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Sample records for intake rumen volume

  1. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  2. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  3. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  4. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  5. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as minerals, protein, or rumen ammonia were maintained at adequate ... The relationship between voluntary feed intake and starch infusion was tested for .... artificial saliva (Tilley & Terry, 1%3) before filtering according to the same in ...

  7. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  8. Rumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Roderick I.; McSweeney, Christopher S.; Aminov, Rustam

    2013-01-01

    The rumen is a large pregastric fermentation compartment (foregut), which maintains a diverse but concentrated population of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa and fungi that are responsible for a variety of degradative and fermentative reactions. During this process biodegradable organic matter, mainly......). The concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer in which the mutually beneficial unidirectional transfer of hydrogen from a hydrogenproducing to a hydrogenutilising bacteria in a coupled reaction that maintains low partial pressures, which makes the transfer process hermodynamically feasible is important...... in ruminal methanogenesis. Currently, modern ‘Omics’ technologies are being applied to the study of rumen microbial ecology, genomics, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics....

  9. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  10. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P  0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  11. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using /sup 51/Cr-labelled EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, G; Ekern, A [Agricultural University of Norway. Dept. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-06-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 ..mu..Vi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate rumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA through feces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days.

  12. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, G.; Ekern, A.

    1974-01-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 μVi 51 Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate fumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker 51 Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of 51 Cr-EDTA through faeces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days. (author)

  13. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  14. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Detmann, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Pedroso, A.M.; Silva, L.H.P.; Machado, A.F.; Sousa, F.C.; Santos, dos G.B.; Marcondes, M.I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE)

  15. Effects of Supplementing Napier Grass With Graded Levels of Desmodium on Intake and Rumen Fermentation of Steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.; Muia, J.M.K.; Gitau, G.K.; Gachuri, C.K.; Tamminga, S.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of greenleaf desmodium ( Desmodium Detortum) on organic matter (OM) intake and rumen fermentation of steers fed on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). four Sahiwal steers (live-weight 437+/- 21 kg) were offered ad libitum four diets constituted from Napier grass and desmodium hay in a 4*4 latin square. The proportion of Desmodium in the diet on DM basis were 0% (D1), 15% (D2), 25% (D3), and 35% (D4) respectively.The OM intake increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the level of desmodium supplement (6.1, 6.4, 7.6 and 8.3). Rumen ammonia (NH3-N) also increased with increased level of supplementation (138, 162, 198, 237 mg 1-1). rumen pH increased slightly with increasing levels of legume in diet. Feeding desmodium significantly improved (P < 0.05) total volatile acids (VFA). The result indicated that supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with desmodium increased rumen NH3-N, VFA levels which subsequently led to enhanced digestion and intake

  16. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GOAT KIDS RAISED UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Solaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five wether goat kids (BW of 21.76 + 0.76 were randomly assigned to one of three production systems for 14 weeks to evaluate intake, digestibility and goat performance. Production systems were: 1 feedlot (FL, housed in individual pens and fed 40% protein pellets, 40% soybean hulls and 20% bermudagrass hay; 2 grazing continuously on 1 hectare bahiagrass pasture (BP supplemented daily with 150 g of protein pellets/hd; and 3 browsing rotationally on 4, 0.5 hectare mimosa (MB supplemented daily with 100 g cracked corn/hd. Body weights were recorded every two weeks. Feed intake and digestibility were measured on eight goats from each treatment groups. Goats were fitted with canvas fecal collection bags, allowed for 3 days of adjustments followed by 5 days of fecal collection. Feces, feed offered, pasture and browse samples were analyzed for acid insoluble ash to determine digestibility and predict intake. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected to measure volatile fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Total feed and medication costs also were recorded. Goats on FL system gained faster (P 0.10 in butyrate and valerate. However, acetate: propionate was lower (P 0.10 BUN. Numerically, browse system was most cost effective and bahaigrass pasture was most expensive in terms of animal production.

  17. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  18. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Methane emissions, body composition, and rumen fermentation traits of beef heifers differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Deighton, M H; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestion in beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth performance were measured for 22 Simmental heifers (mean initial BW 449 kg, SD = 46.2 kg) offered grass silage ad libitum for 120 d. Ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, BCS, muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood variables, rumen fermentation (via stomach tube), and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were measured. Methane production was estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique over two 5-d periods beginning on d 20 and 75 of the RFI measurement period. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. The residuals of the regression of DMI on ADG and midtest metabolic body weight, using all heifers, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Heifers were ranked by RFI and assigned to low (efficient), medium, or high (inefficient) groupings. Overall ADG and DMI were 0.58 kg (SD = 0.18) and 7.40 kg (SD = 0.72), respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 9 and 15% more (P composition traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between low- and high-RFI groups. High-RFI heifers had higher concentrations of plasma glucose (6%) and urea (13%) and lower concentrations of plasma creatinine (9%) than low-RFI heifers (P 0.05) between RFI groups, although acetate:propionate ratio was lowest (P = 0.07) for low-RFI (3.5) and highest for high-RFI (4.6) heifers. Methane production expressed as grams per day or grams per kilogram metabolic body weight was greater (P methane emissions. Results suggest that improved RFI will reduce methane emissions without affecting productivity of growing beef cattle.

  20. Rumen morphometrics and the effect of digesta pH and volume on volatile fatty acid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L Q; Costa, S F; Lopes, F; Guerreiro, M C; Armentano, L E; Pereira, M N

    2013-04-01

    The effects of rumen digesta volume and pH on VFA absorption and its relation to rumen wall morphology were evaluated. Nine rumen cannulated cows formed 3 groups based on desired variation in rumen morphology: The High group was formed by Holsteins yielding 25.9 kg milk/d and fed on a high-grain total mixed ration (TMR); the Medium group by Holstein-Zebu crossbreds yielding 12.3 kg milk/d and fed on corn silage, tropical pasture, and a commercial concentrate; and the Dry group by nonlactating grazing Jerseys fed exclusively on tropical pasture. Within each group, a sequence of 3 ruminal conditions was induced on each cow in 3 × 3 Latin Squares, with 7-d periods: high digesta volume and high pH (HVHP), low volume and high pH (LVHP), and low volume and low pH (LVLP). Rumen mucosa was biopsied on the first day of Period 1. Ruminal morphometric variables evaluated were mitotic index, absorptive surface and papillae number per square centimeter of wall, area per papillae, papillae area as a percentage of absorptive surface, and epithelium, keratinized layer, and nonkeratinized layer thickness. There was marked variation in rumen morphology among the groups of cows. Grazing Jerseys had decreased rumen wall absorptive surface area and basal cells mitotic index, and increased thickness of the epithelium and of the keratin layer compared with cows receiving concentrates. Mean rumen pH throughout the 4 h sampling period was: 6.78 for HVHP, 7.08 for LVHP, and 5.90 for LVLP (P rumen wall to absorb VFA was estimated by the Valerate/CrEDTA technique. The fractional exponential decay rate for the ratio of valeric acid to Cr (k Val/Cr) was determined by rumen digesta sampling at 20-min intervals during 4 h, after the mixing of markers and the return of the evacuated ruminal content. The k Val/Cr values for treatments HVHP, LVHP, and LVLP were, respectively: 19.6, 23.9, and 35.0 %/h (SEM = 2.01; P = 0.21 for contrast HVHP vs. LVHP and P rumen wall and the mean of the 3 k Val

  1. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P < 0.0001) in inefficient animals. A higher (P < 0.0001) abundance of Entodinium and Prevotella spp. and a lower (P < 0.0001) abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes were observed when animals were offered the low-forage diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  2. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  4. Minerals and rumen function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B 12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  5. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  6. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  7. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  8. Intake, Rumen Degradation and Utilisation of Urea-Ammoniated Grass Hay by Kacang Goats as Affected by Supplementation of Sun-dried Fish or Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Weibsjerg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Six mature male Kacang goats were involved in an experiment arranged following a duplicate 3 x 3 Latin Square Design. The objectives of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of dried fish as compared to fishmeal on intake, digestion, rumen environment and nitrogen used by the local meat type Kacang goats maintained on urea-treated low quality grass hay. The treatments were G: goats were fed with ad libitum access of urea treated grass hay and 100 g/d putak, SDF: G plus 18.4 g sun dried fish, and FM: G plus 19.7 g/d fishmeal. The supplement in SDF and FM were at equal CP level. Intake of urea treated grass hay tended to increase (P=0.08 with supplementation. Dry matter digestibility particularly that of CP was improved by supplementation. Rumen environment was slightly modified by supplementation. Rumen pH was reduced while ammonia concentration was increased. Rumen degradation of the treated grass hay did not differ when incubated in the rumen of goats with different diets. Nitrogen balance was significantly improved (P<0.05 by fishmeal supplementation. In all parameters measured in this experiment, the incremental effects did not differ between fishmeal type. This indicate that there is no further advantage of preparing fishmeal other than sun-drying in improving the utilisation of low quality urea-treated grass hay.

  9. Effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on voluntary intake of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of starch fermentation in the rumen on the kinetics of roughage digestion, was studied using 12 sheep fed three roughages, viz. lucerne hay, maize cob leaves and wheat straw. The amount of starch infused per day was increased from o to 600 g/d in steps of 20 g/d over 30 days. The amount of starch infused was ...

  10. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  11. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in learning avoidance of bloat-inducing plants and preferences for plants and supplements that relieve the incidence of bloat.

  12. A study of nutritional status of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus L. in differents months: I. Composition and volume of the rumen microbiota

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    Liisa Syrjälä

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota were studied in free-ranging semi-domestic reindeer in Finnish Lapland under the nutritional conditions obtaining at two different sampling times. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were made of the rumen ciliate fauna and quantitative investigations of the rumen bacterial flora. The volume coefficients for rumen ciliates obtained by Westerling (1970 and that for rumen bacteria obtained by Warner (1962 were used to obtain an indication of the volume of the rumen microbe mass in reindeer. The rumen samples were collected in connection with the round-up and slaughter of reindeer, being taken from 30 animals in December and 29 animals in March. The reindeer slaughtered in December had normal access to food, but those slaughtered in March had grazed on better pastures and received a supplementary feed of hay. The total number of ciliate cells was over six times as high in March as in December, the numbers being 1 182900 and 188 300 per ml rumen contents, respectively. The corresponding total numbers of bacterial cells were 9.65 x 109 in March and 6.65 x 109 in December. The reason for the statistically significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers in March than in December is probably the better nutritional conditions of the herd slaughtered in March, not the time of the year. The ciliate fauna consisted of 19 different species, although not all the species were found in every sample. The percentage composition of the ciliate fauna did not vary considerably between the two sampling times. The volume of the total microbe mass constituted 8.2% of the rumen contents in March and 1.9 % in December, the average being 5.1 %. The proportion of the ciliate volume in the total microbe mass was clearly higher than that of the bacteria at both sampling times: 7.2 times as high in March and 1.7 times in December, the average being 4.7 times.

  13. Dietary fat sources affect feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different beef cattle genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpila, C; Sommart, K; Mitsumori, M

    2018-03-20

    The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v. Japanese Black crossbred). Three Charolais crossbred and three Japanese Black crossbred bulls were studied in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design; genotypes were analysed in separate squares including three periods of 21 days each and three dietary oilseed treatments fed ad libitum. The cattle were placed in a metabolic cage equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system for evaluating digestibility and energy balance. As compared with Charolais crossbred individuals, Japanese Black crossbred bulls showed consistently lower dry matter intake (15.5%, P0.05) or diet (P>0.05) under the experimental conditions and ranged from 5.8% to 6.0% of gross energy intake. This value is lower than that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (6.5%) for cattle fed with low-quality crop residues or by-products. Thus, our results imply that the Japanese Black crossbred cattle consume less feed and emits less enteric methane than the Charolais crossbred does, mainly owing to its lower ME requirement for maintenance. The OPF diet could be used to replace SBS for high beef production, although further studies are required to evaluate their application across a wide range of beef production systems.

  14. Short communication: Effect of the feed presentation form on the intake pattern, productive traits and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

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    Antonio Gimeno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional disorders like ruminal acidosis are common in Spanish beef production system, in which animals are fed diets with a high content in starch. This experiment studied the effect of feed presentation form (concentrate and straw offered separately, CD, or mixed in form of briquettes, BR on the pattern of intake, growth and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. The experiment was performed with 40 Holstein male calves, 32 of them for determining feed intake pattern and productive rates, and the remaining 8, which were previously provided with a ruminal cannula, to monitor rumen pH in two 21-day consecutive periods following a change-over design. Animals fed BR reduced feed intake rate during the first hour after feeding (18.6 vs. 24.0% of daily intake p<0.001, but this diet promoted a lower rumen pH at all sampling times compared with CD (daily average of 5.98 vs. 6.33; p<0.001 and tended to promote a lower total feed intake (7.08 vs. 9.77 kg DM/d; p<0.001 and daily weight gain (1.43 vs. 1.76 kg/d; p=0.056. Offering the concentrate and the straw mixed in form of briquettes is not useful to prevent ruminal acidosis and improve growth, probably due to both a reduced particle size of straw and avoided self-regulation of straw intake along the day.

  15. Comparative responses of intake and rumen function in sheep and goats to supplementation of barley straw forages with urea and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.M.; Poppi, D.P.; Sykes, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Goats and sheep were offered a low quality barley straw (0.72% N) with or without a urea (0.3% N of DM) and sodium sulphate (0.03% S of DM) supplement. There was little difference in apparent digestibility intake and digestible organic matter intake of barley straw between the control animals and the supplemented animals, or between the two species. This lack of difference may be due to the fact that the in vivo digestion of the straw (37% apparent DM digestibility) was close to its potential digestibility. Though the rumen ammonia concentration of goats was higher (P < 0.01) than that of sheep, the digestion rate of straw in the rumen was higher (P < 0.01) for sheep. It was concluded that higher rumen ammonia levels in goats did not confer any advantage to this species in terms of digestion rate and duodenal protein supply and that both species failed to respond to urea and sulphur supplementation. (author). 33 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

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    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  18. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  19. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

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    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  20. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Throughout the experiment, 2 digestibility trials were performed over 5 consecutive days (starting at d 36 and 78) involving feed and ort sampling and spot collections of feces and urine. At d 0 and 83, body ultrasound images were obtained for real-time carcass trait evaluation. The mammary gland was ultrasonically scanned at d 0 and every 3 wk during the experiment. Blood samples were taken at d 0 and 84 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin. No interaction between PS and the level of RUP was found for any trait. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein was not affected by RUP level but was lower for PRE compared with PUB heifers. Sorting against neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (tendency only) and for crude protein was greater for PUB than PRE heifers. Pubertal heifers had greater average daily gain (905 vs. 505 g/d) and N retention (25.9 vs. 12.5 g/d) than PRE heifers. In addition, average daily gain and N retention were greatest at 51% RUP of dietary protein. Mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of RUP amounts on mammary gland composition, whereas PRE heifers had greater pixel values than PUB

  1. Effect of Entodinium caudatum on starch intake and glycogen formation by Eudiplodinium maggii in the rumen and reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; McEwan, Neil R; Kowalik, Barbara; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the engulfed starch and reserve α-glucans (glycogen) in the cells of the ciliates Eudiplodinium maggii, as well the α-glucans in defaunated and selectively faunated sheep. The content of starch inside the cell of ciliates varied from 21 to 183mg/g protozoal DM relative to the rumen fauna composition whereas, the glycogen fluctuated between 17 and 126mg/g dry matter (DM) of this ciliate species. Establishment of the population Entodinium caudatum in the rumen of sheep already faunated with E. maggii caused a drop in both types of quantified carbohydrates. The content of α-glucans in the rumen of defaunated sheep varied from 4.4 to 19.9mg/g DM and increased to 7.4-29.9 or 11.8-33.9mg/g DM of rumen contents in the presence of only E. maggii or E. maggii and E. caudatum, respectively. The lowest content of the carbohydrates was always found just before feeding and the highest at 4h thereafter. The α-glucans in the reticulum varied 7.5-40.1, 14.3-76.8 or 21.9-106.1mg/g DM of reticulum content for defaunated, monofaunated or bifaunated sheep, respectively. The results indicated that both ciliate species engulf starch granules and convert the digestion products to the glycogen, diminishing the pool of starch available for amylolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

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    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  3. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  4. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  5. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF and undegraded dietary protein (UDP on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7 and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]. Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN synthesis was estimated using 15N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM intake (p = 0.002 and CP intake (p = 0.005. Ruminal pH (p<0.001, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008, and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001 were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001. The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007 was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02 or UDP (p = 0.04. In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7 and UDP (50% of CP improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  6. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments.

  7. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

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    M. Wanapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC replacement for cassava chip (CC in concentrate at 0% (T1; GCC replacement at 33% (T2; GCC replacement at 67% (T3; and GCC replacement at 100% (T4, respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Purine derivatives (PD concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

  8. Intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and different levels of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Franco, Marcia; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Batista, Erick Darlisson; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; Lopes, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Effects of nitrogen supplementation associated with different levels of starch on voluntary intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage ( Brachiaria decumbens hay, 7.4% crude protein, CP) were evaluated using ruminal and abomasal cannulated steers. Five European×Zebu young bulls (186 kg body weight, BW) were distributed according to a 5×5 Latin square. The following treatments were evaluated: control, supplementation with 300 g CP/d (0:1), supplementation with 300 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (1:1), supplementation with 600 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (2:1), and supplementation with 900 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (3:1). A mixture of nitrogenous compounds provided 1/3 from true protein (casein) and 2/3 from non-protein nitrogen (mixture of urea and ammonium sulphate, 9:1) was used as the nitrogen supplement. In order to supply energy a unique source of corn starch was used. Supplements increased (p0.05) forage intake. There was a cubic effect (pdigestibility, but did not affect (p>0.05) neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein (NDFap) digestibility. There was a positive linear effect (pdigestibility. Total NDFap digestibility was not affected (p>0.05) by the amount of supplemental starch. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in supplemented animals, however, a negative linear effect (p<0.05) of amount of starch was observed. Supplements increased (p<0.05) the nitrogen balance (NB) and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. These effects were attributed to increased body anabolism, supported by higher (p<0.05) serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Increasing the amount of starch tended (p<0.06) to linearly increase the NB. In spite of this, there was a highest NB value for the 2:1 starch:CP ratio amongst the treatments with supplementation. Nitrogen supplementation in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage increases nitrogen retention in the animal's body. An

  9. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of rumen-degradable intake protein supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C; Wickersham, E E; Gnad, D P

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of increasing amounts of rumen-degradable intake protein (DIP) on urea kinetics in steers consuming prairie hay. Ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (278 kg of BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and provided ad libitum access to low-quality prairie hay (4.9% CP). The DIP was provided as casein dosed ruminally once daily in amounts of 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Periods were 13 d long, with 7 d for adaptation and 6 d for collection. Steers were in metabolism crates for total collection of urine and feces. Jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea, followed by determination of urinary enrichment of (15)N(15)N-urea and (14)N(15)N-urea was used to determine urea kinetics. Forage and N intake increased (linear, P Urea synthesis was 19.9, 24.8, 42.9, and 50.9 g of urea-N/d for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (linear, P = 0.004). Entry of urea into the gut was 98.9, 98.8, 98.6, and 95.9% of production for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily, respectively (quadratic, P = 0.003). The amount of urea-N entering the gastrointestinal tract was greatest for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (48.6 g of urea-N/d) and decreased (linear, P = 0.005) to 42.4, 24.5, and 19.8 g of urea-N/d for 118, 59, and 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Microbial incorporation of recycled urea-N increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 12.3 g of N/d for 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily to 28.9 g of N/d for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Provision of DIP produced the desired and previously observed increase in forage intake while also increasing N retention. The large percentage of urea synthesis that was recycled to the gut (95.9% even when steers received the greatest amount of DIP) points to the remarkable ability of cattle to conserve N when fed a low-protein diet.

  11. Intake plenum volume and its influence on the engine performance, cyclic variability and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intake manifold connects the intake system to the intake valve of the engine and through which air or air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder. Details of the flow in intake manifolds are extremely complex. Recently, most of engine companies are focused on variable intake manifold technology due to their improvement on engine performance. This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum volume variation on engine performance and emissions to constitute a base study for variable intake plenum. Brake and indicated engine performance characteristics, coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure (COV imep ) as an indicator for cyclic variability, pulsating flow pressure in the intake manifold runner, and CO, CO 2 and HC emissions were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of different plenum volumes. The results of this study showed that the variation in the plenum volume causes an improvement on the engine performance and the pollutant emissions. The brake torque and related performance characteristics improved pronouncedly about between 1700 and 2600 rpm by increasing plenum volume. Additionally, although the increase in the plenum volume caused the mixture leaner due to the increase in the intake runner pressure and lean mixtures inclined to increase the cyclic variability, a decrease was interestingly observed in the COV imep

  12. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  13. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mínguez-alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorgee; Mendiola, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    , and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone......, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free...... testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest...

  14. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  15. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  16. Effects of including saponins (Micro-aid®) on intake, rumen fermentation, and digestibility in steers fed low-quality prairie hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen ruminally-cannulated crossbred steers (529 ± 45 kg initial body weight, BW) were used to evaluate in situ dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (aNDF), and N degradation characteristics of low quality prairie hay, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and rumen fermentation parameters in steers provi...

  17. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently

  18. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSweeney, C.S.; Denman, S.E.; Mackie, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 10 11 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (10 4 -10 6 /g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 10 2 -10 4 /g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (10 7 -10 9 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Manafiazar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was carried out to determine the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters in buffaloes. Four healthy male River (Azari buffaloes with no previous history of gastrointestinal dysfunction were chosen. There are several surgical techniques that can be used for rumen cannulation in farm animals, including buffaloes. This procedure was performed in a modified two-stage technique. In the first stage, the dorso – lateral portion of the dorsal sac of the rumen wall was sutured to the skin incision in the left para lumbar fossa region. In the second – stage, after six days left, the exposed rumen wall area was incised and the cannula was inserted and fixed manually in the rumenal opening incision site. In order to evaluate the efficacy of rumen cannulation technique on some rumen metabolic parameters, this study was achieved with different levels of NDF, and chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, was measured in a change over design. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00 and 21:00. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility. Increasing NFC reduced ruminal pH at 0.5, 1.0, 4.5, 6.0 9.0 and 10.0 h post feeding. In addition, there were not significant differences on eating time, rumination time and total chewing activity between diets. All data obtained in this study were in normal range may indicating the efficacy of this cannulation method. More investigation should be done to determine the efficacy and comparison of the other surgical rumen cannulation techniques on Azari buffaloes of Iran.

  20. Rumen bypass nutrients: Manipulation and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.; Nolan, J.V.; Preston, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The feeds available for ruminants in developing countries are either agro-industrial by-products or specially grown forage crops. Many of these feeds are low in protein and require supplementation with non-protein N (NPN) to maintain efficient rumen function and digestibility. The principles for utilizing high energy, low protein feeds by ruminants are discussed in relation to the supply of NPN, the establishment of efficient rumen function, maximizing feed intake by means of supplements, and increasing total energy and protein intake by using supplements which bypass the rumen. To illustrate it the application of these principles to feeding systems based on molasses, chopped whole sugar cane and derinded sugar cane is discussed. The implications of the principles in increasing the feeding value of straw are also discussed. (author)

  1. Dissociation of the effects of preload volume and energy content on subjective appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard; French, Stephen; Robinson, Tristan; Yeomans, Martin

    2002-05-01

    Previous research suggests that enhancing the volume of a food preload without altering energy content can result in reduced appetite, although the limited evidence means that the conditions under which this effect will occur are not yet clear. In the present study, we used a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) to record test meal intake constantly, in parallel with appetite ratings, following soup-based preloads that varied both in volume (150 vs. 450 ml) and energy density (1.4 vs. 4.2 kJ/ml). Healthy young men (n=20) received four different preload conditions (repeated measures) followed by unlimited hot pasta test meals (interval 30 min). They completed appetite ratings during and after each laboratory session, and food diaries for the afternoon and evening following each session. Subjective appetite after the preloads was reduced by the high-volume preloads relative to low-volume preloads, with no difference between the two at each volume level. This indicates an effect of volume, but no effect of energy. Test meal intake in the high-volume, high-energy-density condition was reduced relative to the other conditions, which did not differ from one another. This indicates an effect of total energy, but no effect of volume. The dissociation between these different measures of appetite might be explained in terms of largely cognitive influences on subjective appetite between preload and test meal, contrasted with stronger physiological influences on actual intake during the test meal. With regard to previous studies, it is argued that food volume is more influential under circumstances where gastric volume is closer to its normal limits.

  2. Effects of sheep breed and soybean meal supplementation on rumen environment and degradation kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, A.; Cone, J.W.; Fontes, P.; Dias-Da-Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the in vivo digestibility and intake differences, observed in previous studies, between Ile-de-France (IF) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ) sheep breeds, were due to rumen environment and degradability differences. The intake, digestibility, rumen environment

  3. The contribution of mathematical modeling to understanding the dynamic aspects of rumen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bannink

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available All rumen models cover the main drivers of variation in rumen function, which are feed intake, the differences between feedstuffs and feeds in their intrinsic rumen degradation characteristics, and fractional outflow rate of fluid and particulate matter. Dynamic modeling approaches are best suited to the prediction of more nuanced responses in rumen metabolism, and represent the dynamics of the interaction between substrates and micro-organisms and inter-microbial interactions. The concepts of dynamics are discussed for the case of rumen starch digestion as influenced by starch intake rate and frequency of feed intake, and for the case of fermentation of fiber in the large intestine. Adding representations of new functional classes of micro-organisms (i.e. with new characteristics from the perspective of whole rumen function in rumen models only delivers new insights if complemented by the dynamics of their interactions with other functional classes. Rumen fermentation conditions have to be represented due to their profound impact on the dynamics of substrate degradation and microbial metabolism. Although the importance of rumen acidity is generally acknowledged, more emphasis is needed on predicting its variation as well as variation in the processes that underlie rumen fluid dynamics. The rumen wall has an important role in adapting to rapid changes in the rumen environment, clearing of volatile fatty acids (VFA, and maintaining rumen pH within limits. Dynamics of rumen wall epithelia and its role in VFA absorption needs to be better represented in models which aim to predict rumen responses across nutritional or physiological states. For a detailed prediction of rumen N balance there is merit in a dynamic modeling approach compared to the static approaches adopted in current protein evaluation systems. Improvement is needed on previous attempts to predict rumen VFA profiles, and this should be pursued by introducing factors that relate more

  4. Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and ...

  5. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  6. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  7. Symbiosis and Rumen Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Raymond D.

    1970-01-01

    Protozoa inhabiting the rumen of large grazing animals can be used to illustrate symbiotic animal associations. Gives a key to the ciliates most commonly found, several drawings, and a chart relating rumen fauna to the phylogenetic tree of the hosts. (EB)

  8. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  9. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  10. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh, M S; Obeidat, B S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (pcomparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  11. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  12. Comparison of rumen bacteria distribution in original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions in lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shoukun; Zhang, Hongtao; Yan, Hui; Azarfar, Arash; Shi, Haitao; Alugongo, Gibson; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Background Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. Methods To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas. Rumen digesta was then squeezed...

  13. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TROPIKA 18

    2016-11-24

    Nov 24, 2016 ... especially total protozoa and total methanogens. ..... (10−1/slope − 1) × 100 ..... http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/k7930e/k7930e00.pdf. .... on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis, digestibility and voluntary feed intake in ...

  14. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... of the surgical dimensions, at least within the ranges of our observations. Increased food consumption and decreased energy intake with beverages may be caused by late dilations, or vice versa.......This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...

  15. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively...

  16. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  17. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olijhoek, D.W.; Hellwing, A.L.F.; Brask, M.; Weisbjerg, M.R.; Højberg, O.; Larsen, M.K.; Dijkstra, Jan; Erlandsen, E.J.; Lund, P.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient

  18. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  19. The Concentrations of Rumen Fluid Volatile Fatty Acids and Ammonia, and Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Sheep Given Feed During the Day and Night Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, D. A. K. W.; Rianto, E.; Arifin, M.

    2018-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of volatile (VFA), ammonia and microbial protein production of rumen fluid in sheep given fedd during the day and at night. This study used 12 fat-tailed rams aged 12-18 months and weighed 24,12 ± 25 kg (CV = 10,51%). The rams were fed a complete feed containing 16.64% protein and 68,33% total digestible nutrients (TDN). The rams were allocated into a completely randomised design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments applied were: T1: day time feeding (6.00 hrs - 18.00 hrs); T2: night time feeding (18.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs); and T3: day and night time feedings (6.00 hrs - 6.00 hrs). The parameters observed were dry matter intake (DMI), rumen VFA concentration, rumen ammonia concentration, rumen rmicrobial protein production and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein production. The results showed that feeding time did not significantly affect (P>0.05) all the parameters observed. Dry matter intake, VFA concentration, ammonia concentration, the microbial protein production of rumen fluid and the efficiency of microbial protein production were 1,073g/d, 49.69 mmol; 4.77 mg N/100 ml, 12,111 g/d and 19.96 g per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), respectively. It is concluded that feeding time did not affect DMI, condition of rumen fluid and rumen microbial protein production in sheep.

  20. Rumen microbial genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.; Nelson, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Improving microbial degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides remains one of the highest priority goals for all livestock enterprises, including the cattle herds and draught animals of developing countries. The North American Consortium for Genomics of Fibrolytic Ruminal Bacteria was created to promote the sequencing and comparative analysis of rumen microbial genomes, offering the potential to fully assess the genetic potential in a functional and comparative fashion. It has been found that the Fibrobacter succinogenes genome encodes many more endoglucanases and cellodextrinases than previously isolated, and several new processive endoglucanases have been identified by genome and proteomic analysis of Ruminococcus albus, in addition to a variety of strategies for its adhesion to fibre. The ramifications of acquiring genome sequence data for rumen microorganisms are profound, including the potential to elucidate and overcome the biochemical, ecological or physiological processes that are rate limiting for ruminal fibre degradation. (author)

  1. Volume 10 No. 7 July 2010 1 NUTRIENT INTAKE AND ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... nutrient adequacy due to the use of a food frequency questionnaire which was not quantified. In assessing the elderly Botswanan's diet with the Healthy Eating Index, researchers found adequate intake of grains, but poor variety and intake of milk, vegetables and fruit [7]. A secondary analysis of dietary data ...

  2. Studies regarding the influence of different straw-based ration types on fermentation and production of volatile fatty acids in the rumen of lactating cows. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenchow, H.; Bergner, H.

    1977-01-01

    Lactating cows fed different types of ration were used to test a combined in-vitro/in-vivo technique for determining the rate of VFA-production. Both under N 2 - and CO 2 -atmosphere the applied in-vitro technique allowed to obtain fermentation results agreeing with the corresponding in-vivo results. The VFA-production was found to depend on the time of rumen juice extraction; it reached its peak 3 hours feed intake. The time-conditioned variations revealed a good agreement between the results obtained before morning and evening feedings, respectively. The rumen juice volume necessary for calculating the daily VFA production rate was recorded using the water-soluble complex of 51 Cr-ethylene diaminetetra acetate (EDTA). The results demonstrate that the measured values are of good reproducibility. Rumen juice volumes of 81.7 +- 6 l (ration type: straw pellets + concentrates) and 81.7 +- 4 l (ration type: fodder beet + dried green forage + concentrates) were recorded for the two groups of 10 experimental cows each, given restricted amounts of water and feed. Replication trials conducted 14 days later gave values of 70.7 +- 4 and 81.7 +- 2 l, respectively. (author)

  3. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  4. Increasing preload volume with water reduces rated appetite but not food intake in healthy men even with minimum delay between preload and test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard W; French, Stephen J; Robinson, Tristan M; Yeomans, Martin R

    2003-02-01

    The role of gastric volume in the short-term control of eating in humans remains unclear, with some studies reporting that food volume alone can reduce appetite but others finding no such effect. A recent study in our laboratory, found effects of preload volume on subjective appetite (hunger, fullness) but not intake, and found effects of preload energy on intake but not appetite. That study used an interval of 30 min between serving preloads and the test meal, and the present study attempted to maximise the effects of the volume manipulation by removing the delay between the preload and test meal. We administered four soup-based preloads varying in volume (150 and 450 ml) using water, and energy density (1.4 and 4.2 kJ/ml) using maltodextrin, producing three energy levels (209, 629, 629 and 1886 kJ; repeated measures). These were followed immediately by an unlimited hot pasta lunch, during which food weight was monitored continuously by computer. Increasing soup volume at constant energy (629 kJ) reduced appetite ratings, but not intake. In contrast, increasing soup energy at constant volume (450 ml) reduced intake, without affecting appetite. The discrepancies between our results and other reported studies suggest that volume is more influential when intakes are large, or that there may be a threshold concentration for nutrients in the GI tract before volume alone is tangibly expressed in subsequent eating.

  5. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  6. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  7. Manipulation of the rumen to increase ruminant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Leng, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Manipulation of the rumen should be undertaken with a view to optimizing the supply of specific nutrients to the host animal. Especially important are the volatile fatty acids (glucogenic and non-glucogenic), and dietary and bypass amino acids and lipids. The animal's requirement for these nutrients varies according to its physiological state (growing, pregnant or lactating), its health (disease or parasite load), previous dietary history and also the prevailing climatic conditions. Often the availability of total protein (amino acids) relative to oxidizable substrates (the protein/energy or P/E ratio) is the primary limitation to voluntary feed intake and to efficient use of absorbed nutrients. In these instances, the first objective should be to maximize the yield of microbial amino acids from the rumen by manipulations that increase the net efficiency of microbial synthesis, e.g. by altering methods of feed processing, supplementing with urea and minerals, or eliminating protozoa. Further improvements in the P/E ratio can be attained by supplementing the animal with a dietary protein source with good rumen bypass characteristics in order to provide additional amino acids for intestinal absorption. Other potential manipulations of the rumen include the use of chemicals to modify rumen fermentation patterns and supplementation with long chain fatty acids (LCFA) (as a dense source of energy supplying substrate) in rumen-inert forms (e.g. as Ca-LCFA). However, when energy dense dietary supplements are given, it may be necessary to include a bypass protein source to maintain the P/E ratio. Novel possibilities for manipulation include the use of molecular biology techniques to create microorganisms with enhanced production of enzymes that promote degradation of structural carbohydrates, or with an ability to secrete chemicals that are toxic to protozoa. (author). 68 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S

    1987-11-01

    1. The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro. 2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate:propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions. 3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose. 4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.

  9. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone leve...

  10. Manipulation of rumen ecology by dietary lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) powder supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Pakdee, P; Wanapat, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN STEERS FED GREEN TROPICAL GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHEN L. MULLIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rate of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP supply to the intestines is a crucial element in the current rumen models to predict respond of ruminants to a certain diet. Data from tropical pastures always below predicted results from the existing rumen models. Thus, quantification of the rumen MCP supply from tropical grass will improve predictive rate under tropical feeding conditions. Four Brahman crossbred steers (457±20.1 kg were used in a metabolism study. Pangola grass (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal was harvested every morning and fed to the animals soon after. Parameters measured were EMPS, intake, fractional passage rates, and rumen ammonia concentration. The EMPS was estimated using purine derivative excretion in urine. Crude protein and water soluble carbohydrates content were 6.3 and 7.4% of dry matter (DM respectively. DM intake was 1.6% live weight. Average rumen ammonia concentration was 69 mg/L whilst rumen passage rates were 7.84 and 6.92 %/h for fluid and solids respectively. EMPS was only 72 g MCP/kg digestible organic matter. It might be concluded that EMPS in steers consuming green pangola grass was below the minimum level for forage diets adopted in the current feeding standards. ABSTRAK Tingkat pasokan protein mikroba rumen (MCP ke usus halus merupakan salah satu unsur kunci dalam meramal respon pertumbuhan ruminan terhadap ransum tertentu. Data MCP hijauan tropis selalu berada di bawah nilai prediksi model rumen yang dipakai saat ini. Dengan demikian, kuantifikasi pasokan MCP rumput tropis diharapkan menjadi masukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan prediksi model rumen untuk pakan daerah tropis. Empat sapi jantan muda Brahman persilangan (457±20,1 kg digunakan dalam sebuah penelitian metabolisme. Rumput pangola (Digitaria erianthe cv. Steudal dipanen setiap pagi dan langsung diberikan kepada ternak dalam kandang metabolis. Parameter yang diukur adalah produksi MCP dan efisiensi sintesis MCP (Emps, konsumsi, laju

  12. A comparative study on the production rates of VFA and bacteria in the rumen of buffalo and goat estimated by isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Mehra, U.R.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Digestibility trials were conducted on Murrah buffaloes and Barbari goats with rumen cannulae in the rumen to determine the digestibility of the feed constituents and the production rates of bacteria and total VFA were estimated in the rumen by isotope dilution technique. The bacterial cells growth in the rumen was more in goats than buffaloes when fed ad libitum and calculated on equal feed intake, where as, in buffaloes fed on restricted diet equal to the goats the production of bacteria and VFA were higher. Goats converted 54.04 percent of their dietary nitrogen into microbial nitrogen which was more than twice of buffaloes. (author)

  13. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  14. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  15. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  16. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the effect of different ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) to rumen degradable protein (RDP) on lactation responses, digestion and dry matter intake (DMI), nine multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows, averaging 171 +-17 days in milk and 24.1+-3.3 kg of milk/d were assigned to a 3 x 3 Latin square design.

