.

  10. Sun Protection; A risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.

  11. The impact of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on building intake fraction and daily pollutant exposure in idealized urban models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chenyuan; Wang, Xuemei; Lin, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yifan; Chen, Xi; Hang, Jian

    2018-08-15

    Sustainable urban design is an effective way to improve urban ventilation and reduce vehicular pollutant exposure to urban residents. This paper investigated the impacts of urban open space and 'lift-up' building design on vehicular CO (carbon monoxide) exposure in typical three-dimensional (3D) urban canopy layer (UCL) models under neutral atmospheric conditions. The building intake fraction (IF) represents the fraction of total vehicular pollutant emissions inhaled by residents when they stay at home. The building daily CO exposure (E t ) means the extent of human beings' contact with CO within one day indoor at home. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations integrating with these two concepts were performed to solve turbulent flow and assess vehicular CO exposure to urban residents. CFD technique with the standard k-ε model was successfully validated by wind tunnel data. The initial numerical UCL model consists of 5-row and 5-column (5×5) cubic buildings (building height H=street width W=30m) with four approaching wind directions (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°). In Group I, one of the 25 building models is removed to attain urban open space settings. In Group II, the first floor (Lift-up1), or second floor (Lift-up2), or third floor (Lift-up3) of all buildings is elevated respectively to create wind pathways through buildings. Compared to the initial case, urban open space can slightly or significantly reduce pollutant exposure for urban residents. As θ=30° and 45°, open space settings are more effective to reduce pollutant exposure than θ=0° and 15°.The pollutant dilution near or surrounding open space and in its adjacent downstream regions is usually enhanced. Lift-up1 and Lift-up2 experience much greater pollutant exposure reduction in all wind directions than Lift-up3 and open space. Although further investigations are still required to provide practical guidelines, this study is one of the first attempts for reducing urban pollutant exposure by

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  13. Dietary intake rates during infancy and childhood: a data base for estimating human exposure to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Kersting, M.

    1984-01-01

    A data base of food consumption rates for infants and children up to 14 years of age has been compiled for the purpose of evaluating the potential health hazard from ingestion of food containing various forms of environmental pollutants, e.g., radionuclides, heavy metals, and others. The analysis is based on a nutritional survey conducted in the city of Dortmund, FRG. The survey comprises data for 114 infants and 176 children. Within the framework of the study the data are discussed in terms of time-averaged daily consumption rates by individuals for various food categories, i.e., milk and milk products, meat, fish, cereals, vegetables, fruit, drinks, and related subgroups. Descriptive statistics of dietary intake rates by individuals have been tabulated for several age groups. (author)

  14. Effect of increased intake of fish and mussels on exposure to toxic trace elements in a healthy, middle-aged population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are rich in essential nutrients, but are also a source of exposure to environmental contaminants. We aimed to investigate the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium blood concentrations. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (all...... non-smokers) aged 48-76 years to an intervention group (n = 51) or a control group (n = 51). Intervention participants received a high amount of fish and mussels for 26 weeks (1 kg week(-1)). Controls received no intervention and were expected to eat less than 300 g of fish and mussels per week. Whole...

  15. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  16. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  17. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  18. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  19. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  20. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, T.; Ezaki, T.; Moriguchi, J.; Fukui, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Ukai, H.; Sakurai, H.; Aoshima, K.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), α 1 -microglobulin (α 1 -MG), β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., ≥ 4 μg/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, α 1 -MG, β 2 -MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 μg/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 μg/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in α 1 -MG and NAG (β 2 -MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd with seafood intake

  1. Low-level cadmium exposure in Toyama City and its surroundings in Toyama prefecture, Japan, with references to possible contribution of shellfish intake to increase urinary cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T. [Hokuriku Health Service Association, Toyama 930-0177 (Japan); Ezaki, T. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Moriguchi, J. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Fukui, Y. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Okamoto, S. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Ukai, H. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan); Sakurai, H. [Occupational Health Research and Development Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014 (Japan); Aoshima, K. [Hagino Hospital, Fuchu-machi, Toyama 939-2723 (Japan); Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, 67 Nishinokyo-Kitatsuboicho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8472 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikeda@kyotokojohokenkai.or.jp

    2006-06-01

    Objectives: This study was initiated to examine if exposure to cadmium (Cd) was high also outside of the previously identified Itai-itai disease endemic region in the Jinzu River basin in Toyama prefecture in Japan. Methods: Morning spot urine samples were collected in June-August 2004 from 651 adult women (including 535 never-smokers) in various regions in Toyama prefecture, and subjected to urinalyses for cadmium (Cd), {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin ({alpha}{sub 1}-MG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), specific gravity (SG or sg) and creatinine (CR or cr). Three months later, the second urine samples were collected from those with elevated Cd in urine (e.g., {>=} 4 {mu}g/g cr), together with answers to questionnaires on shellfish consumption. Results: The geometric mean (GM) Cd, {alpha}{sub 1}-MG, {beta}{sub 2}-MG and NAG (after correction for CR) for the total participants were 2.0 {mu}g/g cr, 2.4 mg/g cr, 104 {mu}g/g cr and 2.8 units/g cr, respectively; further analysis with never-smoking cases only did not induce significant changes in these parameters. Analyses of the second urine samples from the high Cd subjects showed that there was substantial decrease (to about a half) in Cd in the 3-month period, and that the decrease was accompanied by reduction in {alpha}{sub 1}-MG and NAG ({beta}{sub 2}-MG did not show elevation even in the first samples). The urinalysis results in combination with the results of the questionnaire survey suggest that the high urinary Cd was temporary and might be induced by intake of shellfish that is edible whole. Conclusions: The overall findings appear to suggest that Cd exposure in Toyama populations (outside of the Itai-itai disease endemic region) was at the levels commonly observed on the coast of the Sea of Japan, and that the Cd level in urine might be modified by the intake of some types of seafood. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relation of urinary Cd

  2. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  3. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  4. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  5. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  6. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  7. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  8. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  9. YUAN-BO SUN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YUAN-BO SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 173-178 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis based on pathway interaction network · XIAN-DONG SONG XIAN-XU SONG GUI-BO LIU ...

  10. Advertising as a cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Nolan, Sarah; Kelly, Bridget; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Jones, Andrew; Halford, Jason Cg; Robinson, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have assessed the effects of food and nonalcoholic beverage (hereafter collectively referred to as food) advertising on food consumption, but the results of these studies have been mixed. This lack of clarity may be impeding policy action. We examined the evidence for a relation between acute exposure to experimental unhealthy food advertising and food consumption. The study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which advertising exposure (television or Internet) was experimentally manipulated, and food intake was measured. Five electronic databases were searched for relevant publications (SCOPUS, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Emerald Insight, and JSTOR). An inverse variance meta-analysis was used whereby the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake was calculated between unhealthy food advertising and control conditions. Twenty-two articles were eligible for inclusion. Data were available for 18 articles to be included in the meta-analysis (which provided 20 comparisons). With all available data included, the analysis indicated a small-to-moderate effect size for advertising on food consumption with participants eating more after exposure to food advertising than after control conditions (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.09; 0.65; I(2) = 98%). Subgroup analyses showed that the experiments with adult participants provided no evidence of an effect of advertising on intake (SMD: 0.00; P = 1.00; 95% CI: -0.08, 0.08; I(2) = 8%), but a significant effect of moderate size was shown for children, whereby food advertising exposure was associated with greater food intake (SMD: 0.56; P = 0.003; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.94; I(2) = 98%). Evidence to date shows that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake in children but not in adults. These data support public health policy action that seeks to reduce children's exposure to unhealthy food advertising. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  12. The Sun on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  13. Exposure assessment of Bisphenol A intake from polymeric baby bottles in formula-fed infants aged less than one year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BisphenolA (BPA or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpropanepresent in polycarbonate baby bottles may have harmful effects for formula-fed infants. This study evaluated the risks associated with exposure to BPA among Iranian formula-fed infants in an urban society in Isfahan. New and used baby bottles (n = 7 and 8, respectively as well as BPA-free marked bottles (n = 2 were collected from a retail outlet, and leaching of BPA was examined by conducting a migration test. Concentrations of BPA released from the new and used baby bottles were in the range of 0.49–8.58 and 0.63–2.47 μg/l, respectively. Next, probabilistic exposure estimation was performed. In all, 200 mothers registered with 11 health centres in Isfahan were interviewed. Data on feeding pattern, washing and sterilization practices, bottles types and manufacturers as well as the sex and weight of the infants were collected using a questionnaire. The results showed that majority of the surveyed infants were exposed to 0.1–0.3 μg/kg body weight (bw/d of BPA, which corresponded to approximately 2–7.5% of the defined t-TDI (4 μg/kgbw/d. These results suggested that the risk of the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA was very low in formula-fed Iranian infants even in the worst-case scenario.

  14. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  15. Tribute to Sun Kwok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kam Ching

    2016-01-01

    Sun Kwok was bom in Hong Kong in 1949. He did all his early schooling in Hong Kong and went to the same high school, Pui Ching Middle School, as I did but he was more than a decade later. There are two Education Systems in Hong Kong; the Chinese Language Schools and English Language School. Pui Ching was started by Christian missionaries in China and has a long history of providing quality education. Pui Ching is a Chinese Language School, and during colonial times, school entrance was difficult for students as we were not eligible to apply for admission to the University of Hong Kong, nor were we able to join the civil service. In spite of these handicaps, the school still managed to produce many excellent academics, including one Nobel Prize winner in physics and one Field's medalist in mathematics. Most of its graduates who sought further education went to the U.S. Or Canada as Sun Kwok did. Sun graduated from McMaster University and then went to the University of Minnesota for graduate studies. In the early 1970s, the University of Minnesota had just built one of the world's first infrared bolometers and the astronomers there (Nick Woolf and Ed Ney) were able to make some of the first infrared observations in the mid-infrared region. Through these observations, circumstellar dust was discovered, leading to the realization the evolved stars are losing mass. Sun wrote his PhD thesis on the mass loss mechanism of red giant stars, proposing that the stellar winds are driven by the mechanism of radiation pressure on grains. His 1975 paper is still widely cited to this date. In the same thesis, he showed that OH maser emission is a manifestation of the mass loss process and OH/IR stars are the most heavily mass-losing stars known. He went back to Canada for postdoctoral studies, first at UBC and then at York University. While at York, he applied his knowledge of mass loss to the problem of formation of planetary nebulae, leading to now well-established interacting

  16. Exposure assessment for dioxin-like PCBs intake from organic and conventional meat integrating cooking and digestion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Ben Abdallah, Nadia; Planche, Christelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Sans, Pierre; Engel, Erwan; Albert, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, exposure to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) related to bovine meat consumption is assessed based on multiples sources of data, namely data collected within the national research project "SoMeat" that objectively assesses the potential risks and benefits of organic and conventional food production systems in terms of contaminants respective contents. The work focuses on dioxin like PCBs in bovine meat in France. A modular Bayesian approach is proposed including measures after production, effect of cooking, levels and frequency of consumption and effect of digestion. In each module, a model is built and prior information can be integrated through previously acquired data commonly used in food risk assessment or vague priors. The output of the global model is the exposure including both production modes (organic and conventional) for three different cooking intensities (rare, medium, and well-done), before digestion and after digestion. The main results show that organic meat is more contaminated than conventional meat in mean after production stage and after cooking although cooking reduces the contamination level. This work is a first step of refined risk assessment integrating different steps such as cooking and digestion in the context of chemical risk assessment similarly to current microbiological risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Salman A; Nashwan, Samar Z; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m 2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while fasting ( Ramadan ). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan ). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  18. The basic principles for the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides (The most important indirect methods used in the Protection and Safety Dept. for internal occupational exposure monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Sakhita, K.

