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Sample records for intake digestibility milk

  1. Thirty or sixty percent milk replacer reduction for calves: effects on alfalfa hay intake and digestibility, digestive kinetics and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broesder, J T; Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Gunter, S A; Barton, R K

    1990-09-01

    Twelve artificially reared, male Holstein calves, ruminally cannulated at 53 d of age, were used in a split-plot design to study the effects of no milk replacer reduction (CON), or reduction by 30% (30R) or 60% (60R) of this value on alfalfa hay intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation and digestive kinetics. Milk replacer reduction began at 53 d of age and continued until 135 d of age, after which no milk replacer was fed. All calves had ad libitum access to long-stemmed alfalfa hay from birth. Five collection periods were conducted at average calf ages of 72, 87, 108, 129 and 151 d. Reducing the amount of milk replacer fed resulted in a linear increase (P less than .05) in forage OM intake; however, total OM intake (forage + milk) was not different (P greater than .10) among milk reduction groups. Size of particles in feces exhibited quadratic effects in response to milk replacer reduction (P less than .05) but only in the small (less than 150 microns) size groupings. Ruminal pH and ammonia and individual VFA concentrations (except isobutyrate) were not altered by milk reduction (P greater than .10) but increased (P less than .01) with calf age. Milk replacer reduction had a quadratic effect (P less than .05) on fluid outflow rate from the rumen, increasing as milk replacer was reduced. Other fluid and particulate kinetic data, as well as NDF digestion rate and DM digestion showed no effects (P greater than .10) from milk replacer reduction but changed with calf age. Milk replacer reduction increased forage intake but had minimal effects on digestive variables evaluated, suggesting that intake of milk replacer by calves can be reduced by up to 60% without disturbing forage fermentation and passage.

  2. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  3. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  4. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  5. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  6. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone

    2014-01-01

    rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage...... of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were...... taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg...

  7. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in lactating cows the effect of either chopping or ensiling of wheat roughage on: intake, digestibility, lactation performance and animal behavior. Three groups of 14 lactating cows each, were fed total mixed rations (TMRs) based on either long wheat hay (HL), short wheat hay (HS) or wheat silage (SI), as the sole roughage source (30% of TMR dry matter (DM)). Parameters examined: sorting behavior, DM intake, milk yield and composition, rumination, recumbence, average daily rumen pH, digesta passage rate, and in-vivo digestibility. Performance data was summarized by day and analyzed using a proc-mixed model. The content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was similar in the HL and SI and lower in the HS, resulting in similar differences among the three corresponding TMRs. In vitro DM digestibility of wheat silage was higher than that of the two hays (65.6% v. 62.8%) resulting in higher in vitro DM digestibility of the SI-TMR compared with the hay-based TMRs (79.3 v. 77.0%). HS-TMR was better than HL- or SI-TMRs at preventing feed sorting by cows after 12 or 24 h eating of the diets. Cows fed HS-TMR consumed more DM and NDF but less peNDF than the other two groups. Average daily rumen pH was similar in the three groups, but daily rumination time was highest in the cows fed HS-TMR. Rumen retention time was longest in cows fed HL-TMR. DM digestibility in cows fed SI-TMR was higher than that of HS and HL groups (65.2%, 61.8% and 62.4%, respectively), but NDF digestibility was similar in the three treatments. The highest intake of digestible DM was observed in cows fed SI-TMR, HS cows were intermediate and HL cows were the lowest. Consequently, cows fed SI-TMR had higher yields of milk, 4% fat corrected milk and energy-corrected milk (47.1, 42.9 and 43.2 kg/day, respectively) than cows fed HS-TMR (45.7, 41.0 and 41.0 kg/day, respectively) or HL-TMR (44.1, 40.3 and 40.3 kg/day, respectively). Net energy

  8. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energ...... silage aNDFom digestibility improved daily milk yield with 82 g (P = 0.04) and daily weight gain with 12 g (P = 0.03). Therefore, aNDFom digestibility is an important trait in maize used as whole crop silage for dairy cows.......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...

  9. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  10. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  11. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  13. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; Digestibility of DM was similar (~66%) among HRFI and LRFI for HS diets but greater for LRFI when fed LS diets (64 vs. 62%). For LS diets, digestibility of DM could account for up to 31% of the differences among HRFI and LRFI for apparent diet energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility

  14. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-03-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  15. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  16. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  17. Effect of fiber-based creep feed on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Knight, M H; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Six Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs (653 +/- 35 kg and 157 +/- 10 kg initial BW for cows and calves, respectively) were used to evaluate the influence of a fiber-based creep feed on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion characteristics, and microbial efficiency in nursing beef calves. Cow-calf pairs were stratified by calf age and assigned randomly to one of two treatments: control (no supplement) or supplemented. Supplemented calves received 0.9 kg of a 49% soy hulls, 44% wheat middlings, 6% molasses, and 1% limestone supplement (DM basis) daily. All calves were cannulated in the rumen and duodenum and given ad libitum access to chopped brome hay (Bromus inermus L; 7.43% CP, 40.96% ADF, and 63.99% NDF; DM basis). Supplementation was initiated on May 1 (88 +/- 10.3 d calf age). Three sampling periods were conducted throughout the study (June 14 to 25, July 5 to 16, and August 9 to 20). Supplement and forage were offered at 0800 daily. Total, hay, and milk OM intakes of nursing calves were not affected by supplementation (2,014 vs. 2,328 +/- 288.8, 1,486 vs. 1,029 +/- 3,06.9, and 528 vs. 575 +/- 87.0 g/d, respectively). Milk OM intake was less (P 0.40) total-tract OM digestibility during June and August; however, during July, total-tract OM digestibility was lower (P = 0.03) for the control calves. Ruminal ammonia concentration, total VFA, and butyrate molar proportion increased (P effects on OM intake, total-tract OM digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics in nursing beef calves.

  18. Effect of heat and homogenization on in vitro digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Ren, Daxi X; Van Hekken, Diane L; Bonnaillie, Laetitia; Paul, Moushumi; Kwoczak, Raymond; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Central to commercial fluid milk processing is the use of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization to ensure the safety and quality of milk, and homogenization to prevent creaming of fat-containing milk. Ultra-high-temperature sterilization is also applied to milk and is typically used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated, specialty milk products or to provide shelf-stable milk. The structures of the milk proteins and lipids are affected by processing but little information is available on the effects of the individual processes or sequences of processes on digestibility. In this study, raw whole milk was subjected to homogenization, HTST pasteurization, and homogenization followed by HTST or UHT processing. Raw skim milk was subjected to the same heating regimens. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion using a fasting model was then used to detect the processing-induced changes in the proteins and lipids. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, gastric pepsin digestion of the milk samples showed rapid elimination of the casein and α-lactalbumin bands, persistence of the β-lactoglobulin bands, and appearance of casein and whey peptide bands. The bands for β-lactoglobulin were eliminated within the first 15min of intestinal pancreatin digestion. The remaining proteins and peptides of raw, HTST, and UHT skim samples were digested rapidly within the first 15min of intestinal digestion, but intestinal digestion of raw and HTST pasteurized whole milk showed some persistence of the peptides throughout digestion. The availability of more lipid droplets upon homogenization, with greater surface area available for interaction with the peptides, led to persistence of the smaller peptide bands and thus slower intestinal digestion when followed by HTST pasteurization but not by UHT processing, in which the denatured proteins may be more accessible to the digestive enzymes. Homogenization and heat processing also affected the ζ-potential and free fatty acid release

  19. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  20. Comparing the impact of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds were compared. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole a...

  1. Fatty Acid Profiles of In Vitro Digested Processed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Tunick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon fatty acids (FAs that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on the digestibility of these FAs. This study provides FA profiles for raw and combinations of homogenized and/or heat-treated (high and ultra-high temperature pasteurization milk, before and after in vitro digestion, in order to determine the effects of processing on the digestibility of these healthy fatty acids. Use of a highly sensitive separation column resulted in improved FA profiles that showed that, when milk was subjected to both pasteurization and homogenization, the release of the 18-carbon FAs, oleic acid, linoleic acid (an omega-6 FA, rumenic acid (a conjugated linoleic acid, CLA, and linolenic acid (an omega-3 FA tended to be higher than with either pasteurization or homogenization, or with no treatment. Milk is noted for containing the omega-3 FAs and CLAs, which are associated with positive health benefits. Determining how processing factors may impact the components in milk will aid in understanding the release of healthy FAs when milk and dairy foods are consumed.

  2. Assessment of Dietary Supplement from Iodine by Milk Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, A.A.; Labib, A.A.; Challan, B.M.; Challan, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low level concentration of iodine was determined in various milk products for adult and baby milk powders by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. It is a reliable method for the determination of iodine in milk samples, using alkaline digestion with potassium hydroxide KOH solution in an oven. After digestion, a stabilizer is added and the solution is taken to volume , then filtered and analysed by ICP-MS either directly or after dilution. Samples for investigation were collected from domestic market of Egypt. The detection limits of current Iodine are not affected by interfering from milk gradient. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of about 10 ppb Iodine was achieved. This method showed excellent results for aqueous iodide solutions, although the complex milk digest matrix made the method unsuitable for such samples. So, investigation of the iodine species is achieved through the oxidation and extraction of iodine milk sample s, the digest ion was carried out to control the iodine chemistry. Iodine concentrations ranged from 0.1 7 to 5 .1 mg / kg for various samples , The accuracy of the method ranged from 95 to 100%

  3. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  4. True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.

    2006-01-01

    Goat milk is used as an alternative to cow milk for the production of infant formulas. However, little is known about the protein quality and, specifically, about the digestible AA pattern of goat milk formulas compared with their cow milk counterparts. In this study, the true ileal AA digestibility

  5. Comparing the effect of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Ren, D X; Tomasula, P M

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways. General composition was the same among the whole milk samples and among the nonfat milk samples. Protein profiles were similar, with intact caseins and whey proteins predominant and only minor amounts of peptides. Whole milk samples from grazing cows contained higher levels of α-linolenic (C18:3), vaccenic (C18:1 trans), and conjugated linoleic acids, and lower levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids than samples from nongrazing cows. Processing had no effect on conjugated linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels in milk, although homogenization resulted in higher levels of C8 to C14 saturated fatty acids. Of the 9 volatile compounds evaluated, milk from grazing cows contained lower levels of 2-butanone than milk from nongrazing cows, and milk from both farms showed spikes for heptanal in UHT samples and spikes for butanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, and N-decanoic acids in homogenized samples. At the start of in vitro digestion, nonfat raw and pasteurized milk samples formed the largest acid clots, and organic milk clots were larger than conventional milk clots; UHT whole milk formed the smallest clots. Milk digests from grazing cows had lower levels of free fatty acids than digests from nongrazing cows. In vitro proteolysis was similar in milk from both farms and resulted in 85 to 95% digestibility. Overall, milk from organic/grass-fed and conventional

  6. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  7. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  8. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  9. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (Praw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breast milk intake and infant growth: an isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.; Roohi, S.

    2000-01-01

    The milk intake of the exclusively breast fed infants was measured with the help of Deuterium dilution method, previously established in our laboratory. The growth of excessively breast fed infants was monitored for size months and correlated with the milk intake. For the measurement of milk intake, saliva of mothers and urine of the infants was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13 and 14 days after giving an appropriate oral dose of deuterium oxide. For determining the Hydrogen Isotope ratio (D/H(, the samples wee prepared utilizing Zn shot method and subsequently analyzed on Isotope ratio Mass Spectrometer. The results showed that mean breast milk intake of infants measured with Deuterium dilution method was 801 +- 262 gms/day at 31.15+- 7.7 days of age (n=17). at the age of 3 months, the milk intake increased to 998+- 397 gms/day. The growth data collected over six month period for 21 infants showed that they fall below the 50 percentile of National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for weight and length. The data suggests that although majority of infants were exclusively breast fed and the intake values were well above normal range yet their growth was far from optimum. (author)

  13. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro digestibility of goat milk and kefir with a new standardised static digestion method (INFOGEST cost action) and bioactivities of the resultant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehir El, Sedef; Karakaya, Sibel; Simsek, Sebnem; Dupont, Didier; Menfaatli, Esra; Eker, Alper Tolga

    2015-07-01

    The hydrolysis degrees of goat milk and kefir during simulated gastrointestinal digestion and some bioactivities of the resulting peptides after fermentation and digestion were studied. A static in vitro digestion method by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST was used and goat milk and kefir were partially hydrolyzed during the gastric phase and had above 80% hydrolysis after duodenal digestion. There were no differences between the digestibility of goat milk and kefir (p > 0.05). Goat milk and kefir displayed about 7-fold antioxidant activity after digestion (p 0.05), however, after in vitro digestion calcium-binding capacity of the goat milk and kefir increased 2 and 5 fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Digested goat milk and kefir showed a higher dose-dependent inhibitory effect on α-amylase compared to undigested samples (p < 0.05). α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities of the samples were not determined at the studied concentrations.

  15. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-04-01

    Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

  16. The measurement of milk intake in the neonatal guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging

  17. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  18. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  19. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    1999-03-09

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 {mu}g/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 {mu}g/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 {mu}g/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 {mu}g/kg) and Cd (0.01 {mu}g/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 {mu}g/kg and 0.8-1.0 {mu}g/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 μg/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 μg/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 μg/kg) and Cd (0.01 μg/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 μg/kg and 0.8-1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Borderas, T F; Rushen, J

    2011-03-01

    Dairy calves are increasingly fed large volumes of milk, which reduces feeding motivation and improves weight gain. However, calves often show signs of hunger and lose weight when weaned off milk due to low starter intake. We examined whether delaying the age at weaning would reduce responses to weaning. Calves were raised in groups of 9 and fed milk, starter, hay, and water with automated feeders. In each group, 3 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low-milk, early-weaned: fed 6 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d of age; (2) high-milk early-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d; (3) high-milk later-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 89 d of age. Milk, starter, and hay intakes were recorded daily and digestible energy (DE) intake estimated. Feeder visits were recorded. Before weaning, the high-milk calves drank more milk, ate less starter and hay, but had higher DE intakes, gained more weight, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the low-milk, early-weaned calves. During and immediately after weaning, the high-fed, early-weaned calves ate less starter and hay, had lower DE intakes, and gained less weight than the low-milk, early-weaned calves and lost their body weight advantage 7 d after weaning. During and immediately after weaning, the high-milk, later-weaned calves ate more starter and hay and had higher DE intakes, higher weight gains, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the high-milk, early-weaned calves. They were still heavier than the low-milk, early-weaned calves 18 d after weaning. Delaying the age at which calves are weaned off milk reduces the drop in energy intake and behavioral signs of hunger that result from weaning. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  3. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  5. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P Pasteurization enhanced the proteolysis of lactoferrin (P Pasteurization did not affect gastric emptying (∼30-min half time) or pH (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 0.8) at 90 min. Overall, pasteurization had no impact on the gastric digestion of lipids and some proteins from human milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Development of equations, based on milk intake, to predict starter feed intake of preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; DeVries, T J; Tedeschi, L O; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-16

    There is a lack of studies that provide models or equations capable of predicting starter feed intake (SFI) for milk-fed dairy calves. Therefore, a multi-study analysis was conducted to identify variables that influence SFI, and to develop equations to predict SFI in milk-fed dairy calves up to 64 days of age. The database was composed of individual data of 176 calves from eight experiments, totaling 6426 daily observations of intake. The information collected from the studies were: birth BW (kg), SFI (kg/day), fluid milk or milk replacer intake (MI; l/day), sex (male or female), breed (Holstein or Holstein×Gyr crossbred) and age (days). Correlations between SFI and the quantitative variables MI, birth BW, metabolic birth BW, fat intake, CP intake, metabolizable energy intake, and age were calculated. Subsequently, data were graphed, and based on a visual appraisal of the pattern of the data, an exponential function was chosen. Data were evaluated using a meta-analysis approach to estimate fixed and random effects of the experiments using nonlinear mixed coefficient statistical models. A negative correlation between SFI and MI was observed (r=-0.39), but age was positively correlated with SFI (r=0.66). No effect of liquid feed source (milk or milk replacer) was observed in developing the equation. Two equations, significantly different for all parameters, were fit to predict SFI for calves that consume less than 5 (SFI5) l/day of milk or milk replacer: ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\lt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1839_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0581}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}{\\times}{\\rm exp}^{{\\left( {\\left( {0.0333_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0021 }} {\\minus}0.0040_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0011}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right){\\times}\\left( {{\\rm A}{\\minus}{\\rm }\\left( {0.8302_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.5092}} {\\plus}6.0332_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.3583}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)} \\right)} \\right)}} {\\minus}\\left( {0.12{\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)$ ; ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\gt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1225_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0005 }} {\\times

  7. Stability of milk fat globule membrane proteins toward human enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Van de Wiele, T; Do, T N H; Debyser, G; Struijs, K; Devreese, B; Dewettinck, K; Van Camp, J

    2012-05-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction refers to the thin film of polar lipids and membrane proteins that surrounds fat globules in milk. It is its unique biochemical composition that renders MFGM with some beneficial biological activities, such as anti-adhesive effects toward pathogens. However, a prerequisite for the putative bioactivity of MFGM is its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. We, therefore, subjected MFGM material, isolated from raw milk, to an in vitro enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, in combination with 2 staining methods, Coomassie Blue and periodic acid Schiff staining, was used to evaluate polypeptide patterns of the digest, whereas mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of specific MFGM proteins. Generally, it was observed that glycoproteins showed higher resistance to endogenous proteases compared with non-glycosylated proteins. Mucin 1 displayed the highest resistance to digestion and a considerable part of this protein was still detected at its original molecular weight after gastric and small intestine digestion. Cluster of differentiation 36 was also quite resistant to pepsin. A significant part of periodic acid Schiff 6/7 survived the gastric digestion, provided that the lipid moiety was not removed from the MFGM material. Overall, MFGM glycoproteins are generally more resistant to gastrointestinal digestion than serum milk proteins and the presence of lipids, besides glycosylation, may protect MFGM glycoproteins from gastrointestinal digestion. This gastrointestinal stability makes MFGM glycoproteins amenable to further studies in which their putative health-promoting effects can be explored. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Angela M. Rose; Julie A. Kennel; Christopher H. Holloman; Gail L. Kaye; Carolyn W. Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  9. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  10. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  11. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on passage rate, nutrient digestibility, ruminal development, and body composition in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Lopes, D R G; Costa, S F; Mantovani, H C; Lopes, F C F; Marcondes, M I; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, calf performance, feed efficiency, fecal score, passage rate, apparent nutrient digestibility, development of rumen and other organs, and body composition of increasing the total solids content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the preweaning period. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr calves (n=32) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=8 per group), which consisted of different total solids concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Calves received 6 L of liquid per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600 h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. Starter and water were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. At 56d of age, animals were killed. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual total solids contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% total solids treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533 mOsm/L. Fecal score was similar among treatments, except for wk 2 and 7. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 6wk of age. During wk 4, 5, and 6, we detected a linear decrease in starter intake. After wk 7, we observed greater starter intake for calves fed approximately 16.1% total solids. Water intake, feed efficiency, and withers height were similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of total solids in liquid feed quadratically affected average daily gain, final body weight, and empty body weight. We observed a greater average daily gain for calves fed approximately 20.4% total solids. Passage rate, nutrient digestibility, development of pre-stomachs and intestine, and body composition were similar among treatments. Increasing the concentration of total solids in liquid feed up to 20.4% reduced starter intake between 4 and 6wk of life, but increased average daily gain. It did not affect

  12. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  13. Effect of Digestion and Storage of Human Milk on Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexander H.; Altshuler, Angelina E.; Small, James W.; Taylor, Sharon F.; Dobkins, Karen R.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fat is digested in the intestine into free fatty acids (FFAs), which are detergents and therefore toxic to cells at micromolar concentration. The mucosal barrier protects cells in the adult intestine, but this barrier may not be fully developed in premature infants. Lipase-digested infant formula, but not fresh human milk, has elevated FFAs and is cytotoxic to intestinal cells, and therefore could contribute to intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). But even infants exclusively fed breast milk may develop NEC. Our objective was to determine if stored milk and milk from donor milk banks (DM) could also become cytotoxic, especially after digestion. Methods We exposed cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells or human neutrophils to DM and milk collected fresh and stored at 4 or −20 °C for up to 12 weeks and then treated for 2 hours (37°C) with 0.1 or 1 mg/ml pancreatic lipase and/or trypsin and chymotrypsin. Results DM and milk stored 3 days (at 4 or −20 °C) and then digested were cytotoxic. Storage at −20 °C for 8 and 12 weeks resulted in an additional increase in cytotoxicity. Protease digestion decreased, but did not eliminate cell death. Conclusions Current storage practices may allow milk to become cytotoxic and contribute to intestinal damage in NEC. PMID:24840512

  14. Deuterium dilution method for determining the Breast milk intake of babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohi, S.; Bilal, R.; Latif, Z.