  17. Nutrient Digestibility and Performances of Frisian Holstein Calves Fed with Pennisetum purpureum and Inoculated with Buffalo’s Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prihantoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB are potential in digesting fiber feed. BRB already adapted well with low quality forages and agricultural byproducts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB consortium inoculated into preweaning Frisian Holstein calves on nutrient digestibility, physiological status, mineral uptake, and blood profile. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of four local buffalos. The research units consisted of seven Frisian Holstein calves at two weeks old with the average body weight of 43.6±4.5 kg. Calves were inoculated with 20 mL of buffalo’s rumen bacteria isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/mL] every morning for 10 weeks. The calves were divided into two groups i.e., three calves received bacterial inoculation and four calves without any inoculation. The variables which were analyzed in the preweaning and weaning period were feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, rumen fermentation characteristics, body weight, physiological status, blood profile, and mineral status. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test. The results showed that inoculation of buffalo’s rumen bacteria into Frisian Holstein calves effectively increased feed intake, characteristics of leukocytes and neutrophils, and cobalt (Co uptake during the weaning period. Inoculation of rumen bacteria improved rumen pH during preweaning and weaning periods. Inoculation of rumen bacteria also had no negative effects on digestibility, feed conversion (FCR, average daily gain (ADG, and physiological status.

  18. Rumen metabolism and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Oldham, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The rumen contains a heterogenous microbial population unevenly distributed in the fluid, in solid fractions of the contents and on the rumen wall. Understanding the ways in which these populations interact with dietary nutrients or those of endogenous origin is essential for improving prediction of nutritional responses, for developing economic production systems and for making maximum use of low quality feeds. Important factors affecting fibre digestion, protein degradation and microbial protein synthesis include turnover rates of individual digesta fractions, long lasting or transient deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and the susceptibilities to microbial attack of naturally occurring or treated dietary components. (author)

  19. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2013-02-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37%, late: NDF 44% in dry matter (DM)), and from each harvest, a chopped (theoretical cutting length: 19 mm) and an unchopped crop was ensiled in bales. The silages were fed restrictively to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (391 ± 26 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The cows were fed restrictively 80% of their ad libitum intake twice daily. Chewing activity was recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen content, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500 and 0.212 mm pore sizes into six fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) of particles within each fraction was measured by the use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg dry matter intake (P rumen content, rumen fluid and faeces was affected by harvest time (P rumen content and faeces were identified. Chopping of the silage decreased the mean PL and PW, the most frequent PL (mode) and 95% percentile PL and PW values in boli. In the rumen content, chopping increased the mean PW (P rumen content and faeces than in boli (P rumen contents (P rumen content and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaf and the stem residues.

  20. Eating disorders, energy intake, training volume, and menstrual function in high-level modern rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1996-06-01

    This study examined clinical and subclinical eating disorders (EDs) in young Norwegian modern rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects were 12 members of the national team, age 13-20 years, and individually matched nonathletic controls. All subjects participated in a structured clinical interview for EDs, medical examination, and dietary analysis. Two of the gymnasts met the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa, and 2 met the criteria for anorexia athletica (a subclinical ED). All the gymnasts were dieting in spite of the fact that they were all extremely lean. The avoidance of maturity, menstrual irregularities, energy deficit, high training volume, and high frequency of injuries were common features among the gymnasts. Ther is a need to learn more about risk factors and the etiology of EDs in different sports. Coaches, parents, and athletes need more information about principles of proper nutrition and methods to achieve ideal body composition for optional health and athletic performance.

  1. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  2. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kav, Aya Brown; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses. PMID:22431592

  3. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  4. Oxytocin prolongs the gastric emptying time in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but does not affect satiety or volume intake in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Julia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin is released in response to a fatty meal. Blockage of the oxytocin receptor led to slower gastric emptying whereas stimulation resulted in less satiety in healthy volunteers. Patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis lack oxytocin elevation, and dyspepsia is partly caused by reduced fundus accommodation causing early satiety and related symptoms. The aim of this study was thus to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric emptying, satiety and volume intake in patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Results Gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed twice in 12 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. The patients scored their sensation of satiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS. The gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis was prolonged during oxytocin infusion (p = 0.034 without affecting satiety. A slow satiety drinking test was performed in 14 patients with functional dyspepsia. The patients scored their satiety every five minutes until maximal satiety was reached, and the total volume was determined. The VAS was also completed 30 minutes afterwards. The test was performed twice, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. There was no difference in satiety scores or volume of nutrient intake between saline and oxytocin infusions, either before, during or after the meal. Conclusions Oxytocin prolongs gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but has no effect on volume of nutrient intake or satiety and other related symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  5. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 expression in rumen epithelium of newborn calves due to age and milk or milk replacer feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaga, J; Górka, P; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether besides age and solid feed intake, monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 (MCT1) expression in the rumen epithelium of calves is affected by liquid feed type [whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR)]. Thirty bull calves at the mean age of 5 days were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (six calves/group). Six calves were slaughtered immediately after allocation to the trial (5 days of life), eighteen calves were fed MR and slaughtered at week intervals (on 12, 19, 26 days of life respectively), and six calves were fed WM and slaughtered at the 26 days of life. MCT1 protein abundance and the MCT1 mRNA level were investigated in the dorsal and ventral sack of the rumen. Solid feed intake and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in the rumen fluid increased linearly with calves' age. The amount of the MCT1 protein and mRNA in the dorsal sac of rumen as well as the amount of MCT1 protein in the cranial ventral sac of rumen also increased linearly with calves' age. Calves fed WM had greater solid feed intake in the last week of the study as compared to calves fed MR, but SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid was not different. MCT1 mRNA expression in the cranial dorsal sac of rumen and protein MCT1 expression in both dorsal and ventral cranial sack of the rumen were higher in calves fed WM as compared to calves fed MR. This study confirmed age-dependent changes of MCT1 expression in the rumen epithelium of newborn calves and showed that its expression might be affected by liquid feed type. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KONSENTRASI RUMEN SAPI TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr. Dewi Artanti Putri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinasse merupakan limbah yang dihasilkan oleh produksi bioetanol yang mempunyai kandungan COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand yang tinggi. Dengan karakteristik tersebut vinasse lebih tepat diuraikan dengan proses anaerob menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh suhu dan perbandingan rumen sapi  yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biogas dengan hasil yang optimum. Suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dan kecepatan reaksi dalam pembentukan biogas. Rumen sapi adalah inokulum atau starter yang merupakan bahan yang perlu ditambahkan ke dalam sistem digester biogas. Percobaan dilakukan dalam digester volum 500 ml, dioperasikan pada pH 7 dengan memvariasikan perbandingan suhu,yaitu suhu ruang, suhu 50 oC, dan suhu60 oC dan variasi konsentrasi rumen sapi  5%, 10%, 15%. Proses fermentasi dilakukan dengan cara batch dengan pengukuran gas setiap 2-3 hari menggunakan metode water displacement technique sampai gas tidak terbentuk selama 60 hari. Respon yang diambil pada penelitian ini adalah volume gas yang dihasilkan berdasarkan pengaruh suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi terhadap produksi biogas. Perubahan suhu dan konsentrasi rumen sapi sangat mempengaruhi produksi biogas. Hasil yang terbaik dari penelitian ini adalah pada konsentrasi rumen 15% pada suhu ruang yaitu sebanyak 370 ml. Kata kunci: biogas, vinasse, suhu, rumen sapiVinasse is the waste generated by the production of bioethanol which has high content of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand. With these characteristics, it is more appropriate to convert it into biogas through anaerobic digestion process. This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperature and the cow rumen concentration needed to obtain biogas with optimum results. Temperature affects the growth of microorganisms and speed of reaction in the formation of biogas. The cow rumen was used as inoculum or starter material that needs to be added to the biogas digester system. Experiments conducted in the digester

  8. Effects of sodium chloride on sheep. 2. Voluntary feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein (CP) had alleviated these detrimental effects to some extent. This was a ... feed intake and changes in certain rumen parameters of young Merino ..... in saliva, with a commensurate increase in the K ... its relation to feeding in cattle. 1.

  9. The effects of different levels of sodium caseinate on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CN significantly affected the concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), rumen peptide nitrogen (Pep-N) and the ratio of rumen ammonia nitrogen/ rumen peptide nitrogen (P < 0.05) and consequently blood urea nitrogen, milk urea nitrogen and urinary urea nitrogen concentrations. However digestibility of dry ...

  10. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Rosario; Savarese, Maria Flavia; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Nicolai, Emanuele; Aragri, Adriana; Cirillo, Carla; Vozzella, Letizia; Zito, Francesco Paolo; Verlezza, Viviana; Efficie, Eleonora; Buyckx, Maxime

    2011-10-14

    There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2) compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2), during a solid (SM) and a liquid meal (LM) on: a) gastric volume, b) caloric intake, c) ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) release in healthy subjects. After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2), ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1) were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min). Total gastric volumes (TGV) were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS). Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p beverages tested, with either the SM (Water: 783 ± 77 kcals; B-CO2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66) or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95). Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p beverages. The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  11. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  12. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2

  13. Non-protein nitrogen and reduced phosphorus supply to sheep. 1. Phosphorus, volatile fatty acids, NH3 and pH of rumen liquid and daily fluid and phosphorus outflow from the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, H.; Breves, G.; Martens, H.

    1983-01-01

    Sheep were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and in the abomasum and fed a straw/pellet diet providing 29% of total N as urea-N. The diet was deficient in P, and daily P intake during P depletion was about 1.3g. Phosphorus repletion was obtained in the same sheep by daily infusion of 2.85gP as phosphoric acid into the abomasum. During experimental periods, Cr-EDTA and 15 N-urea were continuously infused into the rumen for five days. During the last two days, blood samples and a total of ten samples from both rumen and abomasum were taken. Three depletion and three repletion experiments were performed. The following significant changes were noted in the P-deficient state (means): blood plasma inorganic P fell from 2.38 to 0.67mmol/L and rumen liquid total P from 5.65 to 1.71mmol/L, i.e. both levels decreased by approximately 70%. Fluid outflow from the rumen was raised by about 10% but P outflow decreased by about 68%. NH 3 concentrations in rumen fluid increased from 3.60 to 7.51mmol/L whereas total VFA concentration was reduced from 125 to 100mmol/L. Average pH values changed from 6.06 to 6.56. It is suggested that P depletion led to reduced microbial growth and activity in the rumen although data on microbial protein outflow from the rumen are not yet available. (author)

  14. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    changes and no changes in rumen development. Rumen pH and fermentation changes with age were likely effects of increasing starter intake. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on rumen papillae protein turnover in growing lambs. Under the feeding conditions used and the rate of continuous butyrate infusion into the rumen in the present studies, butyrate does not affect overall N retention in growing sheep. However, butyrate may play a role in the redistribution of urea N fluxes in the overall scheme of N metabolism.

  16. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullaes were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams/d of crude protein (CP were supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. There were no effects of supplementation on voluntary intake, except for CP intake, which was increased by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin in the supplements caused linear effect on the CP intake. The intakes of the other diet components were not affected by the supplement composition. There was no effect on ruminal rate of passage of fibrous compounds. Supplementation increased the estimates of common rate of lag and degradation of NDF. However, no effect of supplement composition alteration was observed on this parameter. Supplementation of cattle with rumen degradable (protein or non-protein nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during rainy season does not affect voluntary intake of pasture.

  17. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  18. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  19. Uji Biologis Konsumsi Pakan, Populasi Bakteri Rumen dan pH Pellet Complete Calf Starter pada Pedet Friesian Holstein Pra Sapih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maharani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Biological test feed intake, population rumen bacteria and ph pellet complete calf starter friesian holstein on pre weaning calf  ABSTRACT. The study aims to assess the quality of the formula Complete Calf Starter (CCS with 5% molasses instead of milk to the development of rumen microbial calf Holstein Friesian (HF pre-weaning. The material used is 20 head calf FH pre weaning age of 2 weeks. Feed intake data taken from 20 respondents consisted of 16 females and 4 calf tail male calf. Data rumen bacterial populations and pH were taken from 5 head of cattle slaughtered at the age of 2 weeks (one tail, 4 weeks (2-tailed and 6 weeks (2-tailed. The study was designed as a descriptive non-parametric. Parameters measured were rumen bacterial populations, pH and feed intake. The results showed the average consumption of dry matter (DM and CCS calf milk FH ages 2, 4, 6 weeks respectively at 506, 517, 528 grams. Rumen bacterial populations in calves aged 2, 4, and 6 weeks of 80x106, 45x106 and 19x106 kol/m. ruminal pH in calves aged 2, 4 and 6 weeks was 5.71, 5.36 and 5.55. Biological test showed that the use of complete calf starter (CCS in the form of pellets FH calves at the age of 2 weeks to stimulate the development of the rumen (feed intake, the population of bacteria and pH but not in calves aged 4 and 6 weeks. This is because the number of bacterial populations declined due to impaired absorption is impaired absorption of VFA marked low rumen pH.

  20. Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Xie, Tian Yu; Janssen, Peter H; Sun, Xue Zhao; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhi Liang; Gao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production. We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations. Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r 0.40; P Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Repeated inoculation of cattle rumen with bison rumen contents alters the rumen microbiome and improves nitrogen digestibility in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Gabriel O.; Oss, Daniela B.; He, Zhixiong; Gruninger, Robert J.; Elekwachi, Chijioke; Forster, Robert J.; Yang, WenZhu; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2017-01-01

    Future growth in demand for meat and milk, and the socioeconomic and environmental challenges that farmers face, represent a ?grand challenge for humanity?. Improving the digestibility of crop residues such as straw could enhance the sustainability of ruminant production systems. Here, we investigated if transfer of rumen contents from bison to cattle could alter the rumen microbiome and enhance total tract digestibility of a barley straw-based diet. Beef heifers were adapted to the diet for ...

  2. Effects of fibre digestibility and level of roughage on performance and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Dannylo Oliveira; Mesquita, Bruno de Sousa; Pires, Alexandre Vaz; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Silva, Luis Felipe Prada

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate effects of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility and level of fresh sugarcane on intake, body fatness, carcass characteristics, and rumen kinetics and fermentation of beef cattle. Forty-eight Nellore young bulls were used in a complete randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDF digestibility (NDFD) were used. Experimental diets were formulated with 20 or 40% of sugarcane on a dry matter (DM) basis. High-NDFD genotype associated with the lower level of roughage in the diet promoted greater DM intake, resulting in greater body gain. Sugarcane with high-NDFD increased final body weight, hot carcass weight, and back-fat thickness. Animals receiving the genotype with high NDFD had greater rump-fat thickness only with 40% sugarcane in the diet. Animals receiving the low-NDFD genotype at 20% of the diet had lower NDF passage rate. Rumen pH was greater for diets with greater NDF content. There was greater proportion of butyrate in the rumen of animals receiving diets with greater NDF content. In conclusion, high-NDFD sugarcane increased final body and carcass weight, HCW, and fat thickness. When associated with lower inclusion of roughage in the diet, it can also increase DM intake and body weight gain of beef cattle.

  3. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  4. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Hisao; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14 C from 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U- 14 C-alanine, 2- 14 C-glycine or 14 C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15 N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15 N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  6. Diversity of rumen bacteria in canadian cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Interest in the bacteria responsible for the breakdown of lignocellulosic feedstuffs within the rumen has increased due to their potential utility in industrial applications. To date, most studies have focused on bacteria from domesticated ruminants. We have expanded the knowledge of the microbial ecology of ruminants by examining the bacterial populations found in the rumen of non-domesticated ruminants found in Canada. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA was employed to characterize the liquid and solid-associated bacterial communities in the rumen of elk (Cervus canadensis, and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Despite variability in the microbial populations between animals, principle component and weighted UniFrac analysis indicated that bacterial communities in the rumen of elk and white tail deer are distinct. Populations clustered according to individual host animal and not the association with liquid or solid phase of the rumen contents. In all instances, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant bacterial phyla, although the relative abundance of these differed among ruminant species and between phases of rumen digesta, respectively. In the elk samples Bacteroidetes were more predominant in the liquid phase whereas Firmicutes was the most prevalent phyla in the solid digesta (P = 1×10(-5. There were also statistically significant differences in the abundance of OTUs classified as Fibrobacteres (P = 5×10(-3 and Spirochaetes (P = 3×10(-4 in the solid digesta of the elk samples. We identified a number of OTUs that were classified as phylotypes not previously observed in the rumen environment. Our results suggest that although the bacterial diversity in wild North American ruminants shows overall similarities to domesticated ruminants, we observed a number of OTUs not previously described. Previous studies primarily focusing on domesticated ruminants do not fully represent the microbial diversity of the

  7. Intake and rumen degradation in cattle fed napier grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were analysed using the method of Van Soest & Robertson (1985). ..... al.,1998; Norton & Waterfall, 2000). .... feeding management on soil fertility in the smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Effects of dietary changes and yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on rumen microbial fermentation of Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, D; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Blanch, M; Fandiño, J I; Castillejos, L; Yoon, I

    2009-09-01

    The effects of a dietary challenge to induce digestive upsets and supplementation with yeast culture on rumen microbial fermentation were studied using 12 Holstein heifers (277 +/- 28 kg of BW) fitted with a ruminal cannula, in a crossover design with 2 periods of 5 wk. In each period, after 3 wk of adaptation to a 100% forage diet, the dietary challenge consisted of increasing the amount of grain at a rate of 2.5 kg/d (as-fed basis) over a period of 4 d, until a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet was reached, and then it was maintained for 10 d. Between periods, animals were fed again the 100% forage diet without any treatment for 1 wk as a wash-out period. Treatments started the first day of each period, and they were a control diet (CL) or the same diet with addition of yeast culture (YC, Diamond V XPCLS). Digestive upsets were determined by visual observation of bloat or by a reduction in feed intake (as-fed basis) of 50% or more compared with intake on the previous day. Feed intake was determined daily at 24-h intervals during the adaptation period and daily at 2, 6, and 12 h postfeeding during the dietary challenge. Ruminal liquid samples were collected daily during the dietary challenge to determine ruminal pH at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding, and total and individual VFA, lactic acid, ammonia-N, and rumen fluid viscosity at 0 and 6 h postfeeding. The 16s rRNA gene copies of Streptococcus bovis and Megasphaera elsdenii were determined by quantitative PCR. Foam height and strength of the rumen fluid were also determined the day after the digestive upset to evaluate potential foam production. A total of 20 cases (83.3%) of digestive upsets were recorded in both periods during the dietary challenge, all diagnosed due to a reduction in feed intake. Rumen fermentation profile at 0 h on the digestive upset day was characterized by low ruminal pH, which remained under 6.0 for 18 h, accompanied by elevated total VFA concentration and, in some cases, by elevated lactate

  9. The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zito Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is conflicting data on the effects of carbon dioxide contained in beverages on stomach functions. We aimed to verify the effect of a pre-meal administration of a 300 ml non-caloric carbonated beverage (B+CO2 compared to water or a beverage without CO2 (B-CO2, during a solid (SM and a liquid meal (LM on: a gastric volume, b caloric intake, c ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK release in healthy subjects. Methods After drinking the beverages (Water, B-CO2, B+CO2, ten healthy subjects (4 women, aged 22-30 years; BMI 23 ± 1 were asked to consume either an SM or an LM, at a constant rate (110 kcal/5 min. Total gastric volumes (TGV were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after drinking the beverage and at maximum satiety (MS. Total kcal intake at MS was evaluated. Ghrelin and CCK were measured by enzyme immunoassay until 120 min after the meal. Statistical calculations were carried out by paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The data is expressed as mean ± SEM. Results TGV after B+CO2 consumption was significantly higher than after B-CO2 or water (p 2: 837 ± 66; B+CO2: 774 ± 66 or the LM (630 ± 111; 585 ± 88; 588 ± 95. Area under curve of ghrelin was significantly (p 2 compared to B+CO2 and water (26.2 ± 4.5; 27.1 ± 5.1. No significant differences were found for ghrelin during LM, and for CCK during both SM and LM after all beverages. Conclusions The increase in gastric volume following a 300 ml pre-meal carbonated beverage did not affect food intake whether a solid or liquid meal was given. The consistency of the meal and the carbonated beverage seemed to influence ghrelin release, but were unable, under our experimental conditions, to modify food intake in terms of quantity. Further studies are needed to verify if other food and beverage combinations are able to modify satiation.

  10. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning indentifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen increases from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, significantly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion in ...

  11. Comparison of wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility by feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, L J; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; He, M; McKinnon, J J

    2012-04-01

    A 5 × 5 Latin square design trial was conducted to evaluate rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in 5 rumen-cannulated heifers (420 ± 6 kg) fed a barley-based finishing diet supplemented with 20 or 40% wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The composition of the control diet was 88.7% rolled barley grain, 5.5% supplement, and 5.8% barley silage (DM basis). Increasing the quantity of corn DDGS in the ration resulted in a quadratic decrease in DMI (P = 0.04) and OM intake (P = 0.05). Rumen pH, pH duration, and area under rumen pH thresholds of 5.8 or 5.5 were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Inclusion of wheat DDGS resulted in a quadratic increase (P = 0.05) in pH area below the cutoff value of 5.2, with the most pronounced effect at 20% inclusion. Wheat DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) rumen NH(3)-N concentrations. Increasing the inclusion rate of wheat and corn DDGS resulted in quadratic (P = 0.05) and linear (P = 0.04) decreases in rumen propionate, whereas butyrate increased quadratically (P content of the diet. Feeding both wheat and corn DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) the excretion of N and P. In summary, replacement of barley grain with up to 40% wheat or corn DDGS did not mitigate rumen pH conditions associated with mild to moderate acidosis in heifers fed a barley-based finishing diet. Supplementing corn DDGS increased nutrient digestibility of all nutrients and, as a result, led to greater DE content. Supplementation of wheat DDGS reduced DM and OM digestibility values, with no effect on DE content. Increased N and P excretion by heifers fed DDGS at 20 or 40% of dietary DM presents a challenge for cattle feeders with respect to nutrient management.

  12. Evaluation of bovine rumen contents as a feed for lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Njidda, Ahmed Amin

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of increasing levels of dried rumen contents (DRC) on voluntary intake, growth performance, digestibility, nutritive value, N utilization, microbial protein supply (MPS), and purine derivatives excretion (PDE) of lambs fed with Afzelia africana basal forage. Sixteen lambs (13.7 ± 0.1 kg body weight (BW)) were randomly assigned to one of the four eight diets containing 0, 200, 400 and 600 g DRC/kg dry matter (DM) in a completely random design. Intakes of concentrate, DM, crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), digestible CP (DCP), digestible OM (DOM), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), CP and OM digestibility, DOM, DCP, DE, ME, N intake and retention, weight gain, cost/kg BW gain, MPS and PDE increased with increasing DRC level up to 400 g/kg DRC and declined at 600 g/kg DRC (P level increased from 0 to 400 g/kg and peaked at 600 g/kg DRC (P level. Results indicate that DRC can be incorporated up to 400 g/kg in a compounded ration for sheep.

  13. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  14. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility accompanied by a marked reduction in plutonium concentration of the rumen contents was observed concurrently with a reduction in intake of Eurotia lanata and an increase in the intake of Oryzopsis hymenoides or Sitanion jubatum. However, during the November, February, and August trials, comparatively high concentration of plutonium, but low plutonium solubility, was associated with high levels of Eurotia lanata in the rumen contents. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239 in these fluids. Ratios of the percentage of soluble plutonium-238 to the percentage of soluble plutonium-239 varied fro []1:1 to 18:1 on a radioactivity basis. (auth)

  15. In vitro digestion of bloat-safe and bloat-causing legumes by rumen microorganisms: gas and foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J P; Cheng, K J; Hanna, M R; Howarth, R E; Costerton, J W

    1980-08-01

    Leaves of three bloat-safe legumes -- birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.), and cicer milkvetch (Astralagus cicer L.) -- and of three bloat-causing legumes -- alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) -- were incubated with strained rumen fluid or with mixed rumen fluid and solids. Gas released was measured during the early period (0 to 22 h) of this in vitro digestion. Gas volume was greater with a 1:1 (wt/vol) mixture of solid and fluid rumen contents than with rumen fluid alone. It was greater with whole and chewed leaves from the bloat-causing legumes than with whole leaves from the bloat-safe legumes. However, when leaves were homogenized, volumes of gas from bloat-causing and bloat-safe legumes were similar. More gas was released from homogenized leaves than from the same weight of whole leaves. The amount of foam produced on chewed herbage and homogenized leaves of bloat-causing legumes was greater than on those of bloat-safe legumes. These results are consistent with the rate of disintegration and digestion of legumes by rumen bacteria being an important determinant in pasture bloat. Measurement of gas produced early in in vitro digestion may provide a useful bioassay for evaluating the bloat-causing potential of legumes in breeding selections if variability of the method can be reduced.

  16. Influence of probiotics on rumen liquor characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics has been noted to work synergistically with rumen microbes and improved rumen liquor characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics inclusion on rumen liquor characteristics (physical, chemical and fermentative qualities) and microbiology in WAD goats. In a completely randomised design, ...

  17. Effect of liquid volume and food intake on the absolute bioavailability of danazol, a poorly soluble drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Vibeke Hougaard; Vedelsdal, Rune; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2005-01-01

    The influence of liquid intake and a lipid-rich meal on the bioavailability of a lipophilic drug was investigated. Danazol was used as the model substance. In a randomized four-way crossover study eight healthy male volunteers received four different treatments with danazol at 2-week intervals fo......-rich meal or extra 800 ml water increased the bioavailability by 400 and 55%, respectively. Gastric emptying times increased in the following order: Standard......The influence of liquid intake and a lipid-rich meal on the bioavailability of a lipophilic drug was investigated. Danazol was used as the model substance. In a randomized four-way crossover study eight healthy male volunteers received four different treatments with danazol at 2-week intervals...... following an overnight fast (one I.V. infusion and three oral treatments). The I.V. formulation contained 50mg danazol solubilized in 40% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The oral treatments were a Standard treatment, a Standard + 800 ml water treatment and a Standard + lipid-rich meal treatment...

  18. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on the rumen microbial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kišidayová, Svetlana; Pristaš, Peter; Zimovčáková, Michaela; Blanár Wencelová, Monika; Homol'ová, Lucia; Mihaliková, Katarína; Čobanová, Klaudia; Grešáková, Ľubomíra; Váradyová, Zora

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of the high dose and types of manganese supplements on rumen environment at manganese intake level close above the limit of 150 mg/kg of dry feed matter. The effects of high dose of two manganese supplements (organic and inorganic) on rumen microbial ecosystem after four months of treatment of 18 lambs divided into three treatment groups were studied. We examined the enzyme activities (α-amylase, xylanase, and carboxymethyl cellulase), total and differential microscopic counts of rumen ciliates, total microscopic counts of bacteria, and fingerprinting pattern of the eubacterial and ciliates population analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Lambs were fed a basal diet with a basal Mn content (34.3 mg/kg dry matter; control) and supplemented either with inorganic manganous sulfate or organic Mn-chelate hydrate (daily 182.7, 184 mg/kg dry matter of feed, respectively). Basal diet, offered twice daily, consisted of ground barley and hay (268 and 732 g/kg dry matter per animal and day). The rumens of the lambs harbored ciliates of the genera of Entodinium, Epidinium, Diplodinium, Eudiplodinium, Dasytricha, and Isotricha. No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in the total ciliate number, the number of ciliates at the genus level, as well as the total number of bacteria. Organic Mn did decrease the species richness and diversity of the eubacterial population examined by PCR-DGGE. No effects of type of Mn supplement on the enzyme activities were observed. In comparison to the control, α-amylase specific activities were decreased and carboxymethyl-cellulase specific activities were increased by the Mn supplements. Xylanase activities were not influenced. In conclusion, our results suggested that the intake of tested inorganic and organic manganese supplements in excess may affect the specific groups of eubacteria. More studies on intake of Mn supplements at a level close to the limit can reveal if the changes in microbial

  19. Diversity of phytases in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Brenda A; McAllister, Tim A; Sharma, Ranjana; Selinger, L Brent

    2007-01-01

    Examples of a new class of phytase related to protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) were recently isolated from several anaerobic bacteria from the rumen of cattle. In this study, the diversity of PTP-like phytase gene sequences in the rumen was surveyed by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two sets of degenerate primers were used to amplify sequences from rumen fluid total community DNA and genomic DNA from nine bacterial isolates. Four novel PTP-like phytase sequences were retrieved from rumen fluid, whereas all nine of the anaerobic bacterial isolates investigated in this work contained PTP-like phytase sequences. One isolate, Selenomonas lacticifex, contained two distinct PTP-like phytase sequences, suggesting that multiple phytate hydrolyzing enzymes are present in this bacterium. The degenerate primer and PCR conditions described here, as well as novel sequences obtained in this study, will provide a valuable resource for future studies on this new class of phytase. The observed diversity of microbial phytases in the rumen may account for the ability of ruminants to derive a significant proportion of their phosphorus requirements from phytate.

  20. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in sixteen yearling cattle fed Panicum maximum hay supplemented with concentrate diet in which an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme, ROXAZYME G2® (which consist of Cellulase, hemicellulase and beta glucanase) was included at 0, 50, 100 and 150mg/kg.

  1. Effect of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementation of early and mid-season Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) with maize meal, maize meal with NaHC03 buffer, or maize meal plus combinations of slowly degradable protein was studied. Supplements were administered via a rumen fistula. The effect on intake and digestion of ryegrass was ...

  2. Between-cow variation in digestion and rumen fermentation variables associated with methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J; Huhtanen, P

    2017-06-01

    A meta-analysis based on an individual-cow data set was conducted to investigate the effects of between-cow variation and related animal variables on predicted CH 4 emissions from dairy cows. Data were taken from 40 change-over studies consisting of a total of 637 cow/period observations. Animal production and rumen fermentation characteristics were measured for 154 diets in 40 studies; diet digestibility was measured for 135 diets in 34 studies, and ruminal digestion kinetics was measured for 56 diets in 15 studies. The experimental diets were based on grass silage, with cereal grains or by-products as energy supplements, and soybean or canola meal as protein supplements. Average forage:concentrate ratio across all diets on a dry matter basis was 59:41. Methane production was predicted from apparently fermented substrate using stoichiometric principles. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression using diet and period within experiment as random effects, thereby allowing the effect of experiment, diet, and period to be excluded. Dry matter intake and milk yield were more repeatable experimental measures than rumen fermentation, nutrient outflow, diet digestibility, or estimated CH 4 yield. Between-cow coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.010 for stoichiometric CH 4 per mol of volatile fatty acids and 0.067 for predicted CH 4 yield (CH 4 /dry matter intake). Organic matter digestibility (OMD) also displayed little between-cow variation (CV = 0.013), indicating that between-cow variation in diet digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern do not markedly contribute to between cow-variation in CH 4 yield. Digesta passage rate was much more variable (CV = 0.08) between cows than OMD or rumen fermentation pattern. Increased digesta passage rate is associated with improved energetic efficiency of microbial N synthesis, which partitions fermented substrate from volatile fatty acids and gases to microbial cells that are more reduced than fermented carbohydrates. Positive

  3. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  4. Supplementing goat kids with coconut medium chain fatty acids in early life influences growth and rumen papillae development until 4 months after supplementation but effects on in vitro methane emissions and the rumen microbiota are transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Sieglinde; Ruiz-González, Alexis; Artiles-Ortega, Einar; Ampe, Bart; Van Den Broeck, Wim; De Keyser, Ellen; Vandaele, Leen; Goossens, Karen; Fievez, Veerle

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into two experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation. Twin kids from 10 does of each group were split up into a treated (K+) and nontreated (K-) group, resulting in four experimental groups: D+K+, D+K-, D-K+, and D-K-. The K+ kids received 1.8 mL/d of CO MCFA from birth until 2-wk postweaning (11 wk). Irrespective of treatment, the experimental rearing conditions resulted in absence of rumen protozoa at all sampling times, assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro incubations with rumen fluid at 4 wk old showed 82% lower CH4 production of inoculum from D+K+ kids compared to D-K- kids (P = 0.01). However, this was accompanied by lower total volatile fatty acids (tVFA) production (P = 0.006) and higher hydrogen accumulation (P = 0.008). QPCR targeting the mcrA and rrs genes confirmed a lower abundance of total methanogens (P kids at 4 wk old. Methanogenic activity, as assessed by mcrA expression by RT-qPCR, was also lower in these kids. However, activity did not always reflect methanogen abundance. At 11 and 28 wk old, prenatal and postnatal effects on in vitro fermentation and rumen microbiota disappeared. Nevertheless, lower milk replacer intake in the first 4 wk resulted in reduced BW in K+ kids, persisting until 28 wk of age. Additionally, differences assigned to postnatal treatment were found in papillae density, width, and length in different areas of the rumen, recorded at 28 wk old. prenatal and postnatal

  5. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P rumen epithelial injury and upregulated (P rumen pH, LPS level, and rumen epithelial bacteria abundance. In conclusion, our results indicated that the alterations in the rumen environment and epithelial bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  6. Impact of diuretic treatment and sodium intake on plasma volume in patients with compensated systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... difference in PV between patients with HF and control subjects (37.3 +/- 6.0 and 40.2 +/- 5.8 mL/kg, respectively, P = 0.092) with a significant tendency towards a contraction of PV with increasing use of diuretics (P = 0.031). There was no difference in extracellular volume between patients with HF...... and control subjects (P = 0.844). NT-proBNP plasma concentrations had no correlation to either sodium excretion (P = 0.193) or PV (P = 0.471) in patients with HF. CONCLUSION: Plasma volume in patients with HF was within normal limits, but patients treated with high doses of loop-diuretics tended to have...

  7. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  8. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van Reenen, C G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2 successive 12-wk periods (period 1 and period 2). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 and partially replacing dry matter (DM) intake from maize silage and barley straw by concentrate during period 2 were tested. Solid feed during period 1 consisted of maize silage, barley straw, and concentrate (25:25:50 on a DM basis). Solid feed during period 2 consisted of maize silage and barley straw (50:50 ratio on DM basis) for the nonconcentrate groups, and maize silage, barley straw and concentrates (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for the concentrate groups. At the end of period 1 (n=16) and at the end of period 2 (n=90), parameters of animal performance, rumen development, rumen fermentation, ruminal drinking, and abomasal damage were examined. Partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 resulted in early rumen development (ERD) at the end of period 1, characterized by increased rumen weight, and an increased epithelial and absorptive surface area. Both ERD and partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased the rumen development score at the end of period 2. Although ERD calves consumed more solid feed and less milk replacer during period 1 and 2 than non-ERD calves, carcass weight gains at 25 wk were identical, and utilization of the solid feed provided appeared similar to that of milk replacer. Partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased dressing percentage and warm carcass weight. Plaque formation at the rumen mucosa was unaffected by ERD or partially replacing roughage by concentrates and generally low in all calves. The prevalence of large scars in

  9. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Bruchem, van J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM).

  10. Catabolism of lysine by mixed rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Ryoji; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    Metabolites arising from the catabolism of lysine by the mixed rumen bacteria were chromatographically examined by using radioactive lysine. After 6 hr incubation, 241 nmole/ml of lysine was decomposed to give ether-soluble substances and CO 2 by the bacteria and 90 nmole/ml of lysine was incorporated unchanged into the bacteria. delta-Aminovalerate, cadaverine or pipecolate did not seem to be produced from lysine even after incubation of the bacteria with addition of those three amino compounds to trap besides lysine and radioactive lysine. Most of the ether-soluble substances produced from radioactive lysine was volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Fractionation of VFAs revealed that the peaks of butyric and acetic acids coincided with the strong radioactive peaks. Small amounts of radioactivities were detected in propionic acid peak and a peak assumed to be caproic acid. The rumen bacteria appeared to decompose much larger amounts of lysine than the rumen ciliate protozoa did. (auth.)

  11. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Imran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.