    2009-05-01

    This study shows the basic principles for the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides in order to calculate the committed effective dose of each radionuclide separately. We also discussed when the routine monitoring of workers becomes useful and when the workplace monitoring is better than workers monitoring. In addition, this study contains the details of four indirect methods as they are validated in the protection and safety department, and their names are: Determination the concentration of total uranium by using fluorimetry technique, Determination the activity of two uranium isotopes 238 and 234, The activity of Polonium 210, and the activity of Radium 226 by using alpha spectrometry for urine samples collected from workers occupationally exposed to this isotope. (author)

  19. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Young, Antony Richard; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data clearly support a substantial skin cancer risk from sun holidays. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does the sun play a role in the aetiology of malignant melanoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the sun in the aetiology of malignant melanoma is controversial. In 1992 Schuster1 wrote provocatively, 'Despite the lack of evidence of a causal link between sun exposure and melanoma, fear has been used shamelessly to frighten people out of the sun and into pigmented lesion clinics.' He claimed that the ...

  1. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  2. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  3. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  4. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  5. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  6. The sun in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonett, C.P.; Giampapa, M.S.; Matthews, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on solar science are presented. The topics considered include: variability of solar irradiance, sunspot number, solar diameter, and solar wind properties; theory of luminosity and radius variations; standard solar models; the sun and the IMF; variations of cosmic-ray flux with time; accelerated particles in solar flares; solar cosmic ray fluxes during the last 10 million yrs; solar neutrinos and solar history; time variations of Be-10 and solar activity; solar and terrestrial components of the atmospheric C-14 variation spectrum; solar flare heavy-ion tracks in extraterrestrial objects. Also addressed are: the faint young sun problem; atmospheric responses to solar irradiation; quaternary glaciations; solar-terrestrial relationships in recent sea sediments; magnetic history of the sun; pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity; magnetic activity in pre-main-sequence stars; classical T Tauri stars; relict magnetism of meteorites; luminosity variability of solar-type stars; evolution of angular momentum in solar-mass stars; time evolution of magnetic fields on solarlike stars

  7. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  8. The flight over the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrocq, A.

    1985-01-01

    With the ''Ulysse'' mission, a satellite is going for the first time to leave the ecliptic plane to observe the sun poles. The ISPM (International Solar Polar Mission) probe will go and visit the sun in passing Jupiter way. Sun pole regions are surmised to play a major role in solar wind production [fr

  9. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P [Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  12. Nutritional Rickets among Children in a Sun Rich Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the magnitude and characteristics of nutritional rickets and associated risk factors among children in Qatar. Subjects. A consecutive sample of 730 healthy subjects who visited the primay health care clinics were approached and 540 (73.9% subjects gave consent. Mehods. Nutritional rickets diagnosis was based on clinical radiologic and biochemical parameters and normalization of alkaline phosphatase level after 6 weeks course of daily vitamin D therapy. Results. The study revealed that 23.9% of the studied children had nutritional rickets. The mean SD age of those with rickets (3.76 years 1.51 was slightly higher than those without rickets (3.57 years 1.45. Family history of vitamin D deficiency (44.2%; P = .001 and diabetes mellitus (53.5%; P = .002 were significantly higher in rachitic children than in nonrachitic children. The children with rickets spent a significantly shorter average duration (26.86 minutes 19.94 under the sun than those without rickets (30.59 minutes 15.72; . A significantly larger proportion of rachitic children was afflicted with vitamin D deficiency (75.2% versus 62.2%; , secondary hypothyroidism (100% versus 7.5%; P = .009 and muscular weakness (56.6% versus 26.3%; . Conclusion. The most important risk factors were low vitamin D and calcium intakes, lack of exposure to sunlight, prolonged breast feeding without supplementation of vitamin D.

  13. Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to check the possible association of potential parental environmental exposures and maternal supplementation intake with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NSOC. A retrospective study comprised 499 cases and 480 controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province. Chi-square analysis and unconditional multiple logistic regression were used in the study. The results showed that maternal history of fever and the common cold without fever (ORCL/P = 3.11 and 5.56, 95%CI: 1.67–5.82 and 2.96–10.47, ORCPO = 3.31 and 8.23, 95%CI: 1.58–6.94 and 4.08–16.95, paternal smoking and alcohol consumption (ORCL/P = 2.15 and 5.04, 95%CI: 1.37–3.38 and 3.00–8.46, ORCPO = 1.82 and 4.40, 95%CI: 1.06–3.13 and 2.50–7.74, maternal exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides (ORCL/P = 6.07, 5.67 and 5.97, 95%CI: 1.49–24.76, 1.34–24.09 and 2.10–16.98, ORCPO = 10.65, 7.28 and 3.48, 95%CI: 2.54–44.67, 1.41–37.63 and 1.06–11.46 and multivitamin use during the preconception period (ORCL/P = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02–0.23, ORCPO = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01–0.30 were associated with cleft lip or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO. Maternal history of skin disease and negative life events (ORCL/P = 12.07 and 1.67, 95%CI: 1.81–80.05 and 1.95–2.67 were associated with CL/P. Some potential parental hazardous exposures during the periconception period and maternal use of multivitamins during the preconception period were associated with risk of NSOC.

  14. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  15. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Strickland, Mark; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Lin, Chad

    2016-07-13

    Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals' risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day) and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14-17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity), gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  16. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals’ risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Methods Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14–17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Results Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity, gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. Conclusion There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  17. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  18. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  19. A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioi, Amanda; Wendelboe-Nelson, Charlotte; Cowan, Sue; Cowie, Hilary; Rashid, Shahzad; Ritchie, Peter; Cherrie, Mark; Lansdown, Terry C; Cherrie, John W

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production. This paper reports a protocol for an intervention study, using text messaging in combination with a supportive smartphone App. The intervention aims to both reduce UV exposure during months with higher UV levels and promote appropriate dietary changes to boost Vitamin D levels during months with low UV levels. Approximately 60 construction workers will be recruited across the United Kingdom. A randomised control crossover trial (RCCT) will be used to test the intervention, with randomisation at site level - i.e. participants will receive both the control (no text messages or supportive App support) and intervention (daily text messages and supportive App). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) the intervention focuses on supporting sun-safety and healthy dietary decisions in relation to Vitamin D intake. The intervention emphasises cultivating the perception of normative support in the workplace, increasing awareness of control and self-efficacy in taking sun-protective behaviours, making healthier eating choices to boost Vitamin D, and tackling stigmas attached to image and group norms. Each study epoch will last 21 days with intervention text messages delivered on workdays only. The supportive App will provide supplementary information about sun protective behaviours and healthy dietary choices. The primary outcome measure is 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level (obtained using blood spot sampling), which will be taken pre and post control and

  20. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  1. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  2. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  3. Vitamin D Intake among Premenopausal Women Living in Jeddah: Food Sources and Relationship to Demographic Factors and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani A. Zareef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in young women is not well researched. Objectives. To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs, to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 premenopausal women aged 20–50 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed by the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in a subset of women n=102 at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Results. Sixty-five percent of women were below the EAR for vitamin D, and 61% fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products, supplements, and fish contributed most to vitamin D intake. Increased age was an independent determinant of sufficient vitamin D intake p<0.001. The prevalence of osteopenia was 33% in the lumbar spine and 30% in the femur neck. There was a significant positive association between calcium intake and BMD at the lumbar spine p=0.043 after controlling for body mass index and energy intake. Vitamin D intake was not significantly different between women with low and normal bone mass. Conclusion. Premenopausal women in Jeddah have insufficient vitamin D and calcium intakes. Public health strategies to improve nutrition in young women are needed, and expanding fortification programs to include all dairy products would be useful.

  4. Parental use of sun protection for their children-does skin color matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus G; Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam

    2018-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. This study aimed to compare the frequency of ideal sun protection use between parents with lighter- and darker-skinned children and explore their attitudes and beliefs on sun safety and their choice of sun protection. Parents of children aged 6 months to 6 years completed self-administered questionnaires about sun protection practices for their children. Parents assessed their child's Fitzpatrick phototype and were divided into lighter- (Fitzpatrick phototype I-III) and darker-skinned (Fitzpatrick phototype IV-VI) groups. Sun safety guidelines from the Canadian Dermatology Association were used to qualify ideal sun protection. A total of 183 parents were included. Overall, 31 parents (17%) used ideal sun protection for their children. As their children grew older, parents were less likely to use ideal sun protection (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.90). Parents in the lighter-skinned group were more likely to use ideal sun protection for their children (odds ratio = 7.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.7-20.1), believe that sun exposure was harmful (odds ratio = 17.2, 95% confidence interval = 4.0-74.9), and perceive value in sun protection (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% confidence interval = 3.3-39.0); the darker-skinned group believed that darker skin tones provided more sun protection (odds ratio = 12.4, 95% confidence interval = 6.1-25.4). Ideal parental sun protection efforts are overall low, particularly in parents of darker-skinned children. The identified attitudes toward and beliefs about sun safety may aid in delivery of future sun protection interventions, especially in multiracial populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  6. Gender-specific differences in the awareness and intake of vitamin D among adult population in Qassim region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajeed Alharbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the abundance of sunshine throughout the year, vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent among different Saudi populations. Aims The objective of the current study was to evaluate the awareness and intake of vitamin D rich sources and their associations among adults of both genders. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between June 2016 and August 2016 among adult patients and their family members (>18 years attending 6 primary care centres in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Results A total of 500 study participants were included in the current analysis. Approximately 54.6 per cent of the participants were males and the most frequent age was 26–50 years. The majority of the participants heard of vitamin D before (91.4 per cent, believed in its importance for health (92.8 per cent, were aware of the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency (72.6 per cent, and were able to identify sun exposure (81.4 per cent and diet (70.4 per cent as sources. The sources of vitamin D used by the participants were sun exposure (57.2 per cent, vitamin D rich foods (51.2 per cent and supplements (18.8 per cent. There was a significant association between overall awareness of vitamin D and intake of at least 2 sources of vitamin D in males (p < 0.001 but not females (p=0.920. Although females had better awareness than males, sun exposure was much lower among females than males. Conclusion As supplementation was very low in both gender and since cultural factors promoting limited sun exposure among females are not easily modifiable, the current findings further highlight the critical importance of vitamin D supplementation, especially among females in Saudi Arabia.