    2000-11-01

    Various methods for measuring the milk intake of breast fed babies are available. Most methods are time consuming, cumbersome and inaccurate. The report describes various methods used for Breast Milk intake measurement with emphasis on the D/sub 2/O dilution method. The methodology of the D/sub 2/O dilution method is now streamlined in this Inst. for measuring the milk intake of babies. Advantages and disadvantages of all the methods used to determine the breast milk intake of the infants are also included in the present report. For the D/sub 2/O dilution method, and oral administration of small dose of deuterium oxide (sup 2/H/sup 2/O) is given to the mothers after collecting pre-dose samples. The post dose samples of urine from the baby and saliva from the mother are collected at 24 hours intervals over a 14 days period. These samples are analyzed on isotope ratio Mass spectrometer. The D/H values obtained over a 14 days period are then extrapolated to calculate the milk intake of babies using the Microsoft Excel Computer programme designed for this purpose. (author)

  15. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  16. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  17. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Lactase persistence, milk intake, and mortality in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Varbo, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested no association between milk intake and mortality. Since only few studies have been conducted, we investigated the association between the lactase persistent genetic variant LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), a proxy for long-term low and high intake of milk, and mortality. We...

  19. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  20. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  1. Effects of elevated iodine in milk replacer on calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K J; Hidiroglou, M

    1990-03-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydroiodide) in DM, from 3 to 38 d of age, to estimate the minimum toxic concentration of iodine. Only the 200 ppm iodine intake reduced weight gains, DM intake, feed efficiency, and DM digestibility. At the 100 and 200 ppm iodine intakes, protein digestibility was reduced, and calves showed typical symptoms of iodine toxicity (nasal discharge, excessive tear and saliva formation, and coughing from tracheal congestion). Thyroid iodine increased with every elevation in iodine intake. Iodine in plasma, bile, and non-thyroid tissues started to increase at the 50 ppm intake and, except for muscle, tended to increase again at the 100 and 200 ppm intakes. Thus, the preruminant calf tolerated up to 50 ppm iodine in milk replacer DM for 5 wk postpartum. However, as iodine concentrations in plasma and nonthyroid tissues started to increase at 50 ppm iodine, an upper limit of 10 ppm would be more preferable.

  2. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  3. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  4. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  5. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are

  6. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  7. Impact of pasteurization of human milk on preterm newborn in vitro digestion: Gastrointestinal disintegration, lipolysis and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bourlieu, Claire; Ménard, Olivia; Bellanger, Amandine; Henry, Gwénaële; Rousseau, Florence; Dirson, Emelyne; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie

    2016-11-15

    Human milk feeding is an important recommendation for preterm newborns considering their vulnerability and digestive immaturity. Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30min) applied in milk banks modifies its biological quality and its microstructure. We investigated the impact of pasteurization of preterm human milk on its gastrointestinal kinetics of lipolysis, proteolysis and structural disintegration. An in vitro dynamic system was set up to simulate the gastrointestinal digestion of preterm newborns. A pool of preterm human milk was digested as raw or after Holder pasteurization. Pasteurization impacted the microstructure of undigested human milk, its gastrointestinal disintegration and tended to limit the intestinal lipolysis. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of some fatty acids was decreased by pasteurization, while the intestinal bioaccessibility of some amino acids was selectively modulated. The impact of pasteurization on the digestion of human milk may have nutritional relevance in vivo and potentially modulates preterm development and growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  9. Structural changes of bovine milk fat globules during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S; Ye, A; Singh, H

    2012-07-01

    An in vitro digestion model that simulated gastric and intestinal fasting conditions was used to monitor the physical, chemical, and structural changes of fat globules from raw bovine milk. During in vitro gastric digestion, the fat globules were stable under low-acidic conditions. Some peptides and β-lactoglobulin were resistant to proteolysis by pepsin. Phospholipids, proteins, and peptides stabilized the globules in the stomach model. During in vitro intestinal digestion, most of the β-lactoglobulin and residual peptides were hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the lipolytic products, released from the hydrolysis of the triglyceride core of the globules, led to destabilization and coalescence of the globules. By accumulating at the surface of the fat globules, the lipolytic products formed a lamellar phase and their solubilization by bile salts resulted in the formation of disk-shaped micelles. This study brings new interesting insights on the digestion of bovine milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioactive peptides released from in vitro digestion of human milk with or without pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (HM) serves as the best alternative for breast-feeding when availability of mother's milk is limited. Pasteurization is also applied to mother's own milk for very low birth weight infants, who are vulnerable to microbial infection. Whether pasteurization affects protein digestibility and therefore modulates the profile of bioactive peptides released from HM proteins by gastrointestinal digestion, has not been examined to date. HM with and without pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min) were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, followed by peptidomic analysis to compare the formation of bioactive peptides. Some of the bioactive peptides, such as caseinophosphopeptide homologues, a possible opioid peptide (or propeptide), and an antibacterial peptide, were present in undigested HM and showed resistance to in vitro digestion, suggesting that these peptides are likely to exert their bioactivities in the gastrointestinal lumen, or be stably transported to target organs. In vitro digestion of HM released a large variety of bioactive peptides such as angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory peptides. Bioactive peptides were released largely in the same manner with and without pasteurization. Provision of pasteurized HM may be as beneficial as breast-feeding in terms of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides.

  11. Effect of maturity at harvest for whole-crop barley and oat on dry matter intake, sorting, and digestibility when fed to beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, C L; Beattie, A D; Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Lardner, H A; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of harvest maturity of whole-crop oat (Study 1) and whole-crop barley (Study 2) on forage intake and sorting, ruminal fermentation, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility when fed to beef heifers. In Study 1, 3 ruminally cannulated heifers (417 ± 5 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 24-d periods. Whole-crop oat forage harvested at the late milk (LMILK), hard dough (HD), or ripe (RP) stages was fed for ad libitum intake and heifers were supplemented (1% of BW) with alfalfa pellets, barley grain, canola meal, and a mineral and vitamin pellet. Maturity at harvest for whole-crop oat did not affect ( ≥ 0.058) forage intake, DE intake, amount of forage refused, ruminal short-chain fatty acid concentration, or digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF. Ruminal starch digestibility decreased ( digestibility decreasing ( = 0.043) from 95.8% at the LMILK stage to 94.8% at the RP stage. Ruminal CP digestibility was reduced at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( digestibility of DM, OM, and NDF observed at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( ≤ 0.004). Ruminal NDF digestibility decreased from 69.7% at the LMILK stage to 54.4% at the HD stage and 54.9% at the RP stage ( = 0.001), whereas ruminal ADF digestibility decreased from 70.0% at the LMILK stage to 44.4% at the HD stage and 42.5% at the RP stage ( = 0.002). Minimum and mean ruminal pH were least for the LMILK stage, intermediate at the RP stage, and greatest at the HD stage ( = 0.016 and = 0.031, respectively). These data suggest that despite reductions in ruminal digestibility of NDF and ADF with advancing maturity, harvesting whole-crop oat and barley forage at the HD and RP stages of maturity did not negatively affect DMI, fermentation characteristics, or DE relative to whole-crop cereal forage harvested at the LMILK stage.

  12. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  13. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity......, observationally and genetically. DESIGN: In 97,811 individuals from the Danish general population, we examined the risk of incident type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity by milk intake observationally and by LCT-13910 C/T genotype [polymorphism (rs4988235) upstream from the lactase (LCT) gene], where TT...... and TC genotypes are associated with lactase persistence and CC with nonpersistence. RESULTS: Observationally for any compared with no milk intake, the HR for type 2 diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.24; P = 0.11), whereas the OR for overweight-obesity was 1.06 (1.02, 1.09; P = 0.002). Median milk...

  14. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  15. INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF Andropogon gayanus HAY AT THREE DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cayô Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, fiber fractions, energy, and the nitrogen balance of Andropogon gayanus hay at three different stages (56, 84 and 112 days. The statistical design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates. Dry matter, fiber fractions, and energy apparent digestibility were higher (P<0.05 for hay harvested at 56 and 84 days. Crude protein intake and apparent digestibility of A. gayanus hay harvested at 56 days of growth were greater (P<0.05 than the hay harvested at 84 and 112 days. The A. gayanus hay showed the best voluntary intake and digestibility at 56 and 84 days of age. Keywords: forage; nutritive value; sheep.

  16. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  17. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  18. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  19. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche.This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight.There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  20. Survey to determine why people drink raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis extract a large financial and personal toll on society. Pharmaceutical or dietary calcium intake is needed to increase bone mineral density to prevent fragility fractures. Although dairy products are a good source of calcium, patients who are unable to digest lactose tend to avoid them and are put at a greater risk for fracture than the general population. Anecdotal reports suggest that lactose maldigesters, when consuming raw milk, have a dramatic reduction in symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. The mechanism of the reported reduction in symptoms, if true, is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to survey raw milk drinkers to ascertain their health-related motivations for consuming raw milk, especially as they relate to lactose maldigestion. An online survey regarding raw milk was completed by 153 of 1527 members of a raw milk-buying community. The primary reason the respondents cited for drinking raw milk was that they believed it was more healthful; 30% reported some gastrointestinal discomfort when drinking pasteurized milk, yet almost all (99%) reported consuming raw milk without discomfort. Despite the reports of gastrointestinal discomfort, only 5% of respondents had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant by a medical professional, and only 1% had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant via the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. The primary motivation for drinking raw milk is its perceived health value, not its digestibility. Although raw milk appears to be more easily digested than pasteurized milk in our survey sample, the mechanism of digestibility remains unknown.

  1. Influence of Homogenization and Thermal Processing on the Gastrointestinal Fate of Bovine Milk Fat: In Vitro Digestion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Qi, Ce; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; McClements, David Julian

    2017-12-20

    Dairy lipids are an important source of energy and nutrients for infants and adults. The dimensions, aggregation state, and interfacial properties of fat globules in raw milk are changed by dairy processing operations, such as homogenization and thermal processing. These changes influence the behavior of fat globules within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The gastrointestinal fate of raw milk, homogenized milk, high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurized milk, and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurized milk samples was therefore determined using a simulated GIT. The properties of particles in different regions of the GIT depended on the degree of milk processing. Homogenization increased the initial lipid digestion rate but did not influence the final digestion extent. Thermal processing of homogenized milk decreased the initial rate and final extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to changes in interfacial structure. These results provide insights into the impact of dairy processing on the gastrointestinal fate of milk fat.

  2. Association between lutein intake and lutein concentrations in human milk samples from lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the lutein content of breast milk and its association with maternal lutein intake among lactating mothers in South Korea. Milk samples were obtained from 98 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.5 ± 3.5 years). Dietary intake data were collected by a food record method for three consecutive days. Maternal lutein intake was estimated by using the lutein database. Lutein concentrations in human milk were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method. The mean values of the daily lutein intakes and breast milk lutein concentrations in lactating mothers were 4.70 ± 3.11 mg/day (median 3.87) and 3.50 ± 3.71 µg/dl (median 2.45), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with the dietary lutein intake of lactating mothers after adjustment for lactating women's age, BMI, dietary energy intake, type of breastfeeding, and infants' age (β = 0.3629, P = 0.0056). Considering that lutein in milk can be associated with dietary lutein intake, knowledge about infant requirement is needed to define the adequate lutein levels in human milk.

  3. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, I.; Victoria, C.G.

    2000-01-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  4. Use of the isotope method to measure breast milk intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dos Santos, I; Victoria, C G [Departamento de Medicina Social, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    A study to test the efficacy of the nutrition counselling (NC) contents of integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Course (IMCI, WHO/UNICEF), funded by WHO, was planned and conducted in Pelotas (southern Brazil). The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial with the random allocation of 14 municipal health centres to receive the NC training and 14 other centres to the control group (current nutrition counselling, if any). The study included testing the knowledge of doctors, observing consultations and visiting the children at home 8, 45 and 180 days after the initial consultation. Dietary intakes were studied on a sub-sample of 66 children (two per health care provider), through daylong observations. Breast milk intake was assessed by the frequency and duration of feeds. The deuterium study was carried out in the same population to validate breast milk intake estimates. The deuterium study was a cross-sectional assessment of breast milk intake among those children enrolled in the day long sub-sample. From the 66 children visited by the day long study, 18 were still breast fed and were selected for the deuterium study. A total of 11 saliva samples were collected from each mother/child pair at a 15-day interval: four from the mother (on days 0, 1, 6 and 14) and seven from the child (on days 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, and 14). The Pearson correlation coefficient comparing the amount of milk as estimated by observation and the amount calculated through the deuterium technique (gold standard) was equal to 0.53. This result indicates that the estimates based on the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding through observation correlated to the results of the gold standard method for breast milk intake assessment, although this correlation was of moderate strength. As the gold standard, the deuterium method showed to be practical and easily to perform at field setting. (author)

  5. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  6. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  7. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  8. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-12-17

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait.

  9. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  10. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  11. Bioaccessible peptides released by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fermented goat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Jauregi, Paula; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Amigo, Lourdes; Miralles, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed. Evaluation of the cleavage specificity suggested a lower proteolytic activity of the probiotic strain. Some of the potentially identified peptides had been previously reported as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial and might account for the in vitro activity previously reported for these fermented milks. Simulated digestion of the products was conducted in the presence of a dialysis membrane to retrieve the bioaccessible peptide fraction. Some sequences with reported physiological activity resisted digestion but were found in the non-dialyzable fraction. However, new forms released by digestion, such as the antioxidant α s1 -casein 144 YFYPQL 149 , the antihypertensive α s2 -casein 90 YQKFPQY 96 , and the antibacterial α s2 -casein 165 LKKISQ 170 , were found in the dialyzable fraction of both fermented milks. Moreover, in the fermented milk including the probiotic strain, the k-casein dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) 51 INNQFLPYPY 60 as well as additional ACE inhibitory or antioxidant sequences could be identified. With the aim of anticipating further biological outcomes, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was applied to the bioaccessible fragments and led to potential ACE inhibitory sequences being proposed. Graphical abstract Ultrafiltered goat milks were fermented with the classical starter bacteria (St) and with St plus the

  12. Fatty acid profiles of in vitro digested processed milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digestion of milkfat releases some of the long-chain (18-carbon) fatty acids (FA) that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on ...

  13. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  15. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  16. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  17. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  18. Feeding calves with hydrosoluble soybean extract. I. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Novita Esteves

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the total replacement of powder milk protein (SL for hydrosoluble soybean extract (EHS in feeding 5-day-old Holstein male calves. The experiment was carried out using 3 treatment throughout the period of milk intake (5 to 90 days of life. In treatment I, SL was supplied from the 5th to 90th day of life. In treatment II, SL was supplied until the 29th day, and, from the 30th to 90th day, EHS was supplied. In treatment III, EHS was supplied from the 5th day of life. After this period the calves were weaned and received the same hay and concentrate feed as in the milk intake period, up to 180 days. During the milk intake period, the animals of treatment II, showed in average lower food intake, decreased daily weight gain and poorer digestibility of nutrients than animals from treatment I (P<0.05. In the post-weaning period food intake and average daily gain were similar. Calves of treatment III lost weight throughout the experiment, showed very weak body condition and were sacrified.

  19. Adjusting the weaning age of calves fed by automated feeders according to individual intakes of solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J

    2012-09-01

    When weaned at the ages typical of commercial dairy production, dairy calves usually show reduced growth rates, lowered energy intake, and increased behavioral signs of hunger, reflecting their difficulty in switching from a milk diet to solid feed. However, large differences exist between calves in their ability to adapt to solid feed, and automated feeders allow the age of weaning to be adjusted to an individual calf's intake of solid feed. We examined the effects of weaning according to solid feed intake on age at weaning, feed intake, and behavioral signs of hunger. In a 2×2 factorial design, 60 female Holstein calves in groups of 8 and fed milk, grain starter, and hay from automated feeders began to be weaned when their voluntary intake of grain starter was either 400 g/d (high start) or 200 g/d (low start), with weaning completed when their voluntary intakes of starter were either 1,600 g/d (high end) or 800 g/d (low end). Digestible energy intakes were calculated from milk, starter and hay intakes, corrected for body weights, calves were weighed, and the frequency of visits to the milk feeders were measured each day. The main effects and interactions between treatments were tested with ANOVA. Large differences were observed between calves in the age at which weaning was complete, with weaning completed earlier for low-end calves compared with high-end calves. No treatment effects (either of start amount or end amount) on intakes of milk, starter, or hay or on weight gains occurred. However, the calves that began weaning earlier had longer durations of weaning, greater growth rates from d 20 to 87, and were heavier on d 87, and had lower milk intakes, higher starter intakes, higher hay intakes, and a greater digestible energy intake, but showed more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder. Adjusting the age at which individual calves are weaned off milk according to their ability to eat solid feed can reduce the age at which weaning occurs while reducing the

  20. Intake and total apparent digestibility in lambs fed six maize varieties in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dantas dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, energy intake and nitrogen balance of silages of six maize varieties with early or super early cycles recommended to Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four male castrated lambs were lodged in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used, with means compared by Tukey test at 5%. There were no differences among varieties for any of the evaluated variables regarding intake and apparent digestibility. Concerning the intake of digestible energy, metabolizable energy and the ratio content of digestible and metabolizable energy, significant differences were observed between varieties and BRS Assum Preto showed highest values of metabolizable energy (2.650,8 kcal/day. All of the treatments presented positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among themselves. The varieties asessed can be an additional option to the semiarid regions in Brazil.

  1. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  2. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M.; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T.; Wade, Salimata

    2013-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother-infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed Infants breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135)g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222)g/d, n 44, P= 0.009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants' energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50)kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448)kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66)kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552)kJ/d), P<0.01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  3. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Berends, H.; Pantophlet, A. J.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to

  4. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  5. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  6. Impact of processing on in vitro digestion of milk from grazing organic and confined conventional herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate on differences between milk from grazing and non-grazing cows has not addressed the effects that standard processing may have on milk digestibility. In this study, raw milk from grazing organic (ORG) and non-grazing conventional (CONV) herds was adjusted to 0 and 3.25% fat and processed as fo...

  7. Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this

  8. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  9. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  10. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Changes in alcohol intake and risk of upper digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Keiding, Niels; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    of these cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study we assessed alcohol intake among 4 896 men and 6 239 women who participated at both the first (1976-1978) and second (1981-1983) examination of the study. Alcohol intake changes on risk of upper digestive tract cancer 1981-2002 were...

  12. [Scientific evidence about the role of yogurt and other fermented milks in the healthy diet for the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Aznar, Luis A; Cervera Ral, Pilar; Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Díaz Martín, Juan José; Baladia, Eduard; Basulto, Julio; Bel Serrat, Silvia; Iglesia Altaba, Iris; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Manera, María; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Santaliestra Pasías, Alba M; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population. Milk products consumption is positively associated with a high bone mineral density. More than 35 % of children and adults in Spain had calcium intakes below the national recommendations. Yogur contains less lactose than regular milk and fermenting milk bacteries express functioning lactase. Yogur intake is recommended to improve lactose digestion in individuals having lactose maldigestion. It seems reasonable to recommend yogur to improve calcium absorption, at least in post-menopausal women, and also for decreasing incidence and duration of infectious gastrointestinal disorders in children. Fermented milk products consumption, before, during and after medical eradication of Helicobacter Pylori, increases 5 to 10 % the effect of the specific drug therapy. Its consumption before, during and after antibiotic treatment, could also reduce the risk of diarrhea associated with the use of the above mentioned drugs. The Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Feeding and Dietetic Societies (FESNAD) recommend the following consumption of milk and milk products: Adults, 2-3 portions/day; school-age children, 2-3 portions/day; adolescents, 3-4 portions/day; pregnant and lactating women and during menopause, 3-4 portions/day; elderly, 2-4 portions/day. Considering yogur and fermented milk consumption show some advantages when compared with other milk products, we can recommend yogur within a daily and varied consumption of milk products. Copyright AULA MEDICA

  13. Impact of human milk pasteurization on the kinetics of peptide release during in vitro dynamic term newborn digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, Amélie; De Oliveira, Samira C; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Emily, Mathieu; Ménard, Olivia; Bourlieu, Claire; Dupont, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 min) ensures sanitary quality of donor's human milk but also denatures beneficial proteins. Understanding whether this further impacts the kinetics of peptide release during gastrointestinal digestion of human milk was the aim of the present paper. Mature raw (RHM) or pasteurized (PHM) human milk were digested (RHM, n = 2; PHM, n = 3) by an in vitro dynamic system (term stage). Label-free quantitative peptidomics was performed on milk and digesta (ten time points). Ascending hierarchical clustering was conducted on "Pasteurization × Digestion time" interaction coefficients. Preproteolysis occurred in human milk (159 unique peptides; RHM: 91, PHM: 151), mostly on β-casein (88% of the endogenous peptides). The predicted cleavage number increased with pasteurization, potentially through plasmin activation (plasmin cleavages: RHM, 53; PHM, 76). During digestion, eight clusters resumed 1054 peptides from RHM and PHM, originating for 49% of them from β-casein. For seven clusters (57% of peptides), the kinetics of peptide release differed between RHM and PHM. The parent protein was significantly linked to the clustering (p-value = 1.4 E-09), with β-casein and lactoferrin associated to clusters in an opposite manner. Pasteurization impacted selectively gastric and intestinal kinetics of peptide release in term newborns, which may have further nutritional consequences. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. UDP ratios on intake and milk production efficiency in Saanen ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Feed intake was significantly influenced by the RDP: UDP ratio and the LD diet achieved a higher feed intake than the MD and HD diets. The HD diet has a better feed conversion efficiency largely due to a better utilisation of body reserves to complement available protein (Change in body Weight, Table 1). The milk ...