  12. Rumen management during aphagia : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants that for any reason are unable to eat enough to survive can be supported via rumen fistulation. To successfully accomplish this task, an understanding of rumen physiology is necessary. Some adaptation and modification of the normal physiological processes will be necessary because the extended time normally required to ingest food will, for obvious practical reasons, be reduced to a few minutes repeated once to three times a day. The physiology of significance to aphagic or dysphagic animals is discussed and relevant examples of clinical cases are used to illustrate practical applications.

  13. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González , Javier; Andrés , Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  14. Development of Equation Based on Urinary Purine Derivatives to Estimate Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Boo Juan; Syed Salim, Syed Jalaludin; Ho, Wan Yin

    2003-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted at the farm of the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, to establish a model as an index for estimating rumen microbial protein production. In Experiment 1, six Ferral male goats (wt. 40.2±4.6 kg) were used to determine the endogenous purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine by fasting. In Experiment 2, four Ferral male goats (wt. 39.6±1.8 kg) were used to measure the proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine by using [ 14 C]-uric acid as a marker at two levels of feed intake (40% and 80% voluntary intake), using an incomplete 2x4 Latin square experimental design. The feed consisted of 40% oil palm frond and 60% concentrate (OPFC). In Experiment 3, four Ferral male goats fed (OPFC)) were slaughtered and rumen contents were taken for measurements of purine and total nitrogen contents of mixed rumen microbes. The results showed that endogenous PD (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) excreted in the urine obtained by the fasting trial was 202±17 μmol/kg BW 0 . 75 d - 1. The average percentage recovery of plasma PD excretion in the urine by using [ 14 C)-uric acid as a marker was 83±2.0% (cv=6.88, ranged 76.3-91.4%, n=8). Percentage recovery was not affected by levels of feed intake. The ratio of purine N: total N in the mixed rumen liquid associated bacteria (LAB) was 0.085. In this study, a preliminary model for goats was established by using the information from the recovery of labeled PD [ 14 C]-uric acid and the fasting PD excretion. The model obtained was Y 0.83X + 0.202 x BW 0 . 75 , where Y = PD excretion in the urine (mmol/d) X PD absorption at small intestine (mmol/d) BW 0 . 75 = Metabolic body weight (kg) Thus the microbial nitrogen based on total PD (MNpd) can be calculated as follows: MNpd = 70 x X = 0.992 x X (g/d) 0.085 x 0.83 x 1000 where 0.085 is the ratio of purine-N: total N in mixed rumen microbes, 0.83 is the average of digestibility of microbial purine from published

  15. Effects of various weaning times on growth performance, rumen fermentation and microbial population of yellow cattle calves

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    Huiling Mao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effects of weaning times on the growth performance, rumen fermentation and microbial communities of yellow cattle calves. Methods Eighteen calves were assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned (NW, n = 3 or to early weaned (EW group where calves were weaned when the feed intake of solid feed (starter reached 500 g (EW500, n = 5, 750 g (EW750, n = 5, or 1,000 g (EW1,000, n = 5. Results Compared with NW, the EW treatments increased average daily gain (p0.05, but changes in bacterial composition were found. Conclusion From the present study, it is inferred that EW is beneficial for rumen fermentation, and weaning when the feed intake of the starter reached 750 g showed much better results.

  16. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  17. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Larsen, Mogens; Lund, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed diets together with grass silage and soya bean meal and allocated ad libitum to fistulated dairy cows. The starch content varied between 13 and 35% in ration dry matter for the different starch sources. The design...... was a series of cross-over experiments with two cows and two periods. Ruminal starch pool was estimated from rumen evacuation and starch flow was estimated by duodenal and faeces sampling. Fractional rate of rumen degradation was estimated from the equation [kd = rumen degraded/rumen pool] and rumen and total...

  18. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S K; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied using buffalo rumen liquor. Thyme oil at higher dose level (600 ppm) reduced (p0.05) in 300 and 600 ppm dose levels. 600 ppm dose level of clove oil reduced (pclove and peppermint oil. Right combination of these essential oils may prove to enhance performance of animals by reducing methane production and inhibiting protein degradation in rumen.

  19. Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P rumen mat (P rumen fluid (P rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR.

  20. Rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debashis; Tomar, S. K.; Kumar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to examine the rumen modulatory effect of thyme, clove and peppermint oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using roughage based diet. Materials and Methods: Thyme, clove and peppermint oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/l (ppm) of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique in wheat straw based diet (concentrate: Wheat straw 50:50). Different in vitro parameters e.g., total gas production, methane production, ...

  1. Rumen clearance rates in relation to the occurrence of alfalfa bloat in cattle. 1. Passage of water-soluble markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Hall, J W; Rode, L M; Kalnin, C M

    1986-06-01

    Ruminal chlorophyll and rates of passage of two water-soluble markers were simultaneously determined in cattle with different susceptibilities to alfalfa bloat. The markers showed a slower rate of passage from the rumens of more susceptible cattle where the average half-lives for cobalt-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were 12 to 17 h. Average half-life of the markers was 8 h in the rumens of the less susceptible animals. In agreement, chloroplast particles in the liquid phase of rumen contents showed greater accumulation in animals susceptible to bloat, but many more observations were required to detect differences in chlorophyll among animals. This was partly due to the unhomogeneous dispersion of chloroplast fragments in the reticulorumen compared with the uniform distribution of the inert markers. Differences in rumen volumes (estimated from the quantity of marker administered and its initial concentration) were detected among animals, but these did not show a relationship to bloat susceptibility. In vitro studies indicated that alfalfa chloroplast particles were not readily degraded by rumen microorganisms. Our results support earlier conclusions on slower rates of salivation for cattle that bloat compared with those that do not.

  2. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Role of Age-Related Shifts in Rumen Bacteria and Methanogens in Methane Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rumen microbiota are essential for maintaining digestive and metabolic functions, producing methane as a byproduct. Dairy heifers produce large amounts of methane based on fermentation of digested organic matter, with adverse consequences for feed efficiency and the environment. It is therefore important to understand the influence of host age on the relationship between microbiota and methane production. This study explored the age effect on the relationship between microbial communities and enteric methane production in dairy cows and heifers using high-throughput sequencing. Methane production and volatile fatty acid concentrations were age-related. Heifers (9–10 months had lower methane production but higher methane production per dry matter intake (DMI. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased significantly with increasing age. Age-related microbiota changes in the rumen were reflected by a significant shift in bacterial taxa, but relatively stable archaeal taxa. Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Flavonifractor, Succinivibrio, and Methanobrevibacter were affected by age. This study revealed different associations between predominant bacterial phylotypes and Methanobrevibacter with increasing age. Prevotella was strongly correlated with Methanobrevibacter in heifers; howerver, in older cows (96–120 months this association was replaced by a correlation between Succinivibrio and Methanobrevibacter. This shift may account for the age-related difference in rumen fermentation and methane production per DMI.

  4. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schären, M; Seyfang, G M; Steingass, H; Dieho, K; Dijkstra, J; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Beineke, A; von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182±24 d in milk, 23.5±3.5kg of milk/d; mean ± standard deviation). The cows were divided in either a pasture group (PG, n=5) or a confinement group (CG, n=5). The CG stayed on a TMR-based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR to a pasture-based ration (wk 1: TMR only; wk 2: 3 h/d on pasture wk 3 and 4: 12 h/d on pasture wk 5-10: pasture only). Ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), NH3-N, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations were measured in rumen fluid samples collected medially and ventrally on a weekly basis. Ruminal pH was continuously recorded during 1 to 4 consecutive days each week using ruminal pH measuring devices. In wk 1, 5, and 10, rumen contents were evacuated and weighed, papillae were collected from 3 locations in the rumen, and subsequently a VFA absorption test was performed. In the PG, mean rumen pH and molar acetate proportions decreased, and molar butyrate proportions increased continuously over the course of the trial, which can most likely be ascribed to an increased intake of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates. During the first weeks on a full grazing ration (wk 5-7), variation of rumen pH decreased, and in wk 5 a lower rumen content, papillae surface area, and potential for VFA absorption were observed. In wk 8 to 10, variation of rumen pH and total VFA concentrations increased again, and acetate/propionate ratio decreased. In wk-10 rumen content, papillae area and VFA absorption characteristics similar to initial levels were observed. Although continuous rumen pH assessments and LPS concentrations did not reveal an increased risk for subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) during the adaption period

  5. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

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    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  6. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and dietary starch content on rumen fermentation and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A L G; Freitas, J A; Micai, B; Azevedo, R A; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of feeding a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on rumen metabolism and digestibility when cows are fed diets varying in starch content. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were low starch (LS; 23% of diet DM) and no yeast culture (YC; LS-control), LS and 15 g of YC/d (LS-YC), high starch (HS; 29% of diet DM) and no YC (HS-control), and HS and 15 g of YC/d (HS-YC). Periods lasted 28 d, with the last 9 d for data collection. Days 20 to 24 were used to determine production, nutrient flow, and digestibility. On d 25, 3 kg of corn grain DM was placed in the rumen 1 h before the morning feeding, and yields of milk and milk components were measured after the challenge. Blood was sampled -1, 3, 7, and 11 h relative to the morning feeding on d 24 and 25. Rumen pH was measured continuously on d 24 and 25. Rumen papillae were collected on d 24 and 28 to quantify mRNA expression of select genes. Supplementing YC increased yields of milk (26.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 26.5 vs. 30.3 kg/d), fat (0.94 vs. 1.08 kg/d), true protein (0.84 vs. 0.96 kg/d), and ECM/dry matter intake (1.15 vs. 1.30) compared with the control but did not affect dry matter intake (22.6 vs. 22.9 kg/d). Cows fed HS had increased milk true protein percentage (3.18 vs. 3.31%) and yield (0.87 vs. 0.94 kg/d) compared with cows fed LS. Feeding HS-YC increased the proportion of dietary N incorporated into milk true protein from 24.9% in the other 3 treatments to 29.6%. Feeding HS increased the concentration of propionate (21.7 vs. 32.3 mM) and reduced that of NH 3 -N (8.3 vs. 6.7 mg/dL) in rumen fluid compared with the control, and combining HS with YC in HS-YC tended to increase microbial N synthesis compared with LS-YC (275 vs. 322 g/d). Supplementing YC to cows fed HS reduced plasma haptoglobin and rumen lactate concentrations

  7. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  8. The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbuem Cho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7 and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4 and high energy (4:6. The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01 and rectal temperatures (p<0.001 without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01 between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01 propionate and subsequently

  9. Supply of N compounds to the rumen and their subsequent metabolism and nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Grantley-Smith, M.P.; Merry, R.J.; McAllan, A.B.; Oldham, J.D.; Salter, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Three projects studying different aspects of the utilization of N compounds by young steer are described. (1) Compartmental analysis of 15 N movements between rumen, blood and urine showed that the level of feeding had no effect on the proportion of N intake recycled to the alimentary tract as urea, but a substantial effect on the site of re-entry; at a high level of feeding most went to the rumen, while at a low level it went to the rest of the tract. Some effects of manipulating growth rate with an anabolic agent on N transfers are also described. (2) Digestibilities of fibre and the efficiencies of microbial protein synthesis in the rumens of animals receiving diets containing alkali treated straw were investigated. The former, but not the latter, were significantly improved when dietary rumen degradable nitrogen was supplied as certain true protein sources rather than mainly as urea. This indication of a requirement for exogenous amino acids and/or peptides was supported by in vitro studies using a solid fed continuous culture system. (3) The entry of 3 H and 15 N labels into the portal vein reached a peak within one hour of infusing labelled leucine, glycine, lysine and glutamine into the duodenum. For leucine, glycine and lysine substantial amounts of the labels were newly entered and were still in the free amino acid at this time, but by two hours only recycled label was present, mostly in plasma protein. Similar peaks of label appearance occurred after glutamine infusion, but these were mainly in glutamic acid and arginine and entry from the gut continued for several hours. The patterns of appearance and disappearance of 35 S following duodenal infusion of labelled methionine were similar to those for 3 H following leucine infusion. (author)

  10. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on rumen epithelial metabolism of nonlactating heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov-Argaman, N; Eshel, O; Moallem, U; Lehrer, H; Uni, Z; Arieli, A

    2012-07-01

    Ruminal wall metabolism was studied in nonlactating heifers by altering the carbohydrate (CHO) digestion site between rumen and intestine. The CHO digestion site was estimated from in situ and total-tract digestibility of control (CONT) diets and diets supplemented with corn (CRN), barley (BARL), or soy hulls (SOYH). Ruminal epithelial metabolism regulating gene expression, morphology, and nutrient delivery was assessed from a combination of rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, biopsies for papilla morphology, and expression of putative metabolic regulatory genes encoding enzymes that facilitate VFA utilization. Digestible dry matter and CHO intake were 25 and 45% higher, respectively, in the supplemented diets than in CONT diets. Fiber supplementation increased the intestinal and decreased ruminal CHO digestion. Ruminal nonfiber CHO digestibility was 10% lower in CRN than with the high rumen-degradable supplement. The CONT heifers had lowest total ruminal VFA and highest acetate concentration relative to the other treatments. Total VFA concentration in BARL and CRN diets tended to be higher than in SOYH. The SOYH diet tended to reduce papilla dimension relative to CRN and BARL. The CRN diet tended to increase papilla surface area relative to BARL and SOYH. Gene expression of propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase was higher in CRN and BARL than in SOYH diets, and tended to be higher in CRN than in BARL and SOYH diets. Lactate dehydrogenase and butyryl coenzyme A synthase gene transcripts tended to be higher in CONT than in the supplemented treatments. Thus, rumen epithelial expression of genes involved in VFA metabolism and ruminal wall-structure development are influenced by other regulatory mechanism that is not directly affected by local signals. The in situ methods used are a useful tool for differentiating ruminal from extraruminal nutrient supply. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Abubakr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen goats fitted with a rumen cannula were used in completely randomized block design to test the effects of dietary crude palm oil (PO, palm kernel cake (PKC and decanter cake (DC on rumen total protozoa counts, rumen fermentation, and digestibility. Goats received once daily (1.5% of BW one of four concentrate diets: reference diet (RD, DC diet (DCD, PKC diet (PKCD and RD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD. The RD was based on corn grain and soybean meal and was fed to all goats for 28 days before the start of a 30-day experiment. Organic matter (OM digestibility was reduced (P < 0.05 by feeding DCD, whereas digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF was higher (P < 0.0001 in the goats fed PKCD. The digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF was higher (P < 0001 in goats fed PKCD followed by those fed DCD, CPOD and CD. Ammonia–N concentration was lower (P < 0.001 for treatments DCD, PKCD and CPOD than for treatment RD. Volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations were lower (P < 0.05 for treatments PKCD and CPOD than for treatments RD and DCD. Total protozoa counts were higher (P < 0.001 for treatment CD than for other treatments. It was concluded that the dietary DC, and PKC could be included in the diet of goats up to 80% without any adverse effects on dry matter intake; however, rumen fermentation parameters and total protozoa counts were changed.

  12. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-04-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (pforage feeding in large-type goats.

  13. INFLUENCE OF TIME BETWEEN RUMINAL GLUCOSE CHALLENGES ON RUMEN FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín F. Montaño-Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal lactic acidosis is one of the most important metabolic problems in feedlot cattle. Gradually transitioning cattle to finishing-feedlot diets may reduce the risk for ruminal acidosis by providing sufficient time for adaptation. This adaptation of feedlot cattle to high-concentrate diets may causes marked changes in the ruminal environment, and time is required to establish stable ruminal conditions.   However, few studies have evaluated the ruminal adaptation in steers. A metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two consecutive glucose challenges on rumen function in steers fed a high-energy finishing diet. Four Holstein steers (320 kg LW with cannula in the rumen were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were used and consisted of the time elapsed between both challenges of glucose (2, 4, 6 or 8 d. Ruminal fluid samples were taken at 0700 h (just prior the first glucose challenge, and from the second challenge (d 2, 4, 6, or 8 at 1 h before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 28, 52, 124, 196 and 268 h. As the time between fluctuation of energy intake increased, ruminal fluid pH (P 0.10. During the first 6 h following the second glucose challenge ruminal fluid pH decreased. No effects of treatments on ruminal pH were observed (P >0.10 among treatments from 3 days after the second challenge. Ruminal fluid osmotic pressure increased (P <0.10 after dosed glucose with all treatments. Ruminal osmolality increased (P <0.10 as the time between challenges were 2 or 4 days. After dosed glucose, total volatile fatty acids increased, except by treatment 1 after second challenge. Total volatile fatty acid and pH were related positively (R2 =0.69. As the time increased, a tendency on increment of concentrations of protozoa was observed. Ruminal glucose concentration decreased linearly (P <0.10 2 h after the second fluctuation of energy intake. We conclude that ruminal alterations are magnified as the time between glucose challenge

  14. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with rumen content supplemented with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, A A; Rumak, S; Oluwafemi, R A

    2015-12-18

    Rabbits are also herbivores which efficiently convert fodder to food. They are prolific and converter of plant proteins of little or no use to people as food into high-value animal protein. Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in calories and low in fat and cholesterol contents, being considered as a delicacy and a healthy food product. Feeding rabbits with concentrates is expensive and therefore in order to reduce cost of production, hence the use of rumen content in this study as alternative feedstuff without competition. A total of thirty six (36) weaner rabbits (oryctalagus cuniculus) of different body weight and age where use in this experiment to determine the effects of replacing rumen content with or without enzyme supplementation for groundnut cake. This feeding trial which lasted for 8 weeks was carried out in order to determine the replacement value of groundnut cake with rumen content with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbit. A 3x2 factorial experiment was adopted such that there where three (3) replacement level of rumen content (0, 25 and 50 %) for groundnut cake by two supplemental level (no enzyme and enzyme supplement). The results showed that increased inclusion level of rumen content has significant effects (p  0.05) with weight gained value of 7.62,7.44 and 7.36 g respectively. Similarly there was a significant (p  0.05) of the treatment on urinary nitrogen. Significant (p  0.05) of the supplementation on the nitrogen intake. The interaction between the varying levels of rumen content supplementation had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the feacal nitrogen, feed intake and feed to gain ratio but no significant (p < 0.05) effects on interaction of nitrogen intake. In conclusion, since the results from this study showed no negative effects on the performance of the experimental animals, the test ingredient can be used as alternative feedstuff at a lower inclusion level so as to reduce production cost and expand

  15. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  16. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  17. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Gambo,; Igwebuike Joseph Uchechi,; Alade Nurudeen Kehinde,; Adamu Shaibu Bala; Raji Abdulrazaq Onimisi

    2011-01-01

    Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White) of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM) for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV)...

  18. Effects of starch content of calf starter on growth and rumen pH in Holstein calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting high fiber byproducts for dry ground corn in calf starter on growth and rumen pH during the weaning transition. Holstein bull calves were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 26% CP and 18% fat. Calves were fed a texturized calf starter containing either dry ground corn at 18.8% of dry matter (DM; CRN), beet pulp replacing dry ground corn at 10.2% dietary DM (BP), or triticale dried distillers grains with solubles replacing dry ground corn and high-protein feedstuffs at 18.6% of dietary DM (DDGS) in the pellet; treatment calf starters differed only in the pellet portion. Starch concentrations of CRN, BP, and DDGS were 35.3, 33.4, and 31.4%, respectively. After a calf consumed 2.50 kg of starter for 3 consecutive days, a small ruminant rumen pH data logger was inserted orally and rumen pH was measured continuously for 4d. Calves were then killed and rumen fluid was sampled to determine volatile fatty acid profile. No difference was found in overall average daily gain or growth rates of hip height, withers height, and heart girth. During the weaning transition, rate of increase in calf starter intake was greater for calves fed DDGS compared with those fed CRN (87.7 vs. 77.5 g/d), but lower for calves fed BP compared with CRN (68.1 vs. 77.5 g/d). The area under pH 5.8 (470 vs. 295 min × pH/d) or pH 5.2 (72.7 vs. 16.4 min × pH/d) was greater for calves fed DDGS than those fed CRN. Rumen pH profile was not affected by BP treatment compared with CRN, but calves fed BP tended to have greater water intake than those fed CRN (6.6 vs. 5.8 L/d). Volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by treatment with the exception of molar proportion of butyrate, which tended to be lower for calves fed BP compared with those fed CRN (15.0 vs. 16.6%). Hay intake was positively correlated to mean rumen pH for calves used in this study (r=0.48). Decreasing dietary starch

  19. Effect of sulfur supplements on cellulolytic rumen micro-organisms and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed a high fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, C S; Denman, S E

    2007-11-01

    To examine the effect of sulfur-containing compounds on the growth of anaerobic rumen fungi and the fibrolytic rumen bacteria Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in pure culture and within the cattle rumen. The effect of two reduced sulfur compounds, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid as the sole S source on growth of pure fibroyltic fungal and bacterial cultures showed that these compounds were capable of sustaining growth. An in vivo trial was then conducted to determine the effect of sulfur supplements (MPA and sodium sulfate) on microbial population dynamics in cattle fed the roughage Dichanthium aristatum. Real-time PCR showed significant increases in fibrolytic bacterial and fungal populations when cattle were supplemented with these compounds. Sulfate supplementation leads to an increase in dry matter intake without a change in whole tract dry matter digestibility. Supplementation of low S-containing diets with either sodium sulfate or MPA stimulates microbial growth with an increase in rumen microbial protein supply to the animal. Through the use of real-time PCR monitoring, a better understanding of the effect of S supplementation on discrete microbial populations within the rumen is provided.

  20. Technical note: A simple rumen collection device for calves: An adaptation of a manual rumen drenching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopp, R N; Oconitrillo, M J; Sackett, A; Hill, T M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Lascano, G J

    2018-07-01

    A limited amount of research is available related to the rumen microbiota of calves, yet there has been a recent spike of interest in determining the diversity and development of calf rumen microbial populations. To study the microbial populations of a calf's rumen, a sample of the rumen fluid is needed. One way to take a rumen fluid sample from a calf is by fistulating the animal. This method requires surgery and can be very stressful on a young animal that is trying to adapt to a new environment and has a depressed immune system. Another method that can be used instead of fistulation surgery is a rumen pump. This method requires a tube to be inserted into the rumen through the calf's esophagus. Once inside the rumen, fluid can be pumped out and collected in a few minutes. This method is quick, inexpensive, and does not cause significant stress on the animal. This technical note presents the materials and methodology used to convert a drenching system into a rumen pump and its respective utilization in 2 experiments using dairy bull calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship.

  2. The Influence of Tallow on Rumen Metabolism, Microbial Biomass Synthesis and Fatty Acid Composition of Bacteria and Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Rumen metabolism, microbial biomass synthesis and microbial long chain fatty acid composition were studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM) with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at the low feed level (L0, L4 and L6) and 0, 2, 4 and 6% at the high...... feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Fibre digestibility was not significantly affected by tallow addition. Increasing tallow level in the diet decreased the total VFA concentration, the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid and the ammonia concentration in the rumen. Crude fat and fatty acid content...... in bacterial and protozoal dry matter increased with increased tallow level, especially due to an increase in fatty acids originating from the feeds. Microbial synthesis in the rumen and flow of amino acids to the duodenum was highest for medium fat intake at the high feed level....

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  4. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  5. Effects of corn straw or mixed forage diet on rumen fermentation parameters of lactating cows using a wireless data logger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chunfu; Bu, Dengpan; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different forage types on rumen fermentation parameters and profiles using a wireless data logger. Eight lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments with a low forage diet with corn straw (CS) or a high forage diet with mixed forage (MF) as the forage source, respectively. Dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content was 11.3% greater in CS. Dry matter intake and milk fatty acid content decreased upon CS (P rumen fermentation parameters were affected by forage types and dietary peNDF content might be predominant in ruminal pH regulation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Gastric Fluid Volume Change After Oral Rehydration Solution Intake in Morbidly Obese and Normal Controls: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Toshie; Kurosaki, Dai; Nakamura, Mitsuyo; Yazaki, Taiji; Kobinata, Satomi; Seki, Yosuke; Kasama, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    Although preoperative fluid intake 2 hours before anesthesia is generally considered safe, there are concerns about delayed gastric emptying in obese subjects. In this study, the gastric fluid volume (GFV) change in morbidly obese subjects was investigated after ingesting an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and then compared with that in nonobese subjects. GFV change over time after the ingestion of 500 mL of ORS containing 2.5% carbohydrate (OS-1) was measured in 10 morbidly obese subjects (body mass index [BMI], >35) scheduled for bariatric surgery and 10 nonobese (BMI, 19-24) using magnetic resonance imaging. After 9 hours of fasting, magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at preingestion, 0 min (just after ingestion), and every 30 minutes up to 120 minutes. GFV values were compared between morbidly obese and control groups and also between preingestion and postingestion time points. The morbidly obese group had a significantly higher body weight and BMI than the control group (mean body weight and BMI in morbidly obese, 129.6 kg and 46.3 kg/m, respectively; control, 59.5 kg and 21.6 kg/m, respectively). GFV was significantly higher in the morbidly obese subjects compared with the control group at preingestion (73 ± 30.8 mL vs 31 ± 19.9 mL, P = .001) and at 0 minutes after ingestion (561 ± 30.8 mL vs 486 ± 42.8 mL; P < .001). GFV declined rapidly in both groups and reached fasting baseline levels by 120 minutes (morbidly obese, 50 ± 29.5 mL; control, 30 ± 11.6 mL). A significant correlation was observed between preingestion residual GFV and body weight (r = .66; P = .001). Morbidly obese subjects have a higher residual gastric volume after 9 hours of fasting compared with subjects with a normal BMI. However, no differences were observed in gastric emptying after ORS ingestion in the 2 populations, and GFVs reached baseline within 2 hours after ORS ingestion. Further studies are required to confirm whether the preoperative fasting and fluid

  7. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Kristensen, Lise; Højbjerg, Ole

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  8. Reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminant animals lack enzymes to break down fibrous feeds but they harbor microorganisms capable of degrading their feeds. Rumen microbes are affected by feed substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary feeds. Two protein supplements ...

  9. Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on Sepharose- Cibacron Blue F3GA. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pseudo affinity adsorption of bioproducts on Sepharose-cibacron blue F3-GA was subjected to rumen microbial enzyme evaluation through batch binding and column chromatography of ...

  10. Title: Effects of supplementing humic/fulvic acid on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casey McMurphy

    Effects of supplementing humates on rumen fermentation in Holstein ... research on the utilization of humates in beef cattle diets and their effect on rumen fermentation. .... potassium chloride, 80 g/kg; magnesium oxide, 34.5 g/kg; ammonium ...

  11. Variability of Actinobacteria, a minor component of rumen microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suľák, M; Sikorová, L; Jankuvová, J; Javorský, P; Pristaš, P

    2012-07-01

    Actinobacteria (Actinomycetes) are a significant and interesting group of gram-positive bacteria. They are regular, though infrequent, members of the microbial life in the rumen and represent up to 3 % of total rumen bacteria; there is considerable lack of information about ecology and biology of rumen actinobacteria. During the characterization of variability of rumen treponemas using non-cultivation approach, we also noted the variability of rumen actinobacteria. By using Treponema-specific primers a specific 16S rRNA gene library was prepared from cow and sheep rumen total DNA. About 10 % of recombinant clones contained actinobacteria-like sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of 11 clones obtained showed the high variability of actinobacteria in the ruminant digestive system. While some sequences are nearly identical to known sequences of actinobacteria, we detected completely new clusters of actinobacteria-like sequences, representing probably new, as yet undiscovered, group of rumen Actinobacteria. Further research will be necessary for understanding their nature and functions in the rumen.

  12. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom F. O’Callaghan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  13. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hook, S.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Wright, A.G.; McBride, B.W.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few

  14. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.; Leng, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are needed to maximize the synthesis of microbial protein in the rumen from readily available, inexpensive (usually non-protein N) sources and thereby to reduce the requirements for true protein in the diet. Some currently available in vitro and in vivo methods for estimating microbial protein synthesis in the rumen are discussed. The factors that alter maintenance ATP requirements of microorganisms, and thereby potentially alter the efficiency of cell growth per unit of fermented organic matter (Ysub(ATP)), are discussed: e.g. continuity and level of supply of substrates; dietary and recycled N and other nutrients; dilution rate; the presence of large protozoal populations in the rumen; cell lysis and N cycling in the rumen. Quantitative studies of these factors have been made by using a variety of isotope tracer techniques and have been applied to a quantitative model of N transactions in the rumen. (author)

  15. Non-protein nitrogen utilization and microbial synthesis in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Akkada, A.R.; El-Shazly, K.

    1976-01-01

    The distinction between bacterial and protozoal proteins in the rumen has been a difficult task. The use of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) as a marker for bacterial protein and 2-aminoethanephosphonic acid (AEP) for protozoal protein has been examined in the present studies in sheep fed on a semi-purified diet. The microbial protein predicted from DAP and AEP determination was similar to that obtained by the precipitation of proteins. From rates of VFA determination by the in vitro zero-time rate technique, and from measurements of rumen volume using Cr-EDTA colour determination at 550 nm, the total VFA production in 24 h could be calculated, and the ATP generated (mol/day) was calculated using Baldwin and co-workers' transformation value of 2.44. The yield of microbial cells (g/mol ATP) was found to be 28.15, similar to that suggested by Hobson and Summers and Gunzalus and Schuster. Using a sheep double-fistulated in the duodenum proximal to the pyloric sphincter, and blocking the path of the abomasal fluid by inserting an inflated baloon in the second fistula, the abomasal fluid could be collected for 12 h. The total microbial-N as predicted from DAP and AEP was approximately similar to the total non-ammonia-N in the abomasal digesta. It could be concluded that DAP and AEP determination could be used within reasonable limits to differentiate between bacterial and protozoal proteins. A good agreement was found between rates of outflow of the rumen digesta and microbial growth (percentage hourly) as measured by different techniques. The agreement between values of microbial growth rates and rates of outflow of digesta from the rumen with the differences between production and absorption of VFA is an indication of the validity of the techniques employed in the present studies. (author)

  16. Rumen content stratification in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Clauss, Marcus; Bertelsen, Mads F; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. The feeding ecology, as well as the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), suggest that it is a 'moose-type' ruminant. Correspondingly, the giraffe should have an unstratified rumen content and an even rumen papillation pattern. Digesta samples were collected from along the digestive tract of 27 wild-caught giraffes kept in bomas for up to 2months, and 10 giraffes kept in zoological gardens throughout their lives. Samples were analysed for concentration of dry matter, fibre fractions, volatile fatty acids and NH 3 , as well as mean particle size and pH. There was no difference between the dorsal and ventral rumen region in any of these parameters, indicating homogenous rumen content in the giraffes. In addition to the digesta samples, samples of dorsal rumen, ventral rumen and atrium ruminis mucosa were collected and the papillary surface enlargement factor was determined, as a proxy for content stratification. The even rumen papillation pattern observed also supported the concept of an unstratified rumen content in giraffes. Zoo giraffes had a slightly more uneven papillation pattern than boma giraffes. This finding could not be matched by differences in physical characteristics of the rumen content, probably due to an influence of fasting time ante mortem on these parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius. Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days, according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL; 50-140 days; group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 days; group III (30-60 cm C-RL; 160-250 days; group IV (60-108 cm C-RL; 250-390 days. At 50 days, the rumen consisted of four layers: the epithelial layer, propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa. The epithelium glandular region was pseudostratified and in non-glandular region was stratified. The muscularis mucosa was observed incompletely from 140 days between lamina propria and submucosa in glandular region of the rumen to the birth day. The primary lymphatic nodules appeared in lamina propria of glandular region of the rumen at 160 days of gestation. The epithelium of the glandular region in rumen was formed by a simple columnar layer at 250 days. In all groups, the tunica muscularis layer of rumen was increased with ruminal development, gradually. The non-glandular region of rumen was formed by a stratified epithelium and number of these cells increased with ruminal development. The lymphatic nodules and muscularis mucosa in non-glandular region did not observe in all groups. The study observations revealed that non-glandular region of the rumen in the fetuses of camel are less precocious than the rumen of the domestic ruminants.

  18. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M.; Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH 3 N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not 15 N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed

  19. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Sauer, Cathrine; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    camelopardalis), three of which were fed natural browse and four were fed Boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay, and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16S rRNA gene diversity using 454 FLX high-throughput sequencing. The microbial community composition varied according to diet, but differed little between...... the ruminal fluid and solid fraction. The giraffe rumen contained large levels of the phyla of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes independent of diet, while Prevotella, Succinclasticium, and Methanobrevibacter accounted for the largest abundant taxonomic assigned genera. However, up to 21% of the generated...

  20. patterns of intake and digestibility by cattle and sheep of feed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it will decline again due to a lack of roughage to ensure a healthy rumen environment- Thus, it should be possible to .... to study the retention time of digesta. ... which covered the life span of 25 to 45 kg. 3. ... many others in later work is accepted, the pattern ..... Control of feed intake in the regulation of energy balance.

  1. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  3. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  4. The inhibitory effect of bovine rumen fluid on Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P G; Lysons, R J

    1979-05-01

    The possible fate of Salmonella typhimurium in the rumen was investigated by monitoring rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactate concentrations and pH over periods which included regular feeding and 48 h starvation. Preparations were made containing 50 per cent rumen fluid from the cow or VFA solutions, and then inoculated with S typhimurium. Viable counts before and after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C were compared. Incubation in broths with high concentrations of VFA and low pH resulted in a marked decrease in salmonella numbers, while lower VFA concentrations had little or no inhibitory effect on growth.

  5. Flow of nucleic acids from the rumen and recovery of purine derivatives in the urine of cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Bachrudin, Z.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Utomo, R.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the flow of nucleic acids from the rumen to duodenum. Two duodenal-cannulated each of male Ongole cattle and buffaloes aged three to four years were used and fed a mixture of king grass and rice bran (70:30 DM basis). At 95% and 60% of the voluntary intake in three weeks each before morning feeding period. Cr-mordanted alfalfa was used as a marker. The excretion of allantoin, uric acid, purine derivatives, and creatinine and the PDC index were higher in cattle than buffaloes at both levels of intake (P < 0.05). There were no difference between cattle and buffaloes with regard to the flow of RNA when expressed on digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), flow rate of RNA/kg DOMI, or flow rate of crude protein/kg DOMI. It can be concluded that the differences in urine excretion of purine derivatives between cattle and buffalo is not due to the differences in the amount of rumen microbial protein synthesis, but due to differences in purine metabolism between cattle and buffaloes. (author)

  6. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, A.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  7. Effect of forage inclusion and particle size in diets of neonatal lambs on performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A; Valizadeh, R

    2014-12-01

    A slaughter experiment was conducted to determine the effects of alfalfa particle size on rumen morphology and performance of lambs. Twenty-four Balouchi lambs aged 21 days (9.1 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly fed control (diet without alfalfa hay; CON) and mixed rations containing 15% finely ground (FINE; 2 mm) and 15% coarsely chopped alfalfa hay (LONG; 3 to 4 cm). After a 63 days feeding period, nine animals (three per treatment) were slaughtered to obtain ruminal tissue samples for morphological analyses. Alfalfa particle size did not affect (p > 0.05) papillae density, height, width, epithelium depth and surface area. Coarse alfalfa decreased the stratum corneum and increased (p content and nor RNA concentration of rumen tissue was affected by feeding different diets. Forage particle size did not affect the blood concentration of glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN), beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio were higher for control diet; however, there were no significant differences between treatments for average daily gain. These data suggest that coarse alfalfa significantly reduces the stratum corneum and increases muscularity of rumen wall and tended to better feed conversion ratio. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: How to use data on the rumen microbiome to improve our understanding of ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkins, J L; Yu, Z

    2015-04-01

    Metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing have greatly expanded our knowledge of the rumen microbiome. Surveys of all 4 cellular microbial groups (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi) reveal profound diversity. Even so, evidence exists for core members to perform key degradative or fermentative roles for the host. Some core members are functionally similar yet taxonomically diverse, and noncore members are particularly diverse and probably vary among diets, animals, and over time after feeding. Gains in functional knowledge are being made and offer much potential not only to improve fiber digestibility, decrease methane emissions, and improve efficiency of nitrogen usage but also to help explain the differences in nutrient digestibility or feed efficiency among animals fed the same diet. Integrated research using metagenomics, bioinformatics, traditional ruminant nutrition, and statistical inferences have provided opportunities for ruminant nutritionists and rumen microbiologists to work synergistically to improve nutrient utilization efficiency while minimizing output of wastes and emissions of methane and ammonia. Examples we highlight include residual feed intake, rumen biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids, and dietary inclusion of ionophores. However, there are still some quantitative limitations in approaches being used. This review addresses knowledge gained and current limitations and challenges that remain.