  7. Sun behaviour on the beach monitored by webcam photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerfordt, I M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2018-02-01

    To prevent skin cancer, the general population is recommended to limit time in the sun, to wear clothes and to seek shade around noon. This study aimed to investigate the number of beachgoers, the duration of sun exposure, and clothing worn during the day on a beach in Copenhagen. Observational, descriptive study. On 11 beach days in 2014 and 2015, beachgoers were counted every hour from 8:00 to 20:00. It was noted if they wore clothes or swimwear. To estimate the duration of sun exposure, it was noted how long cars were parked by the beach. Of the counted beachgoers 46% were present from noon to 15:00. The number of beachgoers peaked at 15:00 on weekend days (Saturdays and Sunday) and at 16:00 on working days (Monday to Friday). Both on weekend days and working days, the percentage of beachgoers wearing clothes was lowest at 13:00 when about 90% wore only swimwear. Cars were parked for 117 min on average. Around noon, the mean time expanded to 142 min. We assume this to reflect the duration of a beach visit. The results indicate a weak tendency to limit time in the sun and to seek shade when the ultraviolet radiation is strongest in the midday sun. Hopefully information about actual sun behaviour can be used to adjust campaigns. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sun safety in construction: a U.K. intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Madgwick, P; Randall, R

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to promote sun safety in the U.K. construction sector are warranted given the high incidence of skin cancer attributable to sun exposure relative to other occupational groups. To evaluate change in sun safety knowledge and practices among construction workers in response to an educational intervention. A baseline questionnaire was administered, followed by a bespoke sector-specific DVD-based intervention. At 12-month follow-up, participants completed a further questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 120 workers (intervention group, n = 70; comparison group, n = 50). At follow-up, the proportion of intervention group participants that reported correct sun safety knowledge was not significantly greater than at baseline. However, the intervention group demonstrated significant positive change on 9 out of 10 behavioural measures, the greatest change being use of a shade/cover when working in the sun followed by regularly checking skin for moles or unusual changes. Exposure to this intervention was linked to some specific positive changes in construction workers' self-reported sun safety practices. These findings highlight the potential for educational interventions to contribute to tackling skin cancer in the UK construction sector. The findings support the development of bespoke educational interventions for other high-risk outdoor worker groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  10. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob

    2017-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents' experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents' outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  11. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  12. Sun-Induced Changes in Stratum Corneum Function Are Gender and Dose Dependent in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Fluhr, J.W.; Song, S.P.; Sun, Z.; Wang, H.; Shi, Y.J.; Elias, P.M.; Man, M.-Q.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that UVB radiation changes the epidermal permeability barrier and stratum corneum (SC) hydration. It is well known that sun exposure causes erythema, sunburn and melanoma. However, whether daily sun exposure alters SC integrity and epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown, especially in Chinese subjects. In the present study, we assess the SC integrity, SC hydration and epidermal permeability barrier function following various doses of sun exposure. A total of 258 subjects (124 males and 134 females) aged 18–50 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka MPA5) was used to measure SC hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) on the forearms. In males, basal TEWL was higher with higher doses of sun exposure than with lower doses and control, whereas in females, basal TEWL was higher with lower doses of sun exposure than with higher doses and control. In the group with higher doses of sun exposure, TEWL in females was significantly lower than that in males. The barrier recovery was faster in females than in males in both control and lower-dose groups. In both males and females, barrier recovery was delayed with higher doses of sun exposure. In males, sun exposure did not alter SC hydration, while in females SC hydration was lower with lower doses of sun exposure as compared with control and higher doses of sun exposure. These results demonstrated that sun-induced changes in SC function and SC hydration vary with gender and the extent of sun exposure. PMID:20571289

  13. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  14. Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Sophie J; Gottschlich, Elizabeth A; Holman, Dawn M; Watson, Meg

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends clinical counseling for individuals ages 10 to 24 years to decrease skin cancer risk. A national, random sample of US American Academy of Pediatrics members practicing primary care in 2002 (response rate 55%) and 2015 (response rate 43%). Surveys explored attitudes and experiences regarding sun protection counseling; indoor tanning questions were added in 2015. χ 2 tests compared demographics and counseling responses across years, and multivariable logistic regression models examined counseling predictors. More pediatricians in 2015 (34%) than in 2002 (23%) reported discussing sun protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors' indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more. Although improved, sun protection counseling rates remain low. Indoor tanning counseling can be improved. Because early-life exposure to UV radiation increases risk and clinician counseling can positively impact prevention behaviors, pediatricians have an important role in skin cancer prevention; counseling may save lives. Time constraints remain a barrier. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  16. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  17. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  18. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  19. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  20. The sun and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacsne Dajka, E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the solar neutrino puzzle is given. The main processes in the sun, the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are described. The solar neutrino puzzle, i.e. the fact that the detected amount of neutrinos coming from the sun is less than the amount predicted by the solar model is discussed. The first generation solar neutrino experiments are presented. (K.A.)

  1. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamantimande Kunene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Results Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade. Most mothers (97% liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86 reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Conclusions Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  2. Australian primary school communities' understandings of SunSmart: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Mealtime exposure to food advertisements while watching television increases food intake in overweight and obese girls but has a paradoxical effect in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Harvey; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Patel, Barkha; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Bellissimo, Nick; Mollard, Rebecca C

    2015-02-01

    Food advertisements (ads) in TV programs influence food choice and have been associated with higher energy intake from snacks in children; however, their effects at mealtime have not been reported. Therefore, we measured energy intake at a pizza meal consumed by normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children (aged 9-14 years) while they watched a TV program with or without food ads and following pre-meal consumption of a sweetened beverage with or without calories. NW and OW/OB boys (experiment 1, n = 27) and girls (experiment 2, n = 23) were randomly assigned to consume equally sweetened drinks containing glucose (1.0 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (control). Food intake was measured 30 min later while children watched a program containing food or nonfood ads. Appetite was measured before (0-30 min) and after (60 min) the meal. Both boys and girls reduced energy intake at the meal in compensation for energy in the glucose beverage (p pre-meal energy consumption in children differ by sex and body mass index.

  4. Effect of Daily Exposure to an Isolated Soy Protein Supplement on Body Composition, Energy and Macronutrient Intake, Bone Formation Markers, and Lipid Profile in Children in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Wilson; Córdoba, Diana; Durán, Paola; Chacón, Yersson; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-01-16

    A soy protein-based supplement may optimize bone health, support physical growth, and stimulate bone formation. This study aimed to assess the effect of a daily soy protein supplement (SPS) on nutritional status, bone formation markers, lipid profile, and daily energy and macronutrient intake in children. One hundred seven participants (62 girls), ages 2 to 9, started the study and were randomly assigned to lunch fruit juice with (n = 57, intervention group) or without (n = 50, control group) addition of 45 g (230 Kcal) of a commercial SPS during 12 months; 84 children (51 girls, 33 boys) completed the study (45 and 39 intervention and control, respectively). Nutritional assessment included anthropometry and nutrient intakes; initial and final blood samples were taken; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were analyzed. Statistically significant changes (p < .05) in body mass index and weight for age Z scores were observed between groups while changes in body composition were not. Changes in energy, total protein, and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p < .01). Calorie intake changes were statistically significant between groups (p < .001), and BAP decreased in both groups, with values within normal ranges. Osteocalcin, IGFBP-3, and lipid profile were not different between groups. IGF-I levels and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, changes in macronutrient and energy intake and nutritional status in the intervention group compared to control group may ensure harmonious and adequate bone health and development.

  5. Protecting Your Skin from the Sun%防晒护肤之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳君

    2006-01-01

    @@ Protecting your skin Most skin cancer can be prevented. Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developing skin cancer and help prevent wrinkles1. ● Limit your exposure to the sun, especially midday between 10 a.m.and 3 p.m. Seek shady areas,and avoid direct sunlight.

  6. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  7. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  8. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  9. Evaluation of sun holiday, diet habits, origin and other factors as determinants of vitamin D status in Swedish primary health care patients: a cross-sectional study with regression analysis of ethnic Swedish and immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Anne; Andersson, Åsa; Johansson, Gunnar; Björkegren, Karin; Bardel, Annika; Kristiansson, Per

    2013-09-03

    Determinants of vitamin D status measured as 25-OH-vitamin D in blood are exposure to sunlight and intake of vitamin D through food and supplements. It is unclear how large the contributions are from these determinants in Swedish primary care patients, considering the low radiation of UVB in Sweden and the fortification of some foods. Asian and African immigrants in Norway and Denmark have been found to have very low levels, but it is not clear whether the same applies to Swedish patients. The purpose of our study was to identify contributors to vitamin D status in Swedish women attending a primary health care centre at latitude 60°N in Sweden. In this cross-sectional, observational study, 61 female patients were consecutively recruited between January and March 2009, irrespective of reason for attending the clinic. The women were interviewed about their sun habits, smoking, education and food intake at a personal appointment and blood samples were drawn for measurements of vitamin D and calcium concentrations. Plasma concentration of 25-OH-vitamin D below 25 nmol/L was found in 61% (19/31) of immigrant and 7% (2/30) of native women. Multivariate analysis showed that reported sun holiday of one week during the last year at latitude below 40°N with the purpose of sun-bathing and native origin, were significantly, independently and positively associated with 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma with the strongest association for sun holiday during the past year. Vitamin D deficiency was common among the women in the present study, with sun holiday and origin as main determinants of 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations in plasma. Given a negative effect on health this would imply needs for vitamin D treatment particularly in women with immigrant background who have moved from lower to higher latitudes.

  10. SU(N) Irreducible Schwinger Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of $(N-1)$ types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  11. Nuclear astrophysics of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS

  12. Torsional oscillations of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, H.B.; Howard, R.; National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1985-01-01

    The sun's differential rotation has a cyclic pattern of change that is tightly correlated with the sunspot, or magnetic activity, cycle. This pattern can be described as a torsional oscillation, in which the solar rotation is periodically sped up or slowed down in certain zones of latitude while elsewhere the rotation remains essentially steady. The zones of anomalous rotation move on the sun in wavelike fashion, keeping pace with and flanking the zones of magnetic activity. It is uncertain whether this torsional oscillation is a globally coherent ringing of the sun or whether it is a local pattern caused by and causing local changes in the magnetic fields. In either case, it may be an important link in the connection between the rotation and the cycle that is widely believed to exist but is not yet understood. 46 references

  13. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Davis, S; Griffiths, A

    2016-06-01

    Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk of skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK. To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential strategies for improving sun safety in this occupational group. Postal delivery workers completed a questionnaire that collected data on occupational sun safety knowledge and practice in addition to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. One-way analysis of variances were applied to assess differences in knowledge and practice by these characteristics. A total of 1153 postal delivery workers completed the questionnaire, a 60% response rate. Thirty-three per cent reported receiving sun safety training within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents reported correct knowledge on three of the six domains and good practice on four of the six behavioural domains. However, only one-fifth of respondents reported wearing sunglasses and ensuring a plentiful intake of water. Knowledge and practice differed significantly according to demographic, personal and workplace characteristics. There is a need to raise the profile of occupational skin cancer in this occupational group and to increase the priority given to occupational sun safety policies alongside targeted and tailored interventions, the effect of which can be evaluated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  14. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  15. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  16. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  17. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  18. Teaching "Empire of the Sun."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet, Fred H. van

    1990-01-01

    A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…

  19. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  20. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohara S Almeneessier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  1. Effect of rate of inclusion of fishmeal prepared by cooking and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooked and sun dried fish offal on intake and nutrient retention of growing Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicks in southern Ethiopia was evaluated. Unsexed day old RIR chicks were uniformly brooded, vaccinated against Gumboro and Newcastle diseases. At the age of 14 days, 10 chicks were assigned to each of the 5 ...