  15. Intake of Milk or Fermented Milk Combined With Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Relation to Hip Fracture Rates: A Cohort Study of Swedish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Lemming, Eva Warensjö; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2018-03-01

    Milk products may differ in pro-oxidant properties and their effects on fracture risk could potentially be modified by the intake of foods with antioxidant activity. In the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort study, we aimed to determine how milk and fermented milk combined with fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with hip fracture. Women born in 1914-1948 (n = 61,240) answered food frequency and lifestyle questionnaires in 1987-1990 and 38,071 women contributed with updated information in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 22 years, 5827 women had a hip fracture (ascertained via official register data). Compared with a low intake of milk (yogurt or soured milk) yielded a different pattern with lowest rates of hip fracture in high consumers: HR, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.97) for ≥2 servings/day of fermented milk and ≥5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables compared with low consumption of both fruit and vegetables and fermented milk. We conclude that the amount and type of dairy products as well as fruit and vegetable intake are differentially associated with hip fracture rates in women. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  17. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  18. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  19. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility and comparison to maternal cheetah milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Cottam, Y.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was

  20. Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hård Af Segerstad, Elin M; Lee, Hye-Seung; Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Rayner, Marilyn; Kurppa, Kalle; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M; Agardh, Daniel

    2018-04-28

    Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants' diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children.

  1. SOUR MILK FOODSTUFF IN INFANTS DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of sour milk are widely used in nutrition of infants. They are an important source of digestible proteins, vitamins and potassium. Regular intake of sour milk foodstuff has favorable influence on intestinal microbiocenosis, functioning of the immune system, improves secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetites and increases bioavailability of micronutrients. Modern line in functional diet is enrichment of sour milk foodstuff with probiotics. Strains of microorganisms used in manufacture of products with probiotic action are proven to be safe and effective in prophylaxis and treatment of various diseases. Modern data which confirm prophylactic and medicinal properties of probiotic-containing foodstuff, especially bioyoghurts for children, are shown in this article.

  2. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  3. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in sixteen yearling cattle fed Panicum maximum hay supplemented with concentrate diet in which an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme, ROXAZYME G2® (which consist of Cellulase, hemicellulase and beta glucanase) was included at 0, 50, 100 and 150mg/kg.

  4. Use of peas in organic buffalo farming: effects on nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Masucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty lactating buffalo cows, organically farmed, were used to examine the effects of including peas in total mixed ration. Two concentrates were formulated to contain, as the main protein sources, either 350 g/kg of soybean cake (CC or 450 g/kg of peas (ExpC. Cows were blocked into two groups according to parity and previous milk yield and were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: one group was fed a diet with 6 kg/d of CC, whereas the treatment group was fed diet in which 3 kg/d of CC were replaced by an equal quantity of ExpC. Digestibility of the diets and milk yield of the cows were measured. The experimental period covered the whole lactation period. No differences were observed between groups for milk yield and composition, and for digestibility. The main hypothesis tested, that the replacement of soybean cake with peas in buffalo diet would not affect milk yield and composition,was confirmed. This suggested that the partial substitution of soybean cake with peas in diet for buffalo cows can be possible without affect performances.

  5. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  6. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  7. Measurement of breast milk intake using deuterium oxide and fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, T.; Bansa, D.; Boatin, R.; Vuore, T.; Datohe, D.; Timpo, S.; Asamoa-Tutu, P.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of breast milk intake of infants is essential to the estimation of nutrient requirements during infancy and lactation. The conventional method, test-weighing procedure for measuring breast milk is time consuming, most often inaccurate and may interfere with the mother's normal activities. A more practical and accurate method is isotope dilution using stable isotope-labelled water. The accuracy and ready availability of deuterium oxide (D 2 O) have led to its extensive use in measuring body composition and breast milk intake of infants. The D 2 O turnover method was field-tested in 13 lactating Ghanaian mother-baby pairs. Maternal and baby anthropometric measurements were made. Baby milk intake and maternal body composition were measured with the dose-to-mother method. Pre-dose samples of saliva were taken from each mother-baby pair. A measured D 2 O dose (30g) was administered orally to the mother. Post-dose saliva samples were collected from mother and baby on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, and 14. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR). The mean ± SD maternal age was 24 ± 5 years. Babies were aged 3.5 months on the average and weighed 6.7 ± 0.7 kg. Mean milk intake of babies was 828 ± 132 ml/day with a range of 610 to 1040 ml/day. Maternal fat free mass and % body fat were 44.8 ± 5.3 kg, 23.1 ± 5.1 respectively. This non-invasive and convenient method has been used successfully to measure breast milk intake of Ghanaian infants. (au)

  8. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kholif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum with spent rice straw (SRS of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control, 0.25 (SRS25 and 0.45 (SRS45 (w/w, DM basis of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis. The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241 and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021 compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01 digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002 and CP (p = 0.0005 than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001 for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001 concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148, creatinine (p = 0.0150, glucose (p = 0.0002 and cholesterol (p = 0.0016. Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05 milk (p = 0.0330 and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290 yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373 with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  9. Association between breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and growth and development among Malawian young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Chiza; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Phuka, John; Ashorn, Ulla; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Prado, Elizabeth L; Haskell, Marjorie J; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per

    2018-01-19

    World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age. The study was nested in a randomized controlled trial conducted in Malawi. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between breast milk intake and growth and development. Mean (SD) breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age was 752 (244) g/day. Mean (SD) length-for-age z-score at 12 months and change in length-for-age z-score between 12 and 18 months were -1.69 (1.0) and -0.17 (0.6), respectively. At 18 months, mean (SD) expressive vocabulary score was 32 (24) words and median (interquartile range) skills successfully performed for fine, gross, and overall motor skills were 21 (19-22), 18 (16-19), and 38 (26-40), respectively. Breast milk intake (g/day) was not associated with either growth or development. Proportion of total energy intake from breast milk was negatively associated with fine motor (β = -0.18, p = .015) but not other developmental scores in models adjusted for potential confounders. Among Malawian infants, neither breast milk intake nor percent of total energy intake from breast milk at 9-10 months was positively associated with subsequent growth between 12 and 18 months, or development at 18 months. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios = Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 animais da raça Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produção leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avaliação da suplementação lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observação do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caroço de algodão. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repetições e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementação lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produção e composição do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementação com torta de faveleira e com caroço de algodão pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen.This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milkproduction of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.

  11. A simplification of the deuterium oxide dilution technique using FT-IR analysis of plasma, for estimating piglet milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glencross, B.D.; Tuckey, R.C.; Hartmann, P.E.; Mullan, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies estimating milk intake using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer have required sublimation of the sample fluid (usually plasma) to remove solids and retrieve total water. This procedure has been simplified by directly measuring the D 2 O content of plasma with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, removing the requirement for sample sublimation. Comparisons of samples that were split and then analysed as water of sublimation and as total plasma were performed. It was found that the direct analysis of the plasma could be achieved without a loss in fidelity of the results (sublimated v. plasma, r 2 = 0.976; n = 26). Linearity of assay standards was very high (r 2 > 0.997). The modified technique was used to determine the milk intake by piglets from litters of 7 sows during established lactation (Days 10-15). Water turnover (WTO) was shown to be the primary point by which differences in the piglet milk intakes were influenced. Differences in the milk composition had minimal effect on the milk intake determinations. Milk intake by each piglet was shown to be strongly correlated to piglet growth (r 2 = 0.59, P 2 = 0.84, P < 0.01). Copyright (1997) CSIRO Australia

  12. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  13. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  15. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Palta, Priya; Couper, David; Meyer, Katie; Graff, Misa; Haring, Bernhard; Sharrett, Richey; Heiss, Gerardo

    2017-10-17

    Background : Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective : Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods : A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results : Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting "almost never" consuming milk. Conclusions : Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  16. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petruski-Ivleva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks. Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03 z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  17. Glycerin in cattle feed: intake, digestibility, and ruminal and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ruiz Fávaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of glycerin supplements in the diet of beef cattle by assessing intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia concentrations, and blood parameters. The study was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Jaboticabal campus using five crossbred cattle in an experiment employing a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Cattle diet treatments included zero, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g kg-1 dry matter of glycerin. Feed, leftover feed, and faeces were collected to determine intake and digestibility. Samples of ruminal liquid were collected at –1, 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after feeding to determine pH and ruminal ammonia. Blood was collected four hours after the morning feeding from the coccygeal vein. Replacing maize with glycerin resulted in lower concentrations of ether extract and non-fibre carbohydrates in the diets, leading to a linear decrease in the intake of these nutrients (P<0.05. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrates also decreased linearly with increasing dietary glycerin concentrations (P<0.05. The results for ruminal fermentation parameters showed a linear decrease (P<0.05 in the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 with increasing dietary levels of glycerin; however, ruminal pH was not affected (P<0.05. Serum concentrations of urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, and plasma glucose concentrations were within normal ranges based on the literature. The inclusion of glycerin in the cattle diet altered rumen fermentation, reducing the concentration of N-NH 3, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and non-fiber carbohydrates.

  18. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluschke, A.M.; Gilbert, M.S.; Williams, B.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with

  19. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  20. Curcumin Encapsulated in Milk Exosomes Resists Human Digestion and Possesses Enhanced Intestinal Permeability in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Monika; Rani, Payal; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2017-11-01

    Exosomes, the extracellular secretary nano-vesicles, act as carriers of biomolecules to the target cells. They exhibit several attributes of an efficient drug delivery system. Curcumin, despite having numerous bioactive and therapeutic properties, has limited pharmaceutical use due to its poor water solubility, stability, and low systemic bioavailability. Hence, this study aims to enhance the therapeutic potential of curcumin, a model hydrophobic drug, by its encapsulation into milk exosomes. In the present study, we investigated the stability of free curcumin and exosomal curcumin in PBS and in vitro digestive processes. Additionally, their uptake and trans-epithelial transport were studied on Caco-2 cells. Curcumin in milk exosomes had higher stability in PBS, sustained harsh digestive processes, and crossed the intestinal barrier than free curcumin. In conclusion, the encapsulation of curcumin into the exosomes enhances its stability, solubility, and bioavailability. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that milk exosomes act as stable oral drug delivery vehicles.

  1. Meat and milk intake in the rice-based Korean diet: impact on cancer and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-08-01

    Over a few decades, Korean diet has changed from traditional diet, mainly composed of rice and vegetables, to Westernised diet rich, in meat and milk, along with the economic development and globalisation. Increasing prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases such as cancer and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is becoming a heavy burden to society and requires further attention. In this review, the association of meat and milk consumption with cancer and MetS among Koreans was discussed. Previous meta-analyses showed that meat intake was positively associated with increased risk of cancers, especially colon, as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that the intake of milk and dairy products was negatively associated with colorectal cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, based on studies conducted mostly in Western countries. In Korea and other Asian countries, the association of meat and milk intake with cancers were inconclusive and varied by types of cancers. Conversely, milk intake was negatively associated with MetS risk as reported in Western countries. The difference in results between Korea and Western countries might come from the differences in dietary patterns and study designs. Most Koreans still maintain traditional dietary pattern, although rapid change towards Westernised diet is underway among the younger age group. Randomised clinical trials or prospective cohort studies with consideration of combined effects of various dietary factors in Korea and other Asian countries are needed to elucidate the impact of meat and milk or related dietary patterns in their diet.

  2. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  3. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  4. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  5. Comparative study on intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Red Sokoto bucks of average weight 15±2kg were fed different legumes hay in a mixed diet to evaluate their feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance. Using 4×4 Latin Square arrangement. The four test diets contained Maize offal, Rice husk, Salt, Bone meal and Cotton seed cake.while,20% of Soybean, ...

  6. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  7. Protective association of milk intake on the risk of hip fracture: results from the Framingham Original Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Tucker, Katherine L; Kiel, Douglas P; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2014-08-01

    Dairy foods are rich in bone-beneficial nutrients, yet the role of dairy foods in hip fracture prevention remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, and milk + yogurt intakes with incident hip fracture in the Framingham Original Cohort. A total of 830 men and women from the Framingham Original Cohort, a prospective cohort study, completed a food-frequency questionnaire (1988 to 1989) and were followed for hip fracture until 2008. In this population-based study, Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) by categories of energy-adjusted dairy intake (servings/wk), adjusting for standard confounders and covariates. The exposure was energy-adjusted intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, and milk + yogurt (servings/wk). Risk of hip fracture over the follow-up was the primary outcome; the hypothesis being tested was formulated after data collection. The mean age at baseline was 77 years (SD 4.9, range 68 to 96). Ninety-seven hip fractures occurred over the mean follow-up time of 11.6 years (range 0.04 to 21.9 years). The mean ± SD (servings/wk) of dairy intakes at baseline were: milk = 6.0 ± 6.4; yogurt = 0.4 ± 1.3; cheese = 2.6 ± 3.1; and cream = 3.4 ± 5.5. Participants with medium (>1 and milk intake tended to have lower hip fracture risk than those with low (≤1 serving/wk) intake (high versus low intake HR 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-1.06, p = 0.078; medium versus low intake HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.36-1.08, p = 0.071; p trend = 0.178]. There appeared to be a threshold for milk, with 40% lower risk of hip fracture among those with medium/high milk intake compared with those with low intake (p = 0.061). A similar threshold was observed for milk + yogurt intake (p = 0.104). These associations were further attenuated after adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density. No significant associations

  8. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breast milk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project will be a collaborative study between the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Department of Pediatrics, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). It may also involve the Polyclinic, Islamabad. Pediatricians who have had experience in lactation management clinic and hence breast-milk intake studies by conventional methods (test weighing) will be formally involved in the study. Human milk intake and growth performance of exclusively breast-fed infants will be monitored over the first six months of life. The deuterium dilution method will be used for measuring breast-milk intake and will be compared with the test weighing method. The growth of exclusively breast-fed children will be compared with the NCH growth standards. Records of illnesses that may lead to suboptimal growth will be kept. Episodes of diarrhoea, in particular, will be correlated with growth faltering. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori detected by the use of the 13 C Urea breath test at three month intervals during the study period examined for relationships with diarrhoea. Thus, this study will not only provide preliminary data on breast-milk intake (based on a more accurate isotopic method as compared to test weighing) but also on the growth patterns of exclusively breast-fed infants. Further, information on the significance of Helicobacter pylori to infection with episodes of diarrhoeal infection and growth faltering. (author)

  9. Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Forages in Goats Grazing on Introduced Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of diet ingested by goats grazing on an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture were measured across spring (May, summer (July, autumn (October and winter (March. In each season, 12 Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (6 wethers and 6 does with an average live weight of 22.2±1.3 kg and 19.5±0.8 kg, respectively were used to graze on a 2 hectares size paddock. Diet selection was observed and the plant parts selected by grazing goats and whole plant L. chinensis were sampled simultaneously. The alkane pair C32:C33 and C36 were used to estimate intake and digestibility, respectively. The results showed that the plant parts selected by goats had higher crude protein (CP and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF than the whole plant, especially in the autumn and winter. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and metabolizable energy (ME by goats was highest in summer (p<0.05. The goats ingested more CP, ME, and less ADF in spring than in autumn (p<0.05. The intakes of DM, CP, and ME were lowest in winter (p<0.05. There were significant differences in nutrient intake between wethers and does in each season, except for the ADF and ME intake per metabolic weight (LW0.75. The nutrient digestibilities were higher in spring and summer, and decreased significantly during the autumn and winter (p<0.05. Goats, especially wethers, had a relative constant NDF digestibility across seasons, however, the apparent digestibility of CP in both wethers and does, decreased to negative values in winter. The grazing goats experienced relatively sufficient nutrients supply in spring and summer, and a severe deficiency of CP and ME in winter.

  10. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  11. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  12. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  13. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  14. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  15. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  16. Effect of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementation of early and mid-season Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) with maize meal, maize meal with NaHC03 buffer, or maize meal plus combinations of slowly degradable protein was studied. Supplements were administered via a rumen fistula. The effect on intake and digestion of ryegrass was ...

  17. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, A E; Khattab, H M; El-Shewy, A A; Salem, A Z M; Kholif, A M; El-Sayed, M M; Gado, H M; Mariezcurrena, M D

    2014-03-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health.

  18. Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation Activities, Serum Parameters and Milk Production and Composition of Lactating Goats Fed Diets Containing Rice Straw Treated with Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, A. E.; Khattab, H. M.; El-Shewy, A. A.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Kholif, A. M.; El-Sayed, M. M.; Gado, H. M.; Mariezcurrena, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated replacement of Egyptian berseem clover (BC, Trifolium alexandrinum) with spent rice straw (SRS) of Pleurotus ostreatus basidiomycete in diets of lactating Baladi goats. Nine lactating homo-parity Baladi goats (average BW 23.8±0.4 kg) at 7 d postpartum were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 30 d experimental periods. Goats were fed a basal diet containing 0 (Control), 0.25 (SRS25) and 0.45 (SRS45) (w/w, DM basis) of SRS. The Control diet was berseem clover and concentrate mixture (1:1 DM basis). The SRS45 had lowered total feed intake and forages intake compared to Control. The SRS25 and SRS45 rations had the highest digestibilities of DM (p = 0.0241) and hemicellulose (p = 0.0021) compared to Control which had higher (p<0.01) digestibilities of OM (p = 0.0002) and CP (p = 0.0005) than SRS25 and SRS45. Ruminal pH and microbial protein synthesis were higher (p<0.0001) for SRS25 and SRS45 than Control, which also had the highest (p<0.0001) concentration of TVFA, total proteins, non-protein N, and ammonia-N. All values of serum constituents were within normal ranges. The Control ration had higher serum globulin (p = 0.0148), creatinine (p = 0.0150), glucose (p = 0.0002) and cholesterol (p = 0.0016). Both Control and SRS25 groups had the highest (p<0.05) milk (p = 0.0330) and energy corrected milk (p = 0.0290) yields. Fat content was higher (p = 0.0373) with SRS45 and SRS25 groups compared with Control. Replacement of BC with SRS in goat rations increased milk levels of conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with Control. It was concluded that replacing 50% of Egyptian berseem clover with SRS in goat rations improved their productive performance without marked effects on metabolic indicators health. PMID:25049962

  19. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  20. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  1. Consumo, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com óleo de soja e diferentes fontes de carboidratos na dieta Effects of different carbohydrates sources and soybean oil on intake, milk yield, and milk composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2006-02-01

    with 0 or 2.25% of soybean oil. No significant interactions between soybean oil and carbohydrate sources were observed in this trial. Both dry matter intake (18.4 kg/day and milk yield (23.5 kg/day did not differ among carbohydrate sources but cows fed WB had higher NDF intake and lower apparent total tract digestibilities of OM, total carbohydrates, and milk lactose content. Neither carbohydrate sources nor soybean oil changed significantly the ruminal microbial protein synthesis that averaged 239.4 g N/day. Cows fed diets supplemented with soybean oil showed lower dry matter intake (19.0 vs. 17.8 kg/day and contents of milk lactose (4.49 vs. 4.33% and milk fat (3.34 vs. 3.13% compared to those with no soybean oil in the diet. Oil diets showed no differences on milk production, milk protein content, digestibility of nutrients, and microbial protein synthesis. In addition, supplementation with soybean oil improved feed efficiency (1.35 vs. 1.23 and the milk protein:milk fat ratio (0.94 vs. 1.00. It can be concluded that for cows yielding up to 24 kg of milk per day WB and CP can economically replace CO in the concentrate. Inclusion of soybean oil in the diet changed milk composition and decreased dry matter intake but maintain milk yield, which improved feed efficiency.