  9. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  10. Nutrient utilization and rumen metabolism in sheep fed Prosopis juliflora pods and Cenchrus grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Om Hari; Sahoo, Artabandhu

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) in the concentrate mixture fed to sheep along with Cenchrus grass (CG). Twenty four adult Malpura rams (3-5 years, 45.4 ± 4.26 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups on the basis of age and live weight (LW). Mature green Prosopis juliflora pods were collected, dried and ground to replace concentrate mixture at 0 (G1), 30% (G2) or 40% (G3). Cenchrus grass was offered ad libitum whereas the concentrate mixture was fed at the rate of 1% LW. Nutrient digestibility did not differ among the groups while N balance data showed reduced utilization in G3. However, the animals in G1, G2 and G3 maintained LW and their nutritional profile indicated surplus of energy and protein with comparable feed value of all the three diets. Rumen pH decreased and volatile fatty acids increased (P Prosopis juliflora pods can replace concentrate mixture up to 40% in sheep feeding without any adverse effect on nutrient intake and utilization as well as rumen fermentation characteristics.

  11. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  12. Rumen microbiota and dietary fat: a mutual shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Combes, S; Zened, A; Meynadier, A

    2017-10-01

    Although fat content in usual ruminant diets is very low, fat supplements can be given to farm ruminants to modulate rumen activity or the fatty acid (FA) profile of meat and milk. Unsaturated FAs, which are dominant in common fat sources for ruminants, have negative effects on microbial growth, especially protozoa and fibrolytic bacteria. In turn, the rumen microbiota detoxifies unsaturated FAs (UFAs) through a biohydrogenation (BH) process, transforming dietary UFAs with cis geometrical double-bonds into mainly trans UFAs and, finally, into saturated FAs. Culture studies have provided a large amount of data regarding bacterial species and strains that are affected by UFAs or involved in lipolysis or BH, with a major focus on the Butyrivibrio genus. More recent data using molecular approaches to rumen microbiota extend and challenge these data, but further research will be necessary to improve our understanding of fat and rumen microbiota interactions. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary .... conditions and altitude of 2400 m.a.s.l. Animal ... temperature in water bath with continuous supply ... llowed by boiling for 5 minutes.

  14. Rumen Manipulation for Enhanced Feed Utilization and Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    produce volatile fatty acids, also called short chain fatty acids, and ... resources and enhance productivity in ruminants in the world in general and in the tropics in ... toxic to rumen protozoa, suggesting a nutritional value beyond simply their ...

  15. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  16. Effect of monensin on fermentation characteristics of the artificial rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, R J; Cheng, K J; Czerkawski, J W

    1980-01-01

    Addition of monensin (Rumensin, Eli Lilly and Co.) to an artificial rumen immediately depressed the digestion of roughage and of roughage/concentrate (50:50) feeds. Methane and propionate production were affected only with the roughage/concentrate feed.

  17. Maintenance of Laboratory Strains of Obligately Anaerobic Rumen Bacteria †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teather, Ronald M.

    1982-01-01

    Cultures of rumen bacteria can be stored at −20°C for at least 2 years in a liquid medium containing 20% glycerol. Thawing, sampling, and refreezing do not significantly affect viability. PMID:7125660

  18. Analysis of rumen microbial populations in lactating dairy cattle fed diets varying in carbohydrate profiles and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Mamedova, L K; Carpenter, A J; Ying, Y; Allen, M S; Yoon, I; Bradford, B J

    2013-09-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a critical factor that links diets to bovine physiology and productivity; however, information about dietary effects on microbial populations has generally been limited to small numbers of samples and qualitative assessment. To assess whether consistent shifts in microbial populations occur in response to common dietary manipulations in dairy cattle, samples of rumen contents were collected from 2 studies for analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In one study, lactating Holstein cows (n=8) were fed diets in which a nonforage fiber source replaced an increasing proportion of forages and concentrates in a 4×4 Latin square design, and samples of ruminal digesta were collected at 9-h intervals over 3 d at the end of each period. In the second study, lactating Holstein cows (n=15) were fed diets with or without the inclusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) in a crossover design. In this study, rumen liquid and solid samples were collected during total rumen evacuations before and after feeding in a 42-h period. In total, 146 samples of ruminal digesta were used for microbial DNA isolation and analysis by qPCR. Validated primer sets were used to quantify total bacterial and anaerobic fungal populations as well as 12 well-studied bacterial taxa. The relative abundance of the target populations was similar to those previously reported. No significant treatment effects were observed for any target population. A significant interaction of treatment and dry matter intake was observed, however, for the abundance of Eubacterium ruminantium. Increasing dry matter intake was associated with a quadratic decrease in E. ruminantium populations in control animals but with a quadratic increase in E.ruminantium populations in cows fed SCFP. Analysis of sample time effects revealed that Fibrobacter succinogenes and fungal populations were more abundant postfeeding, whereas Ruminococcus albus tended to be more abundant

  19. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  20. In vitro-in vivo study on the effects of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial abundances and methane emissions in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, G; Abecia, L; Martín-García, A I; Ramos-Morales, E; Hervás, G; Molina-Alcaide, E; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2013-12-01

    Two in vitro and one in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of a selection of plant compounds on rumen fermentation, microbial concentration and methane emissions in goats. Treatments were: control (no additive), carvacrol (CAR), cinnamaldehyde (CIN), eugenol (EUG), propyl propane thiosulfinate (PTS), propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), diallyl disulfide (DDS), a mixture (40 : 60) of PTS and PTSO (PTS+PTSO), and bromochloromethane (BCM) as positive control with proven antimethanogenic effectiveness. Four doses (40, 80, 160 and 320 µl/l) of the different compounds were incubated in vitro for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid from goats using two diets differing in starch and protein source within the concentrate (Experiment 1).The total gas production was linearly decreased (Prumen content per day) and BCM (50, 100 and 160 mg/l rumen content per day) during the 9 days on methane emissions (Experiment 3). The addition of PTS and BCM resulted in linear reductions (33% and 64%, respectively, P≤ 0.002) of methane production per unit of dry matter intake, which were lower than the maximum inhibition observed in vitro (87% and 96%, respectively). We conclude that applying the same doses in vivo as in vitro resulted in a proportional lower extent of methane decrease, and that PTS at 200 mg/l rumen content per day has the potential to reduce methane emissions in goats. Whether the reduction in methane emission observed in vivo persists over longer periods of treatments and improves feed conversion efficiency requires further research.

  1. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Influence of phenolic compounds on rumen microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.; Silva Filho, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An 'in vitro' experiment is carried out to examine the effect of tannic acid on rumen microbial activity, due to the toxicity of phenolic acids on many microrganisms. Rumen content is incubated with sodium bicarbonate, glucose and different quantities of tannic acid. 1 μCi of 32 p-labelled phosphate is added and after 6 hours the incorporated activity is measured. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. A Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Rumen Microbiome Influenced by Various Diets and Microenvironments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Deusch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture. Samples were fractionated into ruminal fluid, particle-associated rumen liquid, and solid matter. DNA, proteins and metabolites were analyzed subsequently. DNA extracts were used for Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the metabolomes of rumen fluids were determined by 500 MHz-NMR spectroscopy. Tryptic peptides derived from protein extracts were measured by LC-ESI-MS/MS and spectra were processed by a two-step database search for quantitative metaproteome characterization. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD006070. Protein- and DNA-based datasets revealed significant differences between sample fractions and diets and affirmed similar trends concerning shifts in phylogenetic composition. Ribosomal genes and proteins belonging to the phylum of Proteobacteria, particularly Succinivibrionaceae, exhibited a higher abundance in corn silage-based samples while fiber-degraders of the Lachnospiraceae family emerged in great quantities throughout the solid phase fractions. The analysis of 8163 quantified bacterial proteins revealed the presence of 166 carbohydrate active enzymes in varying abundance. Cellulosome affiliated proteins were less expressed in the grass silage, glycoside hydrolases appeared in slightest numbers in the corn silage. Most expressed glycoside hydrolases belonged to families 57 and 2. Enzymes analogous to ABC transporters for amino acids and

  4. Resistance of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrP(c from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrP(Sc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie in the environment.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens from the bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Robert J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in methanogens from ruminants has resulted from the role of methane in global warming and from the fact that cattle typically lose 6 % of ingested energy as methane. Several species of methanogens have been isolated from ruminants. However they are difficult to culture, few have been consistently found in high numbers, and it is likely that major species of rumen methanogens are yet to be identified. Results Total DNA from clarified bovine rumen fluid was amplified using primers specific for Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of 41 rDNA sequences identified three clusters of methanogens. The largest cluster contained two distinct subclusters with rDNA sequences similar to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium 16S rDNA. A second cluster contained sequences related to 16S rDNA from Methanosphaera stadtmanae, an organism not previously described in the rumen. The third cluster contained rDNA sequences that may form a novel group of rumen methanogens. Conclusions The current set of 16S rRNA hybridization probes targeting methanogenic Archaea does not cover the phylogenetic diversity present in the rumen and possibly other gastro-intestinal tract environments. New probes and quantitative PCR assays are needed to determine the distribution of the newly identified methanogen clusters in rumen microbial communities.

  6. Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149

  7. Effects of feeding unlimited amounts of milk replacer for the first 5 weeks of age on rumen and small intestinal growth and development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Gruse, J; Maciej, J; Pfuhl, R; Zitnan, R; Rajsky, M; Hammon, H M

    2018-01-01

    The development of the gastrointestinal tract in newborn calves is essential for sufficient nutrient uptake. An intensive milk feeding during the neonatal period may impair the rumen development in calves. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding in unlimited amounts for the first 5 wk of age on the gastrointestinal growth and development in preruminant calves at wk 9 of age. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein × Charolais crossbred calves (19 male and 9 female) were fed MR ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 L per day; RES) until wk 5 of age. Thereafter, the MR intake of ADLIB was gradually reduced at wk 6 and 7, and all calves received 6 L of MR per day until wk 9 of age. In wk 9, calves were slaughtered and carcass and organ weight as well as rumen papilla size in the atrium, ventral sac, and ventral blind sac, and villus size of the mucosa in the small intestine (duodenum; proximal, mid, and distal jejunum; and ileum) were determined. The expression of mRNA associated with the local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system was measured in the rumen epithelium. Ad libitum MR feeding increased MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake compared with RES. Carcass weight in wk 9 was greater in ADLIB than in RES. The density of the rumen papillae in the atrium and ventral blind sac was greater in RES than in ADLIB calves, but surface area of the epithelium was not different between groups in the investigated regions of the rumen. The mRNA abundance of IGF1 in the atrium tended to be greater and the IGFR1 mRNA abundance in the ventral sac tended to be lower in the ADLIB than in the RES feeding group. The rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by MR feeding intensity. In mid-jejunum, villus circumference was greater in ADLIB than in RES calves. In the distal jejunum, villus surface area and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were greater and the villus

  8. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  9. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaye-Chan, A.C.; White, R.G.; Holleman, D.F.; Russell, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight) ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight), and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight). Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2) when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a ''conventional'' radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau

  10. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Allaye-Chan

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight, and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight. Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2 when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a "conventional" radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau.

  11. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  12. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  13. Evaluation of the contribution of recycled urea to the synthesis of the microbial of protein in the rumen using sup 15 N labelled urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dehneh, A M [Michigan State Univ. (USA) Dept. of Animal Science

    1990-01-01

    Urea {sup 15}N was continually infused into the juglar vein for 3 days in two duodenally cannulated cows fed diets of 1:2 and 2:1 forage: concentrate. Duodenal digesta samples were taken every 3 hours, and coccygeal blood and milk were sampled twice daily. Urine was collected for 5 days starting 1 day before infusion and total feces for 3 days during infusion. Fecal samples were also taken twice daily during the 5 days of collection. Urinary excretion of {sup 15}N accounted for about 90% of that which existed from the body; whereas, feces and milk each accounted for about 5%. Recovery of {sup 15}N during the infusion period ranged from 30 to 50% of that infused. Estimates using {sup 15}N ratios, as percent of the total N passing into the duodenum, that was bacterial N, were 50% to 90% and appeared directly proportional to dry matter intake of cows. Recycled-N incorporated into rumen microbes was greater (24% verses 14% of N in bacteria passing into the duodenum) in cows fed the high concentrate than the high forage diet. Also, incorporation of recycled N into rumen microbes was higher in the lactating than the dry cow (24% verses 14%) and the flow of nitrogen from the rumen to the small intestine was greater for the concentrate than the forage diet (122.O% verses 101.0% of nitrogen intake). (author). 27 refs.

  14. Evaluation of the contribution of recycled urea to the synthesis of the microbial of protein in the rumen using 15N labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dehneh, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Urea 15 N was continually infused into the juglar vein for 3 days in two duodenally cannulated cows fed diets of 1:2 and 2:1 forage: concentrate. Duodenal digesta samples were taken every 3 hours, and coccygeal blood and milk were sampled twice daily. Urine was collected for 5 days starting 1 day before infusion and total feces for 3 days during infusion. Fecal samples were also taken twice daily during the 5 days of collection. Urinary excretion of 15 N accounted for about 90% of that which existed from the body; whereas, feces and milk each accounted for about 5%. Recovery of 15 N during the infusion period ranged from 30 to 50% of that infused. Estimates using 15 N ratios, as percent of the total N passing into the duodenum, that was bacterial N, were 50% to 90% and appeared directly proportional to dry matter intake of cows. Recycled-N incorporated into rumen microbes was greater (24% verses 14% of N in bacteria passing into the duodenum) in cows fed the high concentrate than the high forage diet. Also, incorporation of recycled N into rumen microbes was higher in the lactating than the dry cow (24% verses 14%) and the flow of nitrogen from the rumen to the small intestine was greater for the concentrate than the forage diet (122.O% verses 101.0% of nitrogen intake). (author). 27 refs

  15. Exploring the bovine rumen bacterial community from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Elie; Israel, Adi; Kotser, Assaf; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2013-06-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota is essential in shaping many of its host's functional attributes. One such microbiota resides in the bovine digestive tract in a compartment termed as the rumen. The rumen microbiota is necessary for the proper physiological development of the rumen and for the animal's ability to digest and convert plant mass into food products, making it highly significant to humans. The establishment of this microbial population and the changes occurring with the host's age are important for understanding this key microbial community. Despite its importance, little information about colonization of the microbial populations in newborn animals, and the gradual changes occurring thereafter, exists. Here, we characterized the overall bovine ruminal bacterial populations of five age groups, from 1-day-old calves to 2-year-old cows. We describe the changes occurring in the rumen ecosystem after birth, reflected by a decline in aerobic and facultative anaerobic taxa and an increase in anaerobic ones. Some rumen bacteria that are essential for mature rumen function could be detected as early as 1 day after birth, long before the rumen is active or even before ingestion of plant material occurs. The diversity and within-group similarity increased with age, suggesting a more diverse but homogeneous and specific mature community, compared with the more heterogeneous and less diverse primary community. In addition, a convergence toward a mature bacterial arrangement with age was observed. These findings have also been reported for human gut microbiota, suggesting that similar forces drive the establishment of gut microbiotas in these two distinct mammalian digestive systems.

  16. Efficacy of different essential oils in modulating rumen fermentation in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Roy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was conducted to examine the modulatory effect of different essential oils on rumen fermentation pattern in vitro using wheat straw based diet (concentrate: wheat straw 50:50. Materials and Methods: Four essential oils i.e. cinnamon, garlic, oregano and rosemary oils were tested at concentration of 0, 30, 300 and 600 mg/litre (ppm of total culture fluid using in vitro gas production technique. Total gas production, methane production, nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid (VFA production and ammonia nitrogen concentration were studied in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor. Results: Results indicated that all four essential oils decreased gas production significantly (P<0.05 at 600ppm concentration. However, in case of garlic oil, 300 ppm concentration was also found to be effective in decreasing total gas production. Reduction in methane production was found maximum (P<0.05 at higher doses in most of the oils. Maximum reduction in methane was noticed with garlic oil at 600ppm dose. Ammonia-N concentration was also decreased significantly (P<0.05 with essential oils and was found minimum with oregano oil at 600 ppm dose. Partition factor was found to be significantly (P<0.05 higher in 600 ppm concentration of garlic and oregano oil. The degradability of dry matter decreased significantly with higher concentration of essential oil in most of treatment combinations. Conclusion: Supplementation with different essential oils on wheat straw based diet modulates rumen fermentation and reduced methane and ammonia- N production and improved utilization of nutrients.

  17. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Hagen, Live H; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G; Pope, Phillip B; Sundset, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-Flichen-fed reindeer.

  19. Effects of various weaning times on growth performance, rumen fermentation and microbial population of yellow cattle calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiling; Xia, Yuefeng; Tu, Yan; Wang, Chong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effects of weaning times on the growth performance, rumen fermentation and microbial communities of yellow cattle calves. Methods Eighteen calves were assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned (NW, n = 3) or to early weaned (EW) group where calves were weaned when the feed intake of solid feed (starter) reached 500 g (EW500, n = 5), 750 g (EW750, n = 5), or 1,000 g (EW1,000, n = 5). Results Compared with NW, the EW treatments increased average daily gain (pcalves in EW750 had a higher (pintake than those in EW1,000 from wk 9 to the end of the trial. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in EW750 were greater than in NW and EW1,000 (p0.05), but changes in bacterial composition were found. Conclusion From the present study, it is inferred that EW is beneficial for rumen fermentation, and weaning when the feed intake of the starter reached 750 g showed much better results. PMID:28423879

  20. Total rRNA-Seq Analysis Gives Insight into Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal and Archaeal Communities in the Rumen Using an Optimized RNA Isolation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke O. Elekwachi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high throughput, next generation sequencing technologies have allowed an in-depth examination of biological environments and phenomena, and are particularly useful for culture-independent microbial community studies. Recently the use of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies has been used to elucidate the role of active microbes in the environment. Extraction of RNA of appropriate quality is critical in these experiments and TRIzol reagent is often used for maintaining stability of RNA molecules during extraction. However, for studies using rumen content there is no consensus on (1 the amount of rumen digesta to use or (2 the amount of TRIzol reagent to be used in RNA extraction procedures. This study evaluated the effect of using various quantities of ground rumen digesta and of TRIzol reagent on the yield and quality of extracted RNA. It also investigated the possibility of using lower masses of solid-phase rumen digesta and lower amounts of TRIzol reagent than is used currently, for extraction of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies. We found that high quality RNA could be isolated from 2 g of ground rumen digesta sample, whilst using 0.6 g of ground matter for RNA extraction and using 3 mL (a 5:1 TRIzol : extraction mass ratio of TRIzol reagent. This represents a significant savings in the cost of RNA isolation. These lower masses and volumes were then applied in the RNA-Seq analysis of solid-phase rumen samples obtained from 6 Angus X Hereford beef heifers which had been fed a high forage diet (comprised of barley straw in a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 for 102 days. A bioinformatics analysis pipeline was developed in-house that generated relative abundance values of archaea, protozoa, fungi and bacteria in the rumen and also allowed the extraction of individual rRNA variable regions that could be analyzed in downstream molecular ecology programs. The average relative abundances of rRNA transcripts of archaea, bacteria

  1. Total rRNA-Seq Analysis Gives Insight into Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal and Archaeal Communities in the Rumen Using an Optimized RNA Isolation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elekwachi, Chijioke O; Wang, Zuo; Wu, Xiaofeng; Rabee, Alaa; Forster, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Advances in high throughput, next generation sequencing technologies have allowed an in-depth examination of biological environments and phenomena, and are particularly useful for culture-independent microbial community studies. Recently the use of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies has been used to elucidate the role of active microbes in the environment. Extraction of RNA of appropriate quality is critical in these experiments and TRIzol reagent is often used for maintaining stability of RNA molecules during extraction. However, for studies using rumen content there is no consensus on (1) the amount of rumen digesta to use or (2) the amount of TRIzol reagent to be used in RNA extraction procedures. This study evaluated the effect of using various quantities of ground rumen digesta and of TRIzol reagent on the yield and quality of extracted RNA. It also investigated the possibility of using lower masses of solid-phase rumen digesta and lower amounts of TRIzol reagent than is used currently, for extraction of RNA for metatranscriptomic studies. We found that high quality RNA could be isolated from 2 g of ground rumen digesta sample, whilst using 0.6 g of ground matter for RNA extraction and using 3 mL (a 5:1 TRIzol : extraction mass ratio) of TRIzol reagent. This represents a significant savings in the cost of RNA isolation. These lower masses and volumes were then applied in the RNA-Seq analysis of solid-phase rumen samples obtained from 6 Angus X Hereford beef heifers which had been fed a high forage diet (comprised of barley straw in a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30) for 102 days. A bioinformatics analysis pipeline was developed in-house that generated relative abundance values of archaea, protozoa, fungi and bacteria in the rumen and also allowed the extraction of individual rRNA variable regions that could be analyzed in downstream molecular ecology programs. The average relative abundances of rRNA transcripts of archaea, bacteria, protozoa and fungi in

  2. Determination of succession of rumen bacterial species in nursing beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminants are typically born with a non-functional rumen essentially devoid of microorganisms. The succession of the microbial population in the rumen from birth to animal maturity is of interest due to the key role that the rumen microbial population plays in the overall health and productivity of ...

  3. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... addition of yellow grease and corn oil increased in vitro rumen degradation and gas production. ... Culturing of rumen anaerobic fungi. Rumen anaerobic fungi were isolated from wheat straw residues, ... concentrate : forage diet (corn grain, barley grain and wheat bran : sugarcane silage, corn silage, alfalfa ...

  4. The Effect of Selected Biostimulating Substance on the Degradation in the Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cows with the canulla were divided into two groups - experimental and control. One cow was added to experimental product Biopolym FZT, second Biopolym granules. The samples of rumen fluid and feces were analyzed. The growth of microorganisms in the rumen fluid of experimental animals means the possibility of a positive impact of Biopolym on the degradation of feeding the rumen.

  5. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: Leading the way in microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not ...

  6. Determination of in vitro isoflavone degradation in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnková, Andrea; Šancová, Kateřina; Zapletalová, Martina; Kašparovská, Jitka; Dadáková, Kateřina; Křížová, Ludmila; Lochman, Jan; Hadrová, Sylvie; Ihnatová, Ivana; Kašparovský, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of dietary isoflavones in rumen fluid under 2 feeding regimens. The experiments were performed in vitro using a rumen fluid buffer system. The rumen fluid was taken from cows fed either a hay diet or a concentrate-rich diet (the diet consisted of 34.6% maize silage, 17.6% haylage, 12.8% alfalfa hay, and 35.0% supplemental mixture on a dry matter basis). As a source of isoflavones, 40% soybean extract (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) at levels of 5, 25, 50, and 75 mg per 40 mL of rumen fluid was used. Samples of soybean extract were incubated in triplicate at 39°C for 0, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 24.0 h in incubation solution. The metabolism of daidzein and genistein was faster under concentrate-rich diet conditions. In general, production of equol started after 3 to 6 h of incubation and reached the highest rate after approximately 12 h of incubation regardless of the type of diet or concentration of extract. In most of the experiments, production of equol continued after 24 h of incubation. Generally, equol production was greater under the hay diet conditions. Furthermore, experiments with higher amounts of added soybean extract revealed possible inhibitory effects of high levels of isoflavones on the rumen microflora. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sinha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles. Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1 60:20:20, (T2 40:30:30, and (T3 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial. Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight, ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p0.05 among treatments and significantly (p<0.05 greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3, propionate:butyrate (C3:C4, and (acetate+butyrate:propionate ([C2+C4]:C3 ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05 among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05 higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05 higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1. Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

  8. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B J; Van Reenen, C G; Beldman, G; van Delen, J; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) milk replacer control, 2) pectin-based concentrate, 3) neutral detergent fiber-based concentrate, 4) starch-based concentrate, and 5) mixed concentrate (equal amounts of concentrates of treatments 2, 3, and 4). Concentrate diets were provided as pellets in addition to a commercial milk replacer. Calves were euthanized either at the end of 8 or 12 wk of age. The overall dry matter intake of the concentrate diets varied between 0.37 and 0.52 kg/d. Among the concentrate diets, the dry matter intake was lower in the starch diet (0.37 kg/d of dry matter) and differed between the NDF and pectin diets. The average daily gain for all the dietary treatments varied between 0.70 and 0.78 kg/d. The mixed- and NDF-fed calves had an increased average daily gain (0.78 and 0.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with the starch- and pectin-fed calves (0.70 and 0.71 kg/d, respectively). Rumen fermentation in the calves fed concentrates was characterized by a low pH (4.9 to 5.2), volatile fatty acid concentrations between 100 and 121 mmol/L, and high concentrations of reducing sugars (33 to 66 g/kg of dry matter). The volatile fatty acid concentrations of calves fed concentrates were higher than those of the control calves. All concentrate treatments showed a low acetate-to-propionate ratio in rumen fluid (between 1.3 and 1.9). Among the concentrates, the NDF diet had the highest (55.5%) and starch the lowest (45.5%) molar proportions of acetate. Calves fed the mixed, pectin, and starch diets had significantly higher molar proportions of butyrate (13.1 to 15.8%) than the NDF- and control-fed groups (9

  9. Toward Understanding Phage:Host Interactions in the Rumen; Complete Genome Sequences of Lytic Phages Infecting Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rumen is known to harbor dense populations of bacteriophages (phages predicted to be capable of infecting a diverse range of rumen bacteria. While bacterial genome sequencing projects are revealing the presence of phages which can integrate their DNA into the genome of their host to form stable, lysogenic associations, little is known of the genetics of phages which utilize lytic replication. These phages infect and replicate within the host, culminating in host lysis, and the release of progeny phage particles. While lytic phages for rumen bacteria have been previously isolated, their genomes have remained largely uncharacterized. Here we report the first complete genome sequences of lytic phage isolates specifically infecting three genera of rumen bacteria: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus. All phages were classified within the viral order Caudovirales and include two phage morphotypes, representative of the Siphoviridae and Podoviridae families. The phage genomes displayed modular organization and conserved viral genes were identified which enabled further classification and determination of closest phage relatives. Co-examination of bacterial host genomes led to the identification of several genes responsible for modulating phage:host interactions, including CRISPR/Cas elements and restriction-modification phage defense systems. These findings provide new genetic information and insights into how lytic phages may interact with bacteria of the rumen microbiome.

  10. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  11. Isolation and Identification of the Chitinolytic Bacteria from Rumen Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumen is an interesting ecosystem for microbial exploration and their products. Isolation of the chitinolytic bacteria from the rumen ecosystem found 109 colonies that produced clear zone, 84 colonies (86% anaerobic and 17 colonies (14% aerobic. Clear zone appeared in the third and fourth days incubation. Four potential isolates were chosen for identification purposes. Results showed that the bacteria were sticky, gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, mesophilic and aerobic. It was supposed to Bacillus spp. the optimal pH and temperature to produce chitinase from isolate 18 are pH 6.0 and temperature of 35-40ºC. Divalent cations Mg, Ca, Zn, and Mn increase chitinase activity, while Cu and Co inhibit enzyme activity. When isolate 18 was grown on shrimp waste meal, it showed aptimal activity on the fifth days incubation. (Animal Production 5(2: 73-78 (2003   Key Words : Isolation, Identification, Chitinolytic Bacteria, Rumen

  12. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego P. Morgavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiota is an essential part of ruminants forging their nutrition and health. Despite its importance, it is not fully understood how various groups of rumen microbes affect host-microbe relationships and functions. The aim of the study was to simultaneously explore the rumen microbiota and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted that differentially restricted the acquisition of microbes. Rumen microbiota, fermentation parameters, digestibility and growth were monitored for up to 31 weeks of age. Microbiota assembled in isolation from other ruminants lacked protozoa and had low bacterial and archaeal diversity whereas digestibility was not affected. Exposure to adult sheep microbiota increased bacterial and archaeal diversity independently of protozoa presence. For archaea, Methanomassiliicoccales displaced Methanosphaera. Notwithstanding, protozoa induced differences in functional traits such as digestibility and significantly shaped bacterial community structure, notably Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae lower up to 6 folds, Prevotellaceae lower by ~40%, and Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae higher up to 10 folds compared to microbiota without protozoa. An orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis of urinary metabolome matched differences in microbiota structure. Discriminant metabolites were mainly involved in amino acids and protein metabolic pathways while a negative interaction was observed between methylotrophic methanogens Methanomassiliicoccales and trimethylamine N-oxide. These results stress the influence of gut microbes on animal phenotype and show the potential of metabolomics for monitoring rumen microbial functions.

  13. Effect of technical cashew nut shell liquid on rumen methane emission and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, A F; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Weeks, H; Oh, J; Hristov, A N

    2015-06-01

    Technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid (TCNSL) is a by-product of the cashew nut industry in tropical countries, and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including inhibitory effect against gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TCNSL (73.3% cardanol, 16.4% cardol, and 3.0% methylcardol) on rumen methane emission, nutrient digestibility, dry matter intake, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d experimental periods. The diet was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage and was formulated to meet or exceed the energy and metabolizable protein requirements of the cows. Treatments were control (no TCNSL supplementation) or 30 g/cow per day of TCNSL. Rumen carbon dioxide emission was not affected by TCNSL. Treatment had no effect on methane emission (542 vs. 511±35.3 g/cow per day, respectively) and methane emission intensity (15.0 vs. 13.9±0.58 g/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively) and tended to decrease methane emission per kilogram of dry matter intake (20.2 vs. 18.6±1.04 g/kg, respectively). Dry matter intake (average 26.9±1.00 kg/d), milk yield (40.0±1.73 kg/d), and milk composition were not different between treatments. The TCNSL had no effect on N losses in urine and feces and total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, except digestibility of neutral detergent fiber tended to be increased compared with the control. Plasma urea and glucose concentrations were not affected by TCNSL. Concentration of milk C18:0 tended to be decreased (17%) by TCNSL compared with the control. In this study, TCNSL did not alter absolute methane emission in the rumen, but tended to decrease it by 8% per kilogram of dry matter intake. The TCNSL had no effect on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternatives for optimisation of rumen fermentation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Slavov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper knowledge on the variety of events occurring in the rumen makes possible their optimisation with respect to the complete feed conversion and increasing the productive performance of ruminants. The inclusion of various dietary additives (supplements, biologically active substances, nutritional antibiotics, probiotics, enzymatic preparations, plant extracts etc. has an effect on the intensity and specific pathway of fermentation, and thus, on the general digestion and systemic metabolism. The optimisation of rumen digestion is a method with substantial potential for improving the efficiency of ruminant husbandry, increasing of quality of their produce and health maintenance.

  15. Histogenesis of rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Salimi Naghani* and L. Akradi1

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow several sequence histological changes that occur during the histogenesis of the rumen in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Histogenesis study was carried out on 66 fetuses of camel from 50th day of gestation until birth (390 days), according to the most relevant histo-differentiation characteristics of the rumen in fetuses, these were divided into four groups: group I (5-24 cm crown-rump length (C-RL); 50-140 days); group II (24-30 cm C-RL; 140-160 d...

  16. SEVILLA and U.M. LUSTRIA. 2006. Changes in rumen ecosystem and feed dry matter degradability of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle through cross inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    Dicky Pamungkas; Cesar C Sevilla; Ulysses M Lustria

    2006-01-01

    The research was done to identify changes in rumen ecosystem of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle. As much as three head of fistulated male buffaloes (live weight of 450-550 kg) and three fistulated female cattle (live weight 250-380 kg) were used. This experiment was done three stage as follows: pre-inoculation, inoculation and post-inoculation. In Pre-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken two hours before morning feeding and directly observed for pH rumen liquor, a...

  17. Effects of forage provision to dairy calves on growth performance and rumen fermentation: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, M; Mirzaei, M; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    A meta-analysis of the potential effect of forage provision on growth performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2016). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effects of different forage levels, forage sources, forage offering methods, physical forms of starter, and grain sources on the heterogeneity of the results. We considered 27 studies that reported the effects of forage provision to dairy calves. Estimated effect sizes of forage were calculated on starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), body weight (BW), and rumen fermentation parameters. Intake of starter feed, ADG, BW, ruminal pH, and rumen molar proportion of acetate increased when supplementing forage but FE decreased. Heterogeneity (the amount of variation among studies) was significant for intake of starter feed, ADG, FE, final BW, and rumen fermentation parameters. Improving overall starter feed intake was greater in calves offered alfalfa hay compared with those offered other types of forages. During the milk feeding and overall periods, improving ADG was greater for calves fed a high level of forage (>10% in dry matter) compared with those fed a low level of forage (≤10% in dry matter) diets. The advantages reported in weight gain at a high level of forage could be due to increased gut fill. Improving overall ADG was lower for calves offered forages with textured starter feed compared with ground starter feed. The meta-regression analysis revealed that changes associated with forage provision affect FE differently for various forage sources and forage offering methods during the milk-feeding period. Forage sources also modulated the effect of feeding forage on ruminal pH during the milk-feeding period. In conclusion, forage has the potential to affect starter feed intake and performance of dairy calves, but its effects depend on source, level, and method of forage feeding and physical form of starter

  18. Isolation of chitinolytic Clostridium sp. NCR from Mehsani buffalo rumen, its genomic analysis and potential role in rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nathani, Neelam M.; Duggirala, Srinivas M.; M., Chandra Shekar; Kothari, Ramesh K.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic analysis of Clostridium sp. NCR, an anaerobic Gram positive bacterium which was isolated from rumen fluid of Mehsani breed of buffalo revealed presence of various environmental gene tags (EGTs) involved in pathways for utilizing a wide range of substrates. Here we report the sequence of this rumen isolate, its whole genome sequence has been deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number JQHY00000000. The genome comprises of a 3.62-Mb draft genome with a G + C content of 28....

  19. Rumen Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Performance of Sheep Fed Tropical Browse Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Astuti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study was designed to evaluate total gas production, dry matter degradability (DMD, and VFA profile; while in vivo study was designed to evaluate nutrient intakes, blood metabolites, and performance of sheep fed native grass mixed with Calliandra calothyrrus (CC, Leucaena leucochepala (LL, Moringa oleifera (MO, Gliricidea sepium (GS, and Artocarpus heterophyllus (AH. The best three from the in vitro results were used to formulate diets in in vivo study. Sixteen male growing sheep (average BW 20 kg were fed 100% native grass (NG as control; 70% NG + 30% GS; 70% NG + 30% MO; and 70% NG + 30% AH. Nutrient consumptions, DMD, blood metabolites, and sheep performances were analyzed by using Completely Randomized Design. The in vitro results showed that the total gas production and DMD of CC and LL were the lowest (P<0.05 while the highest was found in GS, MO, and AH treatments (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the in vivo results showed that nutrient intakes (DM, CP, and CF of GS and AH rations were the highest. The ADG, concentration of albumin, and globulin in all treatments were similar, while total serum protein, triglycerides, and glucose concentration in MO and AH rations were higher than others. Serum cholesterol concentration in MO ration was the lowest, meanwhile the concentration of IgG was the highest (P<0.05. Supplementation of 30% MO was the best choice for optimum rumen fermentation and maintaining health status of local sheep.

  20. Influence of rumen protein degradability on productive and reproductive performance in buffalo cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Di Palo, Rossella; Infascelli, Federico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Zicarelli, Fabio; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to ascertain the influence of crude protein (CP) digestibility in the rumen on the quantity and quality of milk production and reproductive performance, blood (BU) and milk (MU) urea, haematological profile and vaginal mucus urea, ammonia and potassium of buffalo cows. Lactating buffaloes (n = 84), 60 days in milk, were randomly subdivided into Group C (control, n = 42) and Group T (fed a diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae, n = 42). In three fistulated buffalo, the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae showed a decrease (P milk, were used to study the haematological profile and to determine milk urea and ammonia in the vaginal mucus. The animals in Group T1 had higher ammonia values in the blood (P mucus than Group C1. A relationship was found between MU and BU. MU was influenced by CP intake and dry matter intake. No differences between the treatments were observed in reproductive performance and the conception rate and calving interval were 37.9% and 41.4% (90 trial-day) and 449 and 419 days respectively in Groups T and C. Reproductive performance was not influenced by high levels of BU nor by blood ammonia levels, although the latter were higher in the group fed the diet supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae.

  1. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  2. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  4. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangosteen peel (MP), an agricultural by-product of tropical countries, has been reported to contain condensed tannins and saponins, which can affect rumen microbes to reduce enteric methane emission. In the present study, the effects of mangosteen peel on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas production, methane ...

  5. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  6. Yields Components and 48-H Rumen Dry Matter Degradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to study the influence of harvesting date on three sweet potato varieties (TIS-87/0087, TIS-8164 and TIS-2532.OP.1.13). Fodder yields and leaf-to-stem ratio decreased (P < 0.05), while harvest index and 48-h rumen DM degradation increased with maturity from 12 to 20 weeks after ...

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  8. Response of finishing broiler chickens to diets containing rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty Arbor acres broiler chickens aged four weeks were used in determining the effect of fermented rice husk meal diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 % rumen liquor fermented rice husk ...