  2. The Effect of Inclusion Rate of Cooked and Sun-dried Fish Offal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding cooked and sun-dried fish offal meal (fishmeal) on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion efficiency of RIR chicks were assessed at Wolayta Soddo, southern Ethiopia. Unsexed day-old RIR chicks (300) were brooded uniformly for 14 days and then vaccinated against Gumboro and Newcastle ...

  3. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing; Ultrafiolett straaling, solskader og forebygging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-03-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  4. Stochastic modelling of human exposure to food chemicals and nutrients within the "Montecarlo" project: an exploration of the influence of brand loyalty and market share on intake estimates of intense sweeteners from sugar-free soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora

    2003-04-11

    To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and in food consumption patterns. Within the EC-funded "Montecarlo" project, a comprehensive set of mathematical algorithms was developed to take into account all the necessary components for stochastic modelling of a variety of food chemicals, nutrients and ingredients. An appropriate computer software is being developed. Since the concentration of food chemicals may vary among different brands of the same product, consumer behaviour with respect to brands may have an impact on exposure assessments. Numeric experiments were carried out on different ways of incorporating indicators of market share and brand loyalty in the mathematical algorithms developed within the stochastic model of exposure to intense sweeteners from sugar-free beverages. The 95th percentiles of intake were shown to vary according to the inclusion/exclusion of these indicators. The market share should be included in the model especially if the market is not equitably distributed between brands. If brand loyalty data are not available, the model may be run under theoretical scenarios.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients attending dermatology clinics at four hospitals in Lima, Peru Exposição solar e conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de fotoproteção em pacientes de unidades ambulatoriais de dermatologia em quatro hospitais de Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas-Gavelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To establish the knowledge, about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in four hospitals in Lima, Peru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 364 patients selected using a systematic random sampling process in the four participating hospitals. The selected patients were interviewed to determine their knowledge, behavior and practices in relation to sun exposure and photoprotection. The chi-square test was used to identify any significant differences between knowledge and practices. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this sample was 45.1 ± 21.4 years. Of the 364 patients, 55.9% were women and 54.8% had skin phototype IV. The principal risks related to sun exposure were skin cancer (80.5% and sunburn (77.8%. Knowledge regarding sun protection was more evident in individuals with university/college education (pFUNDAMENTOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o conhecimento, sobre a exposição solar e fotoproteção em pacientes ambulatoriais tratados nas unidades de dermatologia de quatro hospitais em Lima, Peru. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal. A amostra foi formada por 364 pacientes originários dos quatro hospitais participantes. Os pacientes foram selecionados através de um processo de amostragem aleatória sistemática. Uma vez selecionados, os pacientes foram entrevistados para determinação do conhecimento, atitudes e práticas em relação à exposição ao sol e à fotoproteção. O teste do qui-quadrado foi usado para determinar diferenças significativas entre conhecimento e práticas. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tinham em média 45,1±21,4 anos de idade, 55,9% eram mulheres e 54,8% tinham pele fototipo IV. Os principais riscos relacionados à exposição solar foram câncer de pele (80,5% e queimaduras solares (77,8%. Participantes com nível universitário apresentaram maior conhecimento sobre prote

  6. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection among patients attending an outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Terzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of the study was to evaluate harmful effects of sun exposure and knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sun protection among patients attending our outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (171 male and 229 female aged between 16 and 89 years were included in this study. Subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire composed of 52 questions. In the first part of the questionnaire, patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, history of sunburn, first-degree relatives with a history of skin cancer; in the second part, knowledge about harmful effects of sun and sun protection were inquired. In the third part, patient attitude and behaviors related to sun protection was evaluated. Results: Our results revealed that 69.25% of patients had satisfactory level of knowledge. While the level of knowledge was not affected by economic status, place of residence, skin type and presence of skin cancer in participants or their first-degree relatives, it was found to be increased with increasing educational level. The patients were found to prefer avoiding mid-day sun (75.5% and staying in the shade (64.8% chiefly as sun protection methods and 45.3% of patients were found to use sunscreens. Most frequently preferred sources of information about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection methods were found to be television, magazines and newspapers (76.3%, doctor’s advice and internet, respectively. Conclusion: Although a satisfactory level of knowledge about harmful effects of the sun and protection methods was found, it was observed that individuals could not convert their knowledge into the sun protection behavior

  7. A practical application of the ICRP publication n. 88 for controlling the embryo and foetus exposure from intakes of radionuclides by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Frittelli, L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising radiation require that the employer of a female worker which has notified pregnancy shall adopt the working conditions in respect of occupational exposure so as to ensure that the embryo or foetus is afforded the same broad level of protection as required for members of the public. In this paper the metabolic and the dosimetric models recommended in the Publication 88 are used for evaluating, for some selected radionuclides, the reference levels for retention or excretion by the mother related to the embryo and foetus exposure

  8. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  9. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  10. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  11. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  12. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  13. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  14. Is repeated exposure the holy grail for increasing children's vegetable intake? Lessons learned from a Dutch childcare intervention using various vegetable preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G.; Vrijhof, Milou; Kremer, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Children's failure to eat enough vegetables highlights the need for effective interventions encouraging this behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated exposure to three a priori unfamiliar vegetables, each prepared in two ways, on children's vegetable acceptance in a

  15. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  16. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  17. Can the Sun replace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-07-01

    Two asymptotic worlds, one based on solar energy, the other based on nuclear energy, are compared. The total energy demand in each case is 2,000 quads. Although the Sun can in principal supply this energy, it probably will be very expensive. If the energy were supplied entirely by breeders, the nuclear energy system would pose formidable systems problems--particularly safety and proliferation. It is suggested that in view of these possible difficulties, all options must be kept open

  18. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  19. Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs

  20. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  1. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  2. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  3. Sun Safety Practices Among Schools in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Guy, Gery P

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to the sun's UV radiation is a leading cause of skin cancer. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make sun protective behavior more likely, could be promoted and supported by school policies and practices. To identify school characteristics associated with having adopted practices that promote sun safety. School-level data from the February 3 to July 23, 2014, School Health Policies and Practices Study's Healthy and Safe School Environment questionnaire were analyzed. The School Health Policies and Practices Study uses a 2-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of schools. All public, state-administered, Catholic, and non-Catholic private schools with any of the grades from kindergarten through 12 were eligible for inclusion. All analyses were conducted using weighted data. Prevalence of sun safety practices. In a nationally representative sample of 828 US schools, representatives of 577 schools (69.7%) responded. Overall, sun safety practices were not common among schools. The most frequent practice was having teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school (47.6%; 95% CI, 42.4%-52.9%). Few schools made sunscreen available for students to use (13.3%; 95% CI, 10.2%-17.0%), almost always or always scheduled outdoor activities to avoid times when the sun was at peak intensity (15.0%; 95% CI, 11.4%-19.6%), or asked parents to ensure that students applied sunscreen before school (16.4%; 95% CI, 12.9%-20.6%). High schools were less likely than elementary schools and middle schools to adopt several practices: for instance, 37.5% of high schools (95% CI, 29.7%-46.0%), 51.6% of middle schools (95% CI, 43.3%-59.7%), and 49.5% of elementary schools (95% CI, 42.0%-57.0%) had teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school, and 11.8% of high schools (95% CI, 7.7%-17.5%), 18.2% of middle schools (95% CI, 13.3%-24.4%), and 14.7% of elementary schools (95% CI, 9.6%-21.8%) almost

  4. Exposure of the endangered Milky stork population to cadmium and lead via food and water intake in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Faid; Ismail, Ahmad; Omar, Hishamuddin; Hussin, Mohamed Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    The Milky stork is listed as an endangered species endemic to the Southeast Asia region. In Malaysia, the population is currently being reintroduced back into the wild. However, the increase of anthropogenic activity throughout the coastal area might expose the population to hazardous chemicals such as heavy metals. This study highlights the contamination of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the Milky storkâs diet. Additionally, this is the first time an integrated exposure model being used to as...

  5. Adoption of Sun Safe Work Place Practices by Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D.; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Context Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer, the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Objective Local government managers in Colorado—in municipalities, counties and special districts—were surveyed in order to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. Design The survey consisted of 51 question assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was comprised or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. Results Over 40 percent of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. Conclusions The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting

  6. Adoption of sun safe workplace practices by local governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer--the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Local government managers in Colorado-in municipalities, counties, and special districts-were surveyed to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. The survey consisted of 51 questions assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was composed or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. More than 40% of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting localite communities. Government size and budget do not

  7. Population and age-group trends in weekend sun protection and sunburn over two decades of the SunSmart programme in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, J K; Warne, C D; Dobbinson, S J; Wakefield, M A; Hill, D J

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high skin cancer burden in Australia, the multicomponent, community-wide SunSmart programme has worked since 1988 to reduce excessive sun exposure.  To examine trends in key sun-protection behaviours and sunburn for the Melbourne population from 1987 to 2007, and examine for the first time patterns of change among age groups.   Representative cross-sectional weekly telephone surveys of weekend sun protection and sunburn were conducted over 11 of the summers in the period 1987-88 to 2006-07. Trends were analysed for the population and for age groups, adjusting for ambient temperature and ultraviolet radiation, which are environmental determinants of sun-related behaviour and sunburn.   The general pattern of trends suggests two distinct periods, one with rapid improvement in behaviours (more sunscreen use, less unprotected body exposure and less sunburn) from 1987-88 to 1994-95, and the second from 1997-98 to 2006-07 with fewer changes in behaviours noted. The age-group analyses showed a similar pattern of change over time across groups, with a few notable exceptions.  The similarity of the pattern of trends among age groups suggests that external influences including the SunSmart programme's activity had a relatively similar impact across the population. Sun-related behaviours continue to be amenable to change. More recent relative stability with some declines in sun protection suggests further intensive campaigns and other strategies may be needed to maintain previous successes and to achieve more universal use of sun protection. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  10. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Assessment of health risk of exposure to mercury through intake under canned tuna in health registration process period January 2010-December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.; Tovar, M.; Alvarez, J.; Arraez, M.; Hordziejewicz, I.; Loreto, I.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: Assessing the health risk due to exposure to mercury through ingestion canned tuna under sanitary registration process in the country, using the risk assessment tool recommended by the Codex Alimentarius establishing safety according to the use of local diets. The analytical method appied was Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Amalgamation (SS TDA AS). As a recommendation was important to maintain an ongoing program of monitoring of mercury in tuna as being a highly recommended food as being excellent source of protein and fatty acids beneficial to health can also be a source of mercury poisoning in cases of people who have a high consumption thereof in the diet