  2. Milk intake is not associated with low risk of diabetes or overweight-obesity: a Mendelian randomization study in 97,811 Danish individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-08-01

    High dairy/milk intake has been associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes observationally, but whether this represents a causal association is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high milk intake is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity, observationally and genetically. In 97,811 individuals from the Danish general population, we examined the risk of incident type 2 diabetes and of overweight-obesity by milk intake observationally and by LCT-13910 C/T genotype [polymorphism (rs4988235) upstream from the lactase (LCT) gene], where TT and TC genotypes are associated with lactase persistence and CC with nonpersistence. Observationally for any compared with no milk intake, the HR for type 2 diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.24; P = 0.11), whereas the OR for overweight-obesity was 1.06 (1.02, 1.09; P = 0.002). Median milk intake was 5 glasses/wk (IQR: 0-10) for lactase TT/TC persistence and 3 (0-7) for CC nonpersistence. Genetically for lactase TT/TC persistence compared with CC nonpersistence, the OR was 0.96 (0.86, 1.08; P = 0.50) for type 2 diabetes and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12; P = 0.04) for overweight-obesity. In a stratified analysis for type 2 diabetes, corresponding values in those with and without milk intake were 0.88 (0.76, 1.03; P = 0.11) and 1.35 (1.07, 1.70; P = 0.01) (P-interaction: 0.002), whereas no gene-milk interaction on overweight-obesity was found. For a 1-glass/wk higher milk intake, the genetic risk ratio for type 2 diabetes was 0.99 (0.93, 1.06), and the corresponding observational risk was 1.01 (1.00, 1.01). For overweight-obesity, the corresponding values were 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) genetically and 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) observationally. High milk intake is not associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes or overweight-obesity, observationally or genetically via lactase persistence. The higher risk of type 2 diabetes in lactase-persistent individuals without milk intake likely is explained by collider stratification

  3. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal.

  4. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  5. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  6. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  7. Breast milk intake and mother to infant pesticide transfer measured by deuterium oxide dilution in agricultural and urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Rodriguez-Olibarria, Guillermo; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2017-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have increased pesticide use in urban areas (UA) and agricultural areas (AA) in Mexico. Breast milk can be contaminated by pesticide exposure. The objective of the study was to measure breast milk intake by deuterium oxide dilution as well as organochlorine and pyrethroid transfer from mother to infant in AA and UA of Sonora, Mexico. Human milk intake was determined by the 'dose-to-mother' technique using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution. Mothers' body composition was also assessed by this technique and the intercept method. Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin) and organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p'- DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'- DDD) in breast milk samples were measured by gas chromatography. Sixty-two lactating women and their infants participated in the study, 32 lived in the UA and 30 lived in the AA. Breast milk intake was approximately 100 mL higher in the AA than in the UA 799 ± 193 and 707 ± 201 mL/day, respectively (p pesticides studied surpassed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in milk for humans according to EPA and FAO/WHO. In conclusion, breast milk intake was higher in the AA compared to the UA. The p,p'- DDT and cypermethrin levels in breast milk were higher in the UA compared to the AA. Since pesticide levels in human milk did not exceed the ADI, breastfeeding is still a safe practice and should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Milk Microbial Community Structure Is Relatively Stable and Related to Variations in Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intakes in Healthy Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet E; Carrothers, Janae M; Lackey, Kimberly A; Beatty, Nicola F; York, Mara A; Brooker, Sarah L; Shafii, Bahman; Price, William J; Settles, Matthew L; McGuire, Mark A; McGuire, Michelle K

    2017-09-01

    Background: The human milk microbiome has been somewhat characterized, but little is known about changes over time and relations with maternal factors such as nutrient intake. Objective: We sought to characterize the human milk microbiome and described associations with maternal nutrient intake, time postpartum, delivery mode, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ). Methods: Milk samples ( n = 104) and 24-h diet recalls were collected 9 times from 21 healthy lactating women from day 2 to 6 mo postpartum. Women were classified by BMI as healthy weight (milk microbiome was relatively constant over time, although there were small changes in some of the lesser-abundant genera. Relative abundances of several taxa were associated with BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. For instance, overweight and obese mothers produced milk with a higher relative abundance of Granulicatella than did healthy-weight women (1.8% ± 0.6% compared with 0.4% ± 0.2%, respectively; P milk microbiome are complex and may include maternal nutrient intake, maternal BMI, delivery mode, and infant sex. Future studies designed to investigate the relation between maternal nutrient intake and the milk microbiome should strive to also evaluate dietary supplement usage and analyze the collected milk for its nutrient content.

  9. The Effect of Digestive Capacity on the Intake Rate of Toxic and Non-Toxic Prey in an Ecological Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Oudman

    Full Text Available Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager's intake rate, a constraint that potentially cannot be alleviated by enlarging digestive capacity. Hence, physiological flexibility may have a differential effect on intake of different prey types, and consequently on dietary preferences. We tested this effect in red knots (Calidris canutus canutus, medium-sized migratory shorebirds that feed on hard-shelled, usually mollusc, prey. Because they ingest their prey whole and crush the shell in their gizzard, the intake rate of red knots is generally constrained by digestive capacity. However, one of their main prey, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis, imposes a toxin constraint due to its symbiosis with sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. We manipulated gizzard sizes of red knots through prolonged exposure to hard-shelled or soft foods. We then measured maximum intake rates of toxic Loripes versus a non-toxic bivalve, Dosinia isocardia. We found that intake of Dosinia exponentially increased with gizzard mass, confirming earlier results with non-toxic prey, whereas intake of Loripes was independent of gizzard mass. Using linear programming, we show that this leads to markedly different expected diet preferences in red knots that try to maximize energy intake rate with a small versus a large gizzard. Intra- and inter-individual variation in digestive capacity is found in many animal species. Hence, the here proposed functional link with individual differences in foraging decisions may be general. We emphasize the potential relevance of individual variation in physiology when studying trophic interactions.

  10. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  11. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  12. Milk intake is not associated with ischaemic heart disease in observational or Mendelian randomization analyses in 98,529 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle K M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2015-01-01

    of Danish descent, aged 20-100 years, from three studies of the general population. Information on IHD (N = 10,372) and MI (N = 4188) were obtained from national Danish registries. First, we investigated observational associations between milk intake and incident IHD and MI. Second, we confirmed...... of 5.4 years, the observational hazard ratio for a 1 glass/week higher milk intake was 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00,1.01] for both IHD and MI. Median milk intake was 3 glasses/week (interquartile range: 0-7) in lactase CC non-persistent individuals compared with 5 glasses/week (0...

  13. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  14. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  15. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF 240 ). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF 240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF 240 , aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction digestibility was higher for the LD diets (88.3 versus 85.8% aNDFom in HD), for which lower feed intakes were also observed. The

  16. Ready-to-eat cereals improve nutrient, milk and fruit intake at breakfast in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan; Beghin, Laurent; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Hallstrom, Lena; Kafatos, Anthony; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Roccaldo, Romana; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Sjostrom, Michael; Reye, Béatrice; Thielecke, Frank; Widhalm, Kurt; Claessens, Mandy

    2016-03-01

    Breakfast consumption has been recommended as part of a healthy diet. Recently, ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) became more popular as a breakfast item. Our aim was to analyse the dietary characteristics of an RTEC breakfast in European adolescents and to compare them with other breakfast options. From the European multi-centre HELENA study, two 24-h dietary recalls of 3137 adolescents were available. Food items (RTEC or bread, milk/yoghurt, fruit) and macro- and micronutrient intakes at breakfast were calculated. Cross-sectional regression analyses were adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and city. Compared to bread breakfasts (39 %) and all other breakfasts (41.5 %), RTEC breakfast (19.5 %) was associated with improved nutrient intake (less fat and less sucrose; more fibre, protein and some micronutrients like vitamin B, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus) at the breakfast occasion. Exceptions were more simple sugars in RTEC breakfast consumers: more lactose and galactose due to increased milk consumption, but also higher glucose and fructose than bread consumers. RTEC consumers had a significantly higher frequency (92.5 vs. 50.4 and 60.2 %) and quantity of milk/yoghurt intake and a slightly higher frequency of fruit intake (13.4 vs. 10.9 and 8.0 %) at breakfast. Among European adolescents, RTEC consumers showed a more favourable nutrient intake than consumers of bread or other breakfasts, except for simple sugars. Therefore, RTEC may be regarded as a good breakfast option as part of a varied and balanced diet. Nevertheless, more research is warranted concerning the role of different RTEC types in nutrient intake, especially for simple sugars.

  17. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  18. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  19. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  20. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Cui, Jack; Olson, Trent D; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to study the in vivo gastric digestion of fat globules in bovine cream from raw, pasteurised or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Fasted rats were gavaged once and chyme samples were collected after 30, 120 and 180 min post-gavage. Proteins from raw (RC) and pasteurised (PC) creams appeared to be digested faster and to a greater extent. Free fatty acids (FAs) increased throughout the 3h postprandial period. Short and medium chain FAs were released more rapidly than long chain FAs which were hydrolysed to a greater degree from PC. The size of the fat globules of all creams increased in the stomach. Protein aggregates were observed in pasteurised and homogenised cream chyme. Protrusions, probably caused by the accumulation of insoluble lipolytic products, appeared at the surface of the globules in RC and PC chyme. Overall, PC proteins and lipids appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  2. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  4. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Calf milk replacers commonly contain 40-50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. Ileal disappearance of starch was only 60% in calves, whereas lactose disappeared for 97% (Coombe and Smith,

  5. New stable isotope method to measure protein digestibility and response to pancreatic enzyme intake in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, M P K J; Com, G; Anderson, P J; Deutz, N E P

    2014-12-01

    Adequate protein intake and digestion are necessary to prevent muscle wasting in cystic fibrosis (CF). Accurate and easy-to-use methodology to quantify protein maldigestion is lacking in CF. To measure protein digestibility and the response to pancreatic enzyme intake in CF by using a new stable isotope methodology. In 19 CF and 8 healthy subjects, protein digestibility was quantified during continuous (sip) feeding for 6 h by adding (15)N-labeled spirulina protein and L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (PHE) to the nutrition and measuring plasma ratio [(15)N]PHE to [(2)H5]PHE. Pancreatic enzymes were ingested after 2 h in CF and the response in protein digestibility was assessed. To exclude difference in mucosal function, postabsorptive whole-body citrulline (CIT) production rate was measured by L-[5-(13)C-5,5-(2)H2]-CIT pulse and blood samples were taken to analyze tracer-tracee ratios. Protein digestibility was severely reduced in the CF group (47% of healthy subjects; P digestibility in CF until 90% of values obtained by healthy subjects. Maximal digestibility was reached at 100 min and maintained for 80 min. Stratification into CF children (n = 10) and adults showed comparable values for protein digestibility and similar kinetic responses to pancreatic enzyme intake. Whole-body citrulline production was elevated in CF indicating preserved mucosal function. Protein digestibility is severely compromised in patients with CF as measured by this novel and easy-to-use stable isotope approach. Pancreatic enzymes are able to normalize protein digestibility in CF, albeit with a severe delay. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov = NCT01494909. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, V; Outor-Monteiro, D; Mourão, J L; Cone, J W; Lourenço, A L

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit does were fed ad libitum two pelleted diets: a control diet (C) with 15% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis) and a test diet (A) with 36% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis), according to a change-over design. Wild does dry matter (DM) intake per kg live weight (BW) was 55% higher (p  .05) was found when intake was expressed per kg 0.75 BW (ca. 56 g DM) and tended to be higher (p = .07) in D does when expressed per kg 0.67 BW (62 g vs. 55 g DM). Domestic does showed a higher (p digestibility (3; 2; 3; 3 percentage points respectively) than W does. The amount of nutrients and energy digested by D does was lower per kg BW (p  .05) and tended to be higher per kg 0.67 BW (p  .05) the feed intake nor the diet digestibility. This study suggests that W rabbits exhibit a higher intake per kg BW and a lower digestibility than their D counterparts, which results in similar digestible nutrient and energy intake per kg BW powered to 0.75. The nutritive value of dehydrated alfalfa for rabbits, evaluated through intake and digestibility, seems to be equivalent to their base diets (forage plus concentrate). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author) 37 refs, 3 tabs

  8. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, N.F.; Wong, W.W.; Patterson, B.W.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2 H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2 H: 1 H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18 O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2 H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2 H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  9. Role of intestinal brush border peptidases in the simulated digestion of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Miralles, Beatriz; Mamone, Gianfranco; Sánchez-Rivera, Laura; Recio, Isidra; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the "often neglected" intestinal brush border membranes (BBMs) hydrolases on dietary peptides, exploring the possibility that the disintegration of proteins progressed in the small intestine up to a "core" of intrinsically stable oligopeptides, persisting independently on the up-stream breakdown. Samples of sodium caseinate, skim milk powder, and whey protein isolate were submitted to in vitro simulated gastropancreatic digestion using two different procedures: (i) a simplified model involving the main compartmental specific proteases; (ii) a static digestion method based on a frameset of parameters inferred from in vivo. The gastroduodenal digesta were further hydrolyzed with peptidases from porcine jejunal BBM. The peptidomes arising from the two digestion models, characterized by combined HPLC and MS techniques, differed to some extent. However, only specific protein domains survived digestion, among which are potential bioactive or immunogenic (food allergy) peptides. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) after BBM digestion (70-77%) practically did not differ between the digestion models and significantly increased the DH after duodenal steps. Any in vitro digestion model should be supplemented with a jejunal phase to realistically determine the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of dietary peptides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old rural infants given a ready-to-use complementary food in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Bahwere, Paluku; Bisimwa, Ghislain; Mwangi, Christine M; Collins, Steve

    2011-06-01

    Lipid-based ready-to-use foods are currently used for infant feeding, but their potential effect on breast-milk intake is not well documented. The objective was to assess the breast-milk intake of 9-10-mo-old infants given either a ready-to-use complementary food (RUCF) paste or a standard corn-soy blend (UNIMIX) porridge in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive either RUCF (n = 700) or UNIMIX (n = 700) for 6 mo. Breast-milk intake was measured at 9-10 mo in a subsample of 58 infants (29 from each group). Mothers received a dose of ≈30 g deuterium oxide. Predose and postdose saliva samples were collected from both mothers and infants over 2 wk. Breast-milk intake (g/d) was measured from saliva samples by using infrared spectroscopy. Mean (±SD) breast-milk intake was not significantly (P = 0.69) different between the 2 groups: RUCF (705 ± 236 g/d) and UNIMIX (678 ± 285 g/d). Mean (±SD) nonmilk oral water intakes were 338.3 ± 251.1 and 336.4 ± 227.2 g/d for RUCF and UNIMIX, respectively (P = 0.98). No differences in breast-milk intake were observed between infants consuming either RUCF or UNIMIX. The deuterium-dose-to-the-mother dilution technique is an affordable technique that we recommend for periodic evaluation of breast-milk intake in resource-poor settings. This trial is registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN20267635.

  11. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Berends, H; Pantophlet, A J; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    Calf milk replacers (MR) commonly contain 40% to 50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. It is, however, unknown which enzyme limits the rate of starch digestion. The objectives were to determine which enzyme limits starch digestion and to assess the maximum capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves. A within-animal titration study was performed, where lactose was exchanged stepwise for one of four starch products (SP). The four corn-based SP differed in size and branching, therefore requiring different ratios of starch-degrading enzymes for their complete hydrolysis to glucose: gelatinised starch (α-amylase and (iso)maltase); maltodextrin ((iso)maltase and α-amylase); maltodextrin with α-1,6-branching (isomaltase, maltase and α-amylase) and maltose (maltase). When exceeding the animal's capacity to enzymatically hydrolyse starch, fermentation occurs, leading to a reduced faecal dry matter (DM) content and pH. Forty calves (13 weeks of age) were assigned to either a lactose control diet or one of four titration strategies (n=8 per treatment), each testing the stepwise exchange of lactose for one SP. Dietary inclusion of each SP was increased weekly by 3% at the expense of lactose and faecal samples were collected from the rectum weekly to determine DM content and pH. The increase in SP inclusion was stopped when faecal DM content dropped below 10.6% (i.e. 75% of the average initial faecal DM content) for 3 consecutive weeks. For control calves, faecal DM content and pH did not change over time. For 87% of the SP-fed calves, faecal DM and pH decreased already at low inclusion levels, and linear regression provided a better fit of the data (faecal DM content or pH v. time) than non-linear regression. For all SP treatments, faecal DM content and pH decreased in time (Pdigestion and that fermentation may contribute substantially to total tract starch

  13. Effects of ruminally degradable starch levels on performance, nitrogen balance, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobin Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This trial was performed to examine the effects of ruminally degradable starch (RDS levels in total mixed ration (TMR with low corn-based starch on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Methods Eight multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW]: 717±63 kg; days in milk [DIM]: 169±29 were assigned to a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 62.3% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, low RDS or 72.1% ruminally degradable starch (% of total starch, high RDS. Changes to the ruminally degradable levels were conducted by using either finely ground corn or steam-flaked corn as the starch component. Results The results showed that dry matter intake, milk yield and composition in dairy cows were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was lower for cows fed high RDS TMR than low RDS TMR. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein decreased, and that of starch increased for cows fed high RDS TMR over those fed low RDS TMR, with no dietary effect on the whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. The proportion of urinary N excretion in N intake was lower and that of fecal N excretion in N intake was higher for cows fed high RDS TMR than those fed low RDS TMR. The N secretion in milk and the retention of N were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Total purine derivative was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was similar in cows fed high RDS TMR and low RDS TMR. Conclusion Results of this study show that ruminally degradable starch levels can influence whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows fed low corn-based starch diets, with no influence on performance.

  14. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  15. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  16. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological parameters in calves. I. Digestibility of ... Body mass-gain (kg) and efficiency of feed conversion (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) over the 28-day experimental period were respectively 7,3 and 1,8 (WM); 7,3 and 1,8 (NWM); 4,3 and 3,9 (CM) and 4,9 and 2,9 (NCM).

  17. [Milk, Daily products and Bone health.Milk or dairy products and bone:Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Junko

    2018-01-01

    An assessment of the association between the intake of milk or dairy products and bone density or the risk of fractures on the basis of epidemiological studies revealed the following findings:(1)a sufficient prepubertal intake of milk or dairy products could contribute to the increased bone growth and maximized peal bone mass because the intake of calcium in the corresponding stage in Japan is inadequate;(2)adequate milk intake could contribute to the maintenance of peal bone mass among menstruating adult females and the decrease of bone loss in postmenopausal females. Adequate milk intake could contribute to the decrease of aging-induced bone loss in elderly males, though there is no sufficient scientific evidence;and(3)a meta-analysis indicated no correlation between the increased milk intake and decreased risks of hip fractures in the elderly. As the intake of milk or dairy products in the Japanese elderly is rather less than that reported by the meta-analysis, the minimal intake of milk or dairy products is anticipated to elevate the risk of fractures in middle-aged or elderly males and females although the scientific evidence is inadequate.