  9. Effects of rumen-protected tryptophan on performance, nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... sources high in rumen-protected Trp (RPT) can be fed to complement the ... collected into plastic containers containing 50 ml of 50% HCl to prevent NH3 .... growth, higher Trp availability could have exerted an effect also on ...

  10. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean curd residue and peppermint (Mentha piperita) in Hanwoo steer (Bos Taurus coreanae). Byong Tae Jeon, KyoungHoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Na Yeon Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Mi Rae Oh, Sang Ho Moon ...

  11. Rumen microbial communities influence metabolic phenotypes in lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgavi, Diego P.; Rahahao-Paris, Estelle; Popova, Milka

    2015-01-01

    and the metabolic phenotype of lambs for identifying host-microbe associations and potential biomarkers of digestive functions. Twin lambs, separated in two groups after birth were exposed to practices (isolation and gavage with rumen fluid with protozoa or protozoa-depleted) that differentially restricted...

  12. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the effects of dietary roughage: concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia ... several factors which include the potential rate and extent of degradation of the test feedstuff and the prevailing rate of ... diet effects have be,en designed to examine either the influence of dietary ...

  13. Defined bacterial populations in the rumens of gnotobiotic lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, R J; Alexander, T J; Wellstead, P D; Hobson, P N; Mann, S O; Stewart, C S

    1976-06-01

    Five gnotobiotic lambs were fed on sterile diets until they were killed at 13 to 21 weeks of age. They were dosed orally with different combinations of 11 species of rumen bacteria. The biochemical reactions of each of the bacteria inoculated had been determined in pure culture in vitro, and they were chosen to perform the main reactions known to be associated with digestion in the normal mature rumen. Two of the bacteria could not be reisolated, but the remainder had established readily in the rumen, forming stable, mixed, defined populations. The total numbers of bacteria in the rumen, and the viable counts of most of the individual species were comparable to those of normal sheep. The concentration of volatile fatty acids was lower, however, and in four of the lambs there was a higher proportion of butyric acid and a lower proportion of propionic acid than in normal sheep. Cellulolytic, ureolytic, and methanogenic activities appeared to be taking place and lactate-utilizing bacteria appeared to reverse the accumulation of lactate which resulted from the activity of lactate-producing bacteria. Some of the bacteria also established at high levels in the caecum.

  14. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  15. Some aspects of nitrogen metabolism in the bovine rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on the use of urea as a source of nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis showed that utilization was more efficient when the protein-N content of the diet was low. However, when the total nitrogen of the dietary dry matter was reduced below 1.9%, there was a drop in the protein-N content of rumen dry matter and a reduction in the daily flow of protein through the duodenum. The mean post-prandial rumen ammonia concentrations were below 5mg NH 3 -N/100ml. In vitro work with 15 N-labelled urea and ammonia salts showed that the overall utilization rate of ammonia was not significantly affected by mean concentrations between 1.6 and 16.7mg/ml, but that net utilization was lower below 5.8mg/100ml. It is suggested that increased lysis of susceptible micro-organisms or increased proteolysis of feed proteins may account for these findings. The concentrations of ammonia-N, protein-N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen were not affected by increases in the amount of calcium, phosphorus, potassium or sulphur in the diet, although the concentrations of these elements were significantly increased in the rumen. A wide dietary Ca/P ratio (3.26) tended to reduce the stability of rumen contents leading to a low pH and foaming. Increases in mean sulphide concentration from 3.6 to 8.0mg/l had no effect on overall protein synthesis rate as indicated by the 35 S incorporation rate. (author)

  16. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  17. The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square

  18. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornfelt, L. F.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Norgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37 late: NDF 44% in dry matter.......01), physical form (P time (P distribution function...... fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) of particles within each fraction was measured by the use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg dry matter intake (P time. The mean ruminating time (min/kg DM) was affected by harvest time (P

  19. Role and function of short chain fatty acids in rumen epithelial metabolism, development and importance of the rumen epithelium in understanding control of transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epithelial lining of the rumen is uniquely placed to have impact on the nutrient metabolism of the animal. The symbiotic relationship with the microbial populations that inhabit the rumen, serves to provide a constant supply of nutrients from roughage that would otherwise be unusable. Metaboli...

  20. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Jarltoft, Terese Christel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control...

  1. The effect of fermented cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) husk supplemented with mineral on in vitro digestibility, rumen bacteria population and rumen liquid characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaita; Definiati, N.; Santoso, U.; Akbar, S. A.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mineral supplementation, such as S, P and Zn on the nutrients digestibility of fermented cocoa pod husk, the population of rumen bacteria and rumen liquid characteristics in vitro. The study used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments tested were: T0 = without minerals; T1 = 0.2% S mineral; T2 = 0.27% P mineral; T3 = S and P; and T4 = S, P and Zn at 50 ppm. Parameters measured were: (1) digestibility of dry matter and organic matter; (2) rumen bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial populations; (3) characteristics of rumen liquid in vitro. The results of the study showed that mineral supplementation significantly (P digestibility. Mineral supplementation had no effect on the total population of rumen bacteria and cellulolytic rumen bacterial populations. The characteristics of rumen liquid such pH, VFA and NH3 were in optimal condition. In conclusion supplementation of S, P and Zn simultaneously gave the best results to improve the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and to maintain rumen liquid characteristics under optimal conditions for growth and microbial activity

  2. Strategic supplementation of cassava top silage to enhance rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Viennasay, Bounnaxay; Phesatcha, Burarat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2018-04-19

    High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 kg/day of dry matter (DM). Strategic supplementation of CTS significantly affected ruminal fermentation end-products, especially increased propionate production, decreased protozoal population and suppressed methane production (P < 0.05). Increasing the CTS supplementation level substantially enhanced milk yield and the 3.5% FCM from 12.7 to 14.0 kg/day and from 14.6 to 17.2 kg/day (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented group and for the 2.25 kg/day supplemented group, respectively. We conclude that high-quality protein roughage significantly enhances rumen fermentation end-products, milk yield, and quality in dairy cows.

  3. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  4. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Bacterial Population Attached to the Bovine Rumen Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš, F. (Filip); Šimůnek, J. (Jiří); Mrázek, J. (Jakub); Kopečný, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    We isolated and amplified by PCR 16S rDNA from bacteria attached to the bovine rumen wall and analyzed it by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent sequence analysis. The attached bacterial community differed from the bacteria of rumen content; however, no differences were observed among the five epithelial sampling sites taken from each animal. The DGGE profile of the bacterial population attached to the rumen wall represented a high inter-animal variation.

  6. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Prumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  7. Estimation of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of bacterial cell growth in the rumen of buffalo calves has been measured applying the isotope dilution technique by injecting labelled mixed rumen bacteria into the rumen, and expressing the specific radioactivity either per mg dry bacterial cells or per μg DAPA in whole rumen samples. The animals were fed daily about 15-20 kg chopped green maize in 12 equal amounts at 2-h intervals. There was no significant difference in the rate of production of bacteria estimated by either method. (author)

  8. Evaluation Nutritients Of Rice Bran Second Quality Fermented Using Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    ermalia, ayu afria ulita

    2016-01-01

    Rice bran is agriculture  waste that easy to find. Means to increase biological value of rice bran can do with decrease of highly crude fiber. Treatment that to do with fermentation use rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid potential is easy to find in slaughterhouse, this rumen fluid much to never utilization. This purpose of the research for evaluation of rice bran nutrition value that fermentating used rumen fluid, with different levels and long time incubations for get lower crude fiber and ...

  9. Effects of early feeding on the host rumen transcriptome and bacterial diversity in lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Ting; Nian, Fang; Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Fei; Pan, Xiangyu; La, Yongfu; Mo, Futao; Wang, Fangbin; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Early consumption of starter feed promotes rumen development in lambs. We examined rumen development in lambs fed starter feed for 5 weeks using histological and biochemical analyses and by performing high-throughput sequencing in rumen tissues. Additionally, rumen contents of starter feed-fed lambs were compared to those of breast milk-fed controls. Our physiological and biochemical findings revealed that early starter consumption facilitated rumen development, changed the pattern of ruminal fermentation, and increased the amylase and carboxymethylcellulase activities of rumen micro-organisms. RNA-seq analysis revealed 225 differentially expressed genes between the rumens of breast milk- and starter feed-fed lambs. These DEGs were involved in many metabolic pathways, particularly lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and included HMGCL and HMGCS2. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that ruminal bacterial communities were more diverse in breast milk-than in starter feed-fed lambs, and each group had a distinct microbiota. We conclude that early starter feeding is beneficial to rumen development and physiological function in lambs. The underlying mechanism may involve the stimulation of ruminal ketogenesis and butanoate metabolism via HMGCL and HMGCS2 combined with changes in the fermentation type induced by ruminal microbiota. Overall, this study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rumen development in sheep. PMID:27576848

  10. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.

  11. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  14. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( intake, with the greatest intake for TS-CS treatment during the preweaning and overall periods. Regardless of the physical form of starter, starter intake, ADG, weaning BW, final BW, ruminal pH, the molar proportion of acetate, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio were greater ( calves compared with unsupplemented calves. No interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  16. An in vitro assay for compounds toxic to rumen protozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.; Cumming, G.J.; Graham, C.A.; Leng, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The viability of protozoa in whole rumen fluid was assessed by measuring the incorporation of Me- 14 C-choline in vitro. The use of the technique as an assay for testing antiprotozoal agents was evaluated with a variety of surfactant detergents which have previously been shown to have antiprotozoal activity in vivo. A good correlation was obtained between the potency of these compounds in vitro and in vivo. (auth)

  17. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2002-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. 32 P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  18. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  19. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, G.; Cox, F.; Ganesh, S.; Jonker, A.; Young, W.; Janssen, P.H.; Bannink, A.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was

  1. Effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production kinetics and rumen fermentation profiles of three common straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of steam explosion on in vitro gas production (GP and rumen fermentation profiles of common straws, in vitro cultivation was conducted for 96 h with the rumen fluid collected from steers. Different types of straw had various chemical compositions, which were affected by steam explosion (P<0.01. Steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the rate and volume of GP, lag time disappeared and asymptotic GP decreased, which were also affected (P<0.01 by the type of straw. The type of straw influenced (P<0.05 the final pH, while steam explosion exerted an effect (P<0.01 on the ammonia-nitrogen concentration. The proportions of individual volatile fatty acid (VFA, except acetate (A, differed (P<0.05 among the feeds. Steam explosion increased total VFA production and the proportion of propionate (P, while decreased the proportions of A, isobutyrate and valerate as well as the ratio A/P (P<0.01. The type of straw had an effect (P<0.05 on the activities of avicelase and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, while steam explosion increased (P<0.01 the activities of avicelase, CMCase, β-glucanase and xylanase. The available energy concentrations and digestibilities differed (P<0.01 in the feeds and were increased (P<0.05 with steam explosion processing. The interaction straw type×treatments was significant (P<0.05 for most monitored parameters. These results suggest that steam explosion could improve rumen fermentability and energy utilisation of straw, being an effective pre-treatment method in feed industry.

  2. The Economic Effect of a Daily Supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on Rumen Fermentation and Lactating Goats Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of a daily supplementation of carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L., on rumen fermentation and milk production of goats. Thirty two lactating does (weight ranged from 33�35 kg, aged 2-4 years old and from 2nd to 3th lactation season were randomly allocated into four similar groups (8 animals each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Carob pods was daily supplemented at the rate of 0, 25, 50 or 100g /h/d. The lactating trial was extended for 75 days where goats were fed individually and fresh water was available at all time. Rumen fermentation parameters were monitored on three fistulated adult does. Results indicated that volatile fatty acids concentration, rumen volume, microbial protein synthesis and total bacteria counts were highest (P<0.05 with C50 group compared with other groups. While, ammonia-N concentration and protozoa count were lower (P<0.05 with C100 group compared with other groups. Milk production, protein and fat percentage were better (P<0.05 for C50 and C25 groups than those of C100 group. Supplementation of Carob pods at 50 g caused a marked (P<0.05 increase in the enzymatic antioxidant activity (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH but had a significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBARS compared to control group. Thus, it could be concluded that daily supplement of 50 g carob pods could be reasonable amount for goats performance without any adverse effect.

  3. The effect of rumen ciliates on chitinolytic activity, chitin content and the number of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Herman, Andrzej; Kowalik, Barbara; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selected protozoa on the degradation and concentration of chitin and the numbers of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep. Three adult ewes were fed a hay-concentrate diet, defaunated, then monofaunated with Entodinium caudatum or Diploplastron affine alone and refaunated with natural rumen fauna. The average density of the protozoa population varied from 6.1 · 10(4) (D. affine) to 42.2 · 10(4) cells/ml rumen fluid (natural rumen fauna). The inoculation of protozoa in the rumen of defaunated sheep increased the total activity of chitinolytic enzymes from 2.9 to 3.6 μmol N-acetylglucosamine/g dry matter (DM) of rumen fluid per min, the chitin concentration from 6.3 to 7.2 mg/g DM of rumen fluid and the number of fungal zoospores from 8.1 to 10.9 · 10(5) cells/ml rumen fluid. All examined indices showed diurnal variations. Ciliate population density was highest immediately prior to feeding and lowest at 4 h thereafter. The opposite effects were observed for the numbers of fungal zoospores, the chitin concentration and chitinolytic activity. Furthermore, it was found that chitin from zoospores may account for up to 95% of total microbial chitin in the rumen fluid of sheep. In summary, the examined ciliate species showed the ability of chitin degradation as well as a positive influence on the development of the ruminal fungal population.

  4. Shifts in the rumen microbiota due to the type of carbohydrate and level of protein ingested by dairy cattle are associated with changes in rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, Alejandro; Doreau, Michel; Edwards, Joan E; Moorby, Jon M; Pinloche, Eric; Newbold, Charles J

    2012-09-01

    Balancing energy and nitrogen in the rumen is a key to both profitability and environmental sustainability. Four dairy cows were used in a Latin square experimental design to investigate the effect of severe nitrogen underfeeding (110 vs. 80% of requirements) and the type of carbohydrate consumed [neutral detergent fiber rich (FIB) vs. starch rich (STA)] on the rumen ecosystem. These dietary treatments modified both rumen fermentation and microbial populations. Compared with STA diets, consumption of FIB diets increased bacterial and fungal diversity in the rumen and also increased the concentrations of cellulolytic microorganisms, including protozoa (+38%), anaerobic fungi (+59%), and methanogens (+27%). This microbial adaptation to fiber utilization led to similar digestibility values for the 2 carbohydrate sources and was accompanied by a shift in the rumen fermentation patterns; when the FIB diets were consumed, the cows had greater ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate compared with when they consumed the STA diets. Certain rumen microorganisms were sensitive to a shortage of nitrogen; rumen concentrations of ammonia were 49% lower when the low-protein (LP) diets were consumed as were total bacteria (-13%), anaerobic fungi (-28%), methanogens (-27%), protozoa (-19%), cellulolytic bacteria, and microbial diversity compared with when the high-protein (HP) diets were consumed. As a result, the digestibility of the LP diets was less than that of the HP diets. These findings demonstrated that the rumen microbial ecosystem is directly linked to the rumen fermentation pattern and, to some extent, to the efficiency of diet utilization by dairy cattle.

  5. Detoksifikasi Mikotoksin Melalui Optimalisasi Fungsi Rumen dengan Pemberian Ragi (MYCOTOXIN DETOXIFICATION THROUGH OPTIMIZATION THE RUMEN FUNCTION BY YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadik Pantaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by some fungal species commonly found in food and feed,particularly in cereals. In intensive production systems, dairy cattle are commonly fed with cereal-richdiets and, consequently, are more exposed to micotoxins. Besides, such diet is often associated with ahigher risk of rumen acidosis which can also affect the performance and the helath of animal. In addition,the efficacy of microbial detoxification can be reduced during acidosis. For instance, some authors observeda decrease in the number of protozoa that are responsible for the degradation of some mycotoxins. Anotherconsequence of acidosis is the potential modification of ruminal absorption of mycotoxins, which until nowhas received scarce attention. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic additives have been shown toreduce the post-feeding drop in rumen pH and to increase the number of ruminal protozoa. This effect canbe positive in reducing the absorption and toxicity of mycotoxins in ruminantia.

  6. Influence of Inoculum Content on Performance of Anaerobic Reactors for Treating Cattle Manure using Rumen Fluid Inoculum

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarso; S. Johari; I N. Widiasa; Budiyono

    2009-01-01

    Biogas productions of cattle manure using rumen fluid inoculums were determined using batch anaerobic digesters at mesophilic temperatures (room and 38.5 oC). The aim of this paper was to analyze the influence of rumen fluid contents on biogas yield from cattle manure using fluid rumen inoculums. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M) was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (...

  7. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from urinary purine derivatives in zebu cattle and water buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Abdullah, N.; Jelan, Z.A.; Nolan, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W 0.75 /day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8- 14 C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)

  8. Evaluation of camel rumen content as a feed for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Makinde

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing graded levels of Camel Rumen Content (CRC as a replacement for maize and groundnut cake. CRC was included in the diets of broilers at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and designated as TI, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Five dietary treatments were formulated. One hundred and fifty day-old broiler chicks (Anak breed were randomly allotted to five treatments replicated thrice with 10 chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for 28 days. Means of body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of broilers fed the control diet, 5%, 10% and 15 % CRC diets were significantly (P 0.05 differences in the haematological parameters measured except haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Also, basophils and monocytes were not significantly (P>0.05 different among the differential counts measured. It was concluded that up to 15% CRC can be included in broilers diet to replace maize and groundnut cake without adverse effect on the performance of birds.

  9. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  10. Thiamine supplementation facilitates thiamine transporter expression in the rumen epithelium and attenuates high-grain-induced inflammation in low-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X H; Yang, L; Beckers, Y; Xue, F G; Tang, Z W; Jiang, L S; Xiong, B H

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to uncover the effects of increasing dietary grain levels on expression of thiamine transporters in ruminal epithelium, and to assess the protective effects of thiamine against high-grain-induced inflammation in dairy cows. Six rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 16.9 kg of body weight, 180 ± 6 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control (20% dietary starch, dry matter basis), high-grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis), and HG diet supplemented with 180 mg of thiamine/kg of dry matter intake. On d 19 and 20 of each period, milk performance was measured. On d 21, ruminal pH, endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and thiamine contents in rumen and blood, and plasma inflammatory cytokines were detected; a rumen papillae biopsy was taken on d 21 to determine the gene and protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways. The HG diet decreased ruminal pH (5.93 vs. 6.49), increased milk yield from 17.9 to 20.2 kg/d, and lowered milk fat and protein from 4.28 to 3.83%, and from 3.38 to 3.11%, respectively. The HG feeding reduced thiamine content in rumen (2.89 vs. 8.97 μg/L) and blood (11.66 vs. 17.63 μg/L), and the relative expression value of thiamine transporter-2 (0.37-fold) and mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (0.33-fold) was downregulated by HG feeding. The HG-fed cows exhibited higher endotoxin LPS in rumen fluid (134,380 vs. 11,815 endotoxin units/mL), and higher plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines when compared with the control group. The gene and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL1B, and IL6 in rumen epithelium increased when cows were fed the HG diet, indicating that local inflammation occurred. The depressions in ruminal pH, milk fat, and protein of HG-fed cows were reversed by thiamine

  11. Effect on incorporating urea molasses mineral block lick in the diet of crossbred calves on the protozoal production rate in the rumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, M.R.; Gupta, B.N.; Singh, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen male rumen fistulated calves (18-24 months of age; 180-200 kg body wt) were divided into four groups of four animals each. Animals in all groups were fed wheat straw ad lib as the sole roughage. However, animals in Gr I were fed concentrate mixture at maintenance level whereas, animals in Gr II, III and IV had free access to urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) lick existing modified 'A' and modified 'B', respectively without any concentrate mixture. Dry matter intake (kg/100 kg body wt) were similar in four groups. However, straw intake was significantly higher in UMMB supplemented groups. Protozoa production rate (gN/d) was significantly higher in Gr I (7.112 + 0.27) as compared to Gr II (4.302 + 0.51), Gr III (4.743 + 0.27) and Gr IV (4.501 + 0.25). Thus, these results indicated that protozoal production rate in the rumen is significantly lower when crossbred calves were fed on wheat straw based diet supplemented with different UMMB licks as compared to those fed concentrate mixture at maintenance level. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Rumen fermentation dynamics of concentrate containing the new feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Shintia NW Hardani; Teguh Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of "3"2P for measuring of microbial protein synthesis in rumen liquid has potential role for obtaining a new formula of feed supplement (SPB). New Feed Supplements (SPB) was a new generation of ruminant feed supplement produced by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement was applied to complete commercial concentrate function as feed for ruminants. In vitro testing used semi continuous in vitro such as Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPB as feed supplement and palm oil industry by product, and also to determine the dynamics of rumen fermentation from concentrate containing SPB. Two in vitro's analyzes that have been studied were "3"2P incubation and RUSITEC's methods. "3"2P in vitro's study used five treatments: palm oil leaf (P), palm oil bunches (TKS), Palm oil shell kernel (KC), P+TKS+KC and SPB. Parameter's measurement was microbial protein synthesis (mg/h/l). RUSITEC treatments were: control (K) (commercial concentrate); KS 30 (70 % commercial concentrate + 30 % SPB) and KS 40 (60 % commercial concentrate + 40 % SPB). Observed variables were fermented rumen product (24 hours incubation) such as pH, ammonia concentration (NH_3) (mg/100 ml), total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) (mM), total gas production (ml/d) and methane production (CH_4) (ml/d). Rumen fermentation dynamics represented descriptively on six days incubation. The average variable was analyzed using completely randomized design with 12 replicates (six days incubation x two replications) followed by Duncan test. Highest microbial protein synthesis was on SPB compared with P, TKS, KC and P+TKS+KC (67.6 vs 11.9; 0,67; 1,87 and 42.55 mg/h/l respectively). The RUSITEC results were pH value of three treatments in normal range between 6.40 to 7.15. The dynamics of NH_3 concentration and TVFA production of commercial concentrates always lower than the KS 30 and KS 40. The KS 40 treatment resulted in TVFA production 56

  13. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  14. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  15. Feed intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen and purine derivatives in pregnant suckler cows fed alternative roughage-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardstedt, M.; Hessle, A.; Nørgaard, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared intake of alternative roughage-based diets and of common late-cut grass silage and related intake to urinary nitrogen (N), urea-N and purine derivative (PD) excretion, where PD is an indicator of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis. Total urine was collected from 36...... Hereford cows, blocked into three groups based on expected calving date. Cows within calving groups were randomly assigned to one of four roughage diets: common mixed grass silage (MGS), festulolium silage plus urea (FLS), reed canarygrass silage (RCS) and barley straw plus urea and rapeseed meal (BRM...... diets stimulated rumen MCP production to a greater extent than the BRM diet, as indicated by the higher urinary output of PD in cows fed the grass silage-based diets (P

  16. Effect of different levels of concentrate on ruminal microorganisms and rumen fermentation in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury T; Ribeiro Júnior, Carlos S; de Jesus, Raphael B; Gomez-Insuasti, Arturo S; Rivera, Astrid R; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Berchielli, Telma T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial population in steers. Eight Nellore steers fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. The dietary treatments consist of four different proportions of concentrate to roughage: 30:70, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20% in the dry matter, resulting in Diets 30, 40, 60 and 80, respectively. The roughage was corn silage, and the concentrate was composed of corn, soybean meal and urea. Apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein showed a linear association with concentrate proportion (p = 0.01), but the increased concentrate levels did not affect the digestibility of fibre. The lowest ruminal pH-values were observed in animals fed with Diet 80, remaining below pH 6.0 from 6 h after feeding, while in the other diets, the ruminal pH was below 6.0 not before 12 h after feeding. After feeding Diet 80, the ammonia concentration in the rumen was significantly the highest. Higher dietary concentrate levels resulted in a linear increase of propionic acid concentrations, a linear reduction of the ratio acetic acid to propionic acid (p ruminal pH-values as much as expected and inhibit some cellulolytic bacteria without impairing the dry matter intake and fibre digestibility in Nellore steers.

  17. The Effect of Dietary Replacement of Ordinary Rice with Red Yeast Rice on Nutrient Utilization, Enteric Methane Emission and Rumen Archaeal Diversity in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Z Wang

    Full Text Available Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control or red yeast rice (RYR. Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers. Results showed that RYR had significantly lower digestibility of N and organic matter compared to control group. However, feeding red yeast rice did not affect N retention as g/d or a proportion of N intake, and reduced heat production as MJ/d or as a proportion of metabolizable energy intake, thus leading to a higher proportion of metabolizable energy intake to be retained in body tissue. RYR also had significantly lower methane emissions either as g/d, or as a proportion of feed intake. Although feeding red yeast rice had no negative effect on any rumen fermentation variables, it decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. In the present study, 75616 archaeal sequences were generated and clustered into 2364 Operational Taxonomic Units. At the genus level, the predominant archaea in the rumen of goats was Methanobrevibacter, which was significantly inhibited with the supplementation of red yeast rice. In conclusion, red yeast rice is a potential feed ingredient for mitigation of enteric methane emissions of goats. However, caution should be taken when it is used because it may inhibit the digestibility of some nutrients. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential with different diets and animal species, as well as its effects on animal health and food safety.

  18. Measurement of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in serum, plasma, and rumen fluid from sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies involving the consumption, metabolism, and elimination of terpenes by small ruminants consuming terpene-laden shrubs as well as those exploring the potential for natural products as rumen modifiers could benefit from a procedure that measures terpenes in both blood and rumen fluid and that i...

  19. Shorten fungal treatment of lignocellulosic waste with additives to improve rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Selective lignin degrading fungi can be used as pre-treatment to make cellulose in plant cell walls accessible for rumen microbes. According to previous studies, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes can increase the in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in 7 to 8 weeks.

  20. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Li

    Full Text Available The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of dairy cows. The rumen microbiota harbored 54.5±6.1 genera (mean ± SD and 127.3±4.4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, respectively. However, the core microbiome comprised of 26 genera and 82 OTUs. Butyrate infusion altered molar percentages of 3 major VFAs. Butyrate perturbation had a profound impact on the rumen microbial composition. A 72 h-infusion led to a significant change in the numbers of sequence reads derived from 4 phyla, including 2 most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. As many as 19 genera and 43 OTUs were significantly impacted by butyrate infusion. Elevated butyrate levels in the rumen seemingly had a stimulating effect on butyrate-producing bacteria populations. The resilience of the rumen microbial ecosystem was evident as the abundance of the microorganisms returned to their pre-disturbed status after infusion withdrawal. Our findings provide insight into perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbial ecosystem and should guide efforts in formulating optimal uses of probiotic bacteria treating human diseases.

  1. Development of Simple and Precise Method of Arginine Determination in Rumen Fluid by Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacher, B.; Marghazani, I. B.; Liu, J. X.; Liu, H. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of current study was to build up a convenient, economic and accurate procedure to determine arginine (ARG) concentration in rumen fluid. Rumen fluid was collected from 3 rumen fistulated Chinese Holstein dairy cows and added with or without (control) 1mmol/l unprotected ARG and blank (with only medium) in to syringe system in triplicate as a replicate. All syringes were incubated in water bath at 39 Degree C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h and were terminated to measure the ARG concentration. Sakaguchi reaction method was used to analyze the ARG concentration in rumen fluid by determining the rumen degradation rate of protected and unprotected ARG. Temperature, time and absorbance were optimized in the procedure based on Sakaguchi reaction. Color consistency remained 4-6 min. The optimum temperature (0-5) Degree C was observed for maximum optical density 0.663 at wave length 500 nm. Minimum ARG that could be determined in rumen fluid by spectrophotometer was 4-5 μ g/ml. No significance (P>0.05) difference were observed between two results derived from spectrophotometer and amino acid analyzer methods. In conclusion, the spectrophotometer method of ARG determination in rumen fluid based on Sakaguchi reaction is easy, accurate, and economical and could be useful in learning ARG metabolism in the rumen. (author)

  2. Characterization of differentially expressed genes in calf rumen epithelium in response to weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen grows to represent from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, directly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion...

  3. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  4. A simple technique for measurement of pressure in the tympanitic rumen of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C B; Whyte, T D

    1978-05-13

    The construction and method of use of a simple device for the non-invasive measurement of intra-rumenal pressure is outlined. Results obtained from calves suffering from increased intra-rumenal pressure (bloat) are shown. The method is capable of quantifying pressures involved in bloat and could be used to augment the visual assessment of bloat scoring.

  5. A note on the insertion of rumen cannulae in pregnant ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modifications to a simple and rapid technique for the insertion of rumen cannulae in sheep are described. The modified technique, executed in three phases, was developed to facilitate the fistula- tion and insertion of rumen cannulae in pregnant ewes, especially during late pregnancy. Wysigings van 'n eenvoudige en ...

  6. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity of lignocellulolytic bacteria in Vietnamese native goat rumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Huyen Thi; Dao, Khoa Trong; Nguyen, Viet Khanh Hoang; Le Ngoc, Giang; Nguyen, Phuong Thi Mai; Le, Lam Tung; Phung, Nguyet Thu; M. van Straalen, Nico; Roelofs, Dick; Truong, Hai Nam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen

  7. A Study on Rumen Cilliate Protozoa Population, pH and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on rumen ciliate protozoa population, pH and some metabolites (total volatile fatty acids, rumen ammonia Nitrogen) was conducted on two fistulated WAD rams fed forage and concentrate diets. The 12-week study focused on the sequence of production of these parameters under each dietary regime.

  8. Degradation of lucerne stem cell walls by five rumen bacterial species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.; Weimer, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    The rumen bacterial strains Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Lachnospira multiparus 40, Ruminococcus albus 7 and R. flavefaciens FD-1 were compared individually and as a five-species mixture with a rumen inoculum for their ability to degrade lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)

  9. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, Emine Gozde; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar; Harms, Hauke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2018-02-14

    Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methanogenic communities of rumen and manure samples were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, respectively. Rumen fluid samples were dominated by Prevotellaceae (29%), whereas Ruminococcaceae was the most abundant family in the manure samples (31%). Fibrobacteraceae (12%) and Bacteroidaceae (13%) were the second most abundant families in rumen fluid and manure, respectively. The high abundances of fiber-degrading bacteria belonging to Prevotellaceae and Fibrobacteraceae might explain the better performance of anaerobic digesters inoculated with rumen fluid. Members of the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant methanogens in the rumen fluid, whereas methanogenic communities of the manure samples were dominated by the candidate genus Methanoplasma . Our results suggest that inoculation or bioaugmentation with fiber-digesting rumen microbiota can enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gozde Ozbayram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methanogenic communities of rumen and manure samples were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, respectively. Rumen fluid samples were dominated by Prevotellaceae (29%, whereas Ruminococcaceae was the most abundant family in the manure samples (31%. Fibrobacteraceae (12% and Bacteroidaceae (13% were the second most abundant families in rumen fluid and manure, respectively. The high abundances of fiber-degrading bacteria belonging to Prevotellaceae and Fibrobacteraceae might explain the better performance of anaerobic digesters inoculated with rumen fluid. Members of the genus Methanobrevibacter were the predominant methanogens in the rumen fluid, whereas methanogenic communities of the manure samples were dominated by the candidate genus Methanoplasma. Our results suggest that inoculation or bioaugmentation with fiber-digesting rumen microbiota can enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Røntved, C M; Theil, P K; Khatun, M; Lauridsen, C; Kristensen, N B

    2017-05-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment, and mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by real-time qPCR. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed and immune responsiveness of monocytes was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ) concentration on ex vivo whole blood stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes by interferon γ (IFNγ) concentration on stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin β (SEB). Further, ELISA plasma concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG were determined. The DRTC affected the majority of investigated parameters as expected. The CAS treatment increased milk protein yield (P = 0.04), and tended to lower TNFɑ (P = 0.06), and lowered IFNγ (P = 0.03) responsiveness per monocyte and lymphocyte, respectively, compared with CTRL. Further, fractional synthesis rate of albumin was greater at +4 DRTC for CAS compared with CTRL but did not differ by +29 DRTC (interaction: P = 0.01). In rumen papillae, synthesis rate of tissue protein was greater for CAS compared with CTRL (P protein supply seem to

  12. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  13. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  14. Comparison of the production rates of protozoa in the rumen estimated by using labelled live and formaldehyde treated mixed protozoal cells as marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    14 C-labelled mixed protozoal cells of rumen origin, treated with formaldehyde to protect their metabolism in the rumen, were used to estimate protozoa production in the rumen, and comparison was made of the growth obtained by injecting live labelled mixed rumen protozoal cells used earlier. (auth.)

  15. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL......) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at –14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [13C]Phe isotopic...... enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  16. THE EFFECTIVITY TEST OF SHEEP RUMEN LIQUOR ENZYME ADDED TO PALM KERNEL MEAL ON ITS DECREASE OF CRUDE FIBER AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENT FOR CATFISH Pangasius hypophthalmus DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of fiber content in palm kernel meal (PKM by sheep rumen liquor enzyme and to know the apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM for catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The first trial examined effectivity of sheep rumen liquor enzyme to decrease crude fiber content of PKM. The added volume of sheep rumen liquor enzyme was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mL/kg PKM and then it was incubated for 0, 12, and 24 hours. A factorial completely randomized experimental design consisted of 2 variables and triplicates were selected. The second trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of hydrolized PKM for catfish. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide indicator added to both reference and test diets. The feed ingredients used in the trial were hydrolyzed PKM (PKMe and unhydrolyzed PKM (PKM. Ten fishes with weighing around 20 g were used in the trial and held in 80 l tanks. Feces were collected from three replicate groups of fish using a fecal collection column attached to fish rearing tank. PKM hydrolyzed with 100 mL/kg and incubated for 24 hour showed the lowest crude fiber content (6.99% among the treatments (P<0.05. Apparent digestibility coefficient of hydrolyzed PKM was 57.57% compared with unhydrolyzed PKM 15.31%. Based on the evaluation in those parameters it was concluded that sheep rumen liquor enzyme added to PKM was effective to decrease crude fiber content of PKM and improve apparent digestibility coefficient of PKM for catfish.