  12. SU(N,1) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  13. Parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding sun protection in children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Zoe; Greenfield, Sheila

    2018-02-01

    Childhood is a critical period for sun protection, when the skin is particularly susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation. Children are dependent upon parents to implement sun protective measures. Existing qualitative research exploring parents' attitudes and beliefs underpinning children's sun protection is from Australia, which has the highest melanoma incidence rates globally, and thus benefits from widespread sun protection awareness campaigns. Parents' sun protective behaviour may, therefore, differ between Australia and the UK. This study investigates the topic in a UK context, using qualitative methodology to gain detailed insights into a relatively under-researched area. The aim of the study was to explore parents' knowledge and understanding of sun protection in children, and factors that motivate and challenge them in this area. Finally, it aimed to determine if and how ethnicity and skin type influence these attitudes and beliefs. Twenty-two semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with parents of children aged 5 years or younger, recruited from local nurseries. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged, each incorporating two to three sub-themes. 'Attitudes towards children's sun protection' refers to the fact that parents considered sun protection to be important for children, a finding which was consistent between different skin types. 'Sun protection practices' brings together several protective behaviours adopted in children and, to a lesser degree, in parents, and their associated disadvantages. 'Sun safety knowledge' refers to parents' awareness of the risks of sun exposure and the need for protection, and illustrates where gaps in knowledge exist, such as regarding the need for vitamin D, and the importance of vigilant sun protection even in the UK. Finally, 'motivating and facilitating factors' highlights motivations for sun protection in children, and factors that

  14. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  15. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jamblang (Syzygium cumini(L.) Skeels) dan Amylum Oryzae Terhadap Nilai Sun Protection Factor Krim Tabir Surya Oktil Metoksisinamat secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Sri Rahmayanti Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Sun exposure contain ultraviolet radiation that can cause a variety of skin disorders ranging from reddish, black spots, dryness, wrinkles to skin cancer. Cosmetic sunscreen can filter the sun or hold the entire sun exposure to reduce the adverse effects of sunlight. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is an active substance which works chemically to absorb ultraviolet light (UV) into the epidermal layer of the skin. Another active subtance is a jamblang leaf (Syzigium cumini (L) Skeels) because it ...

  16. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  17. New recommendations for vitamin D intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Benedik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone metabolism and immune system. Low vitamin D levels (< 50 nmol/l have been widely reported in all age groups in recent years. Lack of vitamin D is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality, cancer incidence and mortality, and autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is rising, mainly due to modern lifestyle and malabsorption disorders. As an adequate intake of vitamin D is hard to achieve through the diet alone, the dietary supplements of vitamin D are recommended. Sun exposure (ultraviolet B radiation, UVB represents the main source of vitamin D, which is synthesised in the skin. UVB intensity varies through the year and the time of day. The peak UVB period is between 10 am to 4 pm from April till October (above 40° latitude. There is no universal consent on the amount and frequency of vitamin D supplementation. A sufficient supplementation of vitamin D is necessary through the whole life cycle, especially during lactation. With sufficient supplementation of vitamin D during lactation (4,000 IU/day mother covers her own and through her breast milk also the child`s nutritional needs (400 IU/day for vitamin D. However, further research in this field is needed before recommending such a high supplementation for nursing mothers. New German Reference values from 2012 advises 400 IU / day for infants during the first year of life, and afterwards 800 IU/day for the entire population.

  18. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  19. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  20. Prospective study of sunburn and sun behavior patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza, Stephen W; Halpern, Allan C; Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Berwick, Marianne; Geller, Alan C

    2012-02-01

    Early childhood UV light radiation (UVR) exposures have been shown to be associated with melanoma development later in life. The objective of this study was to assess sunburn and changes in sunburn and sun behaviors during periadolescence. A prospective, population-based study was conducted in fifth-grade children (∼10 years of age) from Framingham, Massachusetts. Surveys were administered at baseline (September-October 2004) and again 3 years later (September-October 2007). Surveys were analyzed to assess prevalence of reported sunburn and sun behaviors and to examine changes in response over the follow-up period. Data were analyzed from 360 participants who had complete information regarding sunburn at both time points. In 2004, ∼53% of the students reported having at least 1 sunburn during the previous summer, and this proportion did not significantly change by 2007 (55%, P = .79), whereas liking a tan and spending time outside to get a tan significantly increased (P sunburns before age 11 and again 3 years later, targeting children in pediatric offices and community settings regarding unprotected UV exposure may be a practical approach. Because periadolescence is a time of volatility with regard to sun behaviors, learning more about children who receive sunburns versus those who avoid them is a critical research task.

  1. Cheap two axis sun following device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Georgiev, A.; Boudinov, H.

    2005-01-01

    A sun following system was constructed and tested. The tracker gives the possibility for automatic measuring of direct solar radiation with a phetylureum. The mechanism is operated by a digital program in the control system, situated separately from the mechanical part. The position of the sun is calculated, and the pointing errors appearing during its daily work are stored for later analysis. Additionally, in the active operation mode, the tracker uses the signal of a sun detecting linear sensor to control the pointing. Two stepper motors move the instrument platform, keeping the sun's beam at the center of the sensor. The mechanism was created at the Laboratory 'Evaluation Solar' of the Technical University Faradaic Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso, Chile. The experiments show good results. The described sun tracker gives similar results as the Swiss sun tracker INTRA at a very much lower price

  2. SUN1 splice variants, SUN1_888, SUN1_785, and predominant SUN1_916, variably function in directional cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka, Yu; Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Imada, Junko; Katahira, Jun; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relat...

  3. The shivering sun opens its heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.

    1976-01-01

    Recent discoveries, by various workers, of global oscillations of the Sun are summarised. The two major ways in which the Sun can vibrate, as a standing acoustic wave and as a standing gravity wave, are discussed. The recently discovered oscillations provide a new rich class of data with which to test theoretical models of the internal structure of the Sun. The implications of these new data with reference to solar models are considered. (U.K.)

  4. UVB exposure of farm animals: study on a food-based strategy to bridge the gap between current vitamin D intakes and dietary targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV B radiation for improving vitamin D3 content of eggs and meat. In a two-factorial design hens that received diets with 0 (-D3 or 3,000 IU (+D3 vitamin D3/kg were non-exposed (-UVB or exposed to UVB radiation (+UVB for 3 h daily over 4 weeks. Data show that UVB radiation was very effective in raising the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk and meat. Egg yolk from +UVB/-D3 hens had a higher vitamin D3 content (17.5±7.2 µg/100 g dry matter (DM than those from the -UVB/+D3 group (5.2±2.4 µg/100 g DM, p<0.01. Vitamin D3 content in egg yolk of vitamin D3-supplemented hens could be further increased by UVB radiation (32.4±10.9 µg/100 g DM. The content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OHD3 in the egg yolk also increased in response to UVB, although less pronounced than vitamin D3. Meat revealed about 4-fold higher vitamin D3 contents in response to UVB than to dietary vitamin D3 (p<0.001. In conclusion, exposure of hens to UVB is an efficient approach to provide consumers with vitamin D3-enriched foods from animal sources.

  5. A 3-Year Follow-up of Sun Behavior in Patients With Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Luise Winkel; Datta, Pameli; Heydenreich, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING...... that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each...... suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays....

  6. Aware, motivated and striving for a 'safe tan': an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21-62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers' knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health messages need to

  7. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Coherent states related with SU(N) and SU(N,1) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Shelepin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of coherent state (CS) for symmetric presentations of groups SU(N) and SU(N,1) is plotted, its properties being investigated. Evolution of CS is considered. Relation between CS of groups SU(N) and Glauber is ascertained

  9. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeitos da radiação solar crônica prolongada sobre o sistema imunológico de pescadores profissionais em Recife (PE, Brasil Effects of long-term chronic exposure to sun radiation in immunological system of commercial fishermen in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Maria de Fátima Martins de Carvalho Bezerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Existe um consenso de que a exposição à radiação ultravioleta determina alterações n o sistema imunológico da pele, o que permite que se avente a hipótese de que a exposição prolongada e crônica ao Sol pode representar uma das maiores agressões ambientais à saúde humana. Entre as várias ocupações que requerem, necessariamente, exposição prolongada e crônica ao Sol está a de pescador. No entanto, a experiência clínica dermatológica, amealhada ao longo de vários anos de exercício da Medicina, não parece confirmar essa hipótese. OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos clínicos, histológicos e imunológicos da exposição crônica e prolongada à radiação ultravioleta em pescadores. MÉTODOS: Em estudo prospectivo, transversal, observacional, foram caracterizadas lesões dermatológicas, marcadores imunológicos e alterações histológicas de pescadores e subpopulações de linfócitos comparadas a grupo-controle. Empregaram-se testes de Mann-Whitney, exato de Fisher, Wilcoxon em nível de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças entre os grupos exposto e protegido em elastose (p = 0,03, ectasia de vasos dérmicos (p = 0,012 e número de células nas camadas epidérmicas entre os cones (p = 0,029. Foram mais comuns em pescadores CD45RO, CD68+ e mastócitos na pele (p = 0,040, p BACKGROUND: Among the various occupations which necessarily require long-term and chronic sun exposure is that of a fisherman. However, clinical experience in dermatology earned over several years of medical practice does not seem to confirm this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, histological and immunological effects of long-term and chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fishermen. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional and observational study characterized skin lesions, immunological markers and histological alterations in fishermen, as well as lymphocyte subpopulations compared to a control group. Mann-Whitney, Fisher's and

  11. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  12. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  13. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explored fully as a medium for improving sun-protective behaviour in adults. This paper presents the study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an online intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) that aims to improve sun safety among Australian adults. Approximately 420 adults aged 18 and over and predominantly from Queensland, Australia, will be recruited and randomised to the intervention (n = 200), information only (n = 200) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive attitudes and beliefs toward sun-protective behaviour, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over sun protection. The intervention will be delivered online over a single session. Data will be collected immediately prior to the intervention (Time 1), immediately following the intervention (Time 1b), and one week (Time 2) and one month (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun-protective behaviour. Secondary outcomes are the participants’ attitudes toward sun protection, perceptions of normative support for sun protection (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, personal norms and image norms) and perceptions of control/self-efficacy toward sun protection. The study will contribute to an understanding of the effectiveness of a TPB-based online intervention to improve Australian adults’ sun-protective behaviour. Australian and New Zealand Trials