  18. Consumo, digestibilidade e excreção de uréia e derivados de purinas em vacas de diferentes níveis de produção de leite Intake, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in Holstein cows with different milk production levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Chizzotti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do nível de produção de leite sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, MO, EE, PB, FDNcp e CNF corrigidos, o consumo de NDT, a produção de proteína microbiana e a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina. Foram avaliadas as concentrações de N uréico no soro (NUS e no leite (NUL de animais de diferentes níveis de produção de leite. Foram comparadas as metodologias de coletas de urina spot e total para quantificação do fluxo de N microbiano. Quinze vacas holandesas foram alocadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, de acordo com a produção de leite: 5,88 (baixa; 18,54 (média e 32,6 kg de leite/dia (alta. A dieta foi constituída de silagem de milho fornecida à vontade e 1 kg de concentrado para cada 3 kg de leite produzido. Os consumos de todos os nutrientes, exceto FDNcp, foram maiores nos animais mais produtivos. As digestibilidades de MS e MO e o teor de NDT não diferiram entre os tratamentos, mas as digestibilidades da PB e da FDNcp foram influenciadas pelo nível de produção, sendo maior e menor, respectivamente, nos animais de alta produção. Os teores de NUS e NUL e a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina foram altamente correlacionados e superiores nos animais mais produtivos, indicando que a concentração ótima varia com o nível de produção de leite. A produção microbiana não diferiu entre as metodologias de coleta spot e total de urina, sendo inferior nos animais menos produtivos. Assim, a coleta de urina spot pode ser utilizada para estimar a excreção de compostos nitrogenados na urina e a produção de proteína microbiana no rúmen.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of milk production level on intake, digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen (N metabolism in Holstein cows. It was also of particular interest to compare spot urine sampling and total urine collection as

  19. Uréia para vacas em lactação: 1. Consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite Urea for dairy cows: 1. Intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2001-10-01

    (Holstein x Gyr full fed isoproteic diets with 60% silage and 40% concentrate in the dry matter (DM basis and 0, 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1% urea, correspondent to 2.08, 4.01, 5.76, and 8.07% of crude protein levels in the form of non protein nitrogen compounds (NNP, with the objectives to evaluate the intakes and the apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the total digestible nutrients (TDN intakes. Possible changes on the milk production and composition were also evaluated. Cows averaging initial live weight of 511.8 kg were randomized allotted to the treatments. The experimental period last 90 days for each cow, starting immediately after calving. The indigestible acid detergent fiber (IADF was used as marker to determine the nutrients apparent digestibility. The results were interpreted by variance and regression analyses. The addition of increasing NNP to the diet showed decreasing linear effect on the intakes of DM, OM, NDF, CP, EE, CHO and TDN. NNP levels did not affect the apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, CHO and NDF. There was quadratic effect for EE, and the maximum digestibility of 89.12% was obtained with the estimated NNP content of 4.73% in DM. The maximum milk production, of 20.10 kg/day, was obtained with the estimated NNP content of 4.79%, or 0.7% urea in dietary total DM. Linear reduction of fat content was observed as the dietary NNP contents increased, while there was a quadratic behavior for protein, with the maximum content of 3.4% estimated with 3.88% NNP.

  20. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  1. Correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes Perazzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay. Buffel grass hay was treated with four levels of urea (0, 18, 36 and 54 g/kg DM basis and eight repetitions. Thirty-two sheep with no defined breed and an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. It was observed positive correlations were found between the feeding time and the intake of dry matter (r = 0.3120, organic matter (r = 0.3242, neutral detergent fiber (r = 0.3800, total carbohydrates (r = 0.3343 and total digestible nutrients (r = 0.3233. Positive correlations (P < 0.05 were found among the rumination efficiencies, g of DM/h and g of NDF/h with nutrient intake variables, except for ether extract intake. Positive correlations were observed (P < 0.05 between both total weight gain (TWG and average daily gain (ADG and the rumination efficiency, g of DM/h (r = 0.3330 and g of NDF/h (r = 0.3304. The feeding and rumination efficiencies have a positive relationship with the total digestible nutrients. The correlation among intake, digestibility and performance variables with the ingestive behavior, it was important for the understanding of diet containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, in which the positive correlation of rumination efficiency with intake and weight gain explained the favorable effect on productive performance of feedlot sheep.

  2. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  3. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  4. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  5. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  6. The nutritional quality of herbaceous legumes on goats: Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56% are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94% or of A. glabrata (15.19% The fiber (NDF content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37% than in A. pintoi (16.94% or A. glabrata (41.50%. The forage intake was highest (P0.05 between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d or A. glabrata (453 g/d. A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively. The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3% or OM (83.5% were highest (P0.05 between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF

  7. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  8. Potential Health Benefits and Metabolomics of Camel Milk by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-02-01

    None of the research reports reveals the metabolomics and elemental studies on camel milk. Recent studies showed that camel milk possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Metabolomics and elemental studies were carried out in camel milk which showed us the pathways and composition that are responsible for the key biological role of camel milk. Camel milk was dissolved in methanol and chloroform fraction and then vortexed and centrifuged. Both the fractions were derivatized by N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and TMCS after nitrogen purging and analyzed by GC-MS. Camel milk was also analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion. We found that higher alkanes and fatty acids are present in the chloroform fraction and amino acids, sugars and fatty acid derivatives are present in aqueous fractions. All the heavy metals like As, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, and Ni were in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. Na, K, Mg, and Ca were also present in the safe limits in terms of maximum daily intake of these elements. These results suggested that the camel milk drinking is safe and there is no health hazard. The present data of GC-MS and ICP-MS correlate the activities related to camel milk.

  9. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  10. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  11. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  12. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  13. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  14. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  15. Enzymes in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; German, J Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Milk proteins are a complex and diverse source of biological activities. Beyond their function, intact milk proteins also act as carriers of encrypted functional sequences that, when released as peptides, exert biological functions, including antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity, which could contribute to the infant's competitive success. Research has now revealed that the release of these functional peptides begins within the mammary gland itself. A complex array of proteases produced in mother's milk has been shown to be active in the milk, releasing these peptides. Moreover, our recent research demonstrates that these milk proteases continue to digest milk proteins within the infant's stomach, possibly even to a larger extent than the infant's own proteases. As the neonate has relatively low digestive capacity, the activity of milk proteases in the infant may provide important assistance to digesting milk proteins. The coordinated release of these encrypted sequences is accomplished by selective proteolytic action provided by an array of native milk proteases and infant-produced enzymes. The task for scientists is now to discover the selective advantages of this protein-protease-based peptide release system. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B.

    2000-01-01

    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.) [de

  17. Resíduo proveniente do beneficiamento do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em rações para vacas em lactação: consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e eficiência de alimentação Residue from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. processing in the rations for milking cows: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition and feeding efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do farelo de soja pelo resíduo de feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em rações para vacas em lactação sobre as seguintes variáveis: consumos e digestibilidades totais aparentes dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite e eficiência alimentar. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça holandesa, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 ´ 4, balanceados. Os animais receberam rações completas ofertadas ad libitum, contendo 0; 13; 26 e 39% de resíduo de feijão cru no concentrado, em substituição ao farelo de soja. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT diminuíram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de feijão no concentrado. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNi não foram afetados pelas dietas e os consumos de proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE apresentaram comportamento cúbico. Os coeficientes de digestibilidades (CD de MS, MO, EE e FDN não foram afetados pelas dietas, enquanto os de PB e CNF apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente e crescente, respectivamente. A produção e a composição do leite (gordura, proteína, lactose, extratos secos desengordurado e total, quando expressas em kg/dia, apresentaram redução linear para os níveis crescentes de substituição. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para as eficiências de alimentação. A inclusão do resíduo de feijão às dietas ocasionou redução no desempenho dos animais.This work was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effect of replacement of soybean meal by common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. residue in rations for milking cows on the following variables: intakes and total apparent digestibilities of nutrients, milk production and composition and feeding efficiency. Twelve Holstein cows were

  18. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  19. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  1. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  2. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  3. Lactase persistence, milk intake, hip fracture and bone mineral density: a study of 97 811 Danish individuals and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholdt, H K M; Larsen, M K; Varbo, A; Nordestgaard, B G; Ellervik, C

    2018-03-14

    Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies (N = 97 811, age ≥20 years). We added meta-analyses of LCT-13910 and fractures and BMD from five published Northern European population studies. In the Danish studies, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture per one glass per week higher milk intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.01). The per T-allele milk intake was 0.58 (0.49-0.68) glasses per week, but HR was 1.01 (0.94-1.09) for hip fracture. In meta-analyses of Danish studies with published Northern European population studies, the random effects odds ratio for any fracture was 0.86 (0.61-1.21; I 2 = 73%) for TT vs. CC and 0.90 (0.68-1.21; I 2 = 63%) for TC vs. CC. The standardized mean difference in femoral neck BMD was 0.10 (0.02-0.18; I 2 = 0%) g cm -2 for TT vs. CC and 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.17; I 2 = 17%) g cm -2 for TC vs. CC. There were no differences in lumbar spine or total hip BMD comparing TT or TC with CC. Genetically lifelong lactase persistence with high milk intake was not associated with hip fracture in Danish population-based cohorts. A meta-analysis combining Danish studies with published Northern European population studies also showed that lactase persistence was not associated with fracture risk. Genetic lactase persistence was associated with a higher femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine or total hip BMD. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  5. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GOAT KIDS RAISED UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Solaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five wether goat kids (BW of 21.76 + 0.76 were randomly assigned to one of three production systems for 14 weeks to evaluate intake, digestibility and goat performance. Production systems were: 1 feedlot (FL, housed in individual pens and fed 40% protein pellets, 40% soybean hulls and 20% bermudagrass hay; 2 grazing continuously on 1 hectare bahiagrass pasture (BP supplemented daily with 150 g of protein pellets/hd; and 3 browsing rotationally on 4, 0.5 hectare mimosa (MB supplemented daily with 100 g cracked corn/hd. Body weights were recorded every two weeks. Feed intake and digestibility were measured on eight goats from each treatment groups. Goats were fitted with canvas fecal collection bags, allowed for 3 days of adjustments followed by 5 days of fecal collection. Feces, feed offered, pasture and browse samples were analyzed for acid insoluble ash to determine digestibility and predict intake. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected to measure volatile fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Total feed and medication costs also were recorded. Goats on FL system gained faster (P 0.10 in butyrate and valerate. However, acetate: propionate was lower (P 0.10 BUN. Numerically, browse system was most cost effective and bahaigrass pasture was most expensive in terms of animal production.

  6. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P  0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  7. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are

  8. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, J.J.; Morrison, S.Y.; Hosseinni, A.

    2016-01-01

    concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n = 4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral...... fashion to milk intake but not to glucose supplementation, even at milk consumption levels of only 0.4% of BW as DM....

  9. Low-protein solid feed improves the utilization of milk replacer for protein gain in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Alferink, S J J; van Reenen, C G; Bokkers, E A M; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify the contribution of low-protein solid feed (SF) intake, in addition to milk replacer, to protein and energy retention in veal calves. Because of potential interactions between milk replacer and SF, occurring at either the level of digestion or postabsorption, this contribution might differ from that in calves fed either SF or milk replacer alone. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian male calves, 55±0.3 kg of body weight (BW), were divided across 16 groups of 3 calves each. Groups were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 incremental levels of SF intake: 0, 9, 18, or 27 g of DM of SF/kg of BW(0.75) per day. The SF mixture consisted of 25% chopped wheat straw, 25% chopped corn silage, and 50% nonpelleted concentrate (on a DM basis). Each group was housed in a respiration chamber for quantification of energy and N balance at each of 2 BW: at 108±1.1 kg and at 164±1.6 kg. The milk replacer supply was 37.3g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 108 kg of BW and 40.7 g of DM/kg of BW(0.75) per day at 164 kg of BW, irrespective of SF intake. Within a chamber, each calf was housed in a metabolic cage to allow separate collection of feces and urine. Indirect calorimetry and N balance data were analyzed by using regression procedures with SF intake-related variables. Nitrogen excretion shifted from urine to feces with increasing SF intake. This indicates a higher gut entry rate of urea and may explain the improved N utilization through urea recycling, particularly at 164 kg of BW. At 108 kg of BW, the gross efficiency of N retention was 61% for calves without SF, and it increased with SF intake by 5.4%/g of DM of SF per day. At 164 kg of BW, this efficiency was 49% for calves without SF, and it increased by 9.9%/g of DM of SF per day. The incremental efficiency of energy retention, representing the increase in energy retained per kilojoule of extra digestible energy intake from SF, was 41% at 108 kg of BW and 54% at 164 kg of BW. Accordingly, the apparent

  10. [Determination of 24 minerals in human milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqing; Yue, Bing; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning; Yin, Shian

    2013-05-01

    To determine the levels of 24 minerals in human milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with microwave digestion. The samples were digested by microwave. The contents of minerals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The standard reference minerals of 1849a and 1568a from National Institute of Science and Technology were used for quality control. The accuracy and reproduability for this method were evaluated with mix standards and 1849a and 1568a standard reference materials. The ranges of the levels of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, aluminum, chromium, arsenic, selenium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, nickel, gallium, cadmium, silver, strontium, cesium, barium, lead in human milk was 34.97-415.83 mg/kg, 19.00-39.52 mg/kg, 102.13-274.53 mg/kg, 351.19-713.99 mg/kg, 180.08-349.64 mg/kg, 0.06-0.44 mg/kg, 0.9-7.37 microg/kg, 0.92-2.72 microg/kg, 0.20-21.15 microg/kg, 0.10-0.70 mg/kg, 0.56-3.25 mg/kg, 3.00-16.12 micro.g/kg, 62.16-591.69 microg/kg, 0.02-6.91 microg/kg, 5.99-13.70 microg/kg, 0.07-2.11 microg/kg, 0.77-209.26 microg/kg, 0.005-0.28 microg/kg, 0.02-0.23 microg/kg, 0.02-0.71 microg/kg, 36.89-132.26 microg/kg, 0.01-4.72 microg/kg, 0.83-28.16 microg/kg, 2.5-5.3 microg/kg, respectively. The levels of minerals in human milk in present study were consisted with other similar studies. The experiment examined the levels of minerals in human milk satisfactorily. The method has high accuracy and good reproducibility, which could be used for understanding the levels of minerals in human milk.

  11. Effect of pre-weaning solid feed and milk intake on caecal content characteristics and performance of rabbits around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Juliano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the effect of different solid feed and milk intake during suckling on performance around weaning and on caecal content characteristics at weaning. In order to obtain different intakes of milk and solid feed, 13 litters of pregnant females (PF inseminated the day after delivery and 14 litters of non-pregnant females (NPF were compared. At birth the litters were equalized at eight pups and during lactation dead pups were replaced by pups of the same age from nursing does. Compared to the PF group, rabbits in the NPF group had a higher milk intake (26.0 versus 21.4 g/day; P < 0.01 and lower solid feed intake (9.1 versus 11.5 g/day; P < 0.01 between 20 and 28 days of age. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in weight gain before and post-weaning (28-49 days. At weaning, the rabbits in group PF showed higher values in caecal content (g 26.3 versus 22.6; P < 0.05 and volatile fatty acids (mmol/l 52.2 versus 43.6; P < 0.01 and lower values in empty caecal weight (g 7.18 versus 7.78; P < 0.05, C3 (6.4 versus 9.3%; P < 0.01 and C3/C4 ratio (0.39 versus 0.63; P < 0.01 than the group NPF. On the basis of the above results, it may be concluded that the quantity of solid feed and milk intake before weaning influenced the charac- teristics of the caecal content, but not the performance of rabbits around weaning.

  12. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiöld, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2014-10-28

    To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. Cohort studies. Three counties in central Sweden. Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61,433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45,339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture. During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15,541 women died and 17,252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10,112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker). High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended. © Michaëlsson et al 2014.

  13. Development and Application of the Remote Food Photography Method to Measure Food Intake in Exclusively Milk Fed Infants: A Laboratory-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altazan, Abby D; Gilmore, L Anne; Burton, Jeffrey H; Ragusa, Shelly A; Apolzan, John W; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M

    Accurate methods of assessing food intake in infants are needed to assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and risk of childhood obesity. Current methods are either subjective or have limited ability for use beyond clinical research settings. To assess the accuracy of the RFPM to evaluate simulated milk intake including energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake compared to direct weighing within a controlled study. Individuals were recruited to prepare three 2 fl oz, 4 fl oz, 6 fl oz, and 8 fl oz servings of infant formula and to capture photographs at different stages of preparation (dry powdered formula, prepared formula, and liquid waste) using the SmartIntake® application. Gram weights of the bottles were obtained by the RFPM and direct weighing. Using the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient values were generated from gram weights. Intake of formula prepared from powder measured by the RFPM was equivalent to weighed intake within 7.5% equivalence bounds among all servings and each serving size. The mean difference between methods varied among servings sizes with the RFPM underestimating intake by 1.6 ± 0.4 kcals in 2 fl oz servings, 4.8 ± 0.6 kcals in 4 fl oz servings, and 6.2 ± 1.0 kcals in 6 fl oz servings, and overestimating intake by 0.1 ± 1.2 kcals in 8 fl oz servings. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the RFPM overestimated intake at lower levels food intake and underestimated intake at higher levels. Considering photographs of only the prepared formula bottle and the bottle with formula waste to simulate ready-to-feed formula and human breast milk, intake estimated by the RFPM was equivalent to the directly weighed intake within 7.5% for all servings. The RFPM has higher accuracy than subjective methods and similar accuracy as compared to the objective methods in estimating simulated intake of milk and formula with lower burden to

  14. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  15. Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition by plasma based techniques after digestion using microwave-induced combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picoloto, Rochele S. [Núcleo de Química, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, 85884-000 Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Doneda, Morgana [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Flores, Eder L.M. [Núcleo de Química, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, 85884-000 Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Mesko, Marcia F. [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-610 Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, Paola A., E-mail: paola.mello@ufsm.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, bromine and iodine determination in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Contrarily to previous works using MIC, a higher sample mass was digested (700 mg). Water and ammonium hydroxide (10 to 100 mmol L{sup −1}) were investigated as absorbing solutions and accurate results were achieved using a 25 mmol L{sup −1} NH{sub 4}OH solution. Moreover, the high stability of analytes after digestion (up to 30 days) using this solution was observed. The accuracy of the proposed MIC method was evaluated using certified and reference materials of milk powder (NIST 1549 and NIST 8435). No statistical difference was observed between results obtained by MIC-ICP-MS and reference values. Results for samples were also compared with those obtained by ICP-OES and no statistical difference was observed. Microwave-assisted alkaline extraction (MW-AE) was also evaluated for milk powder using NH{sub 4}OH and tetramethylammonium hydroxide solutions. Solutions obtained after digestion by MIC (whole milk powder) presented low carbon content in digests (< 25 mg L{sup −1}) while solutions obtained after alkaline extraction presented up to 10,000 mg L{sup −1} of C. MIC method was preferable in view of the possibility of obtaining solutions with low carbon content even using a relatively high sample mass (up to 700 mg) avoiding additional dilution prior to ICP-MS analysis, thus allowing better detection limits. Limits of detection obtained by MIC-ICP-MS were 0.007 and 0.003 μg g{sup −1} for Br and I, respectively, while for MW-AE were 0.1 and 0.05 μg g{sup −1} respectively for Br and I. Among the main advantages of the proposed method are the use of diluted alkaline solutions that is in agreement with green analytical chemistry recommendations, the high stability of

  16. Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition by plasma based techniques after digestion using microwave-induced combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picoloto, Rochele S.; Doneda, Morgana; Flores, Eder L.M.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M.M.; Mello, Paola A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, bromine and iodine determination in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Contrarily to previous works using MIC, a higher sample mass was digested (700 mg). Water and ammonium hydroxide (10 to 100 mmol L −1 ) were investigated as absorbing solutions and accurate results were achieved using a 25 mmol L −1 NH 4 OH solution. Moreover, the high stability of analytes after digestion (up to 30 days) using this solution was observed. The accuracy of the proposed MIC method was evaluated using certified and reference materials of milk powder (NIST 1549 and NIST 8435). No statistical difference was observed between results obtained by MIC-ICP-MS and reference values. Results for samples were also compared with those obtained by ICP-OES and no statistical difference was observed. Microwave-assisted alkaline extraction (MW-AE) was also evaluated for milk powder using NH 4 OH and tetramethylammonium hydroxide solutions. Solutions obtained after digestion by MIC (whole milk powder) presented low carbon content in digests (< 25 mg L −1 ) while solutions obtained after alkaline extraction presented up to 10,000 mg L −1 of C. MIC method was preferable in view of the possibility of obtaining solutions with low carbon content even using a relatively high sample mass (up to 700 mg) avoiding additional dilution prior to ICP-MS analysis, thus allowing better detection limits. Limits of detection obtained by MIC-ICP-MS were 0.007 and 0.003 μg g −1 for Br and I, respectively, while for MW-AE were 0.1 and 0.05 μg g −1 respectively for Br and I. Among the main advantages of the proposed method are the use of diluted alkaline solutions that is in agreement with green analytical chemistry recommendations, the high stability of analytes in solution and the

  17. Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Wiking, Lars; Bjerring, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk...

  18. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  19. EFFECTS OF HIGH SOYBEAN OIL FOR GOATS IN LATE LACTATION ON INTAKE, MILK COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brou Kouakou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.