  17. Reticulo-rumen temperature as a predictor of calving time in primiparous and parous Holstein females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B G; Ahola, J K; Weller, Z D; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Barcellos, J O J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to define and analyze drops in reticulo-rumen temperature (Trr) as an indicator of calving time in Holstein females. Data were collected from 111 primiparous and 150 parous Holstein females between November 2012 and March 2013. Between -15 and -5 d relative to anticipated calving date, each female received an orally administered temperature sensing reticulo-rumen bolus that collected temperatures hourly. Daily mean Trr was calculated from d -5 to 0 relative to using all Trr values (A-Trr) or only Trr values ≥37.7°C (W-Trr) not altered by water intake. To identify a Trr drop, 2 methodologies for computing the baseline temperature were used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to estimate the probability of calving within the next 12 or 24 h for primiparous, parous, and all females, based on the size of the Trr drop. For all GLM, a large drop in Trr corresponded with a large estimated probability of calving. The predictive power of the GLM was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The ROC curve analyses showed that all models, regardless of methodology in calculation of the baseline or tested category (primiparous or parous), were able to predict calving; however, area under the ROC curve values, an indication of prediction quality, were greater for methods predicting calving within 24 h. Further comparisons between GLM for primiparous and parous, and using baseline 1 and 2, provide insight on the differences in predictive performance. Based on the GLM, Trr drops of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4°C were identified as useful indicators of parturition and further analyzed using sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios. Based on sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios, the best indicator of calving was an average Trr drop ≥0.2°C, regardless of methodology used to compute the baseline or category of animal evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  18. Estimating rumen microbial protein supply for indigenous ruminants using nuclear and purine excretion techniques in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the PD excretion method for Bali and Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, six male, two year old Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus) and six Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) of similar sex and age, were used to quantify the endogenous contribution to total PD excretion in the urine. In the second experiment, four cattle from each breed were used to examine the response of PD excretion to feed intake. 14 C-uric acid was injected in one single dose to define the partitioning ratio of renal:non-renal losses of plasma PD. The third experiment was conducted to examine the ratio of purine N:total N in mixed rumen microbial population. The fourth experiment measured the enzyme activities of blood, liver and intestinal tissues concerned with PD metabolism. The results of the first experiment showed that endogenous PD excretion was 145 ± 42.0 and 132 ± 20.0 μmol/kg W 0.75 /d, for Bali and Ongole cattle, respectively. The second experiment indicated that the proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine of Bali and Ongole cattle was 0.78 and 0.77 respectively. Hence, the prediction of purine absorbed based on PD excretion can be stated as Y = 0.78 X + 0.145 W 0.75 and Y = 0.77 X + 0.132 W 0.75 for Bali and Ongole cattle, respectively. The third experiment showed that there were no differences in the ratio of purine N:total N in mixed rumen microbes of Bali and Ongole cattle (17% vs 18%). The last experiment, showed that intestinal xanthine oxidase activity of Bali cattle was lower than that of Ongole cattle (0.001 vs 0.015 μmol uric acid produced/min/g tissue) but xanthine oxidase activity in the blood and liver of Bali cattle was higher than that of Ongole cattle (3.48 vs 1.34 μmol/min/L plasma and 0.191 vs 0.131 μmol/min/g liver tissue). Thus, there was no difference in PD excretion between these two breeds

  19. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  20. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique Using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Candace L; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Oba, Masahito; McAllister, Tim A; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast ≥ 4.18% h -1 ) and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow ≤ 3.17% h -1 ) were chosen as inoculum donors for this study. Two Rusitec apparatuses each equipped with eight fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with two blocks (apparatus) and four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (Fast or Slow rumen inoculum and untreated or AFEX treated straw). Fast rumen inoculum and AFEX straw both increased ( P 0.05) methane production per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P < 0.05) acetate: propionate ratio for untreated straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus ( P < 0.05) and increased microbial N production ( P = 0.045) were observed in Fast rumen inoculum. AFEX straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  1. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on rumen digesta nutrient concentration, pH, and fermentation products in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Y; Rottman, L W; Crawford, C; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    There is a daily pattern of feed intake in the dairy cow, and feeding a single total mixed ration results in variation in the amount of fermentable substrate entering the rumen over the day. The object of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations over the day that complement the pattern of feed intake would stabilize rumen pool sizes and fermentation. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control diet [33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The LF and HF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed 3 parts of LF and 7 parts of HF. Cows on the control treatment (CON) were fed at 0900h, cows on the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h, and cows on the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Preplanned contrasts compared CON with H/L and H/L with L/H. Feeding the LF diet in the evening resulted in a large increase in the amount of feed consumed immediately after feed delivery at that feeding. Rumen digesta starch concentration increased and NDF concentration decreased following feeding of the LF diet in both the L/H and H/L treatments. Starch pool size also increased following feeding of the LF diet in the evening and tended to increase after feeding the LF diet in the morning. Rumen ammonia concentration was increased following feeding of the HF diet in the morning and the LF diet in the evening in the H/L treatment. Additionally, cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 are higher in concentrate feeds and were increased after feeding the LF diet in both treatments. Trans fatty acid isomers of the normal and alternate biohydrogenation pathways followed a daily pattern, and the H

  2. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow Versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ann Beauchemin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec. In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of sixteen heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast > 4.18 % h-1 and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow 0.05 methane per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P < 0.05 acetate: propionate ratio for untreated straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P < 0.05 and increased microbial N production (P = 0.045 were observed in Fast rumen inoculum. AFEX straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013. These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  3. Ratio of dietary rumen degradable protein to rumen undegradable protein affects nitrogen partitioning but does not affect the bovine milk proteome produced by mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoma, R; Fields, J; Ebenstein, D B; Lam, Y-W; Greenwood, S L

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the bovine milk proteome or whether it can be affected by diet. The objective of this study was to determine if the dietary rumen degradable protein (RDP):rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio could alter the bovine milk proteome. Six Holstein cows (parity: 2.5 ± 0.8) in mid lactation were blocked by days in milk (80 ± 43 d in milk) and milk yield (57.5 ± 6.0 kg) and randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experiment was conducted as a double-crossover design consisting of three 21-d periods. Within each period, treatment groups received diets with either (1) a high RDP:RUP ratio (RDP treatment: 62.4:37.6% of crude protein) or (2) a low RDP:RUP ratio (RUP treatment: 51.3:48.7% of crude protein). Both diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (crude protein: 18.5%, net energy for lactation: 1.8 Mcal/kg of dry matter). To confirm N and energy status of cows, dry matter intake was determined daily, rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid analysis, blood samples were collected for plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, urea nitrogen, and fatty acid analysis, and total 24-h urine and fecal samples were collected for N analysis. Milk samples were collected to determine the general milk composition and the protein profile. Milk samples collected for high-abundance protein analysis were subjected to HPLC analysis to determine the content of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein, as well as α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Samples collected for low-abundance protein analysis were fractionated, enriched using ProteoMiner treatment, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After excision and digestion, the peptides were analyzed using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS data were analyzed using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and adjusted using the MULTTEST procedure. All other parameters were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. No treatment differences

  4. Magnesium requirement of some of the principal rumen cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M S; Dehority, B A

    2014-09-01

    Information available on the role of Mg for growth and cellulose degradation by rumen bacteria is both limited and inconsistent. In this study, the Mg requirements for two strains each of the cellulolytic rumen species Fibrobacter succinogenes (A3c and S85), Ruminococcus albus (7 and 8) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (B34b and C94) were investigated. Maximum growth, rate of growth and lag time were all measured using a complete factorial design, 2(3)×6; factors were: strains (2), within species (3) and Mg concentrations (6). R. flavefaciens was the only species that did not grow when Mg was singly deleted from the media, and both strains exhibited a linear growth response to increasing Mg concentrations (PR. flavefaciens B34b was estimated as 0.54 mM; whereas the requirement for R. flavefaciens C94 was >0.82 as there was no plateau in growth. Although not an absolute requirement for growth, strains of the two other species of cellulolytic bacteria all responded to increasing Mg concentrations. For F. succinogenes S85, R. albus 7 and R. albus 8, their requirement estimated from maximum growth was 0.56, 0.52 and 0.51, respectively. A requirement for F. succinogenes A3c could not be calculated because there was no solution for contrasts. Whether R. flavefaciens had a Mg requirement for cellulose degradation was determined in NH3-free cellulose media, using a 2×4 factorial design, 2 strains and 4 treatments. Both strains of R. flavefaciens were found to have an absolute Mg requirement for cellulose degradation. Based on reported concentrations of Mg in the rumen, 1.0 to 10.1 mM, it seems unlikely that an in vivo deficiency of this element would occur.

  5. Effects of Condensed Tannins in Mao ( Muell. Arg. Seed Meal on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nitrogen Utilization in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mao seed is a by-product of the wine and juice industry, which could be used in animal nutrition. The current study was designed to determine the effect of supplementation of mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. seed meal (MOSM containing condensed tannins (CT on rumen fermentation, nitrogen (N utilization and microbial protein synthesis in goats. Four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian goats with initial body weight (BW 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were MOSM supplementation at 0%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 2.4% of total dry matter (DM intake, respectively. During the experimental periods, all goats were fed a diet containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 at 3.0% BW/d and pangola grass hay was used as a roughage source. Results showed that supplementation with MOSM did not affect feed intake, nutrient intakes and apparent nutrient digestibility (p>0.05. In addition, ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N were not influenced by MOSM supplementation, whilst blood urea nitrogen was decreased quadraticly (p0.05. There were linear decreases in urinary N (p0.05. From the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of MOSM at 1.6% to 2.4% of total DM intake can be used to modify ruminal fermentation, especially propionate and N utilization in goats, without affecting the nutrient digestibility, microbial populations and microbial protein synthesis.

  6. Degradation of Dehydrodivanillin by Anaerobic Bacteria from Cow Rumen Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Ohmiya, Kunio; Shimizu, Shoichi; Kawakami, Hidekuni

    1985-01-01

    Dehydrodivanillin (DDV; 0.15 g/liter) was biodegradable at 37°C under strictly anaerobic conditions by microflora from cow rumen fluid to the extent of 25% within 2 days in a yeast extract medium. The anaerobes were acclimated on DDV for 2 weeks, leading to DDV-degrading microflora with rates of degradation eight times higher than those initially. Dehydrodivanillic acid and vanillic acid were detected in an ethylacetate extract of a DDV-enriched culture broth by thin-layer, gas, and high-perf...

  7. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  8. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on performance and rumen fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows fed a diet containing low quality forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zhu; Zihai Wei; Ningning Xu; Fan Yang; Ilkyu Yoon; Yihua Chung; Jianxin Liu; Jiakun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural byproducts,such as corn stover.However,nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value.A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Soccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP;Original XP;Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage.Eighty dairy cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments:basal diet supplemented with 0,60,120,or 180 g/d of SCFP per head mixed with 180,120,60,or 0 g of corn meal,respectively.The experiment lasted for 10 wks,with the first 2 weeks for adaptation.Results:Dry matter intake was found to be similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments.There was an increasing trend in milk production (linear,P ≤ 0.10) with the increasing level of SCFP supplementation,with no effects on contents of milk components (P > 0.05).Supplementation of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) the N conversion,without affecting rumen pH and ammonia-N (P > 0.05).Increasing level of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids,acetate,propionate,and butyrate,with no difference in molar proportion of individual acids (P > 0.05).The population of fungi and certain cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus,R.flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes)increased linearly (P < 0.05) but those of lactate-utilizing (5elenomonas ruminontium and Megasphaera elsdenii) and lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing level of SCFP.The urinary purine derivatives increased linearly (P < 0.05) in response to SCFP supplementation,indicating that SCFP supplementation may benefit for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.Conclusions:The SCFP supplementation was effective in

  9. Assessing the impact of rumen microbial communities on methane emissions and production traits in Holstein cows in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Camila S; Veloso, Cristina M; Marcondes, Marcos I; Mantovani, Hilario C; Tomich, Thierry R; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo R; Ferreira, Matheus F L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret

    2017-12-01

    The evaluation of how the gut microbiota affects both methane emissions and animal production is necessary in order to achieve methane mitigation without production losses. Toward this goal, the aim of this study was to correlate the rumen microbial communities (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) of high (HP), medium (MP), and low milk producing (LP), as well as dry (DC), Holstein dairy cows in an actual tropical production system with methane emissions and animal production traits. Overall, DC cows emitted more methane, followed by MP, HP and LP cows, although HP and LP cow emissions were similar. Using next-generation sequencing, it was found that bacteria affiliated with Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, S24-7, Butyrivibrio, Schwartzia, and Treponema were negatively correlated with methane emissions and showed positive correlations with digestible dry matter intake (dDMI) and digestible organic matter intake (dOMI). Similar findings were observed for archaea in the genus Methanosphaera. The bacterial groups Coriobacteriaceae, RFP12, and Clostridium were negatively correlated with methane, but did not correlate with dDMI and dOMI. For anaerobic fungal communities, no significant correlations with methane or animal production traits were found. Based on these findings, it is suggested that manipulation of the abundances of these microbial taxa may be useful for modulating methane emissions without negatively affecting animal production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effect of complete rumen modifier (CRM and Calliandra calothyrus on productivity and enteric methane productions of PE dairy goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Suci Sukmawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent 2-12% loss of energy intake. The energy loss as methane can decrease animal productivity and feed efficiency. In addition, methane is potentially involves in global warming that affects the atmosphere adversely. A research to improve PE dairy goat productivity and reduce enteric methane emission by supplementation of calliandra and complete rumen modifier (CRM was conducted for 6 months. In this experiment 20 PE dairy goats were divided into five blocks according to body weight. The experimental design used was a randomized block design that consisted of four treatments, A. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 50% (control, B. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 40% + calliandra 20%, C. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 48% + CRM 2% and D. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 38% + calliandra 20% + CRM 2%. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test. The result showed that calliandra and CRM did not affect nutrient consumption, except that protein consumption increased (P < 0.05 in calliandra treatments (B and D. Nutrient digestibility increased in CRM (C treatment, while other treatments did not differ from control. CRM also increased total bacteria (36.84%, milk production (67.21%, milk fat (25.0%, and reduced enteric methane production (65.71%. The improvement of milk production in CRM treatment (C was followed by better feed efficiency than other treatments. In conclusion, CRM was more effective than calliandra in improving milk production of PE dairy goats and reduced enteric methane emission, but its effectivity was reduced in combination with calliandra.

  12. The position of rumenic acid on triacylglycerols alters its bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardigny, J M; Masson, E; Sergiel, J P; Darbois, M; Loreau, O; Noël, J P; Sébédio, J-L

    2003-12-01

    The metabolic fate of rumenic acid (9cis,11trans-octadecenoic acid) related to its position on the glycerol moiety has not yet been studied. In the present work, synthetic triacylglycerols (TAG) esterified with oleic and rumenic acids were prepared. Rats were force-fed synthetic dioleyl monorumenyl glycerol with (14)C labeled rumenic acid in the internal (sn-2) or in the external position (sn-1 or sn-3). Rats were then placed in metabolic cages for 16 h. At the end of the experiment, the radioactivity in tissues, carcass and expired CO(2) was measured. Rumenic acid that was esterified at the external positions on the TAG was better absorbed and oxidized to a greater extent than when esterified at the internal position. The fatty acid from the 2-TAG form was also better incorporated into the rat carcass. In the liver, rumenic acid appeared mainly in TAG (50%) and to a lesser extent in phospholipids (33%) whatever its dietary form. Moreover, analyses of lipids from Camembert cheese and butter revealed that rumenic acid was located mainly on the sn-1 or sn-3 positions (74%). Taken together, these data suggest that rumenic acid from dairy fat may be well absorbed and used extensively for energy production.

  13. Potential of Selected Rumen Bacteria for Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Zorec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous animals harbour potent cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic microorganisms that supply the host with nutrients acquired from degradation of ingested plant material. In addition to protozoa and fungi, rumen bacteria contribute a considerable part in the breakdown of recalcitrant (hemicellulosic biomass. The present review is focused on the enzymatic systems of three representative fibrolytic rumen bacteria, namely Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. R. flavefaciens is known for one of the most elaborated cellulosome architectures and might represent a promising candidate for the construction of designer cellulosomes. On the other hand, Prevotella bryantii and Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans produce multiple free, but highly efficient xylanases. In addition, P. xylanivorans was also shown to have some probiotic traits, which makes it a promising candidate not only for biogas production, but also as an animal feed supplement. Genomic and proteomic analyses of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial species aim to identify novel enzymes, which can then be cloned and expressed in adequate hosts to construct highly active recombinant hydrolytic microorganisms applicable for different biotechnological tasks.

  14. Clinical diseases of the rumen: a physiologist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, B F

    1983-07-02

    An interpretation of many of the classical signs of ruminal dysfunction is possible by extrapolation from the results of research in rumen physiology. Correlation of motility and ruminal fluid characteristics will often provide a means of establishing the degree, the duration and the differential diagnosis of the dysfunction detected. In the case of disorders of ruminal motility, general anaesthesia and diseases at any sites which produce pain or fever can inhibit the hindbrain reflex centres responsible for evoking primary and secondary cycle contractions of the reticulorumen. Simple indigestion/rumen impaction, vagus indigestion and hypocalcaemic milk fever cause ruminal stasis, probably because they relax the reticuloruminal smooth muscle and hence decrease the reflexly excitable sensory inputs from tension receptors. Grain engorgement/ruminal acidosis and extreme bloat are likely to excite other sensory receptors (epithelial receptors), which reflexly inhibit cyclical motility. Bloat occurs when eructation is inadequate either because the oesophagus is obstructed or because cardiac opening is reflexly inhibited by the presence of ruminal fluid rather than gas at the cardia in conditions of subnormal motility or of leguminous frothing.

  15. [Screening of harmine tolerance/degrading bacteria from camel rumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dengdi; Zhu, Yanlei; Tang, Jing; Ye, Yongxia; Zeng, Xianchun

    2010-08-01

    Peganum harmala, a famous traditional Chinese drug, contains a variety of alkaloids and toxic for many animals. Camels mainly live in desert or semi-desert areas, with the robust gastrointestine system in digesting various feed including toxic plants without disease symptoms. Camel rumen content was used as the inoculant to inoculate medium M98-5 which contains 100 mg x L(-1) harmin and cultivated for 5 days. Upto 5 subculturings, strains that could degrading or tolerant harmine were isolated. Their conversion activity was determined by thin-layer chromatography. The taxonomic position of the strains were identified based on 16S rRNA sequences analysis. 15 out of the 29 isolates have harmine degrading activity. Most of the isolates are identified as the members of the Genera Lactobacillus (16 strains, 55%), Shigella (7 strains, 24%) and Bacillus (4 strains, 13.8%). Only one strain belong to genus Enterococcus and one belong to genus Megasphaera. The results indicated that the harmine tolerance/degrading communities of camel rumen are limited and only Lactobacillus have harmine-degrading activity.

  16. Studies on fibrolytic bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated from sheep rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawanon, S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolytic Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was an attractive target for genetic engineering in rumen bacteria. The experiment was initiated in making culture collection of this species, some of which may be useful ascandidate strain in the future. Hay suspended in sheep rumen was used as the source of isolates. The source was enriched with filter paper degradation, diluted with an anaerobic solution and used for pure culturing bya roll tube technique. After colony forming, Gram-negative curved rods bacteria were selected and screened for further identification with volatile fatty acid (VFA profiling and 16S rDNA sequencing. Fibrolyticstrains were selected to find fibrolytic enzymes and attachment to and digestion of various fibers. Fortyseven strains of Gram-negative curved rods were isolated. After determining cellulase, xylanase activities and VFA profile, 2 strains were chosen and employed for 16S rDNA sequencing. Both strains producingbutyrate were B. fibrisolvens. Of these 2 strains, most fibrolytic S-28 was selected. The strain S-28 could degrade natural fibers but not cellulose and showed strong attachment to them. A strong xylanase activitywas detected and presence of cellulase, β-glucosidase, β-xylosidase, α-L-arabinofuranosidase and β- cellobiosidase were also demonstrated.

  17. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  18. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  19. Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus were used in a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60 and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake. Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60 (p<0.05. In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05 with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population.

  20. A model of ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics and rumen epithelial blood flow in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Hanigan, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids (VFA) is quantitatively the most important nutrient flux in cattle. Historically, VFA absorption models have been derived primarily from ruminal variables such as chemical composition of the fluid, volume, and pH. Recently, a mechanistic model incorporated...... exchange across the rumen wall that incorporates epithelial blood flow as a driving force for ruminal VFA removal. The bidirectional fluxes between the ruminal and epithelial pool of VFA were assumed mass action driven, given that passive diffusion of nonionized VFA is the dominant transmembrane VFA flux...... of body weight. The rate constants related to the flux from ruminal fluid to epithelium were in the order isobutyrate rate constants for fluxes of isobutyrate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate...

  1. Omics insights into rumen ureolytic bacterial community and urea metabolism in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Di

    2017-01-01

    Urea has been used in the diets of ruminants as a non-protein nitrogen source. Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia (NH3), and the NH3 is used as nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis. In the rumen, hydrolysis of urea to NH3 occurs at a greater rate than NH3 can be utilized by rumen bacteria, and excess ammonia absorbed into blood may be harmful to the animals. Nowadays, little is known about the information...

  2. Determination of the retention time of feed in rumen using Sc-46 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai, E.A. de; Castro, F.B. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Machado, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The retention time of fibrous feed materials in rumen is of prime importance by providing parameters to evaluate its nutritional value. Some existing marker methods have been presenting serious problems such as physico-chemical alterations of feedstuff during the treatment and also marker migration in rumen conditions. In this study, the rare-earth element Scandium-46 has been applied to marking sugarcane bagasse physically processed. The data showed no significant migration of marker to liquid phase. The retention time in the rumen fistulated cow was 23.06 hours. Correlation coefficient of elapsed time after marking with logarithm of specific activity of ruminal content was 0.9986**. (author) [pt

  3. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 bovine rumen fluid proteome reflects adaptive bacterial responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kudva, Indira T; Stanton, Thaddeus B; Lippolis, John D

    2014-01-01

    Background To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content “maintenance diet” under diverse in vitro conditions. Results Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; d...

  4. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wakita, M.; Hoshino, S.

    1987-01-01

    1.The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro.2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate: propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent p...

  5. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  6. Increasing Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure (M was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid (R and tap water (W in several ratio resulting six different M:W:R ratio contents i.e. 1:1:0; 1:0.75:0.25; 1:0.5:0.5; 1:0.25:0.75; and 1:0:1 (correspond to 0; 12.5; 25, 37.5; 50, and 100 % rumen, respectively and six different total solid (TS contents i.e. 2.6, 4.6, 6.2, 7.4, 9.2, 12.3, and 18.4 %. The operating temperatures were at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. The best performance for biogas production was the digester with rumen fluid and TS content in the range of 25-50 % and 7.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. These results suggest that, based on TS content effects to biogas yield, rumen fluid inoculums exhibit the similar effect with other inoculums. Increasing rumen content will also increase biogas production. Due to the optimum total solid (TS content for biogas production between 7-9 % (or correspond to more and less manure and total liquid 1:1, the rumen fluid content of 50 % will give the best performance for biogas production. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Doi: 10.12777/ijse.6.1.31-38 [How to cite this article: Budiyono, Widiasa, I.N., Johari, S. and Sunarso. (2014. Increasing Biogas

  7. Rumen microbial changes in cattle fed diets with or without salinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Olumeyan, D B; Nagaraja, T G; Miller, G W; Frey, R A; Boyer, J E

    1986-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated steers, randomly assigned to two groups (control and salinomycin fed) were used to monitor the changes in rumen microbial populations and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations associated with feeding salinomycin (0.22 mg X kg-1 X day-1). Steers were adapted to an alfalfa hay and grain (80:20) diet before supplementing the diet with salinomycin, and then the diet was changed to 50:50 and 20:80 ratios of alfalfa hay to grain at 2-week intervals. Rumen samples for total...

  8. Isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria by dilution to extinction using a new liquid culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenters, Nikki; Henderson, Gemma; Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    A new anaerobic medium that mimics the salts composition of rumen fluid was used in conjunction with a dilution method of liquid culture to isolate fermentative bacteria from the rumen of a grass-fed sheep. The aim was to inoculate a large number of culture tubes each with a mean of 97% sequence identity to genes of uncultured bacteria detected in various gastrointestinal environments. This strategy has therefore allowed us to cultivate many novel rumen bacteria, opening the way to overcoming the lack of cultures of many of the groups detected using cultivation-independent methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Mirzaei, M; Kiani, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of forage source and forage particle size (PS) as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Forty-eight Holstein calves (42 ± 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned (n = 12 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors of forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)] and forage PS [(AH: medium = 1.96 mm or long = 3.93 mm) and (WS: medium = 2.03 mm or long = 4.10 mm), as geometric mean diameters]. The treatments were (1) AH with medium PS (AH-MPS), (2) AH with long PS (AH-LPS), (3) WS with medium PS (WS-MPS), and (4) WS with long PS (WS-LPS). Regardless of forage PS, the preweaning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning body weight, and forage intake were greater for AH calves than WS calves. Average daily gain, average daily gain/metabolizable energy intake, feed efficiency, and final body weight of the calves did not differ among groups. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced acetate, propionate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen on d 35, with the greatest acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio, but the least propionate proportion for AH-MPS calves than the other calves. The total volatile fatty acid concentration and the rumen proportions of propionate (d 70), butyrate (d 35), and valerate (d 35) were greater in AH-MPS calves than in AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH had greater total volatile fatty acid concentration (d 35 and 70) and propionate proportion (d 70), but lesser ruminal proportions of butyrate (d 35 and 70), valerate (d 35 and 70), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (d 70) compared with calves fed WS. The ruminal valerate proportion (d 70) was greatest in WS-MPS calves than the other calves. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced preweaning standing time and starter eating time, with the least

  10. In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Huo, Wenjie; Liu, Junhua; Zhang, Ruiyang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-03-01

    Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a rapid decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of LPS and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio and Prevotella. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high-grain diet conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  12. Measurement of the rate of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Varma, A.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Srivastava, V.N.

    1974-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the in vivo estimation of the rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. The animals were given their daily ration in 12 equal amounts at 2 hourly intervals. The bacterial cells from the rumen were labelled either with 14 C or 35 S by in vitro incubation in the presence of (U- 14 C)DL-leucine or 35 S-sodium sulphate. Labelled bacterial cells were injected in a single dose in the rumen. Samples from the ruminal fluid were drawn at various time intervals for 9 hours and the specific radioactivity of the bacteria was determined. The dilution in the specific radioactivity was used to calculate the turnover time and rates of production of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves. (author)

  13. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  14. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). ... Keywords: Dairy cows, milk production, non-fibre carbohydrates, rumen .... Van Soest, 1970) with sodium sulphite using heat stable alpha-amylase.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen fungi growth and population by direct (quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction) and indirect (dry matter and neutral detergent fibre disappearance) methods.

  16. Analysis of the rumen bacterial diversity of goats during shift from forage to concentrate diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grilli, D. J.; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kopečný, Jan; Lama, S. P.; Egea, V.; Sohaefer, N.; Pereyra, C.; Ruiz, M. J.; Sosa, M. A.; Arenas, G. N.; Mrázek, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2016), s. 17-26 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : creole goats * rumen * bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2016

  17. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and its intestinal digestibility after steam flaking of cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrenková, M; Formelová, Z; Ceresnáková, Z

    2018-01-01

    While it is known that heat treatment of cereal grains generally improves the nutritional value for ruminants, simultaneous information on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of the rumen by-pass is scarce, especially for non-starch constituents. The effect of steam flaking at 90°C...... flaking on chemical composition of cereal grains (crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and starch) were observed. The protein fractions that are relevant to rumen degradability were significantly influenced by the steam flaking: the non-protein nitrogen fraction (A) was reduced (P...... hand, steam flaking markedly increased buffer insoluble but neutral detergent soluble protein fraction (B2) by 15–25% for all three cereal grains, whereas effects on B3 fraction were not significant. Steam flaking was also associated with an increase of the rumen undegradable protein fraction (C...

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rumen Microbiome of Steers with Wheat-Induced Frothy Bloat

    OpenAIRE

    Pitta, D. W.; Pinchak, W. E.; Indugu, N.; Vecchiarelli, B.; Sinha, R.; Fulford, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Frothy bloat is a serious metabolic disorder that affects stocker cattle grazing hard red winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains causing reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality. We hypothesize that a microbial dysbiosis develops in the rumen microbiome of stocker cattle when grazing on high quality winter wheat pasture that predisposes them to frothy bloat risk. In this study, rumen contents were harvested from six cannulated steers grazing hard red winter wheat (three with bl...

  19. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Methods: Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5. qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Results: The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2 and acidic (pH=5.5 medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. Conclusion: The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Comparison of Rumen and Manure Microbiomes and Implications for the Inoculation of Anaerobic Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Gozde Ozbayram; Orhan Ince; Bahar Ince; Hauke Harms; Sabine Kleinsteuber

    2018-01-01

    Cattle manure is frequently used as an inoculum for the start-up of agricultural biogas plants or as a co-substrate in the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. Ruminal microbiota are considered to be effective plant fiber degraders, but the microbes contained in manure do not necessarily reflect the rumen microbiome. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial community composition of cow rumen and manure with respect to plant fiber-digesting microbes. Bacterial and methan...

  1. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  2. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake

  3. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  4. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat.

  5. Effects of alkaloid extracts of mesquite pod on the products of in vitro rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Moreira, Jeruzia Vitória; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Batista, Ronan; de Paula, Vanderlúcia Fonseca; Oliveira, Brena Santos; de Jesus Dos Santos, Edileusa

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3.9, 7.9, and 12 μg), sodium monensin 5 μM (positive control), and no inclusion of additives (negative control). The volume of gases produced by the degradation of the fibrous fraction of wheat bran was influenced by the concentration of the extract I added to the medium, and the amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were equal to monensin at the lowest value. The degradation rate of the fibrous carbohydrates with additive extract I at 12 μg was lower in relation to monensin. When Tifton 85 hay was utilized, alkaloid extract I provided a shorter colonization time as compared with monensin at the added amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg and higher production of gases from the fibrous fraction but without interfering with the total volume of gases produced during 96 h of fermentation of carbohydrates. In the periods of 12 and 24 h of incubation, utilizing alkaloid extract I, the mean values of methane production with wheat bran and Tifton 85 hay were lower than monensin (p < 0.05) when the respective amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were added. Alkaloid extract I has similar potential to sodium in reducing production of total gases, methane, and the acetate/propionate ratio.

  6. Immunization against Rumen Methanogenesis by Vaccination with a New Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litai Zhang

    Full Text Available Vaccination through recombinant proteins against rumen methanogenesis provides a mitigation approach to reduce enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants. The objective of present study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a new vaccine candidate protein (EhaF on methanogenesis and microbial population in the rumen of goats. We amplified the gene mru 1407 encoding protein EhaF using fresh rumen fluid samples of mature goats and successfully expressed recombinant protein (EhaF in Escherichia coli Rosetta. This product was evaluated using 12 mature goats with half for control and other half injected with 400ug/goat the purified recombinant protein in day 1 and two subsequent booster immunizations in day 35 and 49. All measurements were undertaken from 63 to 68 days after the initial vaccination, with CH4 emissions determined using respiration calorimeter chambers. The results showed that the vaccination caused intensive immune responses in serum and saliva, although it had no significant effect on total enteric CH4 emissions and methanogen population in the rumen, when compared with the control goats. However, the vaccination altered the composition of rumen bacteria, especially the abundance of main phylum Firmicutes and genus Prevotella. The results indicate that protein EhaF might not be an effective vaccine to reduce enteric CH4 emissions but our vaccine have potential to influence the rumen ecosystem of goats.

  7. Changes in microbial and nutrient composition associated with rumen content compost incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Adetutu, Eric M; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-02-01

    Physico-chemical and microbiological investigations were carried out on rumen content material composted for nine months, fresh vermicasts (obtained after passing the same compost through the guts of a mixture of three species of earthworms: Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Perionyx excavates) and microbially enhanced extracts derived from rumen compost, vermicast and vermicast leachate incubated for up to 48 h. Compared to composted rumen contents, vermicast was only improved in terms of microbial biomass C, while vermicast leached extract was significantly higher in NH(4)(+)-N,PO(4)(-)-P, humic acid, bacterial counts and total microbial activity compared to rumen compost extract. Although no difference between treatments was observed in genetic diversity as indicated by DGGE analysis, community level functional diversity of vermicast leached extract (Biolog™) was higher than that of composted rumen contents, vermicast and rumen compost extract indicating an enhancement of microbial activity rather than diversity due to liquid incubation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Responses of anaerobic rumen fungal diversity (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) to changes in bovine diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, B; Lillis, L; Clipson, N; Petrie, K; Kenny, D A; Boland, T M; Doyle, E

    2013-03-01

    Anaerobic rumen fungi (Neocallimastigales) play important roles in the breakdown of complex, cellulose-rich material. Subsequent decomposition products are utilized by other microbes, including methanogens. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary changes on anaerobic rumen fungi diversity. Altered diets through increasing concentrate/forage (50 : 50 vs 90 : 10) ratios and/or the addition of 6% soya oil were offered to steers and the Neocallimastigales community was assessed by PCR-based fingerprinting with specific primers within the barcode region. Both a decrease in fibre content and the addition of 6% soya oil affected Neocallimastigales diversity within solid and liquid rumen phases. The addition of 6% soya oil decreased species richness. Assemblages were strongly affected by the addition of 6% soya oil, whereas unexpectedly, the fibre decrease had less effect. Differences in volatile fatty acid contents (acetate, propionate and butyrate) were significantly associated with changes in Neocallimastigales assemblages between the treatments. Diet clearly influences Neocallimastigales assemblages. The data are interpreted in terms of interactions with other microbial groups involved in fermentation processes within the rumen. Knowledge on the influence of diet on anaerobic fungi is necessary to understand changes in microbial processes occurring within the rumen as this may impact on other rumen processes such as methane production. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Rumen bacteria at work: bioaugmentation strategies to enhance biogas production from cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbayram, E G; Akyol, Ç; Ince, B; Karakoç, C; Ince, O

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia was evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36°C and 41°C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 ml CH 4 per gram VS at 41°C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture. Bacterial community profiles were investigated by Ion PGM Platform, and specific lignocellulolytic bacteria dynamics in batch tests were assessed by qPCR. The temperature had minor effects on the abundance of bacterial community; in which Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla in all digesters. Furthermore, Rikenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. There was an important impact of Firmicutes flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus at 41°C, which in turn positively affected the methane production. The degree of enhancement in biogas production can be upgraded by the co-inoculation of rumen-derived bioaugmentation culture with anaerobic seed sludge with high methanogenic activity. A close look at the biotic interactions and their associations with abiotic factors might be valuable for evaluating rumen-related bioaugmentation applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Insights into resistome and stress responses genes in Bubalus bubalis rumen through metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Bhaskar; Singh, Krishna M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Antony, Ancy; Panchasara, Harshad J; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiota experience variety of diets and represents a huge reservoir of mobilome, resistome and stress responses. However, knowledge of metagenomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of buffalo rumen in the liquid and solid phase of the rumen biomaterial from river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages, using high-throughput sequencing to know the occurrence of antibiotics resistance genes, genetic exchange between bacterial population and environmental reservoirs. A total of 3914.94 MB data were generated from all three treatments group. The data were analysed with Metagenome rapid annotation system tools. At phyla level, Bacteroidetes were dominant in all the treatments followed by Firmicutes. Genes coding for functional responses to stress (oxidative stress and heat shock proteins) and resistome genes (resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, phages, transposable elements and pathogenicity islands) were prevalent in similar proportion in liquid and solid fraction of rumen metagenomes. The fluoroquinolone resistance, MDR efflux pumps and Methicillin resistance genes were broadly distributed across 11, 9, and 14 bacterial classes, respectively. Bacteria responsible for phages replication and prophages and phage packaging and rlt-like streptococcal phage genes were mostly assigned to phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and proteaobacteria. Also, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the buffalo rumen. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to different diet, antibiotics and other stresses in buffalo rumen, reflecting the proportional representation of major bacterial groups.

  11. High-throughput Methods Redefine the Rumen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Nutrition and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Joshua C.; Wickersham, Tryon A.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the forestomach microbiome is one of the key features of ruminant animals. The diverse microbial community adapts to a wide array of dietary feedstuffs and management strategies. Understanding rumen microbiome composition, adaptation, and function has global implications ranging from climatology to applied animal production. Classical knowledge of rumen microbiology was based on anaerobic, culture-dependent methods. Next-generation sequencing and other molecular techniques have uncovered novel features of the rumen microbiome. For instance, pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene has revealed the taxonomic identity of bacteria and archaea to the genus level, and when complemented with barcoding adds multiple samples to a single run. Whole genome shotgun sequencing generates true metagenomic sequences to predict the functional capability of a microbiome, and can also be used to construct genomes of isolated organisms. Integration of high-throughput data describing the rumen microbiome with classic fermentation and animal performance parameters has produced meaningful advances and opened additional areas for study. In this review, we highlight recent studies of the rumen microbiome in the context of cattle production focusing on nutrition, rumen development, animal efficiency, and microbial function. PMID:24940050

  12. Effect of Free Fatty Acids Supplementation on Digestibility, Nutritive Value and Rumen Fermentation in Local Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Foly, H.A.; Mohamed, A.K.; Mustafa, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Twelve mature local sheep, with a mean body weight of 49.2±3 kg were randomly distributed into three digestibility trail groups to evaluate the effects of inclusion some oils industry by-products, soft fatty acid (SFA) and hard fatty acid (HFA) on dry matter intake, digestibility coefficients, nutritive values, nitrogen and energy utilization and some rumen and blood parameters. The experimental diets were basal diet un-supplemented (control) or supplemented 3% SFA (T1) and 3% HFA (T2). The results showed that non-significant differences in total dry matter intake and water consumption among the tested diets were observed.The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) were significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of SFA while digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by addition of HFA as compared with control. However, digestibility of crude fiber (CF) was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in T2 as compared with control and T1. Fatty acids supplementation significantly increased (P<0.05) the nutritive values such as TDN, SV and DCP as compared with control.The nitrogen utilization was significantly improved (P<0.05) by the addition of both additives. The values of total volatile fatty acid concentrations (TVFA) and pH values after feeding were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA supplementation as compared with the values of other groups. However, the rumina l ammonia-N concentrations after feeding significantly decreased (P<0.05) with fatty acids supplementation as compared with control. The results of digestible and metabolizable energy showed non-significant differences between the tested groups. Blood serum urea, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and phosphorus values were significantly increased (P<0.05) with HFA as compared with the values of other groups.The mean values of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST

  13. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bo; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Tan, Chuanyan; Zhong, Rongzhen; Hea, Zhixiong; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and an alkyl polyglycoside (APG) supplementation on parameters of rumen and blood metabolism were investigated in goats. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was arranged within a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four 22-day periods), using four wether goats equipped with permanent ruminal cannulas. The experimental diets included two F:C levels (40:60 vs. 60:40), and two APG supplementation levels (None or 13 ml APG daily per animal). Rumen contents and blood samples were collected at the end of each period. Dietary F:C alteration affected plasma urea and influenced the proportions of leucine, histidine, arginine, glycine, proline, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, cysteine and tyrosine in rumen content, and the proportions of methionine, threonine and proline in solid-associated bacteria (SAB) significantly. Dietary APG decreased the proportions of valine and phenylalanine in rumen content, and the histidine content of liquid-associated bacteria. The interaction between dietary F:C and APG was significant for the proportions of glycine and alanine in rumen content, and the proportions of lysine and threonine in SAB. The proportion of lysine was greater, but the proportion of threonine was less in SAB for goats fed high F:C diet without APG supplementation. The proportions of plasma free amino acids and glucose concentration were not affected by experimental treatments. These results indicated that dietary APG addition affected the amino acid composition of the rumen content and ruminal bacteria, but this depended on the dietary F:C ratio. It is necessary to validate the effectiveness of dietary APG supplementation in further studies with more animals.