  14. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries

  16. UV Exposure and Sun Protective Practices | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  18. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community, The SunPy; Mumford, Stuart J; Freij, Nabil; Bennett, Samuel M; Christe, Steven; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Pérez-Suárez, David; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Meszaros, Tomas; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy. (paper)

  19. Determinants of inadequate parental sun protection behaviour in their children--results of a cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Swaantje; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    Unprotected sun exposure especially during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. A combined use of sun protection measures is recommended to protect children. However, the prevalence and determinants for combined use have been scarcely studied in children. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of parental sun protection behaviour. A cross-sectional survey was performed in five regions in Bavaria (Germany) during school entrance health examination (2010/2011). Parents of 4579 children (47% female, aged 5-6 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire (response 61%). Most children were regularly protected with single measures (shade (69%), clothes (80%), hat (83%), sunscreen (89%), sunglasses (20%)). However, regarding regular and combined use, >50% of children were inadequately protected. Larger family size, lower household equivalent income, darker skin and sunburn history were associated with inadequate use of different sun protection measures. The less frequent use of one sun protection measure was associated with less frequent use of the others. Child's sex, migration background, parental education and sun exposure showed inconsistent results regarding the different sun protection outcomes. Based on our results a regular, combined and correct use of multiple sun protection for children should be promoted independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Priority of shade, clothes and hat before sunscreen should be clarified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Sun Radiation on the Course of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abas Azarian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sStudies have described immunomedulatory effects of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Here the effect of exposure to low potency radiation of sun on the course of leishmaniasis in mice was studied. Materials and MethodsFifteen BALB/c mice were exposed to suberythemogenic doses of sun (mean 180 mJ/cm2/day of UVB 2 months before and 4 months after Leishmania major inoculation to food pad. Control group was kept in the sun protected environment. From 2nd to 17th week after inoculation, size of the lesion was recorded in each group weekly and at last week the parasite burden in spleen was detected. Results were compared between two groups. ResultsSeven mice from case group and 9 mice from control group survived up to last week. The mean lesion size was 0.90±0.59 cm in exposed and 4.01±3.59 cm in unexposed mice (P= 0.037. Parasite burden in spleen of case and control groups were 5.5±4.61 and 106.94±279.76 respectively (P= 0.006.ConclusionChronic exposure of BALB/c mice to suberythemogenic doses of sun suppressed skin lesion and decreased the extension of L. major to spleen.

  1. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  2. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter A., E-mail: westone47@gmail.com [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J. [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Scott, Michael D. [Mikonics, Inc., 40 B Old Road South, Santa Fe, NM 87540 (United States); Beck, Larry [L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego State University, Room PSFA 445, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Liu, Xia [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Abbott, Allison [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Eye, Rachel [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  3. WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF QUIET SUN TRANSITION REGION EMISSION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmit, D. J.; De Pontieu, Bart [Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Dating back to the first observations of the on-disk corona, there has been a qualitative link between the photosphere’s magnetic network and enhanced transition-temperature plasma emission. These observations led to the development of a general model that describes emission structures through the partitioning of the atmospheric volume with different magnetic loop geometries that exhibit different energetic equilibria. Does the internetwork produce transition-temperature emission? What fraction of network flux connects to the corona? How does quiet Sun emission compare with low-activity Sun-like stars? In this work, we revisit the canonical model of the quiet Sun, with high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) and HMI in hand, to address those questions. We use over 900 deep exposures of Si iv 1393 Å from IRIS along with nearly simultaneous HMI magnetograms to quantify the correlation between transition-temperature emission structures and magnetic field concentrations through a number of novel statistics. Our observational results are coupled with analysis of the Bifrost MHD model and a large-scale potential field model. Our results paint a complex portrait of the quiet Sun. We measure an emission signature in the distant internetwork that cannot be attributed to network contribution. We find that the dimmest regions of emission are not linked to the local vertical magnetic field. Using the MHD simulation, we categorize the emission contribution from cool mid-altitude loops and high-altitude coronal loops and discuss the potential emission contribution of spicules. Our results provide new constraints on the coupled solar atmosphere so that we can build on our understanding of how dynamic thermal and magnetic structures generate the observed phenomena in the transition region.

  4. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  5. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  6. [Is there an Association between Prevention Campaign Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviour of Parents for their Children? Results of a Parent Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, S; Fromme, H; Bolte, G

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study are to assess prevalence of awareness of sun protection campaigns among parents in Bavaria, Germany, to analyse the impact of sociodemographic factors on campaign knowledge and the association between parental campaign knowledge and sun protection behaviour in their children. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2010-2011 in Bavaria, Germany, with parents of 4,579 children aged 5-6 years (response rate 61%). Prevalence of knowledge of sun protection campaigns is 13% among parents in Germany and independent of sociodemographic factors. Ignorance of sun protection campaigns is associated with inadequate sun protection behaviour in children independent of sociodemographic and exposure characteristics. Awareness of sun protection campaigns is low among parents. Knowledge of adequate sun protection behaviour should be further increased at the population level in Germany independently of sociodemographic status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Work-time sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers: results from the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Loraine D; Pichora, Erin C; Costa, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe summer work-related sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers. Information on time in the sun and sun protection practices at work during the summer of 2006 were collected from 1,337 outdoor workers aged 16-64 years as part of the Second National Sun Survey. Proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) were estimated using procedures appropriate for complex survey designs. Twenty-six percent of all Canadians, 39% of males and 33% of those aged 16-24 years work outdoors during the summer. Although 41% spend four or more hours daily in the sun at work, just over half always or often protect themselves by covering their heads (58%), wearing protective clothing (56%) or wearing sunglasses (54%), and only 29% use sunscreen. Males and those aged 16-24 spend the most work time in the sun but are the least likely to use protection. The prevalence of outdoor work and sun behaviours varies among regions. Study findings confirm the need for strategies to reduce time in the sun and increase the use of sun protection among outdoor workers. In order to be effective, these strategies must include both enhanced workplace policies and practice, and increased individual use of sun protection.

  8. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  9. The Sun's Mysteries from Space - I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate. Historically, it was the motion of the planets around the. Sun that .... concentrations of magnetic field, the convection is suppressed ... near-Earth space environments. ... Some of these reach our eyes and can be detected during the rare.

  10. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  11. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  12. Sunscreen use and failures--on site observations on a sun-holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Datta, Pameli; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    With this observation study we aimed to determine how and when sunscreen was used. 20 sun seekers were observed during a one-week sun holiday in Hurghada, Egypt. The sunscreen application thickness was related to part of body, time outdoors, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and to sunburning. Skin...... and the sunscreen application thickness was in average 0.79 mg cm(-)2 giving an approximated effect of SPF3. For different body parts either the total UVR exposure dose or the UVR exposure time and UVR exposure dose before the first sunscreen application were higher for sunburned than non-sunburned skin sites....... In the final model gender, skin type and UVR to skin (adjusted for SPF and sunscreen application thickness) were significant predictors of sunburning. The sunscreen application thickness of 0.79 mg cm(-)2 was less than the 2 mg cm(-2) used for testing SPF. The late start of sunscreen use and improper...

  13. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  14. Sun protection and low levels of vitamin D: are people concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael; Whiteman, David; Aitken, Joanne; Neale, Rachel

    2007-11-01

    Recent reports on the association between low serum vitamin D and increased risk of cancer raised concerns about possible adverse effects of primary prevention strategies for skin cancer. To evaluate if these reports may influence peoples' sun protective behavior, knowledge, and attitudes to the impact of sun protection on vitamin D. Within a population-based survey in Queensland, Australia (5,611 participants, mean age 50.7 years (range 20-75); 48.2% men), agreement with the statement that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D as well as factors associated with agreement were assessed. Overall, 837 (15.0%) participants agreed that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D, 2,163 (38.7%) neither agreed nor disagreed, and 2,591 (46.3%) disagreed with this statement. Factors associated with agreement included older age, darker skin color, and attempt to develop a suntan within the past year. These results suggest that future sun protection campaigns may need to address the issue of vitamin D and present ways to achieve sufficient vitamin D levels without increasing sun exposure at least in countries with high UV radiation throughout the year.

  15. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187

  16. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  17. Trends in skin cancer knowledge, sun protection practices and behaviours in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Boyle, Rhonda; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Gordon, Sandra; McElwee, Gerry; O'Hagan, Art

    2012-06-01

    Sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer, especially melanoma, incidence of which continues to rise. Reported skin cancer knowledge and trends in sun care behaviours are documented in a UK region where there has been 20 years of sun-related health promotion campaigns. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, a 'care in the sun' module was included in the Northern Ireland (NI) Omnibus survey. Randomly selected subjects were asked to complete a sun-related questionnaire and proportions of respondents analysed by demographic and socio-economic factors, with differences tested using z-tests and the chi-squared test. Around 3623 persons responded. Skin cancer knowledge was high (97%). Sun avoidance decreased with time and was lowest among younger age groups and males. Sunscreen use was high (70%), unchanged over 8 years, and more likely among younger age groups, females, those in paid employment, and those with tertiary level education. Use of sunscreen with minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15 (a campaign message) increased from 45% to 70% (P < 0.01). Skin self-examination was infrequent (8%), less common among those aged ≥65 years, males and those with only primary or secondary level education. Messages on sunscreen use have penetrated the population well, but lower use among the unemployed suggests cost as an issue. Lack of sun avoidance in young people, especially men, poses a risk for further skin cancer increases. Low levels of reported skin self-examination in older people, men and those with lower educational attainment identify areas for further action.

  18. Predictors of sun protection behaviors and severe sunburn in an international online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy A; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviors and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical, and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviors. Self-report data were gathered on behalf of the GenoMEL consortium using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the United States, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behavior were perceived barriers to protection (beta = -0.44/beta = -0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude toward suntans were less likely to protect (beta = -0.16/beta = -0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviors resulting in severe sunburn. Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social, and psychological barriers associated with nonuptake of sun protection. (c)2010 AACR.