  20. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  1. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  2. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  3. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Ferlay, A; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2014-03-01

    Dehydrated lucerne is used as a protein source in dairy cow rations, but little is known about the effects of lucerne on greenhouse gas production by animals. Eight Holstein dairy cows (average weight: 582 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received diets based on either maize silage (M) or grass silage (G) (45% of diet on dry matter (DM) basis), with either soya bean meal (15% of diet DM) completed with beet pulp (15% of diet DM) (SP) or dehydrated lucerne (L) (30% of diet DM) as protein sources; MSP, ML, GSP and GL diets were calculated to meet energy requirements for milk production by dairy cows and degradable protein for rumen microbes. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not differ among diets (18.0 kg/day DMI); milk production was higher with SP diets than with L diets (26.0 v. 24.1 kg/day), but milk production did not vary with forage type. Milk fatty-acid (FA) composition was modified by both forage and protein sources: L and G diets resulted in less saturated FA, less linoleic acid, more trans-monounsaturated FA, and more linolenic acid than SP and M diets, respectively. Enteric methane (CH4) production, measured by the SF6 tracer method, was higher for G diets than for M diets, but did not differ with protein source. The same effects were observed when CH4 was expressed per kg milk. Minor effects of diets on rumen fermentation pattern were observed. Manure CH4 emissions estimated from faecal organic matter were negatively related to diet digestibility and were thus higher for L than SP diets, and higher for M than G diets; the resulting difference in total CH4 production was small. Owing to diet formulation constraints, N intake was higher for SP than for L diets; interaction between forage type and protein source was significant for N intake. The same statistical effects were found for N in milk. Faecal and urinary N losses were determined from total faeces and urine collection. Faecal N output was lower for M than for G diets but

  4. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  5. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  6. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  7. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  8. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  9. Effect of aditive supplementation to ensiled red clover on voluntary intake, digestibility and N balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on ad libitum intake of fresh silage and dry matter (DM, in vivo digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, OM in DM (D-value, crude protein (CP and nitrogen (N balance. Red clover was harvested at 60% bloom stage. It was ensiled into round bales without an additive (CD and with an additive supplementation (CDA in the amount of 2 L t-1 fresh material. Statistically lower (P<0.001 DM content was recorded in CD (405 g kg-1 fresh sample in comparison with CDA (665 g ST kg-1 fresh sample. Statistically higher CP content (P<0.001 was recorded in CD (127 g kg-1 ST in comparison with CDA (110 g SP kg-1 ST. CD had lower pH (P<0.001 (4.9 in comparison with CDA (5.2. No differences were recorded in NH3 between treatments. Ad libitum intake of fresh silage and silage DM was higher (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively in CD in comparison with CDA. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, D-value and N balance were not different between treatments. It was concluded that the positive effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on chemical composition, ad libitum intake, digestibility and N balance was not recorded due to applied ensiling technology as additive can improve feeding value of roughage, but it is not a replacement for good management practices.

  10. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  11. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  12. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.5207 Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.5207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Morais Pereira Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 animais da raça Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produção leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avaliação da suplementação lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observação do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caroço de algodão. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repetições e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementação lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produção e composição do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementação com torta de faveleira e com caroço de algodão pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen.This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milk production of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.

  14. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  15. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA concentrations in blood and breast milk in Chinese lactating women, suggesting that the tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake

  16. Relationship among residual feed intake, digestibility and ingestive behavior in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Magnani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers belonging to different classes of residual feed intake (RFI. Thirty-two heifers ranked high in RFI (0.491± 0.51 kg/d; n=15 and RFI low (- 0.447 ± 0.51 kg/d; n=17 with a mean age of 502 ± 23.61 days and average weight 364 ± 27.96 kg were kept in confinement for 48 days, with formulated diet based on Tifton 85 hay, corn, cottonseed meal and urea, and ratio of forage: concentrate ratio of 45:55%. The parameters analyzed were digestibility, ingestive behavior and their correlation. Animals low RFI showed higher digestibility of dry matter (DMD, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and cellulose that high RFI animals (49.14% versus 45.38%, 56.65% versus 49.88%, 49.96% versus 45.08%, 61.61% versus 56.40% for DMD, NDFD, ADFD, CELD, respectively. These results indicate that more efficient animals have better food utilization. No differences were found in the variables of ingestive behavior among classes of RFI. Changes in the RFI can be partly explained by the digestibility of nutrients, which is related to ingestive behavior of animals.

  17. Digestão do feno de capim-elefante anão (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott sob diferentes níveis de consumo em ovinos Dwarf elephant grass hay (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott digestion by sheep at different levels of intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucileia Aparecida da Silva Morais

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados doze ovinos Texel × Corriedale machos, castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso vivo (PV inicial médio de 27kg, mantidos em gaiolas de metabolismo, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, conduzido em dois períodos, para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo (base matéria seca (MS de feno de capim elefante anão (CEA (1,50; 1,75; 2,00; 2,25; 2,50% do PV e ad libitum sobre a digestão nesses animais. A digestibilidade aparente da MS, da matéria orgânica (MO e do nitrogênio (N, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira do N, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e a síntese de proteína microbiana ruminal não foram afetados, mas a retenção de N (em g dia-1 e como % do N consumido foi sempre positiva e aumentou linearmente (PTwelve one year old Texel x Corriedale castrated male sheep, with 27kg mean live weight (LW, housed in metabolic cages, were used in a completely randomized experiment, carried out in two periods, to evaluate the effect of level of intake (dry matter (DM basis of dwarf elephant grass (1.5; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.5% of LW and ad libitum on digestion. DM, organic matter (OM and nitrogen (N apparent digestibility, as well as the N true digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN contents and rumen microbial protein synthesis were not affected by level of hay intake. N retention (as g day-1 and as % of N intake was always positive and increased linearly (P<0.05 as the level of hay intake increased. However, neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF apparent digestibility, as well as OM true digestibility decreased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing intake. Passage rate and mean retention time in the cecum-colon were not affected, whereas passage rate through the reticulum-rumen increased and mean retention time decreased (P<0.05 as the level of intake increased. Fibre and OM true digestibility decreased as hay intake increased (P<0.05, mainly due to a decreasing in retention time of particles into the

  18. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  19. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  20. Radionuclide activities and radiological impact from the intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek Kamal; Amran Abdul Majid

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The annual intake of four naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K from powdered milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee for Malaysian population were estimated using gamma spectrometry system. The radionuclides annual intake of 226 Ra ranged from 6 to 35.7 Bq, 232 Th ranged from 7.6 to 57.7 Bq, 238 U ranged from 6.3 to 63.7 Bq and 40 K ranged from 771.8 to 1707.5 Bq for adults. The means of these intakes were 28.8 Bq for 226 Ra, 38.5 Bq for 232 Th, 28.1 Bq for 238 U and 2921.1 Bq for the 40 K. The annual intake of radionuclide for infants were found to be 66.2 Bq for 226 Ra, 71.6 Bq for 232 Th, 23 Bq for 238 U and 7774.8 Bq for 40 K. the annual internal dose for infants from the intake of powdered milk were 63.5 μSv for 226 Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232 Th, 2.8 μSv for 238 U and 326.5 μSv for 40 K. The measured values also gives annual internal dose of 13.7 μSv 226 Ra, 19 μSv for 232 Th, 4 μSv for 238 U and 24.2 μSv for 40 K for adult population. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 425 μSv for infants and 60.9 μSv for adults. This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 for infants and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. The probability of cancer risk increment is estimated as 0.18 % for infants (18 person in 10000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 person in 10000). Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 x 10 -3 nd the total risk involved from all natural radiation sources based on global average radiation dose of 2.4 mSv is of 6 x 10 -3 . The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore, the diet does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered safe for human consumption. (author)

  1. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  2. The effects on digestibility and ruminal measures of chemically treated corn stover as a partial replacement for grain in dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Combs, D K; Doane, P H; Cecava, M J; Hall, M B

    2016-08-01

    Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. Given the volatile nature of grain prices, substitution of treated stover for grain was investigated with dairy cows to provide insights on ruminal and digestibility effects of a feed option that makes use of alternative, available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in diet digestibility and ruminal effects when increasing levels of calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaOSt) were substituted for corn grain in diets of lactating cows. Mature corn stover was treated with calcium oxide at a level of 50g∙kg(-1) dry matter (DM), brought up to a moisture content of 50% following bale grinding, and stored anaerobically at ambient temperatures for greater than 60d before the feeding experiment. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 686kg of body weight and 35kg of milk∙d(-1) were enrolled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square, where CaOSt replaced corn grain on a DM basis in the ration at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120g∙kg(-1) DM. All reported significant responses were linear. The DM intake declined by approximately 1kg per 4% increase in CaOSt inclusion. With increasing replacement of corn grain, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration increased. However, rumen NDF turnover, NDF digestibility, NDF passage rate, and digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF were unaffected by increasing CaOSt inclusion. Total-tract organic matter digestibility declined by 5 percentage units over the range of treatments, approximately 1.5 units per 4-percentage-unit substitution of CaOSt for grain. With increasing CaOSt, the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate declined, whereas the lowest detected ruminal pH increased from 5.83 to 5.94. Milk, fat, and protein yields declined as CaOSt increased and DM intake declined with the result that net energy in milk declined by

  3. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  4. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  6. Protective association of milk intake on the risk of hip fracture: Results from the Framingham Original Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Casey, Virginia A.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy foods are rich in bone beneficial nutrients, yet the role of dairy foods in hip fracture prevention remains controversial. The objective was to evaluate the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream and milk+yogurt intakes with incident hip fracture. 830 men and women from the Framingham Original Cohort, a prospective cohort study, completed a food frequency questionnaire (1988–89) and were followed for hip fracture until 2008. In this population-based study, Cox-proportional hazards r...

  7. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com resíduo de cervejaria fermentado - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990 Nutrient intake and digestibility and milk yield of cows fed with fermented brewer’s grain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Bublitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 0, 5, 10 e 15% do resíduo de cervejaria fermentado (RCF nas rações de vacas leiteiras sobre o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade total (CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite. Foram utilizadas 28 vacas da raça Holandesa, com aproximadamente 101 ± 21 dias de lactação, e peso corporal médio de 612 ± 110 kg, alimentadas com silagem de milho, silagem pré-secada de azevém, RCF e concentrado. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os dados de consumo e CD dos nutrientes, produção e qualidade do leite foram submetidos à análise de regressão considerando 5% de probabilidade. O consumo de matéria seca (MS dos animais foi “ad libitum”. Os teores de RCF nas rações não alteraram (p > 0,05 o consumo dos nutrientes. Os CD da matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CHT, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA não foram influenciados (p > 0,05 pelos teores de RCF, contudo, verificou-se efeito linear positivo com relação aos CD da MS, proteína bruta (PB e extrato etéreo (EE em função da inclusão do RCF nas rações. A inclusão do RCF nas rações não influenciou (p > 0,05 na produção e qualidade do leite. Conclui-se que o RCF pode ser incluído até 15% nas rações de vacas leiteiras sem alterar o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e qualidade do leiteThe objective this work was to evaluate the inclusion of 0, 5, 10 and 15% of the fermented brewer’s grain (FBG in diets of dairy cows on intake and total digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients, production and milk quality. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were used, with 100 ± 21 days in milk, and average body weight (BW of 612 ± 110 kg, fed with corn silage, ryegrass silage, FBG and concentrate. Intake data and nutrient’s DC, production and milk quality were subjected to regression analysis to 5% of probability. The DM intake of animals was ad libitum. The FBG inclusion

  8. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A; van Baal, Jürgen; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2014-07-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW(-0.75) · d⁻¹] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [¹⁵N₂]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary collections. Real-time qPCR was used to measure gene expression levels of bovine urea transporter B (bUTB) and aquaglyceroporin-3 and aquaglyceroporin-7 in rumen wall tissues. For every incremental gram of DM SF intake (g DM · kg(0.75)), nitrogen intake increased by 0.70 g, and nitrogen retention increased by 0.55 g (P intake, but aquaglyceroporin-7 expression did not. We conclude that in addition to the increase in digested nitrogen, urea recycling contributes to the observed increase in nitrogen retention with increasing SF intake in milk-fed calves. Furthermore, ruminal bUTB and aquaglyceroporin-3 expression are upregulated with SF intake, which might be associated with urea recycling. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  10. Effect of oxytocin injection to milching buffaloes on its content & stability in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Pullakhandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oxytocin (OT injections to milch cattle for milk letdown have become a common practice amongst dairy farmers in India. Although there is no reported evidence, it is widely presumed that long term consumption of such milk leads to adverse health consequences. However, there is no information on the effect of exogenous OT injections on milk OT content and its stability during heating and gastrointestinal digestion. This study was carried out to determine the OT content in milk samples given by buffaloes with and without OT injections and to assess the stability of OT in the milk. Methods: Milk samples from milch buffaloes (Murrah buffalo were collected from local farmers with (n=121 or without (n=120 exogenous OT injections during 3 to 5 months of lactation period. The OT content of milk samples was estimated by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The thermal and digestive stability of OT was assessed by in silico and in vitro digestion methods. Results: The OT content of the milk samples was similar regardless of OT injections used. Further, OT was found to be stable to heat treatment and gastric pepsin digestion while it was rapidly digested during the simulated intestinal digestion. r0 educed OT was digested by pepsin, implying that internal disulphide bridge of OT rendered the peptide resistant to peptic digestion. On the other hand, phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor, abrogated the pancreatin induced digestion of OT. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that exogenous OT injections do not influence its content in milk. Further, OT present in milk is rapidly degraded during intestinal digestion, ruling out its intestinal absorption and associated adverse health consequences, if any.

  11. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  12. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  13. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  14. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  15. Bakery waste in sheep diets: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Biazon França

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of bakery waste inclusion (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100%, DM basis in proportion to corn meal in the energetic mixture of the concentrate on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters in sheep. Five male lambs with body weight of 30 kg were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Experimental diets were composed of concentrate and Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. hay in a 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio. The concentrate rations were composed of corn meal, soybean meal and bakery waste. The bakery waste:corn meal ratio corresponded to the inclusion of, approximately, 0, 7, 14, 22 and 30% (DM basis of bakery waste in the diet. There was no effect of bakery waste inclusion on the intake and digestibility of nutrients, nor on nitrogen balance, pH values or concentrations of volatile fatty acids. However, the ammonia nitrogen concentration showed negative linear response in relation to the level of inclusion, in which each increase of 1% bakery waste promoted reduction of 0.11 mg/dL in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen. This fact may be related to the increase in ruminal availability of energy, which allows greater use of ammonia for microbial growth. Bakery waste can replace corn meal in concentrate rations for sheep.

  16. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole

  18. [THE IMPORTANCE OF "MILK BONES" TO "WISDOM BONES" - COW MILK AND BONE HEALTH - LESSONS FROM MILK ALLERGY PATIENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Liat; Katz, Yitzhak

    2016-03-01

    The necessity of milk consumption in the western diet is a subject of intense controversy. One of the main benefits of milk is that it is the main source of dietary calcium. Calcium is a major bone mineral, mandatory for bone health. Its supply is derived exclusively from external dietary sources. During the growth period, an increased calcium supply is needed for the process of bone mass accumulation. An optimal bone mass achieved by the end of the growth period may be protective later in life against the bone mass loss that commonly occurs. This in turn, can be preventative against the occurrence of osteoporosis and the development of spontaneous bone fractures. Over the past several decades, an increased incidence of osteoporosis has been documented in western countries, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality in the middle-aged and geriatric population. Many studies have investigated the dietary calcium requirements for different ages, to achieve and maintain proper bone health. Based on their results, guidelines concerning calcium intake in every stage of life have been published by national and international organizations. In the western diet, it is difficult to achieve the recommended calcium intake without milk consumption. Moreover, calcium bioavailability for intestinal absorption is high. Several studies have recently raised doubts concerning the amounts of calcium intake in the western diet and its effectiveness in preventing osteoporosis. The main disadvantage of these studies is their being based on the patient's past memory recall of milk consumption. Patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy are a unique population. Their lifetime negligible milk consumption is undisputed. A recent study investigated for the first time, the bone density of young adults with milk allergy at the end of their growth period. Their severe reduction in bone mineral density and dietary calcium intake defines them as a high risk group for the

  19. Ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados Nutrient intake and nutritional status of children following a diet free from cow's milk and cow's milk by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C. S. Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 26 crianças, na primeira consulta realizada em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica, que vinham recebendo dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados (média de idade = 19,1 meses e 30 crianças com dieta normal, isto é, sem nenhum tipo de restrição alimentar (média de idade = 16,8 meses. Empregou-se o método do dia alimentar habitual para a obtenção dos dados sobre consumo alimentar. A ingestão alimentar foi comparada entre os grupos e em relação às Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura. RESULTADOS: O grupo em dieta isenta de leite de vaca apresentou menor ingestão de energia (p = 0,005, proteínas (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake and the nutritional status of children on a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet. METHODS: Twenty-six children receiving a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet were assessed during their first visit to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic (mean age = 19.1 months. Thirty children with no food restriction (mean age = 16.8 months were also assessed. The usual daily food intake method was used to make the dietary assessment. The food intake was compared between the groups and in relation to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. The z-scores for weight/age, height/age and weight/height were used to evaluate the nutritional status. RESULTS: The cow's milk free diet group presented lower energy (p = 0.005, protein (p < 0.001, lipid (p < 0.001, calcium (p < 0.001 and phosphorous (p < 0.001 intake when compared to the control group. The number of children who had energy, calcium and phosphorous intake below the DRIs was higher in the cow's milk free diet group than in the control group. The z-score means for the cow's milk free diet and

  20. Nutrient intakes and iron and vitamin D status differ depending on main milk consumed by UK children aged 12-18 months - secondary analysis from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children.

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    Sidnell, Anne; Pigat, Sandrine; Gibson, Sigrid; O'Connor, Rosalyn; Connolly, Aileen; Sterecka, Sylwia; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition in the second year is important as this is a period of rapid growth and development. Milk is a major food for young children and this analysis evaluated the impact of the type of milk consumed on nutrient intakes and nutritional status. Data from the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children were used to investigate the intakes of key nutrients, and Fe and vitamin D status, of children aged 12-18 months, not breastfed, and consuming >400 g/d fortified milk (n 139) or >400 g/d of whole cows' milk (n 404). Blood samples from eligible children for measurement of Hb (n 113), serum ferritin and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n 105) were available for approximately 20 % of children. Unpaired Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare nutrient intakes and status between consumers of fortified and cows' milk. Mean daily total dietary intakes of Fe, Zn, vitamin A and vitamin D were significantly higher in the fortified milk group. Mean daily total dietary intakes of energy, protein, Ca, iodine, Na and saturated fat were significantly higher in the cows' milk group. Hb was not different between groups. The fortified milk group had significantly higher serum ferritin (P = 0·049) and plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0·014). This analysis demonstrates significantly different nutrient intakes and status between infants consuming >400 g/d fortified milk v. those consuming >400 g/d whole cows' milk. These results indicate that fortified milks can play a significant role in improving the quality of young children's diets in their second year of life.