  14. KOEFISIEN KECERNAAN FRAKSI SERAT BUNGKIL KELAPA SAWIT YANG DIHIDROLISIS DENGAN ENZIM ASAL CAIRAN RUMEN DOMBA SEBAGAI PAKAN BENIH IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Pamungkas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai kecernaan fraksi serat bungkil kelapa sawit yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim cairan rumen domba. Koefisien kecernaan ditentukan dengan menggunakan indikator Cr2O3 yang ditambahkan dalam pakan uji. Bahan pakan yang digunakan adalah bungkil kelapa sawit (BKS yang dihidrolisis dengan enzim asal cairan rumen domba dengan volume 100 mL/kg BKS dan diinkubasi selama 24 jam (BKSe dan yang tidak dihidrolisis (BKS. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah pakan acuan (pakan komersil, pakan uji A (30% BKSe dan B (30% BKS dengan 3 ulangan. Ikan yang digunakan 10 ekor benih ikan patin siam Pangasius hypophthalmus dengan bobot rata-rata 20 g/ekor yang dipelihara dalam fiber dengan volume air 80 liter. Pemberian pakan secara at satiation dengan frekuensi pemberian 3 kali per hari. Feses dikumpulkan selama 15 hari pemeliharaan untuk dianalisis kandungan nutrisinya. Hasil analisis kecernaan menunjukkan bahwa nilai kecernaan fraksi serat menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan di mana pakan A (30% BKSe mempunyai nilai kecernaan fraksi serat lebih tinggi dibandingkan pakan B (30% BKS.

  15. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  16. Effects of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance and rumen wall characteristics of rosé veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, M; Jarltoft, T C; Kristensen, N B; Børsting, C F

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to study the effect of rumen-escape starch and coarseness of ingredients in pelleted concentrates on performance, carcass quality and rumen wall characteristics in rosé veal calf production. Two alternative concentrates (Coarse and Slow) were compared with a traditional (Control) concentrate. Control was based on finely ground ingredients, whereas in Coarse, the same ingredients were coarsely ground resulting in a mean particle size before pelleting of 1.5 in Coarse and 0.6 mm in Control. Slow compared with Control and Coarse contained finely ground sorghum and corn instead of barley and wheat which increased the amount of rumen-escape starch to 59 compared with 22 g/kg in Control and Coarse. All concentrates had the same total starch (362 g/kg), NDF (168 g/kg), CP (154 g/kg) and DE (15.5 MJ/kg DM) content and a pellet diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm. Use of an 'indicator of starch digestibility' method gave a value of 98.6% for Control and Coarse and 91.1% for Slow (P 0.05). Papillae length and shape evaluated in atrium ruminis and the cranial part of the ventral rumen sac at slaughter were not affected by type of concentrate (P > 0.05). Rumen wall characteristics showed degrees of plaque formation (i.e., papillary aggregation), hyperaemia and necrotic areas in all treatment groups, but with no general difference between type of concentrate (P > 0.05). Incidence of liver abscesses (LAs, 16%) was not affected by type of concentrate (P > 0.05). There were no differences in performance or rumen wall characteristics between liver-abscessed and non-abscessed calves. The results show a high level of production performance with the three types of pelleted concentrates and indicates that neither the more coarse ingredients nor the additional rumen-escape starch tested, when fed ad libitum, could improve rumen wall characteristics or reduce LAs of rosé veal calves.

  17. Experimental acute rumen acidosis in sheep: consequences on clinical, rumen, and gastrointestinal permeability conditions and blood chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Jahan, N; Bani, P

    2014-09-01

    Acute acidosis was induced in sheep, and gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by using lactulose as a permeability marker. Metabolism was evaluated by monitoring blood metabolites. Four rams (72.5 ± 4.6 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 changeover design experiment. The experimental period lasted 96 h from -24 to 72 h. After 24 h of fasting (from -24 to 0 h) for both controls and acidosis-induced rams (ACID), 0.5 kg of wheat flour was orally dosed at 0 and 12 h of the experimental period to ACID, while the basal diet (grass hay, ad libitum) was restored to control. At 24 h, a lactulose solution (30 g of lactulose in 200 mL of water) was orally administered. Blood samples were collected at -24, 0, 24, 48, and 72 h of the experimental periods for the analysis of metabolic profiles and during the 10 h after lactulose dosage to monitor lactulose changes in blood. In addition, rumen and fecal samples were collected at 24 h of the experimental period. The acidotic challenge markedly reduced (P < 0.01) rumen pH and VFA but increased rumen d- and l-lactic acid (P < 0.01). Concurrently, a decrease of fecal pH and VFA occurred in ACID (P < 0.01), together with an abrupt increase (P < 0.01) of lactate and fecal alkaline phosphatase. Blood lactulose was significantly increased in ACID peaking 2 h after lactulose dosage. Blood glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, Ca, K, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) at 24 h, whereas urea and NEFA declined (P < 0.05) from 48 to 72 h. A strong inflammatory acute phase response with oxidative stress in ACID group was observed from 24 to 72 h; higher values of haptoglobin (P < 0.01) were measured from 24 to 72 h and of ceruloplasmin from 48 (P < 0.05) to 72 h (P < 0.01). Among the negative acute phase reactants, plasma albumin, cholesterol, paraoxonase, and Zn concentration also decreased (P < 0.05) in ACID at different time points between 24 and 72 h after acidotic challenge start. A rise (P < 0.05) of reactive

  18. Metatranscriptome Sequencing Reveals Insights into the Gene Expression and Functional Potential of Rumen Wall Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Mann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiota of the rumen wall constitute an important niche of rumen microbial ecology and their composition has been elucidated in different ruminants during the last years. However, the knowledge about the function of rumen wall microbes is still limited. Rumen wall biopsies were taken from three fistulated dairy cows under a standard forage-based diet and after 4 weeks of high concentrate feeding inducing a subacute rumen acidosis (SARA. Extracted RNA was used for metatranscriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology. The gene expression of the rumen wall microbial community was analyzed by mapping 35 million sequences against the Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes (KEGG database and determining differentially expressed genes. A total of 1,607 functional features were assigned with high expression of genes involved in central metabolism, galactose, starch and sucrose metabolism. The glycogen phosphorylase (EC:2.4.1.1 which degrades (1->4-alpha-D-glucans was among the highest expressed genes being transcribed by 115 bacterial genera. Energy metabolism genes were also highly expressed, including the pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (EC:2.7.9.1 involved in pyruvate metabolism, which was covered by 177 genera. Nitrogen metabolism genes, in particular glutamate dehydrogenase (EC:1.4.1.4, glutamine synthetase (EC:6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC:1.4.1.13, EC:1.4.1.14 were also found to be highly expressed and prove rumen wall microbiota to be actively involved in providing host-relevant metabolites for exchange across the rumen wall. In addition, we found all four urease subunits (EC:3.5.1.5 transcribed by members of the genera Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Helicobacter, Clostridium, and Bacillus, and the dissimilatory sulfate reductase (EC 1.8.99.5 dsrABC, which is responsible for the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. We also provide in situ evidence for cellulose and cellobiose degradation, a key step in fiber-rich feed

  19. 16S/18S ribosomal DNA clone library analysis of rumen microbial diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.G.; Kiyoshi Tajima; Aminov, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen contains a complex ecosystem where billions of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi reside. This diverse microbiota is well adapted to live in the rumen and play an important role in the digestion of feed and nutrient supply to the host in the form of microbial protein and volatile fatty acids. It is estimated that the rumen microbial population consists of about 10 6 protozoa/ml, 10 3 -10 7 fungi/ml, 10 10 bacteria/ml, and 10 9 methanogens/ml. To better understand the complex relationships in the rumen, it is necessary to gain an insight into the diversity of the rumen microbes and how the quantity and composition of rumen micro-organisms are altered by a number of different host factors such as age, genetics and diet. In the past, the diversity of micro-organisms from the digestive tracts of domesticated ruminants has been identified by classical microbiological techniques. However, given the fastidious growth requirements of rumen micro-organisms, it is reasonable to concede that the culture-dependent methods may select against some species, or taxonomic groups, leading researchers to underestimate the microbial diversity that is actually present in the rumen. In fact, it has been speculated that 90% of micro-organisms in nature have escaped traditional cultivation methods. Therefore, a major challenge in microbial ecology has been to assess the diversity and structure of natural microbial communities. The field of molecular biology has advanced with many innovative technological breakthroughs. The ability to extract and to isolate high-molecular weight DNA from rumen digesta, PCR amplify genes from specific microbial groups and obtain gene sequence data is now a routine event. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, called 16S in prokaryotes and 18S in eukaryotes, is the most widely used molecular marker to presumptively identify morphologically indistinguishable species, to infer their phylogenetic relationships, and to elucidate microbial

  20. Host Immune Selection of Rumen Bacteria through Salivary Secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Fouhse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rumen microbiome is integral to efficient production in cattle and shows strong host specificity, yet little is known about what host factors shape rumen microbial composition. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA is produced in large amounts in the saliva, can coat both commensal and pathogenic microbes within the gut, and presents a plausible mechanism of host specificity. However, the role salivary SIgA plays in commensal bacteria selection in ruminants remains elusive. The main objectives of this study were to develop an immuno-affinity benchtop method to isolate SIgA-tagged microbiota and to determine if salivary SIgA preferentially binds selected bacteria. We hypothesized that SIgA-tagged bacteria would differ from total bacteria, thus supporting a potential host-derived mechanism in commensal bacterial selection. Whole rumen (n = 9 and oral secretion samples (n = 10 were incubated with magnetic beads conjugated with anti-secretory IgA antibodies to enrich SIgA-tagged microbiota. Microbial DNA from the oral secretion, whole rumen, SIgA-tagged oral secretion, and SIgA-tagged rumen was isolated for amplicon sequencing of V1–V3 region of 16S rDNA genes. Whole rumen and oral secretion had distinctive (P < 0.05 bacterial compositions indicated by the non-parametric multidimensional scaling plot using Euclidean distance metrics. The SIgA-tagged microbiota from rumen and oral secretion had similar abundance of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fibrobacter, candidate phyla TM7, and Tenericutes and are clustered tightly. Composition of SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota was more similar to whole rumen microbiota than whole oral secretion due to enrichment of rumen bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and depletion of oral taxa (Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseriaceae, and Lactobacillales. In conclusion, SIgA-tagged oral secretion microbiota had an increased resemblance to whole rumen microbiota, suggesting salivary SIgA-coating may be one host

  1. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary inclusion of palm kernel cake on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations of goats fed Paspalum plicatulum hay-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahutaya Pongprayoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC in the diets on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentationcharacteristics, nitrogen balance and microbial N supply, five goats (initial BW = 20±1 kg were randomly assigned to a55 Latin square design to receive five diets, T1 = concentrate with 15% PKC, T2 = 25% PKC, T3 = 35% PKC, T4 = 45% PKCand T5 = 55% PKC, of dietary dry matter, respectively. Plicatulum hay was offered ad libitum as the roughage. A metabolismtrial lasted for 21 days during which live weight changes and feed intakes were measured. Based on this experiment, therewere no significant differences (p>0.05 among treatment groups regarding dry matter (DM intake and digestion coefficientsof DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, except in T4 and T5 (45 and 55% PKCwhich had lower (p0.05, however the concentration of total volatile fatty acids and protozoal populations were slightly lower forgoats fed inclusion of 45-55% PKC as compared with other treatments. Based on this experiment, it could be concluded thatthe optimal level of PKC in concentrate should be 15-35% for goats fed with plicatulum hay and that it may be an effectivemeans of exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  3. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, K D; Stonecipher, C A; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated. Cattle were dosed with ground pine needles twice daily for 7 d. Rumen samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, and 14 (7 d after treatment stopped) and ruminal bacterial microbiome analyses were performed. There were 372 different genera of bacteria identified in the rumen samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the rumen bacterial composition between the time points. There were 18 genera that increased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. Twenty three genera decreased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. The results from this study demonstrated that exposure of cattle to pine needles caused a clear shift in the rumen microbiome composition. In general, this shift lasted less than 1 wk post exposure, which indicates that any prophylactic treatment to manipulate the ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in pine needles would need to be continuously administered to maintain the necessary microbial composition in the rumen.

  4. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lingen, Henk J; Plugge, Caroline M; Fadel, James G; Kebreab, Ermias; Bannink, André; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA). Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2), has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate) in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without considering NADH

  5. The Metabolic Conversion of Arginine in the Rumen Wall and its Importance in Ruminant Nitrogen Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmeyer, J.; Kurelec, B.; Hill, H. [Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-07-01

    The functions of arginase and urease of the rumen wall were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Surviving ruminal mucosae of cattle were incubated for four hours. {sup 14}C-arginine-HCl, uniformly labelled, was added to the serosal side at a concentration of 10 pmol/mi. About 25% of the added arginine was used during the incubation by the ruminal tissue. In comparison with controls an increased amount of {sup 14}C-omithine, urea, and ammonia were formed in the mucosa and appeared on both sides. The increase was due to arginase and urease functions. It was estimated that about 50% of the urea formed by arginine breakdown were present at the mucosa side, mainly in the form of ammonia. Of the omithine simultaneously formed, 85% remained on the serosa side. Remarkable individual variations of omithine and urea formation were found from animal to animal. The in-vivo experiments were performed using goats with catheters placed in the right ruminal artery and vein. We injected 90 {mu}Ci of {sup 14}C-arginine into the ruminal artery. When 80 g of soluble starch were added to the rumen the activity and concentration of ornithine increased in the ruminal venous blood showing an arterial-venous difference. The radioactivity of urea in blood taken from the ruminal vein and the carotid artery did not show any difference. When starch was omitted from the rumen a comparable difference of omithine concentration was not found. It is assumed that the enzymes arginase and urease of the rumen wall are involved in nitrogen recycling processes. Blood arginine may be hydrolysed in the rumen wall forming urea and ornithine. Urea formed by arginine breakdown may be split to CO{sub 2} and ammonia. The experiments produced evidence that the ammonia formed preferably enters the rumen content. The nitrogen transfer through the rumen wall may be affected by varying activities of arginase. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic Driving Force of Hydrogen on Rumen Microbial Metabolism: A Theoretical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J van Lingen

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a key product of rumen fermentation and has been suggested to thermodynamically control the production of the various volatile fatty acids (VFA. Previous studies, however, have not accounted for the fact that only thermodynamic near-equilibrium conditions control the magnitude of reaction rate. Furthermore, the role of NAD, which is affected by hydrogen partial pressure (PH2, has often not been considered. The aim of this study was to quantify the control of PH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, methanogenesis and NADH oxidation in rumen microbes. The control of PH2 was quantified using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT, which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. Unity FT was calculated for all glucose fermentation pathways considered, indicating no inhibition of PH2 on the production of a specific type of VFA (e.g., acetate, propionate and butyrate in the rumen. For NADH oxidation without ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity to zero for different NAD+ to NADH ratios and pH of 6.2 and 7.0, which indicates thermodynamic control of PH2. For NADH oxidation with ferredoxin oxidation, increasing PH2 within the rumen physiological range decreased FT from unity at pH of 7.0 only. For the acetate to propionate conversion, FT increased from 0.65 to unity with increasing PH2, which indicates thermodynamic control. For propionate to acetate and butyrate to acetate conversions, FT decreased to zero below the rumen range of PH2, indicating full thermodynamic suppression. For methanogenesis by archaea without cytochromes, FT differed from unity only below the rumen range of PH2, indicating no thermodynamic control. This theoretical investigation shows that thermodynamic control of PH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of hydrogen and methane cannot be explained without

  7. Molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome of Norwegian reindeer on natural summer pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundset, Monica A; Edwards, Joan E; Cheng, Yan Fen; Senosiain, Roberto S; Fraile, Maria N; Northwood, Korinne S; Praesteng, Kirsti E; Glad, Trine; Mathiesen, Svein D; Wright, André-Denis G

    2009-02-01

    The molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome was investigated in five semi-domesticated adult female Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) grazing on natural summer pastures on the coast of northern Norway (71.00 degrees N, 25.30 degrees E). Mean population densities (numbers per gram wet weight) of methanogenic archaea, rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa, estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were 3.17x10(9), 5.17x10(11) and 4.02x10(7), respectively. Molecular diversity of rumen methanogens was revealed using a 16S rRNA gene library (54 clones) constructed using pooled PCR products from the whole rumen contents of the five individual reindeer. Based upon a similarity criterion of rumen exhibited a high degree of sequence similarity to methanogens affiliated with the families Methanobacteriaceae (14 OTUs) and Methanosarcinaceae (one OTU). Four of the OTUs detected belonged to a group of uncultivated archaea previously found in domestic ruminants and thought to be dominant in the rumen together with Methanobrevibacter spp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the protozoal 18S rRNA gene indicated a high degree of animal variation, although some bands were common to all individuals. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) profiling of the ruminal Neocallimastigales population indicated that the reindeer are likely to contain more than one type of anaerobic fungus. The ARISA profile from one animal was distinct from the other four. This is the first molecular investigation of the ruminal methanogenic archaea in reindeer, revealing higher numbers than expected based on methane emission data available. Also, many of the reindeer archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were similar to those reported in domesticated ruminants in Australia, Canada, China, New Zealand and Venezuela, supporting previous findings that there seems to be no host type or geographical

  8. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D O; Nagaraja, T G; Wright, A D G; Callaway, T R

    2013-01-01

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not only in delineating the complex ecosystem of the rumen but also in clinical microbiology and in the exploration of a number of other anaerobic ecosystems, including the human hindgut. Rumen microbiology has pioneered our understanding of much of microbial ecology and has broadened our knowledge of ecology in general, as well as improved the ability to feed ruminants more efficiently. The discovery of anaerobic fungi as a component of the ruminal flora disproved the central dogma in microbiology that all fungi are aerobic organisms. Further novel interactions between bacterial species such as nutrient cross feeding and interspecies H2 transfer were first described in ruminal microorganisms. The complexity and diversity present in the rumen make it an ideal testing ground for microbial theories (e.g., the effects of nutrient limitation and excess) and techniques (such as 16S rRNA), which have rewarded the investigators that have used this easily accessed ecosystem to understand larger truths. Our understanding of characteristics of the ruminal microbial population has opened new avenues of microbial ecology, such as the existence of hyperammonia-producing bacteria and how they can be used to improve N efficiency in ruminants. In this review, we examine some of the contributions to science that were first made in the rumen, which have not been recognized in a broader sense.

  9. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  10. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  11. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  12. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olijhoek, Dana; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike

    2016-01-01

    , microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1 g of nitrate....../kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16 d before sampling. Digesta...... of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake...

  13. Effect of ruminal acidosis and short-term low feed intake on indicators of gastrointestinal barrier function in Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzolli, Rae-Leigh A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Campbell, John; Hendrick, Steve; Wood, Katie M; Penner, Gregory B

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study was to determine effect of ruminal acidosis (RA) and low feed intake [LFI] on the regional barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. Twenty-one Holstein steers were fed for ad libitum intake for 5 d (control [CON]), fed at 25% of ad libitum intake for 5 d (LFI), or provided 2 d of ad libitum intake followed by 1-d of feed restriction (25% of ad libitum intake), 1 d where 30% of ad libitum dry matter intake (DMI) was provided as pelleted barley followed by the full allocation (RA) and fed for ad libitum intake the following day. Tissues and digesta from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, proximal, and distal colon were collected. Permeability was assessed using the mucosal-to-serosal flux of inulin (JMS-inulin) and mannitol (JMS-mannitol). Digesta pH was 0.81, 0.63, and 0.42 pH units less for RA than CON in the rumen, cecum, and proximal colon; while, LFI had pH that was 0.47 and 0.36 pH units greater in the rumen and proximal colon compared to CON. Total ruminal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were less for LFI (92 mM; P = 0.010) and RA (87 mM; P = 0.007) than CON (172 mM) steers. In the proximal colon, the proportion of butyrate (P = 0.025 and P = 0.022) and isobutyrate (P = 0.019 and P = 0.019) were greater, and acetate (P = 0.028 and P = 0.028) was less for LFI and RA, respectively, when compared to CON steers. Ruminal papillae length, width, perimeter, and surface area were 1.21 mm, 0.78 mm, 3.84 mm, and 11.15 mm2 less for LFI than CON; while, RA decreased papillae width by 0.52 mm relative to CON. The JMS-mannitol was less for LFI steers than CON in the proximal colon (P = 0.041) and in the distal colon (P = 0.015). Increased gene expression for claudin 1, occludin, tight-cell junction protein 1 and 2, and toll-like receptor 4 were detected for LFI relative to CON in the rumen, jejunum, and proximal colon. For RA steers, expression of toll-like receptor 4 in the rumen, and occludin and tight

  14. The rumen microbial metaproteome as revealed by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2017-01-07

    Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies. The aim of this study was to explore the metaproteome of bovine and ovine ruminal digesta using 2D SDS-PAGE. Digesta samples were taken via ruminal fistulae and by gastric intubation, or at slaughter, and stored in glycerol at -80 °C. A protein extraction protocol was developed to maximise yield and representativeness of the protein content. The proteome of ruminal digesta taken from dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet was dominated by a few very highly expressed proteins, which were identified by LC-MS/MS to be structural proteins, such as actin and α- and β-tubulins, derived from ciliate protozoa. Removal of protozoa from digesta before extraction of proteins revealed the prokaryotic metaproteome, which was dominated by enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase. The enzymes were predominantly from the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Enzymes from methanogenic archaea were also abundant, consistent with the importance of methane formation in the rumen. Gels from samples from dairy cows fed a high proportion of grass silage were consistently obscured by co-staining of humic compounds. Samples from beef cattle and fattening lambs receiving a predominantly concentrate diet produced clearer gels, but the pattern of spots was inconsistent between samples, making comparisons difficult. This work demonstrated for the

  15. In vitro rumen gas and methane production of grass silages differing in plant maturity and nitrogen fertilisation, compared to in vivo enteric methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macome, F. M.; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Schonewille, J. Th; Bannink, A.; Laar, H.; Hendriks, W. H.; Warner, D.; Cone, John W

    2017-01-01

    The potential of an in vitro gas production (GP) system to predict the in vivo enteric methane (CH4) production for various ryegrass-based silages was evaluated, using adapted rumen fluid from cows. Rumen fluid from 12 lactating rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used for in vitro

  16. Influence of Wheat and Maize Starch on Fermentation in the Rumen, Duodenal Nutrient Flow and Nutrient Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of feeding diets with different starch sources on fermentation in the rumen, duodenal nutrient flow and nutrient digestibility. The basis of the diets was maize silage and alfalfa hay supplemented with wheat meal in diet W, or maize meal in diet M. The experiment was performed on four Black-Spotted bulls with mean live weight of 525 kg, which were fed twice daily at 06.30 and 18.30 h. Experimental animals were fitted with ruminal fistulae and duodenal T-shaped cannulae. Cr2O3 was used as a marker of nutrient flow to the duodenum. Rations were formulated so that the ratio of starch to crude fibre (CF was 2.1:1 and the percentage of CF was maintained at 17% (DM. Duodenal chymus was collected at 2-h time intervals. Starch origin significantly affected ruminal fermentation. Concentration of propionic, butyric and lactic acid was higher with wheat than with maize meal. When the maize meal was the source of starch there was a significantly higher flow of fat, CF, nitrogen-free extract, and starch into duodenum. Differences in duodenal flow of crude protein were not significant across the starch sources. Intake of wheat meal or maize meal increased duodenal flow relative to intake by 33% or 42 % respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (76 ± 2%, crude protein (67 ± 0.9%, CF (64 ± 1.9%, nitrogen-free extract (82 ± 1.5% and organic matter (76 ± 1.3% was significantly higher by offering wheat meal.

  17. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, Leticia; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Pinloche, Eric; Denman, Stuart E; Newbold, C Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  18. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times.

  19. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Abecia

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART while the other remained with the mother (NAT. Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001. Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28. Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns.

  20. Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevel, C.J. Van; Demeyer, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32 P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32 P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

  1. Metagenomic insights into the rumen microbial fibrolytic enzymes in Indian crossbred cattle fed finger millet straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, V Lyju; Appoothy, Thulasi; More, Ravi P; Arun, A Sha

    2017-12-01

    The rumen is a unique natural habitat, exhibiting an unparalleled genetic resource of fibrolytic enzymes of microbial origin that degrade plant polysaccharides. The objectives of this study were to identify the principal plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and the taxonomic profile of rumen microbial communities that are associated with it. The cattle rumen microflora and the carbohydrate-active enzymes were functionally classified through a whole metagenomic sequencing approach. Analysis of the assembled sequences by the Carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis Toolkit identified the candidate genes encoding fibrolytic enzymes belonging to different classes of glycoside hydrolases(11,010 contigs), glycosyltransferases (6366 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (4945 contigs), carbohydrate-binding modules (1975 contigs), polysaccharide lyases (480 contigs), and auxiliary activities (115 contigs). Phylogenetic analysis of CAZyme encoding contigs revealed that a significant proportion of CAZymes were contributed by bacteria belonging to genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Fibrobacter, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus. The results indicated that the cattle rumen microbiome and the CAZymes are highly complex, structurally similar but compositionally distinct from other ruminants. The unique characteristics of rumen microbiota and the enzymes produced by resident microbes provide opportunities to improve the feed conversion efficiency in ruminants and serve as a reservoir of industrially important enzymes for cellulosic biofuel production.

  2. Monensin and Nisin Affect Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Differently In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junshi Shen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nisin, a bacteriocin, is a potential alternative to antibiotics to modulate rumen fermentation. However, little is known about its impacts on rumen microbes. This study evaluated the effects of nisin (1 and 5 μM on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics, microbiota, and select groups of rumen microbes in comparison with monensin (5 μM, one of the most commonly used ionophores in ruminants. Nisin had greater effects than monensin in inhibiting methane production and decreasing acetate/propionate ratio. Unlike monensin, nisin had no adverse effect on dry matter digestibility. Real-time PCR analysis showed that both monensin and nisin reduced the populations of total bacteria, fungi, and methanogens, while the population of protozoa was reduced only by monensin. Principal component analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a clear separation between the microbiota shaped by monensin and by nisin. Comparative analysis also revealed a significant difference in relative abundance of some bacteria in different taxa between monensin and nisin. The different effects of monensin and nisin on microbial populations and bacterial communities are probably responsible for the discrepancy in their effects on rumen fermentation. Nisin may have advantages over monensin in modulating ruminal microbial ecology and reducing ruminant methane production without adversely affecting feed digestion, and thus it may be used as a potential alternative to monensin fed to ruminants.

  3. Isolation and Identification of Sodium Fluoroacetate Degrading Bacteria from Caprine Rumen in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito K. A. Camboim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report the isolation of two fluoroacetate degrading bacteria from the rumen of goats. The animals were adult goats, males, crossbred, with rumen fistula, fed with hay, and native pasture. The rumen fluid was obtained through the rumen fistula and immediately was inoculated 100 μL in mineral medium added with 20 mmol L−1 sodium fluoroacetate (SF, incubated at 39°C in an orbital shaker. Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain DSM 8341 was used as positive control for fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity. Two isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Pigmentiphaga kullae (ECPB08 and Ancylobacter dichloromethanicus (ECPB09. These bacteria degraded sodium fluoroacetate, releasing 20 mmol L−1 of fluoride ion after 32 hours of incubation in Brunner medium containing 20 mmol L−1 of SF. There are no previous reports of fluoroacetate dehalogenase activity for P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus. Control measures to prevent plant intoxication, including use of fences, herbicides, or other methods of eliminating poisonous plants, have been unsuccessful to avoid poisoning by fluoroacetate containing plants in Brazil. In this way, P. kullae and A. dichloromethanicus may be used to colonize the rumen of susceptible animals to avoid intoxication by fluoroacetate containing plants.

  4. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  5. Effect of media composition, including gelling agents, on isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyo, T; Shinkai, T; Tajima, A; Mitsumori, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel anaerobic media using gellan gum for the isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Four anaerobic media, a basal liquid medium (BM) with agar (A-BM), a modified BM (MBM) with agar (A-MBM), an MBM with phytagel (P-MBM) and an MBM with gelrite (G-MBM) were used for the isolation of rumen bacteria and evaluated for the growth of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Of the 214 isolates composed of 144 OTUs, 103 isolates (83 OTUs) were previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Most of the previously uncultured strains were obtained from A-MBM, G-MBM and P-MBM, but the predominant cultural members, isolated from each medium, differed. A-MBM and G-MBM showed significantly higher numbers of different OTUs derived from isolates than A-BM (P rumen bacteria were isolated from all media used, the ratio of previously uncultured bacteria to total isolates was increased in A-MBM, P-MBM and G-MBM. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  7. Rumen escape nitrogen from forages in sheep: comparison of in situ and in vitro techniques using in vivo data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, J.M.J.; Dulphy, J.P.; Poncet, C.; Aufrère, J.; Tamminga, S.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate in vivo data of rumen escape N (REN) of forages with REN estimated from models and with determinations of rumen undegradable N. For these determinations and models measurements from in situ and in vitro techniques were used. Eleven forages were investigated

  8. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  9. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  10. The effect of DNA extraction methods on observed microbial communities from fibrous and liquid rumen fractions of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaidya, Jueeli D.; Bogert, van den Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of

  11. The effect of cation source and dietary cation-anion difference on rumen ion concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterton, T L; Erdman, R A

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have focused on the influence of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on animal performance but few have examined the effect of DCAD on the rumen ionic environment. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of DCAD, cation source (Na vs. K), and anion source (Cl vs. bicarbonate or carbonate) on rumen environment and fermentation. The study used 5 rumen-fistulated dairy cows and 5 dietary treatments that were applied using a 5×5 Latin square design with 2-wk experimental periods. Treatments consisted of (1) the basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na (dry matter basis) using NaCl; (3) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using KCl; (4) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of Na using NaHCO3; and (5) the basal TMR plus 340mEq/kg of K using K2CO3. On the last day of each experimental period, rumen samples were collected and pooled from 5 different locations at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, and 12h postfeeding for measurement of rumen pH and concentrations of strong ions and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Dietary supplementation of individual strong ions increased the corresponding rumen ion concentration. Rumen Na was decreased by 24mEq/L when K was substituted for Na in the diet, but added dietary Na had no effect on rumen K. Rumen Cl was increased by 10mEq/L in diets supplemented with Cl. Cation source had no effect on rumen pH or total VFA concentration. Increased DCAD increased rumen pH by 0.10 pH units and increased rumen acetate by 4mEq/L but did not increase total VFA. This study demonstrated that rumen ion concentrations can be manipulated by dietary ion concentrations. If production and feed efficiency responses to DCAD and ionophores in the diet are affected by rumen Na and K concentrations, then manipulating dietary Na and K could be used either to enhance or diminish those responses. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  13. Highly Promiscuous Oxidases Discovered in the Bovine Rumen Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ufarté

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The bovine rumen hosts a diverse microbiota, which is highly specialized in the degradation of lignocellulose. Ruminal bacteria, in particular, are well equipped to deconstruct plant cell wall polysaccharides. Nevertheless, their potential role in the breakdown of the lignin network has never been investigated. In this study, we used functional metagenomics to identify bacterial redox enzymes acting on polyaromatic compounds. A new methodology was developed to explore the potential of uncultured microbes to degrade lignin derivatives, namely kraft lignin and lignosulfonate. From a fosmid library covering 0.7 Gb of metagenomic DNA, three hit clones were identified, producing enzymes able to oxidize a wide variety of polyaromatic compounds without the need for the addition of copper, manganese, or mediators. These promiscuous redox enzymes could thus be of potential interest both in plant biomass refining and dye remediation. The enzymes were derived from uncultured Clostridia, and belong to complex gene clusters involving proteins of different functional types, including hemicellulases, which likely work in synergy to produce substrate degradation.

  14. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation.

  15. Iodine intake in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  16. Measurements of carbon dioxide production rates in the rumen of buffalo-calves fed on two levels of crude proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, A.; Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.; Agarwal, Ranjana

    1974-01-01

    The production rates of carbon dioxide in the rumen of buffalo calves have been measured by single injection isotope dilution technique. One group of calves received 11 percent less proteins and the other 20 percent more than that recommended by the NRC. About 258 Ci of NaH 1 CO 3 was injected in a single dose into the rumen through a cannula and mixed manually with the rumen contents. Samples of the rumen liquor were drawn for 560 min and were analysed for the specifiradioactivity of carbon dioxide. The decline in the specific radioactivity as a function of time was fitted to an equation. The dilution curves were described by a sum of 2 exponential components. Mathematical equations were used to estimate the total CO 2 entry rates in the rumen. There was a wide individual variation in the production rates of CO 2 between the individual animals. The production rates were not satistically significant between the two groups. (author)

  17. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  18. Effect of rumen-undegradable protein supplementation and fresh forage composition on nitrogen utilization of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas, C; Thomas, D L; Armentano, L E; Berger, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Previous trials with dairy ewes fed stored feeds indicate a positive effect of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation on milk yield. However, dairy sheep production in the United States is primarily based on grazing mixed grass-legume pastures, which contain a high proportion of rumen-degradable protein. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of high-RUP protein supplementation and fresh forage composition on milk yield and N utilization of lactating dairy ewes fed in confinement or on pasture. In a cut-and-carry trial, 16 multiparous dairy ewes in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to 8 pens of 2 ewes each. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 protein supplementation treatments, receiving either 0.0 or 0.3 kg of a high-RUP protein supplement (Soy Pass, LignoTech USA Inc., Rothschild, WI) per day. Within supplementation treatment, pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 forage treatments, which were applied in a 4×4 Latin square design for 10-d periods. Forage treatments included the following percentages of orchardgrass:alfalfa dry matter: 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. No interactions were observed between supplement and forage treatments. Supplementation with a high-RUP source tended to increase milk yield by 9%. Milk yield, milk protein yield, milk urea N, and urinary urea N excretion increased linearly with increased percentage of alfalfa. Milk N efficiency was greatest on the 100% orchardgrass diet. In a grazing trial, 12 multiparous dairy ewes in mid lactation were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 4 ewes each. Within group, 2 ewes were randomly assigned to receive either 0.0 or 0.3 kg of a high-RUP protein supplement (SoyPlus, West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA) per day. Grazing treatments were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design and applied to groups for 10-d periods. Ewes grazed paddocks that contained the following percentages of surface area of pure stands of orchardgrass:alfalfa: 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. No interactions were

  19. Corn silage in dairy cow diets to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: effects on the rumen metabolically active microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, A; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C

    2013-08-01

    Methane produced by the methanogenic Archaea that inhabit the rumen is a potent greenhouse gas and represents an energy loss for the animal. Although several strategies have been proposed to mitigate enteric CH4 production, little is known about the effects of dietary changes on the microbial consortia involved in ruminal methanogenesis. Thus, the current study aimed to examine how the metabolically active microbes are affected when dairy cows were fed diets with increasing proportions of corn silage (CS). For this purpose, 9 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and fed a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis) with the forage portion being either alfalfa silage (0% CS), corn silage (100% CS), or a 50:50 mixture (50% CS). Enteric CH4 production was determined using respiration chambers and total rumen content was sampled for the determination of fermentation characteristics and molecular biology analyses (cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR, quantitative PCR). The cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR targeting active microbes revealed similar bacterial communities in cows fed 0% CS and 50% CS diets, whereas important differences were observed between 0% CS and 100% CS diets, including a reduction in the bacterial richness and diversity in cows fed 100% CS diet. As revealed by quantitative PCR, feeding the 100% CS diet increased the number of total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Archaea, and methanogenic activity, though it reduced protozoal number. Meanwhile, increasing the CS proportion in the diet increased propionate concentration but decreased ruminal pH, CH4 production (L/kg of dry matter intake), and concentrations of acetate and butyrate. Based on these microbial and fermentation changes, and because CH4 production was reduced by feeding 100% CS diet, this study shows that the use of cDNA-based quantitative PCR to estimate archaeal growth and activity is not reliable

  20. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  1. Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on metabolic and performance responses of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare metabolic and milk production parameters in dairy cows supplemented and nonsupplemented with rumen-protected choline (RPC) during the transition period. Twenty-three nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein cows were ranked by BW and BCS 21 d before expected date of calving and immediately were assigned to receive (n = 12) or not receive (control; n = 11) RPC until 45 d in milk (DIM). Cows supplemented with RPC received (as-fed basis) 50 and 100 g/d of RPC (18.8% choline) before and after calving, respectively. Before calving, cows were maintained in 2 drylot pens according to treatment with ad libitum access to corn silage, and individually they received (as-fed basis) 3 kg/cow daily of a concentrate. Upon calving, cows were moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens according to treatment, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35 kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after milking. The RPC was individually offered to cows as a topdressing into the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -21 relative to expected calving date. Upon calving and until 45 DIM, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once a week and analyzed for fat, protein, and total solids. Blood samples were collected every other day from 0 to 20 DIM and every 5 d from 20 to 45 DIM. Based on actual calving dates, cows receiving RPC or control began receiving treatments 16.8 ± 1.7 and 17.3 ± 2.0 d before calving, respectively. No treatment effects were detected (P ≥ 0.18) on postpartum concentrate intake, BW and BCS, or serum concentrations of cortisol, β-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, glucose, and IGF-I. Cows supplemented with RPC had greater (P ≤ 0.01) mean serum haptoglobin and insulin concentrations

  2. Effects of purified lignin on rumen metabolism and growth performance of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objectives were to assess the effects of purified lignin from wheat straw (sodium hydroxide dehydrated lignin; SHDL on in vitro ruminal fermentation and on the growth performance of feedlot cattle. Methods In vitro experiments were conducted by incubating a timothy-alfalfa (50:50 forage mixture (48 h and barley grain (24 h with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/mL of rumen fluid (equivalent to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 g SHDL/kg diet. Productions of CH4 and total gas, volatile fatty acids, ammonia, dry matter (DM disappearance (DMD and digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF or starch were measured. Sixty Hereford-Angus cross weaned steer calves were individually fed a typical barley silage-barley grain based total mixed ration and supplemented with SHDL at 0, 4, 8, and 16 g/kg DM for 70 (growing, 28 (transition, and 121 d (finishing period. Cattle were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and carcass traits were assessed. Results With forage, SHDL linearly (p<0.001 reduced 48-h in vitro DMD from 54.9% to 39.2%, NDF disappearance from 34.1% to 18.6% and the acetate: propionate ratio from 2.56 to 2.41, but linearly (p<0.001 increased CH4 production from 9.5 to 12.4 mL/100 mg DMD. With barley grain, SHDL linearly increased (p<0.001 24-h DMD from74.6% to 84.5%, but linearly (p<0.001 reduced CH4 production from 5.6 to 4.2 mL/100 mg DMD and NH3 accumulation from 9.15 to 4.49 μmol/mL. Supplementation of SHDL did not affect growth, but tended (p = 0.10 to linearly reduce feed intake, and quadratically increased (p = 0.059 feed efficiency during the finishing period. Addition of SHDL also tended (p = 0.098 to linearly increase the saleable meat yield of the carcass from 52.5% to 55.7%. Conclusion Purified lignin used as feed additive has potential to improve feed efficiency for finishing feedlot cattle and carcass quality.