  19. Predictors of Sun Protection Behaviours and Severe Sunburn inan International on-line study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A.; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmański, Sƚawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Leachman, Sancy A.; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviours and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviours. Methods Self-report data were gathered on behalf of GenoMEL (www.genomel.org) using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the USA, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Results Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behaviour were perceived barriers to protection (β=−0.44/β=−0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude towards suntans were less likely to protect (β=−0.16/β=−0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Conclusions Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviours resulting in severe sunburn. Impact Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social and psychological barriers associated with non-uptake of sun protection. PMID:20643826

  20. Assessment of intake from the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.; Müller, D.; Lambe, J.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Klaveren, J. van; Kleiner, J.; Massey, R.; Mayer, S.; Urieta, I.; Verger, P.; Visconti, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure assessment is one of the key parts of the risk assessment process. Only intake of toxicologically significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of chemicals in foods this is based on three major aspects: (i) how to determine

  1. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  2. Knowledge and attitudes about Vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among urban office workers in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan H; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Whiteman, David C; Kimlin, Michael G; Neale, Rachel E

    2010-07-01

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Increasing scientific and media attention to the potential health benefits of sun exposure may lead to changes in sun exposure behaviors. To provide data that might help frame public health messages, we conducted an online survey among office workers in Brisbane, Australia, to determine knowledge and attitudes about vitamin D and associations of these with sun protection practices. Of the 4,709 people invited to participate, 2,867 (61%) completed the questionnaire. This analysis included 1,971 (69%) participants who indicated that they had heard about vitamin D. Lack of knowledge about vitamin D was apparent. Eighteen percent of people were unaware of the bone benefits of vitamin D but 40% listed currently unconfirmed benefits. Over half of the participants indicated that more than 10 minutes in the sun was needed to attain enough vitamin D in summer, and 28% indicated more than 20 minutes in winter. This was significantly associated with increased time outdoors and decreased sunscreen use. People believing sun protection might cause vitamin D deficiency (11%) were less likely to be frequent sunscreen users (summer odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.75). Our findings suggest that there is some confusion about sun exposure and vitamin D, and that this may result in reduced sun-protective behavior. More information is needed about vitamin D production in the skin. In the interim, education campaigns need to specifically address the vitamin D issue to ensure that skin cancer incidence does not increase.

  3. SunPy: Python for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.; Inglis, A. R.; Mumford, S.; Christe, S.; Freij, N.; Hewett, R.; Ireland, J.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Reardon, K.; Savage, S. L.; Shih, A. Y.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2017-12-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community. SunPy aims to provide the software for obtaining and analyzing solar and heliospheric data. This poster introduces a new major release, SunPy version 0.8. The first major new feature introduced is Fido, the new primary interface to download data. It provides a consistent and powerful search interface to all major data providers including the VSO and the JSOC, as well as individual data sources such as GOES XRS time series. It is also easy to add new data sources as they become available, i.e. DKIST. The second major new feature is the SunPy coordinate framework. This provides a powerful way of representing coordinates, allowing simple and intuitive conversion between coordinate systems and viewpoints of different instruments (i.e., Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe), including transformation to astrophysical frames like ICRS. Other new features including new timeseries capabilities with better support for concatenation and metadata, updated documentation and example gallery. SunPy is distributed through pip and conda and all of its code is publicly available (sunpy.org).

  4. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  5. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  6. Sunlight exposure behaviour and vitamin D status in photosensitive patients: longitudinal comparative study with healthy individuals at U.K. latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L E; Webb, A R; Berry, J L; Felton, S J; Marjanovic, E J; Wilkinson, J D; Vail, A; Kift, R

    2014-12-01

    Low vitamin D status is prevalent in wintertime in populations at northerly latitudes. Photosensitive patients are advised to practise sun avoidance, but their sunlight exposure levels, photoprotective measures and resulting vitamin D status are unknown. To examine seasonal vitamin D status in photosensitive patients relative to healthy individuals and to assess quantitatively behavioural and demographic contributors. This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study (53·5°N) examining year-round 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, sun-exposure behaviour and oral vitamin D intake in photosensitive patients diagnosed at a photoinvestigation unit (n = 53), compared with concurrently assessed healthy adults (n = 109). Photosensitive patients achieved seasonal 25(OH)D variation, but insufficient (vitamin D intake was low in both groups (photosensitive: 2·94 μg per day). Supplementation and summer surface area exposure predicted summer peak and winter trough 25(OH)D levels. A 1 μg per day increment in supplementary vitamin D raised summer and winter 25(OH)D by 5% (95% CI 3-7) and 9% (95% CI 5-12), respectively (both P vitamin D status. Guidance on oral measures should target this patient group and their physicians. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2011-0169] Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of... order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  8. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  9. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely populated areas

  10. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  11. Factors associated with sun protection compliance: results from a nationwide cross-sectional evaluation of 2215 patients from a dermatological consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, U; Thellier, S; Sibaud, V; Taïeb, C; Mery, S; Paul, C; Meyer, N

    2014-06-01

    Campaigns designed to promote sun protection often fail to induce long-term changes in behaviour. There is limited information on patients with low compliance to sun protection recommendations from dermatologists. To characterize dermatology patients at higher risk of low compliance to sun protection measures, and to investigate the relationship between sun protection behaviour, knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations, ultraviolet (UV)-associated risks and level of UV exposure. An anonymous self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed by dermatologists to patients receiving a sunscreen prescription. Four domains were explored: sun protection behaviour, sun protection knowledge, level of UV exposure and knowledge about UV-associated risks. We modelled sun protection behaviour and determined factors associated with low compliance to sun protection measures. In total 2215 questionnaires were analysed. Patients stratified by risk who better complied with sun protection measures had a better knowledge of UV-associated risks (mean score 14·45 ± 3·20 vs. 12·75 ± 3·29 and 11·20 ± 3·80, P protection measures (mean score 12·08 ± 2·79 vs. 10·68 ± 3·11 and 9·00 ± 3·63, P protection measures also reported higher levels of sun exposure (mean score 4·24 ± 2·26 vs. 4·02 ± 2·05 and 3·34 ± 2·14, P protection behaviour were age below 20 or over 64 years, male sex, lower knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations and UV-associated risks, and low UV exposure. This study shows the complex relationship between UV exposure, knowledge about UV-associated risks, and knowledge about sun protection recommendations and behaviour. Future skin cancer prevention programmes should focus on specific populations with low sun protection behaviour and high UV exposure. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  13. Heating the Chromosphere in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The best-studied star the Sun still harbors mysteries for scientists to puzzle over. A new study has now explored the role of tiny magnetic-field hiccups in an effort to explain the strangely high temperatures of the Suns upper atmosphere.Schematic illustrating the temperatures in different layers of the Sun. [ESA]Strange Temperature RiseSince the Suns energy is produced in its core, the temperature is hottest here. As expected, the temperature decreases further from the Suns core up until just above its surface, where it oddly begins to rise again. While the Suns surface is 6,000 K, the temperature is higher above this: 10,000 K in the outer chromosphere.So how is the chromosphere of the Sun heated? Its possible that the explanation can be found not amid high solar activity, but in quiet-Sun regions.In a new study led by Milan Goi (Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute), a team of scientists has examined a process that quietly happens in the background: the cancellation of magnetic field lines in the quiet Sun.Activity in a SupergranuleTop left: SDO AIA image of part of the solar disk. The next three panels are a zoom of the particular quiet-Sun region that the authors studied, all taken with IRIS at varying wavelengths: 1400 (top right), 2796 (bottom left), and 2832 (bottom right). [Goi et al. 2018]The Sun is threaded by strong magnetic field lines that divide it into supergranules measuring 30 million meters across (more than double the diameter of Earth!). Supergranules may seem quiet inside, but looks can be deceiving: the interiors of supergranules contain smaller, transient internetwork fields that move about, often resulting in magnetic elements of opposite polarity encountering and canceling each other.For those internetwork flux cancellations that occur above the Suns surface, a small amount of energy could be released that locally heats the chromosphere. But though each individual event has a small

  14. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  15. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  16. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  17. [Food intake regulation - 2nd part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunerová, Ludmila; Anděl, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The review article summarizes the principles of hedonic regulation of food intake which represents the food intake independent on the maintenance of homeostasis. The theory describing hedonic regulation, so called Incentive Salience Theory, comprises three major processes: liking (positive attribution to food stimulus), wanting (motivation to gain it) and learning (identification of these stimuli and distinguishing them from those connected with aversive reaction). Neuronal reward circuits are the anatomical and functional substrates of hedonic regulation. They react to gustatory and olfactory (or visual) stimuli associated with food intake. A food item is preferred in case its consumption is connected with a pleasant feeling thus promoting the behavioural reaction. The probability of this reaction after repetitive exposure to such a stimulus is increased (learned preference). On the contrary, learned aversion after repetitive exposure is connected with avoidance of a food item associated with a negative feeling. Main mediators of hedonic regulation are endocannabinoids, opioids and monoamines (dopamine, serotonin). Dopamine in dorsal striatum via D2 receptors generates food motivation as a key means of survival, however in ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) is responsible for motivation to food bringing pleasure. Serotonin via its receptors 5-HT1A a T-HT2C decreases intake of palatable food. It plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, particularly mental anorexia. There, a food restriction represents a kind of automedication to constitutionally pathologically increased serotonin levels. Detailed understanding of processes regulating food intake is a key to new pharmacological interventions in eating disorders.

  18. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  19. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinwada, P.; Giga, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of sunning (solar heating) as a small farm technique for controlling the bean bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) was investigated. Bean seeds infested with mixed-stage larvae were placed on clear or black polyethylene sheets or inside polyethylene pouches with clear upper and black lower surfaces and exposed to the sun for five hours each day for 0, 3 and 5 successive days. No live insects emerged from seeds heated in the pouches while the few that emerged from seeds on the black sheets resulted in damage to less than 1% of the seeds. Of the three polyethylene systems used, the clear sheet was the least useful, while the pouches even for only 3 days, were the most effective in eliminating infestations. These studies demonstrated that effective bruchid control can be achieved with daily 5-h exposure periods of seeds for a successive 5-day duration. However, the success of the method of control may be influenced by the time of the year and prevailing environmental conditions

  20. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Oculocutaneous albinism in sub-Saharan Africa: adverse sun-associated health effects and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Norval, Mary; Hertle, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as 1 in 1000 in some tribes. This article considers the characteristics and prevalence of OCA in sub-Saharan African countries. Sun-induced adverse health effects in the skin and eyes of OCA individuals are reviewed. Sun exposure behavior and the use of photoprotection for the skin and eyes are discussed to highlight the major challenges experienced by these at-risk individuals and how these might be best resolved. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Knowledge, perceptions and behaviours about skin cancer and sun protection among secondary school students from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, M; Cazzaniga, S; Fargnoli, M C; Naldi, L; Peris, K

    2013-05-01

    Although sun exposure is a strong risk factor for skin cancer, tanning is very popular among adolescents. Awareness of skin cancer and sun exposure might influence sun protective behaviours in this population. To investigate the awareness of skin cancer and sun-safe practices among Italian adolescents. A questionnaire about knowledge of skin cancer, perceived severity of sun rays/skin cancer and behaviour toward sun protection was administered to 1204 secondary school students. Predictors of these three components were assessed by case-control analyses considering different combinations of answers. Multiple logistic regression models were used to this scope. The majority of participants had heard of skin cancer in the past (97.0%), correctly identified possible causes (58.6%) and names (64.2%) of skin cancers and judged appropriately the perceived danger of sunrays (70.2%) and skin cancer (80.6%). Nonetheless, students' behaviour was poor: only 13.5% stated to always use sun-safe practices and 39.1% never used any. Independent predictors of proper knowledge were: Lyceum school, and family or TV/media as information source; of appropriate perceived severity: Lyceum school, a darker skin type, and dermatologists as information source; of acceptable behaviour: female sex, a darker skin type, and dermatologists or general practitioners (GPs) as information source. Despite a fairly good knowledge about skin cancer and sun exposure, students' behaviour was unsatisfactory. Knowledge is not sufficient to produce a positive behaviour, as determinants of these two aspects are different. Dermatologists and GPs should be considered as key-figures for future multicomponent intervention strategies in this field. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  4. Aware, motivated and striving for a ‘safe tan’: an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M.; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Birch-Machin, Mark A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21–62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers’ knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health

  5. Thermal heliotrope - A passive sun-tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byxbee, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Continuous sun tracking device consists of helical bimetallic coil and control mechanism. Coil produces torque and angular displacement with temperature change, and acts as device's driving element. Control mechanism, concentric shading mechanism containing bimetallic sensor coil, controls tracking rate and provides for reset cycle.