  1. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  2. Peanut, milk, and wheat intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced allergy and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Platts-Mills, Thomas A; Workman, Lisa; Sordillo, Joanne E; Camargo, Carlos A; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect childhood allergy and asthma. We sought to examine the associations between maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during early pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. We studied 1277 mother-child pairs from a US prebirth cohort unselected for any disease. Using food frequency questionnaires administered during the first and second trimesters, we assessed maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during pregnancy. In mid-childhood (mean age, 7.9 years), we assessed food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis by questionnaire and serum-specific IgE levels. We examined the associations between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between specific food allergies, asthma, and atopic conditions in mid-childhood. Food allergy was common (5.6%) in mid-childhood, as was sensitization to at least 1 food allergen (28.0%). Higher maternal peanut intake (each additional z score) during the first trimester was associated with 47% reduced odds of peanut allergic reaction (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.94). Higher milk intake during the first trimester was associated with reduced asthma (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97). Higher maternal wheat intake during the second trimester was associated with reduced atopic dermatitis (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.90). Peanut, wheat, and soy allergy were each cross-sectionally associated with increased childhood asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis (ORs, 3.6 to 8.1). Higher maternal intake of peanut, milk, and wheat during early pregnancy was associated with reduced odds of mid-childhood allergy and asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury in breast milk from women in the Federal District, Brazil and dietary risk assessment for breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Fernanda M; Cunha, Leandro R da; Andrade, Patrícia D; Costa Junior, Walkimar A da; Bastos, Wanderley R; Caldas, Eloisa D

    2017-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal, ubiquitous in nature; it is excreted in breast milk from exposed mothers and may affect infant neuro-development. In this study, 224 breast milk samples provided by eight human milk banks in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed for total mercury (THg), of which 183 were also analyzed for methyl mercury (MeHg), the most relevant form of this metal for the breastfed infants. Samples were acid digested in a microwave oven and THg determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LOQ of 0.76μg/L). Samples were lyophilized, ethylated and MeHg determined in a MERX automated system (LOQ of 0.10μg/L). Inorganic mercury (IHg) levels were estimated from the THg and MeHg determined in the samples. Most of the samples were collected 1-2 months postpartum, with 38% during the first month. Over 80% of the samples had THg values above the LOQ, reaching a maximum of 8.40μg/L, with a mean of 2.56μg/L. On average, MeHg accounted for 11.8% of THg, with a maximum of 97.4%. Weekly intakes were estimated individually, considering the baby's age and body weight at the time of milk collection. Mean weekly intake for MeHg was 0.16±0.22μg/kg bw, which represented 10% of the PTWI; in only one case, the intake exceeded 100% of the PTWI (1.90μg/kg bw, 119% of PTWI). Mean intake for IHg was 2.1±1.5μg/kg bw, corresponding to 53% PTWI. These results indicate no health concern for the breastfed babies, a conclusion that can be extended to the consumers of breast milk donated to the milk banks, primarily immature and low weight babies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of variation in proportion of cornmeal and steam-rolled corn in diets for dairy cows on behavior, digestion, and yield and composition of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Ballard, C S; Mandebvu, P; Sniffen, C J; Carter, M P

    2001-02-01

    Sixty-six lactating multiparous Holstein cows (113+/-46 DIM) housed in a free-stall facility were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three treatments to evaluate the effects on animal performance from feeding cornmeal, cornmeal mixed with steam-rolled corn in a ratio of 1:1 on dry matter basis, or steam-rolled corn. The only difference in the dietary ingredients was the type of corn, which was included in the total mixed ration (TMR) at 17% of dry matter. The densities (g/L) of cornmeal and steam-rolled corn were, respectively, 635 and 553. Diets were fed as TMR and were formulated according to the Cornell Penn Miner Dairy nutrition model. The TMR consisted of 40% forage and 60% concentrate on dry matter basis. The first 2 wk of the 8-wk study was a preliminary period, and data collected during this period were used as covariate in statistical analysis of production data collected during wk 6 to 8. Treatment diets were fed from wk 3 to 8. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, starch, and neutral detergent fiber were not significantly different among treatments. Cows fed TMR containing steam-rolled corn had higher body condition and ruminated longer. However, feeding cornmeal and steam-rolled corn together did not improve dry matter and nutrient digestion, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and percentage and yield of fat, crude protein, true protein, and lactose in milk, and milk urea nitrogen. In conclusion, feeding steam-rolled corn improved animal body condition and rumination. Partial or complete substitution of cornmeal by steam-rolled corn in diets for lactating dairy cows did not improve dry matter and nutrient digestion, milk yield, and milk composition.

  5. Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples by microwave assisted digestion - chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.M.; Llaurado, M.; Rauret, G.

    1998-01-01

    The stages involved in the determination of 90 Sr in environmental samples are: sample attack, radiochemical separation (of both 90 Sr and its progeny 90 Y) and measurement. For the determination of 90 Sr, the introduction of microwave-assisted digestion methods has improved acid attack by drastically decreasing both digestion time and the volume of acidic reagents. Recent studies describe many applications of microwave-assisted methods for the determination of inorganic and organometallic compounds in several matrices. We have recently studied the microwave-assisted digestion of soils for the 90 Sr determination. The presented work extends the application of microwaves for the 90 Sr determination to other environmental samples such as sediments, vegetation and milk. An open-focused microwave system, which accepts large samples intakes usually required for radioanalytical chemistry due to the low level content of radionuclides in environmental samples, was used. This system can handle up to 10 g of sample intake which, in many cases, is enough to have acceptable limits of detection. Different digestion procedures are optimised for each matrix studied, paying special attention to the microwave power, the time of digestion and the volume of acidic reagents. Once the sample is in solution a new separation procedure using a specific resin -Sr.Spec- is applied and the measurement is performed by liquid scintillation. The results obtained are compared with a previously optimised method based on liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y and Cerenkov radiation measurement

  6. Zinc (Zn Analysis in Milk by Microwave Oven Digestion and Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV Technique

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    Mohineesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Milk is very important component of human diet. The presence of over limit of heavy metal in milk may create significant health problems. In the present study, the direct determination of Zinc (Zn heavy metal in milk samples of different brands was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammetric technique at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE. Milk samples were processed by microwave oven digestion using HP/VHP Vessels and TFM Liners and nitric acid (HNO3.Determination of Zn was made in acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The zinc ions were deposited by reduction at -1150 mV on HMDE. The stripping current arising from the oxidation of metal was correlated with the concentration the metal in the sample. .As a result the minimum level of Zn observed in the milk sample of different brands was determined as 2.28 mgL−1.

  7. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

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    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  8. Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaria L.) substitution for orange pulp on intake, digestibility, and performance of hairsheep lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Quintero-Elisea, Juan A; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Correa-Calderón, Abelardo; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Francisco D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Lucero-Magaña, F A; González-Reyna, Arnoldo

    2010-02-01

    Twenty Dorper x Pelibuey male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of substitution of forage with fresh orange pulp (FOP) in diets for fattening lambs on productive behavior, nutrient intake, apparent digestibility coefficient, and feeding costs. Lambs were divided into five groups (n = 4) and then housed in individual pens during 70 d. Treatments consisted of five levels of FOP (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) which substituted buffel grass hay on the base diet (40:60%, forage:concentrate). Additionally, changes in chemical composition of FOP stored in stack during 8 d were evaluated (from the day 1 until day 8). Daily feed intake expressed as kg/day and % live weight, lamb growth rate, feeding cost of each lamb per day and per fattening period, hemicellulose intake, and DM, OM, CP, NDF and hemicellulose digestibility showed a quadratic effect (P 0.05) among storage days. Therefore, replacing around 75% of buffel grass hay with FOP in diets for fattening lambs resulted in the best growth rate and more efficient diet utilization. Fresh orange pulp stored in a stack did not change its chemical composition, and did not affect its utilization as a sheep feedstuff.

  9. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

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    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated maize stovers {Diet A, untreated maize stovers with MUB {Diet B, ammoniated maize stovers {Diet 'C and ammoniated maize stovers with MUB {Diet D. Daily consumption of maize stovers and total feed by the calves were higher {P< 0.01 on the diets containing ammoniated maize stovers than those containing untreated maize stovers. Ammoniation increased the intake of maize stovers by 61 %. Supplementary feeding of MUB did not change the daily intake of both untreated and ammoniated maize stovers. Calves receiving untreated maize stovers consumed more MUB {P< 0.01 than those given ammoniated maize stovers {496.40 vs 180.20g DM/d. Daily water consumption was affected {P< 0.01 by diets and was lowest on Diet A. Calves receiving ammoniated maize stovers consumed more water than those given untreated maize stovers. MUB increased {P<0.01 the water consumption only on untreated maize stovers. Mean water consumption was 13.93, 15.91, 15.07 and 15.60 lit/d on diet A, B, C and D, respectively. In vivo digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were Influenced {P<0.01 by diet composition. I Among the four diets, dry matter digestibility was minimum (P< 0.01 on Diet A and remained the same on diets B, C and D {55.82, 58.02 and 58.14%, respectively. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were higher in the claves receiving ammoniated maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB increased (P< 0.01 the digestibility of all the three nutrients in untreated maize stovers but did not affect the digestibility of ammoniated maize stovers. The results demonstrated

  10. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  11. Short communication: Use of fecal starch concentration as an indicator of dry feed digestion in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Hu, W; Suarez-Mena, F X; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-08-01

    Fecal starch (FS) has been used as a tool to evaluate starch and diet digestibility in lactating dairy cows and feedlot steers. Some on-farm advisors also use FS to evaluate calf starter digestibility in preweaned dairy calves. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of starter intake (SI), starch and organic matter digestibility, milk replacer (MR) feeding rate, and age on FS concentrations in preweaned dairy calves. Male Holstein calves (43 ± 2.9 kg of body weight; n = 35) from a single farm were fed different amounts of MR ranging from 0.44 to 1.10 kg of dry matter (DM) daily (27% crude protein, 17% fat) and weaned by 7 wk of age. Starter ingredient composition was 37% whole corn, 20% whole oats, 35% protein pellet, and 3% molasses and contained 43 ± 1.9% starch. Fecal grab samples were taken at 3 (n = 20), 6 (n = 20), and 8 wk (n = 35) of age. Twelve fecal samples per calf were taken via rectal palpation over a 5-d period each week, frozen daily, combined on an equal wet-weight basis, and subsampled for analysis. Chromic oxide was used as an external digestibility marker at 3 and 6 wk (included in MR), whereas acid-insoluble ash was used as an internal marker at 8 wk. Milk replacer and starter intakes (offered and refused) were recorded daily during collection periods. Multiple and linear regression of organic matter digestibility (% of DM), total-tract starch digestibility (TTSD; % of DM), MR intake (kg/d), SI (kg/d), and age (week) versus FS (% of fecal DM) were determined using PROC REG of SAS (version 9.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Prior to weaning, SI, age, and MR rate explained 89% of the variation in TTSD, where TTSD = [19.7 × SI (±4.25)] + [3.8 × age (±0.79)] - [24.8 × MR (±3.19)] + 56.2 (±3.39). At 3 wk of age, TTSD increased (coefficient of determination = 0.53) and SI decreased (coefficient of determination = 0.20) with increasing FS. At 6 wk of age, TTSD and SI were unrelated to FS. In 8-wk-old calves (with 2 trials), SI, MR rate

  12. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  13. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  15. Effect of milk protein composition of a model infant formula on the physicochemical properties of in vivo gastric digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, N Rafiee; Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Kristo, E; Guri, A; Arranz, E; Corredig, M

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate. The diets were optimized to the nutritional needs of the piglets and fed to 24 newborn piglets for 18 d. Eight piglets were also fed ad libitum with sow milk and considered only as reference (not included in the statistical analysis). The study was carried out in 2 blocks, killing the animals 60 and 120 min after the last meal. All gastric contents, regardless of diet, showed a wide range of pH. Postprandial time did not affect the pH or physical properties of the gastric digesta. The digesta from whey protein-casein formulas showed significantly higher viscosity, a higher storage modulus, and a denser microstructure than digesta obtained from piglets fed whey protein formula. The β-casein:total casein ratio at the level used in this study did not significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of the stomach digestate. Although caseins showed extensive gastric hydrolysis, whey proteins remained largely intact at both postprandial times. The results indicate that the presence of different concentrations of milk proteins can be critical to the digestion properties of the food matrix and may affect the nutritional properties of the components. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable Isotope Technique to Assess Intake of Human Milk in Breastfed Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in nutrition. Its aim is to assist Member States in their efforts to combat malnutrition by facilitating the use of relevant nuclear techniques. The stable (non-radioactive) isotope technique has been developed to assess intake of human milk in breastfed infants. The practical application of the stable isotope technique, based on analysis of deuterium by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), is presented in this book

  17. Infant exposure of perfluorinated compounds: levels in breast milk and commercial baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Teijón, Marisa Lopez; Alvarez, Juan G; Barceló, Damià

    2010-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method to determine six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) based on alkaline digestion and solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) was validated for the analysis of human breast milk, milk infant formulas and cereals baby food. The average recoveries of the different matrices were in general higher than 70% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 21% and method limits of detection (MLOD) ranging from 1.2 to 362 ng/L for the different compounds and matrices. The method was applied to investigate the occurrence of PFCs in 20 samples of human breast milk, and 5 samples of infant formulas and cereal baby food (3 brands of commercial milk infant formulas and 2 brands of cereals baby food). Breast milk samples were collected in 2008 from donors living in Barcelona city (Spain) on the 40 days postpartum. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoro-7-methyloctanoic acid (i,p-PFNA) were predominant being present in the 95% of breast milk samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was quantified in 8 of the 20 breast milk samples at concentrations in the range of 21-907 ng/L. Commercial formulas and food were purchased also in 2009 from a retail store. The six PFCs were detected in all brands of milk infant formulas and cereals baby food analyzed, being perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFOS, PFOA and i,p-PFNA the compounds detected in higher concentrations (up to 1289 ng/kg). PFCs presence can be associated to possible migration from packaging and containers during production processes. Finally, based on estimated body weight and newborn intake, PFOS and PFOA daily intakes and risk indexes (RI) were estimated for the firsts 6 month of life. We found that ingestion rates of PFOS and PFOA, with exception of one breast milk sample did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the EFSA. However, more research is needed in order to assess possible

  18. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, H.; van den Borne, J. J G C; Røjen, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion......The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body...... of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [15N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW-0.75·d-1). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea...

  20. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive. Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content. Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT - 13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake. Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT -13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables. Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are

  2. The digestive system of 1-week old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the digestibilities of nutrients as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigne...

  3. Substituição do milho por casca de café ou de soja em dietas para vacas leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite Replacing corn with coffee hulls or soyhulls in dairy cows diets: intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho por casca de café ou casca de soja na dieta sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite, a variação de peso corporal e a mobilização de reserva corporal em vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas holandesas, puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 ´ 4. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas (14% de PB, na MS e a dieta controle foi composta de 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado na MS. Foram avaliadas três dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar e com 60% de concentrado na MS: uma controle (sem casca de soja ou de café, uma com 25% e outra com 50% de substituição do milho pela casca de café e casca de soja, respectivamente. O consumo de MS não foi afetado pelas dietas e apresentou valor médio de 19,39 kg/dia. Apesar das diferenças nos consumos de PB e NDT, as dietas foram suficientes para atender às exigências para produção de leite de 20 kg/dia (corrigida ou não para 3,5% de gordura e ganho de peso de 0,50 kg/dia, o que explica a ausência de diferenças na produção de leite corrigida (20,54 kg/dia ou não para 3,5% de gordura (19,68 kg/dia, na variação de peso (0,683 kg/dia e nos níveis plasmáticos de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (AGNE (226,99 µeq/L. A composição do leite não foi afetada pelas dietas, à exceção dos teores de lactose e extrato seco desengordurado. Em dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar para vacas com produção de 20 kg de leite/dia, o milho pode ser substituído em 25% pela casca de café ou em 50% pela casca de soja, desde que a participação de concentrado seja de 60%.The objectives of this trial were to evaluate the effect of replacing corn meal with coffee hulls or soyhulls on intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, milk yield and composition, and body weight (BW change in lactating dairy cows. Twelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to

  4. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  5. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  6. The transfer of strontium-90 and caesium-137 to milk in a dairy herd grazing near a major nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumerling, T J; Dodd, N J; Green, N

    1984-03-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of artificially produced radionuclides in the pasture--cow--milk pathway has been made at a farm close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing installation at Sellafield on the north-west coast of England. This paper reports results from analyses of samples collected during 1981, reports transfers coefficients for /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs from various types of feed to milk, and discusses factors that affect the transfer of these radionuclides. It is shown that during 1981 a large proportion of the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs consumed by cattle grazing near Sellafield was derived from activity deposited in previous years. Transfer coefficients to milk, Fm, have been derived which are within the ranges of those observed in tracer and fallout studies. There are significant seasonal changes in transfer. For /sup 90/Sr, values of Fm between 9 X 10(-4)d 1(-1) and 4 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) have been obtained. It is concluded that this large range arises because daily intakes of /sup 90/Sr by the herd during the winter months are lower (by a factor of about 3) than intakes during the summer months and that the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in milk is not in equilibrium with intake, that is, the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in milk is maintained both by recent intakes and by remobilisation of activity that has been accumulated in bone from earlier intakes. For /sup 137/Cs, values of Fm between 3 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) and 9 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) have been obtained. It is concluded that this range most probably occurs because during the summer months, when the cows are grazing, a substantial proportion of the /sup 137/Cs intake is associated with soil on the surface of herbage and that, in this form, the /sup 137/Cs is less available for uptake from the digestive tract of the cows.

  7. Effects of feeding hulled and hull-less barley with low- and high-forage diets on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing hulled or hull-less barley as the grain source when feeding low-forage (LF) or high-forage (HF) diets. Eight primiparous (610 ± 40 kg of body weight and 72 ± 14 d in milk) and 16 multiparous (650 ± 58 kg of body weight and 58 ± 16 d in milk) Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to squares based on parity (1, 2, and ≥3) and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain on a dry matter basis (1) 45% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (2) 65% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (3) 45% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source, and (4) 65% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for the diet with 65% forage and hulled barley than for the rest of the diets (24.4 vs. 26.6 kg/d). Neither the type of barley nor the forage-to-concentrate ratio affected milk yield (41.7 kg/d). Barley type did not affect milk fat or protein concentrations. Feeding LF diets decreased milk fat concentration from 3.91% to 3.50%. This decrease was less than anticipated and resulted in a 7% decrease in milk fat yield relative to cows consuming HF diets (1.60 and 1.49 kg/d for HF and LF diets, respectively). Feeding LF diets increased the concentration of C18:1 trans-10 in milk fat, suggesting that feeding LF diets may have marginally altered rumen function. In conclusion, LF diets containing barley grains can marginally decrease milk fat concentration. Overall, and based on the conditions of this study, there is limited evidence to anticipate a dramatic or acute milk fat depression when feeding hull-less barley as the grain source in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright

  8. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  9. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  10. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  11. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  13. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  14. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THIheat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THIheat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THIHeat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parkinson’s disease: no milk today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eKistner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several prospective epidemiological studies on large cohorts have consistently reported an association between milk intake and a higher incidence of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Pesticide contamination of milk and milk’s urate-lowering effects have been put forward as risk factors to explain epidemiological data. This has led to considerable uncertainty among physicians and avoidance of dairy products by PD patients. However, neither factor stands up to the rational and detailed examination of the literature carried out in this mini-review. We suggest that changes in eating behavior related to premotor PD are an alternative potential explanation of correlations observed between milk intake and PD occurrence. Despite clear-cut associations between milk intake and PD incidence, there is no rational explanation for milk being a risk factor for PD. Based on current knowledge, limiting the consumption of dairy products does not seem to be a reasonable strategy in the prevention of the development and progression of PD.

  16. Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in Breast Milk Are Low and Are Not Associated with Reported Household Hunger, Recent Animal-Source Food, or Vitamin B-12 Intake in Women in Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline J; Young, Sera L; Achando, Beryl S; Allen, Lindsay H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Dentz, Holly N; Hampel, Daniela; Kiprotich, Marion C; Lin, Audrie; Null, Clair A; Nyambane, Geoffrey M; Shahab-Ferdows, Setti; Stewart, Christine P

    2016-05-01

    Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in regions in which animal-source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. We measured vitamin B-12 in breast milk and examined its associations with household hunger, recent animal-source food consumption, and vitamin B-12 intake. In a cross-sectional substudy nested within a cluster-randomized trial assessing water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition interventions in Kenya, we sampled 286 women 1-6 mo postpartum. Mothers hand-expressed breast milk 1 min into a feeding after 90 min observed nonbreastfeeding. The Household Hunger Scale was used to measure hunger, food intake in the previous week was measured with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and vitamin B-12 intake was estimated by using 24-h dietary recall. An animal-source food score was based on 10 items from the FFQ (range: 0-70). Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentration was measured with the use of a solid-phase competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and was modeled with linear regression. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlated observations at the cluster level. Median (IQR) vitamin B-12 intake was 1.5 μg/d (0.3, 9.7 μg/d), and 60% of women consumed hunger prevalence was 27%; the animal-source food score ranged from 0 to 30 item-d/wk. Hunger and recent animal-source food and vitamin B-12 intake were not associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Maternal age was negatively associated with breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. Most lactating Kenyan women consumed less than the estimated average requirement of vitamin B-12 and had low breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations. We recommend interventions that improve vitamin B-12 intake in lactating Kenyan women to foster maternal health and child development. The main trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01704105. © 2016

  17. Effect of a different concentrate-forage sequence on digesta passage rate, faeces traits and milk features of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sarti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To ascertain the effects of a different feed sequence, which could modify digestion rate and sites as well as metabolic - endocrine status and milk features, 6 lactating dairy cows have received the same diet with a different time of concentrate administration when close to the two daily forage meals: 30’ before or 60’ after them. Cows were tied in a barn with controlled temperature, humidity and light, individually fed and monitored for: daily dry matter intake, milk yield and its features at 2 milkings, concentrate passage rate and faecal traits. The results have showed that DMI, feeding behaviour, milk yield and milk features were not significantly affected (except fat content, increased when forage was supplied as first feed. The digesta passage rate was also different: concentrate escaped more rapidly from the rumen when fed before forage or 4 hours after them. This effect has not modified the faeces, but some endocrine and /or metabolic changes can be hypothesized, because milk fat content was increased when concentrate was supplied after forage.