  3. Effects of yeast culture supplement on digestion of nutrients and rumen fermentation in cattle fed on grass silage barley diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Huhtanen

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium; 5 x 106 organisms/g on the digestion of dietary constituents in the rumen and total digestive tract were studied in a pair of monozygote twin bulls. The animals were fitted with cannulae in the rumen and in the proximal duodenum. A diet of grass silage, barley and rapeseed meal (445, 445 and 90 g/kg total dry matter (DM was fed, with and without addition of 10 g per day of yeast culture (YC, in two treatment sequences. The addition of YC had no effect on the mean values of rumen pH, ammonia N concentration or molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. Also, the postprandial changes in rumen fermentation pattern were similar when the diet did and did not contain the YC supplement. The peak concentration of lactic acid 1 h after feeding tended to be higher in cattle receiving the YC diet (13.9 v 6.0 mmol/l. Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM (mean 0.780 and the proportion of OM digestion occurring in the rumen (mean 0.603 were not affected by YC. Likewise, there was no effect on rumen or total digestion of cell wall carbohydrates, and the results for the degradation of hay DM in the rumen and for particle-associated carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities indicated that YC had no effect on the rumen environment that could affect fibre digestion. Supplemental yeast did not affect the rate of microbial N synthesis (28.0 and 28.6 g/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen. The results indicate that the addition of YC to the diet is not likely to improve the efficiency of digestion and fermentation in the rumen of cattle given a diet based on grass silage and barley.

  4. Metabolism of diet urea in the rumen in vitro by 15N-tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhanfeng; Lu Lin; Wang Hongyun; Fu Cai; Huang Zhiguo; Liu Bin; Luo Xugang; Zhao Guangyong

    2011-01-01

    A completely randomized design involving 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate effects of urea in diet (urea replaced diet CP of 0, 10%, 20% and 40%) and fermentation time (24 and 48 h) on rumen fermentation parameters and the metabolism of urea in the rumen in vitro. Results showed that different amendments of urea in diets and fermentation time had no significant effect on pH of rumen digesta (P>0.05); the concentration of NH 3 -N, however, was increased significantly from 24 to 48 h in each treatment (P undigested feed (27.83% ∼ 37.56%) > liquid-associated microbe (7.99% ∼ 10.18%) > particle-associated microbe (4.50% ∼ 6.17%). The quantity of urea in diets and fermentation time did not affect the trend of the distribution. (authors)

  5. Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate derived fiber in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    , were used in a completely randomized block experiment. Treatments differed in forage type (corn silage versus grass silage) and forage:concentrate ratio (50:50 versus 75:25 on organic matter basis). Fiber passage kinetics were studied based on rumen evacuations and on marker excretion profiles in feces....... The forage type itself (corn silage and grass silage) rather than ration composition seemed to determine the total tract retention time of forage fiber......Rumen passage kinetics of forage and concentrate fiber were analyzed to determine intrinsic feed effects and extrinsic ration effects on the retention time of fiber in the rumen. Sixteen Danish Holstein cows (557 + 37 kg body weight, 120 + 21 days in milk, mean + SD), 8 fitted with ruminal cannulas...

  6. In vitro studies on magnesium uptake by rumen epithelium using magnesium-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.; Harmeyer, J.; Breves, G.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium-28 transfer across the rumen epithelium has been studied using surviving epithelia in an in vitro system. Net absorption of magnesium in the direction from lumen to blood could be observed as the result of two opposite unidirectional fluxes of different magnitude. Net uptake of magnesium occurred against an electrical potential difference, and was associated with the presence of an unaltered transmural potential difference in the mucosal tissue. Both the net transfer of magnesium and the transmural potential difference decreased during two hours of incubation. Unidirectional fluxes of magnesium and net efflux from the lumen were markedly reduced although not completely inhibited by the addition of ouabain (10 -4 mol/l). The findings suggest that the mechanism of magnesium absorption by the rumen epithelium can be considered as an active transport process, and that the rumen is the main area of magnesium absorption in the living animal. (author)

  7. Rumen bacteria: interaction with particulate dietary components and response to dietary variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Akin, D E; Costerton, J W

    1977-02-01

    The bovine rumen resembles many other ecosystems in that its component bacterial cells are universally surrounded and protected by extracellular structures. The most common form of these structures is a fibrous carbohydrate slime that extends away from the cell and may mediate the attachment of the bacterium to a surface. This attachment is relatively specific and it may occur at the surface of the rumen epithelium or on the cell walls of a specific tissue within the plant-derived food of the animal. The production of the extracellular slime is under nutritional control and slime may be overproduced when soluble carbohydrates are available in high concentration. This overproduction results in cell-cell adhesion among the rumen bacteria with the eventual formation of slime-enclosed microcolonies and, in extreme cases, the generation of sufficient viscosity to cause feedlot bloat.

  8. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  9. Rumen protozoa and methanogenesis: not a simple cause-effect relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Diego P; Martin, Cécile; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Ranilla, Maria José

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interactions between hydrogen producers and consumers in the rumen ecosystem is important for ruminant production and methane mitigation. The present study explored the relationships between rumen protozoa, methanogens and fermentation characteristics. A total of six donor sheep harbouring (F, faunated) or not (D, defaunated) protozoa in their rumens (D animals were kept without protozoa for a period of a few months (D - ) or for more than 2 years (D+)) were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro the absence of protozoa decreased NH3 and butyrate production and had no effect on methane. In contrast, the liquid-associated bacterial and methanogens fraction of D+ inocula produced more methane than D -  and F inoculum (P protozoa may affect differently the methanogen community and methane emissions in wethers.

  10. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a new hydrogen-utilizing bacterium from the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu-Lesme, F; Fonty, G; Doré, J

    1995-01-01

    A new H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacterium was isolated from the rumen of a mature deer. This is the first report of a spore-forming Gram-negative bacterial species from the rumen. The organism was a strictly anaerobic, motile rod and was able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Acetate was the major product detected. Glucose, fructose and lactate were also fermented heterotrophically. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-7.5, and the optimum temperature was 37-42 degrees C. Yeast extract was required for growth and rumen fluid was highly stimulatory. The DNA base ratio was 52.9 +/- 0.5 mol% G+C. On the basis of these characteristics and fermentation products, the isolate was considered to be different from acetogenic bacteria described previously.

  12. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 bovine rumen fluid proteome reflects adaptive bacterial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudva, Indira T; Stanton, Thaddeus B; Lippolis, John D

    2014-02-21

    To obtain insights into Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) survival mechanisms in the bovine rumen, we defined the growth characteristics and proteome of O157 cultured in rumen fluid (RF; pH 6.0-7.2 and low volatile fatty acid content) obtained from rumen-fistulated cattle fed low protein content "maintenance diet" under diverse in vitro conditions. Bottom-up proteomics (LC-MS/MS) of whole cell-lysates of O157 cultured under anaerobic conditions in filter-sterilized RF (fRF; devoid of normal ruminal microbiota) and nutrient-depleted and filtered RF (dRF) resulted in an anaerobic O157 fRF-and dRF-proteome comprising 35 proteins functionally associated with cell structure, motility, transport, metabolism and regulation, but interestingly, not with O157 virulence. Shotgun proteomics-based analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation used to further study differential protein expression in unfiltered RF (uRF; RF containing normal rumen microbial flora) complemented these results. Our results indicate that in the rumen, the first anatomical compartment encountered by this human pathogen within the cattle gastrointestinal tract (GIT), O157 initiates a program of specific gene expression that enables it to adapt to the in vivo environment, and successfully transit to its colonization sites in the bovine GIT. Further experiments in vitro using uRF from animals fed different diets and with additional O157 strains, and in vivo using rumen-fistulated cattle will provide a comprehensive understanding of the adaptive mechanisms involved, and help direct evolution of novel modalities for blocking O157 infection of cattle.

  13. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Esubacute acidosis in rumen of high-yield dairy cows: Prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Branko T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations presented in this paper was to establish the frequency of the incidence of subacute acidosis in the rumen of cows (SARA in the first three months of lactation and the possibilities for its prevention using a mineral mix based on bentonite, zeolite, magnesium oxide, and sodium bicarbonate (Mix plus. The values obtained for the rumen pH content show that subacute rumen acidosis occurs in in 20 percent of the examined cows in the early stage of lactation. For these investigations, cows in early stages of lactation were chosen and divided into 2 groups. Cows of the experimental group were administered a fodder mix which contained the mineral mix for a buffer effect (Mix plus. The average values of the rumen pH content in the control and the experimental group of cows at the beginning and on the 30th day of the experiment were approximately the same and did not differ significantly (p>0.05. On the 60th day of the experiment, the values for the electrochemical reaction of the rumen content for the control group amounted to an average of 6.219±0.18, and for the experimental group of cows it was 6.772±0.23. The obtained difference was statistically very significant (p<0.001. At the end of the experiment, on the 90th day, the average pH value of the rumen content of cows of the control group was 6.308±0.16, while this value in the experimental group of cows was significantly higher and amounted to 6.676±0.29 (p<0.01.

  15. Presence and species identity of rumen flukes in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, H W; Ankum, L; Moll, L; van Doorn, D C K; Mitchell, G; Skuce, P J; Zadoks, R N; Holzhauer, M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle and 8.0% for sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher after 2012 than before, which may reflect a change in detection method as well as an increase in true prevalence. During November and December 2014, an abattoir survey was conducted to allow for scoring of rumen fluke burden and to obtain specimens for molecular species characterization. Over 8 visits to 5 abattoirs in areas deemed to pose a high risk for trematode infection, 116 cows and 41 sheep from 27 herds and 10 flocks were examined. Prevalence of RF was higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle and higher in cattle than in sheep. Median fluke burden was >100 specimens per animal for most positive animals. Using a semi-quantitative RF density score as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of a modified quantitative Dorsman egg counting method were estimated at 82.6% and 83.3%, respectively. Of 14 collected adult rumen flukes, twelve (8 bovine and 4 ovine specimens) were identified as Calicophoron daubneyi. The other two, of bovine origin, were identified as Paramphistomum leydeni, which was unexpected as in other European countries all recently collected rumen flukes in both cattle and sheep were identified as C. daubneyi. The findings implicate that multiple rumen fluke species, intermediate host species and transmission cycles may play a role in rumen fluke infections in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Degradation of spent craft brewer's yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Bryant, R W; Cohen, S D; O'Connell, S P; Flythe, M D

    2016-10-01

    Spent yeast from craft beers often includes more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) secondary metabolites than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. The objective was to determine if the hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast (CY; ~ 3·5 mg g(-1) hops acids) would protect it from degradation by caprine rumen bacteria and HAB when compared to a baker's yeast (BY; no hops acids). Cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated goats, straining and differential centrifugation. The cells were re-suspended in media with BY or CY. After 24 h (39°C), HAB were enumerated and ammonia was measured. Fewer HAB and less ammonia was produced from CY than from BY. Pure culture experiments were conducted with Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusBG1 (caprine HAB). Ammonia production by BG1 from BY was greater than from CY. Ammonia production was greater when exogenous amino acids were included, but similar inhibition was observed in CY treatments. These results indicate that rumen micro-organisms deaminated the amino acids in CY to a lesser degree than BY. Spent brewer's yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) than traditional recipes. These compounds include α- and β- acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) that are major contributors to amino acid degradation. This study demonstrated that hops acids in spent craft brewer's yeast protected protein from destruction by HABin vitro. These results suggest that the spent yeast from craft breweries, a source of beneficial hops secondary metabolites, could have value as rumen-protected protein. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. In-depth diversity analysis of the bacterial community resident in the camel rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Javad; Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    The rumen compartment of the ruminant digestive tract is an enlarged fermentation chamber which houses a diverse collection of symbiotic microorganisms that provide the host animal with a remarkable ability to digest plant lignocellulosic materials. Characterization of the ruminal microbial community provides opportunities to improve animal food digestion efficiency, mitigate methane emission, and develop efficient fermentation systems to convert plant biomasses into biofuels. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied in order to explore the structure of the bacterial community inhabiting the camel rumen. Using 76,333 quality-checked, chimera- and singleton-filtered reads, 4954 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at a 97% species level sequence identity. At the phylum level, more than 96% of the reads were affiliated to OTUs belonging to Bacteroidetes (51%), Firmicutes (31%), Proteobacteria (4.8%), Spirochaetes (3.5%), Fibrobacteres (3.1%), Verrucomicrobia (2.7%), and Tenericutes (0.95%). A total of 15% of the OTUs (746) that contained representative sequences from all major taxa were shared by all animals and they were considered as candidate members of the core camel rumen microbiome. Analysis of microbial composition through the solid and liquid fractions of rumen digesta revealed differential enrichment of members of Fibrobacter, Clostridium, Ruminococcus, and Treponema in the solid fraction, as well as members of Prevotella, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, and Succinivibrio in the liquid fraction. The results clearly showed that the camel rumen microbiome was structurally similar but compositionally distinct from that of other ruminants, such as the cow. The unique characteristic of the camel rumen microbiome that differentiated it from those of other ruminants was the significant enrichment for cellulolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. PENGARUH SUBSTITUSI SILASE ISI RUMEN SAPI PADA PAKAN BASAL RUMPUT DAN KONSENTRAT TERHADAP KINERJA SAPI POTONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Ainul Yakin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian silase isi rumen sapi sebagai pakan pengganti rumput terhadap kinerja sapi potong. Sapi persilangan Simmental-Peranakan Ongole (SimPO jantan sebanyak 12 ekor, umur 1,5-2 tahun, digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan selama 8 minggu (2 bulan dengan pemberian pakan sebesar 3% dari bobot badan berdasarkan bahan kering dan air minum diberikan secara ad libitum. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola searah dilanjutkan Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Perlakuan yang diberikan yaitu mengganti sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sapi, yaitu P0 = pemberian pakan 100% rumput , P1= pemberian pakan 25% silase isi rumen sapi dan 75% rumput, dan P2 = pemberian pakan 50% silase isi rumen sapi dan 50% rumput. Imbangan pakan antara rumput dan konsentrat adalah 20% : 80%. Variabel yang diamati adalah konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan harian (PBBH, dan konversi pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap konsumsi bahan kering (BK (13,23±0,63 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi bahan organik (BO (10,41±0,50 kg/ekor/hari, konsumsi total digestible nutrients (TDN (7,38±0,37 kg/ekor/hari, PBBH (0,95±0,04 kg/ekor/hari, dan konversi pakan (7,38±0,37. Perlakuan berpengaruh (P<0,05 terhadap konsumsi protein kasar (PK (P0 = 0,94±0,03, P1 = 1,00±0,06 dan P2 = 0,98±0,01, dan serat kasar (SK (P0 = 3,26±0,10, P1 = 3,44±0,22 dan P2 = 3,27±0,04. Disimpulkan bahwa penggantian sebagian rumput dengan silase isi rumen sampai 50% tidak mempengaruhi kinerja sapi potong. (Kata kunci: Isi rumen sapi, Sapi potong, Silase

  19. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Comtet-Marre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6 were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  20. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  1. Enhancing the Resolution of Rumen Microbial Classification from Metatranscriptomic Data Using Kraken and Mothur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. A. Neves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics tools have greatly advanced our knowledge about the phylogenetic diversity and ecological role of microbes inhabiting the mammalian gut. However, there is a lack of information on the evaluation of these computational tools in the context of the rumen microbiome as these programs have mostly been benchmarked on real or simulated datasets generated from human studies. In this study, we compared the outcomes of two methods, Kraken (mRNA based and a pipeline developed in-house based on Mothur (16S rRNA based, to assess the taxonomic profiles (bacteria and archaea of rumen microbial communities using total RNA sequencing of rumen fluid collected from 12 cattle with differing feed conversion ratios (FCR. Both approaches revealed a similar phyla distribution of the most abundant taxa, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria accounting for approximately 80% of total bacterial abundance. For bacterial taxa, although 69 genera were commonly detected by both methods, an additional 159 genera were exclusively identified by Kraken. Kraken detected 423 species, while Mothur was not able to assign bacterial sequences to the species level. For archaea, both methods generated similar results only for the abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae (previously referred as RCC, which comprised more than 65% of the total archaeal families. Taxon R4-41B was exclusively identified by Mothur in the rumen of feed efficient bulls, whereas Kraken uniquely identified Methanococcaceae in inefficient bulls. Although Kraken enhanced the microbial classification at the species level, identification of bacteria or archaea in the rumen is limited due to a lack of reference genomes for the rumen microbiome. The findings from this study suggest that the development of the combined pipelines using Mothur and Kraken is needed for a more inclusive and representative classification of microbiomes.

  2. Characterization of rumen bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in concentrate fed cattle with and without forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, R M; Forster, R J; Yang, W; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of the removal of forage in high-concentrate diets on rumen fermentation conditions and rumen bacterial populations using culture-independent methods. Detectable bacteria and fermentation parameters were measured in the solid and liquid fractions of digesta from cattle fed two dietary treatments, high concentrate (HC) and high concentrate without forage (HCNF). Comparison of rumen fermentation conditions showed that duration of time spent below pH 5·2 and rumen osmolality were higher in the HCNF treatment. Simpson's index of 16S PCR-DGGE images showed a greater diversity of dominant species in the HCNF treatment. Real-time qPCR showed populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0·01) were lower in HCNF than HC diets. Ruminococcus spp., F. succinogenes and Selenomonas ruminantium were at higher (P ≤ 0·05) concentrations in the solid vs the liquid fraction of digesta regardless of diet. The detectable bacterial community structure in the rumen is highly diverse. Reducing diet complexity by removing forage increased bacterial diversity despite the associated reduction in ruminal pH being less conducive for fibrolytic bacterial populations. Quantitative PCR showed that removal of forage from the diet resulted in a decline in the density of some, but not all fibrolytic bacterial species examined. Molecular techniques such as DGGE and qPCR provide an increased understanding of the impacts of dietary changes on the nature of rumen bacterial populations, and conclusions derived using these techniques may not match those previously derived using traditional laboratory culturing techniques. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bouzid, Ourdia; Mosoni, Pascale; Bayat, Ali R; Peyret, Pierre; Forano, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi) represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  4. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of juniper essential oil on growth performance, some rumen protozoa, rumen fermentation and antioxidant blood enzyme parameters of growing Saanen kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Biricik, H; Cetin, I; Kara, C; Meral, Y; Cengiz, S S; Orman, A; Udum, D

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0.4 ml/kg (G2), 0.8 ml/kg (G3) or 2 ml/kg (G4). There were no differences (p > 0.05) in live weight, live weight gain or feed consumption between the control and experimental groups. There was a significant improvement (p rumen pH, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile or faecal pH of the control and experimental groups. The rumen NH 3 N values were similar at the middle and end of the experiment, but at the start of the experiment, the rumen NH 3 N values differed between the control and experimental groups (p < 0.05). The faecal score value was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the experimental groups. The addition of juniper essential oil supplementation to the rations caused significant effects on the kids' antioxidant blood parameters. Although the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the experimental groups (G2, G3 and G4), especially group G4, the blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) value significantly decreased in the experimental groups. The results of this study suggest that supplementation of juniper oil is more effective on antioxidant parameters than on performance parameters and may be used as a natural antioxidant product. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  7. Histamine Induces Bovine Rumen Epithelial Cell Inflammatory Response via NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xudong; Yuan, Xue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Guoquan; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a common disease in high-producing lactating cows. Rumenitis is the initial insult of SARA and is associated with the high concentrations of histamine produced in the rumen of dairy cows during SARA. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether histamine induces inflammation of rumen epithelial cells and the underlying mechanism of this process. Bovine rumen epithelial cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of histamine and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) cultured in different pH medium (pH 7.2 or 5.5). qRT-PCR, Western-blotting, ELISA and immunocytofluorescence were used to evaluate whether histamine activated the NF-κB pathway and inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that histamine significantly increased the activity of IKK β and the phosphorylation levels of IκB α, as well as upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB p65 in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in neutral (pH=7.2) and acidic (pH=5.5) medium. Furthermore, histamine treatment also significantly increased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65. High expression and transcriptional activity of NF-κB p65 significantly increased the mRNA expressions and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), thereby inducing the inflammatory response in bovine rumen epithelial cells. However, inhibition of NF-κB p65 by PDTC significantly decreased the expressions and concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines induced by histamine in the rumen epithelial cells cultured in the neutral and acidic medium. The present data indicate that histamine induces the inflammatory response of bovine rumen epithelial cells through the NF-κB pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J

    2017-01-01

    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only.......1%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.8%). This community differed between the seasons, returning to close to that observed in the same season one year later. These seasonal differences were only small, but were statistically significant (p diet...

  9. The complete genome sequence of Eubacterium limosum SA11, a metabolically versatile rumen acetogen

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, William J.; Henderson, Gemma; Pacheco, Diana M.; Li, Dong; Reilly, Kerri; Naylor, Graham E.; Janssen, Peter H.; Attwood, Graeme T.; Altermann, Eric; Leahy, Sinead C.

    2016-01-01

    Acetogens are a specialized group of anaerobic bacteria able to produce acetate from CO2 and H2 via the Wood?Ljungdahl pathway. In some gut environments acetogens can compete with methanogens for H2, and as a result rumen acetogens are of interest in the development of microbial approaches for methane mitigation. The acetogen Eubacterium limosum SA11 was isolated from the rumen of a New Zealand sheep and its genome has been sequenced to examine its potential application in methane mitigation ...

  10. Bacterial Population Adherent to the Epithelium on the Roo of the Dorsal Rumen of Sheep †

    OpenAIRE

    Dehority, Burk A.; Grubb, Jean A.

    1981-01-01

    By anaerobic procedures, the total number of adherent bacteria was determined on tissue samples obtained from the roof of the dorsal rumen of three sheep. After four washings, 1.91 × 107, 0.34 × 107, and 1.23 × 107 bacteria per cm2 were still attached to the rumen epithelium in sheep 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A total of 95 strains of bacteria were isolated from these three samples. Based on morphology, Gram stain, anaerobiosis, motility, and fermentation end products, they were presumptively...

  11. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  12. Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oil against Pomegranate Seed as Antioxidant on the in vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-04-01

    matter (DM, 2 base diet and OSO (4% of DM, and 3 base diet, OSO and milled PS (8% of DM. The OSO contained higher peroxide value (7.06 vs. 1.37 gram millieqivalent /kg oil, and more Trans fatty acid isomers than FSO. Results and discussion OSO reduced total gas production, t 0.5, DMD, microbial protein, ME, OMD%, total carbon dioxide production, molar production of propionate, and moles numbers of total volatile fatty acids and increased the methane production, lag time, and molar proportion of acetate and butyrate when compared with FSO. Adding PS as antioxidant increased the total gas production, t 0.5, DMD, ME, OMD %, total carbon dioxide production, molar productions of propionate and acetate, and moles numbers of total volatile fatty acids, and reduced the lag time, methane production and molar proportion of butyrate significantly. The major observed effect of OSO that is important from an economical point of view in ruminant nutrition was reduced DM degradability. Depressed DM intake, negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and susceptibility to microbial disease and inflammation are expected in this oxidative situation. Also environmental importance of increased methane production by progressive effect of free radicals in proton partitioning in to methane production pathway in the rumen are significant, but could be improved by PS supplementation. PS may play a protective role against oxidized oil via flavonoids, polyphenols, special fatty acid contents, carotenoids and other bioactive compounds well documented in herbal medicine. Conclusion In general, OSO feeding quantitatively and qualitatively reduced positive parameters of microbial fermentation, DMD, Microbial protein synthesis and VFA production but PS diminished the adverse effects of OSO and FSO feeding significantly. It seems that the PS has potential antioxidant compound reducing the harmful ROS effect on Microbial metabolism in the rumen as well as reducing progressive peroxidation cascades in

  13. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  14. Amino acid composition of rumen bacteria and protozoa in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, M; Ouellet, D R; Firkins, J L; Pellerin, D; Lapierre, H

    2017-07-01

    Because microbial crude protein (MCP) constitutes more than 50% of the protein digested in cattle, its AA composition is needed to adequately estimate AA supply. Our objective was to update the AA contributions of the rumen microbial AA flowing to the duodenum using only studies from cattle, differentiating between fluid-associated bacteria (FAB), particle-associated bacteria (PAB), and protozoa, based on published literature (53, 16, and 18 treatment means were used for each type of microorganism, respectively). In addition, Cys and Met reported concentrations were retained only when an adequate protection of the sulfur groups was performed before the acid hydrolysis. The total AA (or true protein) fraction represented 82.4% of CP in bacteria. For 10 AA, including 4 essential AA, the AA composition differed between protozoa and bacteria. The most noticeable differences were a 45% lower Lys concentration and 40% higher Ala concentration in bacteria than in protozoa. Differences between FAB and PAB were less pronounced than differences between bacteria and protozoa. Assuming 33% FAB, 50% PAB, and 17% of protozoa in MCP duodenal flow, the updated concentrations of AA would decrease supply estimates of Met, Thr, and Val originating from MCP and increase those of Lys and Phe by 5 to 10% compared with those calculated using the FAB composition reported previously. Therefore, inclusion of the contribution of PAB and protozoa to the duodenal MCP flow is needed to adequately estimate AA supply from microbial origin when a factorial method is used to estimate duodenal AA flow. Furthermore, acknowledging the fact that hydrolysis of 1 kg of true microbial protein yields 1.16 kg of free AA substantially increases the estimates of AA supply from MCP. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of forage intake using in vitro gas production methods: Comparison of multiphase fermentation kinetics measured in an automated gas test, and combined gas volume and substrate degradability measurements in a manual syringe system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blümmel, M.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Nshalai, I.; Umunna, N.N.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Becker, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated two approaches to in vitro analysis of gas production data, being a three phase model with long (¿72 h) incubation times, to obtain kinetics and asymptotic values of gas production, and combination of gas volume measurements with residue determinations after a relatively

  17. Post-ruminal branched-chain amino acid supplementation and intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion alters blood metabolites, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löest, C A; Gilliam, G G; Waggoner, J W; Turner, J L

    2018-04-27

    Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA). The LPS in 100 mL sterile saline was infused (1 mL/min via i.v. catheter) on d 15. The BCAA in an essential AA solution were abomasally infused (900 mL/d) 3 times daily in equal portions beginning on d 7. Blood, rumen fluid, and rectal temperature were collected on d 15 at h 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 after LPS infusion. Feces and urine were collected from d 16 to 20. Rectal temperatures were greater for +LPS vs. -LPS steers at 4 h and lower at 8 h after LPS infusion (LPS h, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 12 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P BCAA, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 0 h and 24 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P ≤ 0.05). Steers receiving +LPS had lower rumen pH at 8 h, greater total VFA at 8 h, and lower rumen NH3 at 24 h after LPS infusion compared with -LPS steers (LPS × h, P ≤ 0.04). Total tract passage rates, DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and N intake, fecal N, digested N, and retained N were lower (P BCAA vs -BCAA steers. The absence of LPS × BCAA interactions (P ≥ 0.20) for N balance indicated that post-ruminal supplementation of BCAA did not alleviate the negative effects of endotoxin on N utilization by growing steers.

  18. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  19. Rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and growth performance of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed: Effects of dietary level and particle size of alfalfa hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M; Amanlou, H; Khorvash, M; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41 ± 2.5,kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine = 1mm or medium = 3mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional skewing of conceptus sex in sheep: effects of a maternal diet enriched in rumen-protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jim E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, we examined whether maternal diet, specifically increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake, of ewes with a constant body condition score around the time of conception influenced sex ratio. Methods Ewes (n = 44 maintained in similar body condition throughout the study were assigned either a control (C diet or one (F enriched in rumen-protected PUFA, but otherwise essentially equivalent, from four weeks prior to breeding until d13 post-estrus. On d13, conceptuses were recovered, measured, cultured to assess their capacity for interferon-tau (IFNT production and their sex determined. The experiment was repeated with all ewes being fed the F diet to remove any effects of parity order on sex ratio. Maternal body condition score (BCS, plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations were also assessed throughout the study and related to diet. Results In total 129 conceptuses were recovered. Ewes on the F diet produced significantly more male than female conceptuses (proportion male = 0.69; deviation from expected ratio of 0.5, P 0.1, but positively correlated with maternal body condition score (P Conclusion These results provide evidence that maternal diet, in the form of increased amounts of rumen-protected PUFA fed around conception, rather than maternal body condition, can skew the sex ratio towards males. These observations may have implications to the livestock industry and animal management policies when offspring of one sex may be preferred over the other.

  1. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  2. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo-rumen

  3. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Visker, M H P W; Edwards, J E; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Bovenhuis, H; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-11-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH 4 and H 2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets. Both diets consisted of 40% corn silage, 30% grass silage, and 30% concentrates (DM basis). Apparent digestibility, lactation performance, N and energy balance, and CH 4 emission were measured in climate respiration chambers, and rumen fluid samples were collected using the oral stomach tube technique. No linseed oil by DGAT1 interactions were observed for digestibility, milk production and composition, energy and N balance, CH 4 and H 2 emissions, and rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, and with a higher milk fat and protein content, and proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat compared with the DGAT1 AA genotype, whereas the fat- and protein-corrected milk yield was unaffected by DGAT1. Also, DGAT1 did not affect nutrient digestibility, CH 4 or H 2 emission, ruminal fermentation or ruminal archaeal and bacterial concentrations. Rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was also unaffected in terms of the whole community, whereas at the genus level the relative abundances of some bacterial genera were found to be affected by DGAT1. The DGAT1 KK genotype was associated with a lower metabolizability (i.e., ratio of metabolizable to gross energy intake), and with a tendency for a lower milk N efficiency compared

  4. Detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid composition of rumen content from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate supplemented with soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Bessa, Rui J B

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18:1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18:0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18:3n-3.

  5. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  6. Roles of Dietary Cobalt and Administration of Mixed Rumen Bacteria in Regulating Hematological Parameters of Pre-weaning Twin Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Adelina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt (Co is required by rumen microorganism for vitamin B12 synthesis. Vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for methionine synthesis and gluconeogenesis. In young ruminants up to 6–8 wk old, the rumen has not been completely developed and rumen microorganisms are not ready to supply vitamin B12. The aim of this research was to determine the potency of mixed rumen bacteria and dietary supplementation of Co and its effect on plasma glucose, blood minerals (Co, Fe, and Zn concentrations, and hematology of pre-weaning twin lambs. Twelve one month-old local twin lambs were assigned to 4 groups in a randomized complete block design. Lambs were fed cow milk at 10% body weight, adjusted weekly for 80 d. Mixed rumen bacteria were offered at 15 mL/d (8.295x1010 cfu. Dietary treatments were: 1 basal diet (Control, 2 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM cyanocobalamin (VitB12 and 3 basal diet + 1 mg/kg DM of Co + administration of 15 mL mixed rumen bacteria (CoBac. There were no treatment effects on neither plasma glucose and blood mineral concentrations nor hematological profiles. This study demonstrated that pre-weaning twin lambs are not responsive to supplementation of Co and administration of mixed rumen bacteria.

  7. The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Mavrommatis, A; Kalogeropoulos, T; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Koutsouli, P; Sotirakoglou, K; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile and (ii) blood plasma glutathione transferase (GST) activity of periparturient ewes. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] were also determined in plasma and milk of ewes. Thus, 45 ewes were divided into three equal groups. Each animal of the control group fed daily with a basal diet. The same diet was offered also in each animal of the other two groups. However, the concentrate fed to M group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg rumen-protected methionine, while the concentrate fed to MCB group with 5 g/kg of a commercial product which contained a combination of methionine, choline and betaine, all three in rumen-protected form. The results showed that the M diet, compared with the control, increased significantly the ewe's milk fat and the total solids content. Likewise, a tendency for higher milk fat and total solids content in ewes fed the MCB diet was also observed. Both M and MCB diets had not noticeable impact on ewes milk FA profile. Significantly higher FRAP values in the blood plasma of ewes fed the MCB and in the milk of ewes fed with the M diet compared with the control were found. Additionally, significantly higher GST activity in the blood plasma of ewes fed the M diet, compared with the control, was observed. Moreover, a significant increase (by 20%) and a tendency for increase (by 16.72%) in the growth rate of lambs nursing ewes fed with M and MCB diets, respectively, compared to controls, were found. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Perlindungan Protein Menggunakan Tanin dan Saponin Terhadap Daya Fermentasi Rumen dan Sintesis Protein Mikrob (PROTECTION OFPROTEINUSINGTANNINS AND SAPONINS OF RUMEN DIGESTIBILITYAND MICROBESSYNTHESISPROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Shofi Ani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to examine protection of protein using tannins and saponins toimprove rumen digestibility and microb-mediated protein synthesis in vitro. Rumen fluids used as inoculumwas collected from a composite of two female adult fistulatedongole cattle weighed of ±300 kg with theage of five years old. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design withsix treatments and three replication of each treatment. The six treatments consisted of T0: Proteinconcentrates without protection, T1: protein concentrates protected with 1.2% saponin, T2: proteinconcentrates protected with 0.5% tannin and 0.9% saponin , T3: protein concentrates protected with 1.0%tannin and 0.6% saponin, T4: protein concentrates protected with 1.5 % tannin and 0.3% saponin and T5:protein concentrates protected with 2.0% tannins. The result showed that treatment with tannin, saponinand their combination had a significantly affect (P<0,05 on the level of ammonia (NH3, the total volatilefatty acids (VFA, and total protein. Protection of proteins with combination of 1,0% tannin and 0.6%saponin resulted in best effect on feed protein as shown by its NH3 concentration, total VFA and totalprotein. This indicates the level of protection of feed protein can improve rumen digestibility and microbesmediatedprotein synthesis, as showed in the concentration of N-NH3, total VFA and total protein.

  9. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the