  6. Save Beady Kid from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Thompson, Wesley; Pecore, John

    2017-01-01

    Art and science help students investigate light energy and practice fair testing. With the goal of finding a way to save "Beady Kid" from invisible rays, students used science practices to investigate the transfer of light energy from the Sun. During this art-integrated science lesson presented in this article, upper elementary (grades…

  7. Neutrinos and our Sun - Part 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sun during its lifetime of four and a half billion years is given by ... The balance between ... per unit time (the luminosity): ... are operative in all stars during the bulk of their life: (a) ..... Thus the data collected over several years of hard work.

  8. Self-Powered Sun Sensor Microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; Graaf, G. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    An analog sun sensor has been designed based on shade profile proportional to the angle of incidence of incoming light projected onto a 2×2 array of photodiodes. This concept enables an autonomous self-powered optical system with two the main functions (electrical power generation for the amplifier

  9. No smoking guns under the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Sun is a typical main sequence star that generates its energy via the fusion of hydrogen into helium in two chains of nuclear reactions: the so-called pp chain and the CNO chain. If the nucleon number, electric charge, lepton flavour and energy are conserved and the Sun is in a steady state, then the total solar neutrino flux is fixed, to a good approximation, by the solar luminosity (approximately 65 billion neutrinos/cm2/s at Earth), independent of the specific nuclear reactions that power the Sun and produce neutrinos by beta decay or the electron capture of reaction products. The neutrinos from the dominant pp chain are produced by the beta decay of proton pairs (pp), boron-8 and lithium-4, and by electron capture by pp pairs and beryllium-7. Their spectra can be measured directly in the laboratory or calculated from the standard theory of electroweak interactions. To a very good approximation, they are independent of the conditions in the Sun. Only their relative contributions depend on the detailed ...

  10. The Sun among the stars. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardorp, J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy distributions from 3308 to 8390 Angstroem of two candidates for a solar spectral analog and of 14 other northern G-type dwarfs are compared to the solar energy distribution via stellar spectrophotometric standards. The reliability of the stellar and solar flux-calibrations is evaluated. While the stellar calibration seems to be in good shape, solar calibrations differ widely. Labs.and Neckel's calibration is the best match to the energy distributions from 4500 to 8390 Angstroem of those four stars that share the Sun's ultraviolet line spectrum (16 Cyg B, G5V, and the three Hyades stars VB 64, 106, and 142). Below 4500 Angstroem, discrepancies of up to 6% remain which do not seem to be genuine Sun-star differences. An error in the Labs and Neckel tables between 5700 and 6000 Angstroem is corrected. The NASA Standard Tables of Solar Spectral Irradiance cannot be trusted, since there seems to be no star in the sky that look like the NASA-sun. The four stars mentioned are taken to be perfect solar spectral analogs. An improved table of solar spectral irradiance is then given by the magnitudes of 16 Cyg B minus 32.945, based on Tueg's atellar and Labs and Neckel's solar calibrations. The Sun's place in the UBV system is V = -26.71 +- 0.03, B-V = 0.665 +- 0.005, and U-B = 0.20 +- 0.01. Most previous photometric investigations found a bluer Sun because they used the wrong solar calibration. For deriving accurate albedos of planets, any one of the calibrated G-type stars can be used as a standard star, when corrections are applied, although the solar analogs themselves are to be preferred. The MK system of spectral classification should be revised. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of two personal ultraviolet index monitors for sun awareness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is known to have both adverse and beneficial consequences for human health. Sunburn and skin cancer are probably the most well-known acute and chronic adverse health impacts. These themes have recently been discussed in the media for the general public; consequently interest in sun protection is growing. The promotion of the use of practical personal strategies to reduce adverse health risks, such as healthy sun behaviour, sun protection mechanisms and solar ultraviolet radiation awareness tools, is increasing. One such tool is the personal UV index (UVI monitor, promoted commercially as a viable tool for sun awareness; however, such instruments have not been scientifically evaluated in a South African context. Here, two different types of personal UVI monitors, commercially available in South Africa, were compared with a research-grade UVB biometer for a continuous 7-h period on 02 March 2012 in Pretoria. One of the two personal UVI monitors showed reasonable agreement with the UVB biometer, whereas the other monitor overestimated UVI by up to 4 UVI units. When comparing two identical products manufactured by the same company, one monitor overestimated UVI twofold, suggesting inter-instrument variability may be a concern. Commercially available, personal UVI monitors should be used with caution as a public health tool for sun awareness in South Africa.

  12. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  13. Sun-induced changes of stratum corneum hydration vary with age and gender in a normal Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhili; Song, Shunpeng; Luo, Wenhai; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that sun-induced alteration of epidermal permeability barrier function varies with gender and age. In the present study, we assess the stratum corneum (SC) hydration in sun-exposed males and females. A total of 168 subjects (84 males and 84 females) aged 19-75 years were enrolled. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration. In comparison with non-sun exposure, sun exposure does not cause a significant change in SC hydration in either young males or young females, whereas in aged females, a significant reduction of SC hydration is seen on the forehead and the dorsal hand of sun-exposed subjects. SC hydration on the canthus of both aged males and aged females is significantly lower than that of young subjects. Additionally, SC hydration on the dorsal hand of aged females is also significantly lower as compared with young females. Sun-induced reduction of SC hydration is more evident on the dorsal hand of aged females than that of males (Phydration property vary with age and gender. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  15. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  16. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  17. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  18. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  19. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  20. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  1. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  2. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  3. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  4. The apparent motion of the Sun revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Oliver

    2002-05-01

    The knowledge of the apparent motion of the Sun - due to the combined effects of the rotation of the Earth around its proper axis and the translation around the Sun - is important both in natural and man-made systems. In particular, a proper explanation of the seasons requires an understanding of this solar geometry. In this paper we present a simple derivation of the relevant formulae based on vector algebra. The possible trajectories are discussed in detail. An approximate explicit formula for the seasonal variations of solar radiation is derived and discussed. The calculations give useful insights into the geometry of the problem and are thought to be helpful for the undergraduate teaching of solar energy engineering, classical mechanics and astronomy.

  5. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  6. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  7. Physicians involved in the care of patients with high risk of skin cancer should be trained regarding sun protection measures: evidence from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M; Rioual, E; Adamski, H; Roguedas, A-M; Misery, L; Michel, M; Chastel, F; Schmutz, J-L; Aubin, F; Marguery, M-C; Meyer, N

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge, regarding sun protection, is essential to change behaviour and to reduce sun exposure of patients at risk for skin cancer. Patient education regarding appropriate or sun protection measures, is a priority to reduce skin cancer incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about sun protection and the recommendations given in a population of non-dermatologists physicians involved in the care of patients at high risk of skin cancer. This study is a cross-sectional study. Physicians were e-mailed an anonymous questionnaire evaluating the knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, sun protection and about the role of the physician in providing sun protection recommendations. Of the responders, 71.4% considered that the risk of skin cancer of their patients was increased when compared with the general population. All the responders knew that UV-radiations can contribute to induce skin cancers and 71.4% of them declared having adequate knowledge about sun protection measures. A proportion of 64.2% of them declared that they were able to give sun protection advices: using sunscreens (97.8%), wearing covering clothes (95.5%), performing regular medical skin examination (91.1%), to avoid direct sunlight exposure (77.8%), avoiding outdoor activities in the hottest midday hours (73.3%) and practising progressive exposure (44.4%). Non-dermatologist physicians reported a correct knowledge of UV-induced skin cancer risk factors. The majority of responders displayed adequate knowledge of sun protection measures and declared providing patients with sun protection recommendation on a regular basis. Several errors persisted. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Sun following system adjustment at the UTFSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Roth, P.; Olivares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Evaluacion Solar' Laboratory of the Technical University Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso exists since 1957. Some types of sun following systems using instruments for different types of solar measurements were created during the mentioned period in this Laboratory. A solar tracking unit INTRA was recently installed in the UTFSM. It is considered a modern measuring and registering system for actual measuring of radiation in digital form, easier to store and to process. The action of the sun tracker is autonomous, which makes it a flexible tool to support direct radiation measurements. A special device was designed and constructed to support the measuring instruments. Three Eppley pyrheliometers were mounted on the unit and connected with an automatic registering system. An additional UV measuring sensor will be mounted soon. The realized measurements were compared with the results obtained manually from a K and Z pyrheliometer. The difference between both types of pyrheliometers is very small, which is a good precondition for using the INTRA sun tracker for precise measurements in the future

  9. The structure and evolution of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Severino, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This book equips the reader with a coherent understanding of the structure of the Sun and its evolution and provides all the knowledge required to construct a simplified model of the Sun. The early chapters cover key aspects of basic physics and describe the Sun’s size, mass, luminosity, and temperature. Using a semi-empirical approach, the structure of the present Sun is then modeled in detail, layer by layer, proceeding from the photosphere to the convection zone, radiation zone, and core. Finally, all stages of the Sun’s evolution, from its formation to the end of its life, are carefully explained. The book is primarily intended for university students taking the initial steps in moving from physics to astrophysics. It includes worked exercises and problems to illustrate the concepts discussed, as well as additional problems for independent study. With the aim of helping the reader as much as possible, most of the mathematics required to use the book are provided in the text.

  10. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations

  11. Learning about the Dynamic Sun through Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Luhmann, J.; MacCallum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Can we hear the Sun or its solar wind? Not in the sense that they make sound. But we can take the particle, magnetic field, electric field, and image data and turn it into sound to demonstrate what the data tells us. We present work on turning data from the two-satellite NASA mission called STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) into sounds and music (sonification). STEREO has two satellites orbiting the Sun near Earth's orbit to study the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Corona. One sonification project aims to inspire musicians, museum patrons, and the public to learn more about CMEs by downloading STEREO data and using it to make music. We demonstrate the software and discuss the way in which it was developed. A second project aims to produce a museum exhibit using STEREO imagery and sounds from STEREO data. We demonstrate a "walk across the Sun" created for this exhibit so people can hear the features on solar images. We show how pixel intensity translates into pitches from selectable scales with selectable musical scale size and octave locations. We also share our successes and lessons learned.

  12. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  13. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  14. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  15. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  16. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-01

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  17. Promotion of