  18. Effect of supplemental yeast culture and dietary starch content on rumen fermentation and digestion in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A L G; Freitas, J A; Micai, B; Azevedo, R A; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of feeding a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on rumen metabolism and digestibility when cows are fed diets varying in starch content. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were low starch (LS; 23% of diet DM) and no yeast culture (YC; LS-control), LS and 15 g of YC/d (LS-YC), high starch (HS; 29% of diet DM) and no YC (HS-control), and HS and 15 g of YC/d (HS-YC). Periods lasted 28 d, with the last 9 d for data collection. Days 20 to 24 were used to determine production, nutrient flow, and digestibility. On d 25, 3 kg of corn grain DM was placed in the rumen 1 h before the morning feeding, and yields of milk and milk components were measured after the challenge. Blood was sampled -1, 3, 7, and 11 h relative to the morning feeding on d 24 and 25. Rumen pH was measured continuously on d 24 and 25. Rumen papillae were collected on d 24 and 28 to quantify mRNA expression of select genes. Supplementing YC increased yields of milk (26.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 26.5 vs. 30.3 kg/d), fat (0.94 vs. 1.08 kg/d), true protein (0.84 vs. 0.96 kg/d), and ECM/dry matter intake (1.15 vs. 1.30) compared with the control but did not affect dry matter intake (22.6 vs. 22.9 kg/d). Cows fed HS had increased milk true protein percentage (3.18 vs. 3.31%) and yield (0.87 vs. 0.94 kg/d) compared with cows fed LS. Feeding HS-YC increased the proportion of dietary N incorporated into milk true protein from 24.9% in the other 3 treatments to 29.6%. Feeding HS increased the concentration of propionate (21.7 vs. 32.3 mM) and reduced that of NH 3 -N (8.3 vs. 6.7 mg/dL) in rumen fluid compared with the control, and combining HS with YC in HS-YC tended to increase microbial N synthesis compared with LS-YC (275 vs. 322 g/d). Supplementing YC to cows fed HS reduced plasma haptoglobin and rumen lactate concentrations

  19. The rate of food processing in the Oystercatcher : Food intake and energy expenditure constrained by a digestive bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, M.

    1. Whether food intake is determined by the maximum rate at which animals can collect food, or by the rate at which this food can be processed, will strongly affect the organization of their behaviour. We investigated whether the digestive system imposes a constraint on (I) instantaneous rate of

  20. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  1. Intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected and uninfected fescue by heifers offered hay diets supplemented with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract or laidlomycin propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphry, J B; Coffey, K P; Moyert, J L; Brazle, F K; Lomas, L W

    2002-01-01

    Tarentaise heifers fitted with a rumen cannula (539 +/- 7.5 and 487 +/- 15.7 kg avg initial BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) were used in two Latin square metabolism experiments having 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangements to determine the effects of supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract (AO) or laidlomycin propionate (LP) on intake, digestion, and digestive characteristics of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected (IF) or uninfected (FF) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hay diets consumed ad libitum. Heifers were housed in individual stanchions in a metabolism facility with ambient temperatures controlled to range between 26.7 and 32.2 degrees C daily. Total feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 21-d dietary adaptation period. In situ DM and NDF disappearance and ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. In Exp. 1, DMI was 24% greater (P or = 0.42). In Exp. 2, DMI was 18.9% greater (P < 0.01) by heifers offered FF than by those offered IF (6.6 vs 5.5 kg/d). Heifers fed LP (50 mg/d) consumed 10.6% less (P < 0.05) DM than those not fed LP (5.7 vs 6/5 kg/d). Digestibility of NDF tended to be greater (P = 0.08) and digestibility of ADF was greater (P < 0.05) from FF than from IF. Conversely, apparent N absorption (%) was greater (P < 0.05) from IF than from FF. Heifers fed LP had lower (P < 0.05) ADF digestibility than those not fed LP. In situ degradable DM and NDF fractions were greater (P < 0.01) from IF than from FF. Diets supplemented with LP had higher (P < 0.01) indigestible DM and NDF fractions than those without LP. Propionic acid and total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) from heifers offered FF than from those offered IF and from heifers fed LP than from those not fed LP. Therefore, it appears the major effect of N. coenophialum was a reduction in forage intake and total-tract fiber digestibility in certain situations. Response to the feed additives was similar whether heifers were offered IF or

  2. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein. Thirty-two multiparous (4 ruminally cannulated) plus 16 primiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk and fed diets as total mixed rations in an incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square trial with four 28-d periods. Production data (over the last 14 d of each period) and digestibility and excretion data (at the end of each period) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Although DM intake was 1.2 kg/d greater on AS than RCS, milk yield and body weight gain were not different. However, yields of fat and energy-corrected milk as well as milk content of fat, true protein, and solids-not-fat were greater on AS. Relative to AS, feeding RCS increased milk and energy-corrected milk yield per unit of DM intake, milk lactose content, and apparent N efficiency and reduced milk urea. Relative to AS, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber were greater on RCS, whereas apparent and estimated true N digestibility were lower. Urinary N excretion and ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids were reduced on RCS, indicating reduced ruminal protein degradation. Supplementation of RPM increased intake, milk true protein, and solids-not-fat content and tended to increase milk fat content. There were no silage × RPM interactions, suggesting that RPM was equally limiting on both AS and RCS. Supplementation of RPL did not

  3. Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters of dairy cows fed pelleted diets and treated with lignosulfonate-containing sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Eloise De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, in vitro and apparent digestibility and ruminal parameters of Holstein cows that were confined and fed corn silage and concentrate containing: ground sunflower seeds (GS; ground sunflower seeds treated with 5% lignosulfonate (GSL; pelleted sunflower seeds (PS; or ground and pelleted sunflower seeds treated with lignosulfonate (PSL. Four lactating cows with 130±28 days of lactation and body weights of 569±63 kg were used. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four diets and four periods of 21 days each. There were no differences in the intakes (% body weight of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and NFC were similar for all the diets, with a tendency towards decreased CP digestibility for all the pelleted diets (65.79% compared with the non-pelleted diets (69.66%. A negative effect of lignosulfonate was observed for the in vitro digestibility (IVD of DM, and a negative tendency was observed for the IVD of OM. Pelleting decreased the concentration of acetic acid (55.95 × 58.82 mM in rumen fluid. There was no effect of diet on pH (6.17 or ammonia nitrogen concentration (18.19 mg/dL. Pelleting and lignosulfonate do not promote the protective effect of sunflower seed nutrients as expected, and it may be more feasible to provide ground sunflower seed.

  4. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  5. Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Renate; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs. These cow-milk formulas are supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) that have functional effects similar to that of some HMOs, since production of synthetic HMOs is challenging and still very expensive. However, NDCs cannot substitute all HMO functions. More efficacious NDCs may be developed and customized for specific groups of neonates such as pre-matures and allergy prone infants. Here current knowledge of HMO functions in the neonate in view of possible replacement of HMOs by NDCs in infant formulas is reviewed. Furthermore, methods to expedite identification of suitable NDCs and structure/function relationships are reviewed as in vivo studies in babies are impossible.

  6. Transfer of Chernobyl radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from grass silage to milk in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Weers, A.W. van

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of Chernobyl radiocaesium through the silage-cow-milk pathway has been investigated under normal farming conditions. A period in which grass silage with a relatively high level of radiocaesium was fed was preceded and followed by period of low-level contaminated feeds. An average transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F m , of 0.25% d liter -1 has been derived for radiocaesium. A simple two-compartmental model has been applied to predict the radiocaesium concentration in milk from the intake with feed. An estimate of three model parameters, F (fractional digestibility of radiocaesium in feed and the fraction secreted in both urine and milk), m and u (transfer rates from the body fluids to milk and urine) was made on the basis of a sampling and measurement programme on the urine, faeces and milk of two cows during a 48 h period. With the derived F-value of 0.13 and a u/m-ratio of 51 liter d -1 , the model appeared to predict a 1.5-fold lower concentration of radiocaesium milk than was actually measured. This discrepancy was consistent with the observed rather low total excretion of radiocaesium. With an F-value of 0.19, acceptable agreement between predicted and measured radiocaesium concentrations in milk was reached. (author)

  7. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  8. Parameterization of a ruminant model of phosphorus digestion and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the current work was to parameterize the digestive elements of the model of Hill et al. (2008) using data collected from animals that were ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated, thereby providing a better understanding of the digestion and metabolism of P fractions in growing and lactating cattle. The model of Hill et al. (2008) was fitted and evaluated for adequacy using the data from 6 animal studies. We hypothesized that sufficient data would be available to estimate P digestion and metabolism parameters and that these parameters would be sufficient to derive P bioavailabilities of a range of feed ingredients. Inputs to the model were dry matter intake; total feed P concentration (fPtFd); phytate (Pp), organic (Po), and inorganic (Pi) P as fractions of total P (fPpPt, fPoPt, fPiPt); microbial growth; amount of Pi and Pp infused into the omasum or ileum; milk yield; and BW. The available data were sufficient to derive all model parameters of interest. The final model predicted that given 75 g/d of total P input, the total-tract digestibility of P was 40.8%, Pp digestibility in the rumen was 92.4%, and in the total-tract was 94.7%. Blood P recycling to the rumen was a major source of Pi flow into the small intestine, and the primary route of excretion. A large proportion of Pi flowing to the small intestine was absorbed; however, additional Pi was absorbed from the large intestine (3.15%). Absorption of Pi from the small intestine was regulated, and given the large flux of salivary P recycling, the effective fractional small intestine absorption of available P derived from the diet was 41.6% at requirements. Milk synthesis used 16% of total absorbed P, and less than 1% was excreted in urine. The resulting model could be used to derive P bioavailabilities of commonly used feedstuffs in cattle production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteolysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins during in vitro gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, A; Cui, J; Singh, H

    2011-06-01

    The influence of gastric proteolysis on the physicochemical characteristics of milk fat globules and the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in raw milk and cream was examined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing various pepsin concentrations at pH 1.6 for up to 2h. Apparent flocculation of the milk fat globules occurred in raw milk samples incubated in SGF containing pepsin, but no coalescence was observed in either raw milk samples or cream samples. The changes in the particle size of the fat globules as a result of the flocculation were dependent on the pepsin concentration. Correspondingly, the physical characteristics of the fat globules and the composition of the MFGM proteins in raw milk changed during incubation in SGF containing pepsin. The major MFGM proteins were hydrolyzed at different rates by the pepsin in the SGF; butyrophilin was more resistant than xanthine oxidase, PAS 6, or PAS 7. Peptides with various molecular weights, which altered with the time of incubation and the pepsin concentration, were present at the surfaces of the fat globules. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  11. Nutritional and therapeutic properties of goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Filipović Dermit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of goat milk and its consumption in the world is increasing, and so is the population of goats which increases more than the population of other dairy animals. This is particularly true in countries where goat milk is reflection of the traditional production. Goat’s milk, in addition to the high nutritional value (better digestibility, hypoallergenic, higher buffering capacity, higher pH value is characterized by therapeutic characteristics important for human health. The preference of goat’s milk over cow’s milk is also a higher selenium content, which is essential for the activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, also significant in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Goat’s milk in comparison with cow’s, contains more fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health, especially the cardiovascular system. Goat’s milk proteins are more digestible than cow’s milk proteins, also an absorption of amino acids are more efficient. The sensitivity of people to α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk is negligible after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk. The objective of this paper is to specify benefits of goat’s milk in regard to cow’s and highlight its therapeutic and nutritional values.

  12. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  13. Shift in the isoelectric-point of milk proteins as a consequence of adaptive divergence between the milks of mammalian species.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khaldi, Nora

    2011-07-29

    Abstract Background Milk proteins are required to proceed through a variety of conditions of radically varying pH, which are not identical across mammalian digestive systems. We wished to investigate if the shifts in these requirements have resulted in marked changes in the isoelectric point and charge of milk proteins during evolution. Results We investigated nine major milk proteins in 13 mammals. In comparison with a group of orthologous non-milk proteins, we found that 3 proteins κ-casein, lactadherin, and muc1 have undergone the highest change in isoelectric point during evolution. The pattern of non-synonymous substitutions indicate that selection has played a role in the isoelectric point shift, since residues that show significant evidence of positive selection are much more likely to be charged (p = 0.03 for κ-casein; p < 10-8 for muc1). However, this selection does not appear to be solely due to adaptation to the diversity of mammalian digestive systems, since striking changes are seen among species that resemble each other in terms of their digestion. Conclusion The changes in charge are most likely due to changes of other protein functions, rather than an adaptation to the different mammalian digestive systems. These functions may include differences in bioactive peptide releases in the gut between different mammals, which are known to be a major contributing factor in the functional and nutritional value of mammalian milk. This raises the question of whether bovine milk is optimal in terms of particular protein functions, for human nutrition and possibly disease resistance. This article was reviewed by Fyodor Kondrashov, David Liberles (nominated by David Ardell), and Christophe Lefevre (nominated by Mark Ragan).

  14. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  15. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  16. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti

    2012-02-01

    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  17. Assessing the effects of severe heat treatment of milk on calcium bioavailability: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, I; Delgado-Andrade, C; Haro, A; Navarro, M P

    2010-12-01

    Thermal processing of milk is a common practice. As milk is the main source of dietary calcium, this study aimed to assess the effects of overheating milk on calcium availability. Thus, thermally damaged milk (overheated, OH, milk; 3 cycles of sterilization at 116 °C, 16 min) was compared with UHT milk (150 °C, 6s) in 2 types of assays: in vitro and in vivo (rats). In addition, the greater Maillard reaction rate associated with thermal treatment in OH milk was confirmed by determining specific (furosine) and unspecific markers (CieLab color). A negative effect on calcium solubility was observed after in vitro digestion of OH milk compared with UHT milk. Feeding rats the diet containing OH milk as the protein source led to significantly lower values of apparent calcium absorption and retention than those found among animals fed the UHT milk diet. Whereas reducing the absorption appears to result mainly from the decreased food intake, the negative effect on retention seems to be due to factors derived from milk thermal damage, such as the formation of Maillard reaction products. It was concluded that milk-processing conditions warrant special attention to prevent impaired dietary calcium utilization. This may be especially important in situations where milk and dairy products are the main dietary components, such as in early infancy. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  20. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  1. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  2. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM).

  3. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Consequences of lower food intake on the digestive enzymes activities, the energy reserves and the reproductive outcome in Gammarus fossarum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Charron

    Full Text Available Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves led to impairments at an individual level (fertility, Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production. For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics.

  5. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  6. Digestive efficiency in rabbit does according to environment and genetic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savietto, D; Blas, E; Cervera, C

    2012-01-01

    (443 g NDF/kg DM). The apparent digestible coefficients of dry matter (DMd), organic matter, crude protein (CPd), gross energy, NDF (NDFd) and acid detergent fibre, as well as the daily intake of dry matter (DM), digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE), were determined (14 to 18 d post......-partum). The environment affected all variables analysed. In general, heat conditions reduced the daily feed intake (around -30%; Pdigestible coefficients (+4.5 percentage points for DMd). In contrast, the use of a fibrous diet led to lower DE intake (-217 kJ/d; P... digestibility coefficients (-13.5 percentage points for DMd). Females from line V, regardless of generation, showed lower daily DM intake (-19.2 g/d; P

  7. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  8. Effect of whole milk compared with skimmed milk on fasting blood lipids in healthy adults: a 3-week randomized crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Elhauge, Mie; Tholstrup, Tine

    2018-01-01

    overall dairy intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and even point to an inverse association with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to compare the effects of whole milk (3.5% fat) with skimmed milk (0.1% fat) on fasting serum blood lipids, insulin, and plasma glucose in healthy subjects. Subject....../methods A randomized, controlled 2 × 3-week crossover dietary intervention in 18 healthy adults randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments consisting of 0.5 L/d of whole milk and skimmed milk as part of their habitual diet. A total of 17 subjects completed the intervention. Results Whole milk increased HDL...... affect fasting blood lipids, glucose, or insulin compared to skimmed milk. Moreover, intake of whole milk increased HDL cholesterol concentration compared to skimmed milk. These findings suggest that if the higher energy content is taken into account, whole milk might be considered a part of a healthy diet...

  9. Studies on the mechanism by which a high intake of soybean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Vries, de H.T.; Hallebeek, J.M.; Hovenier, R.; Kuilen, van der J.; Huurdeman, C.M.; Verstappen, D.C.G.M.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Beynen, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses. Literature data indicate that bile acids and linoleic acid (C18:2 n ¿ 6) may inhibit growth of pure cultures of microorganisms. In the

  10. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  11. Protein carbonylation sites in bovine raw milk and processed milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Mnatsakanyan, Ruzanna; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-08-15

    During thermal treatment of milk, proteins are oxidized, which may reduce the nutritional value of milk, abolish protein functions supporting human health, especially important for newborns, and yield potentially harmful products. The side chains of several amino acids can be oxidized to reactive carbonyls, which are often used to monitor oxidative stress in organisms. Here we mapped protein carbonylation sites in raw milk and different brands of pasteurized, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated milk, and infant formulas (IFs) after digesting the precipitated proteins with trypsin. Reactive carbonyls were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine to enrich the modified peptides by avidin-biotin affinity chromatography and analyze them by nanoRP-UPLC-ESI-MS. Overall, 53 unique carbonylated peptides (37 carbonylation sites, 15 proteins) were identified. Most carbonyls were derived from dicarbonyls (mainly glyoxal). The number of carbonylation sites increased with the harsher processing from raw milk (4) to pasteurized (16) and UHT milk (16) and to IF (24). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Litter size influences milk composition and energy expenditure of rat pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotto, M.L.; Burrin, D.G.; Perez, M.; Reeds, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors wished to determine whether differences in milk intake were solely responsible for differences in the weight gain of rat pups suckled in litters of varying sizes (S = 4, C = 10, L = 16 pups/litter; 9 litters/group). Milk intake was measured (by 3 H 2 O dilution) at 4-6, 8-10, and 14-16 d of age (3 litters of each size/time point). Pup (water, protein, and fat) and milk composition (water, fat, protein and lactose) were analyzed at 6, 10, and 16 d. Dam milk output was positively correlated with litter size and duration of lactation. Milk fat concentration was inversely related to dam milk output (r 2 = 0.79). Weight gain was highest in S litters and lowest in L litters. Weight gain was highly correlated to the volume of milk consumed in S and C pups (r 2 = 81%), but was poorly correlated among L pups (r 2 = 23%). The different correlations may have resulted from (1) the disparate relationship between volume and energy intake of L pups compared to S and C pups, or (2) a higher maintenance energy expenditure in L pups up to 10 d of age determined by a comparison of the composition of weight gain and energy intake. Thus, the reduced weight gain of pups suckled in large litters resulted from changes in both milk energy intake and the efficiency of its utilization

  13. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  14. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  15. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion study of a novel bio-tofu with special emphasis on the impact of microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Xing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel bio-tofu, made from mixed soy and cow milk (MSCM, using Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 and Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6 incorporated with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase as coagulant. MTGase was added to improve the textural properties and suit for cooking. However, the effect of MTGase on the digestion of mixed-protein fermented by lactic acid bacteria was unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of MTGase on protein digestion of bio-tofu under simulated gastrointestinal digestion condition. The results showed that addition of MTGase could affect the particle size distribution, degree of hydrolysis, the content of soluble proteins and free amino acids. Based on the electrophoresis data, MTGase addition enhanced protein polymerization. During gastric and intestinal digestion process, proteins from bio-tofu were degraded into low molecular mass peptides. Our results suggested that incorporation of MTGase could lead to enzymatic modification of proteins of bio-tofu which may help in controlling energy intake and decrease the chance of food allergy.

  16. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion study of a novel bio-tofu with special emphasis on the impact of microbial transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guangliang; Rui, Xin; Jiang, Mei; Xiao, Yu; Guan, Ying; Wang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel bio-tofu, made from mixed soy and cow milk (MSCM), using Lactobacillus helveticus MB2-1 and Lactobacillus plantarum B1-6 incorporated with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as coagulant. MTGase was added to improve the textural properties and suit for cooking. However, the effect of MTGase on the digestion of mixed-protein fermented by lactic acid bacteria was unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of MTGase on protein digestion of bio-tofu under simulated gastrointestinal digestion condition. The results showed that addition of MTGase could affect the particle size distribution, degree of hydrolysis, the content of soluble proteins and free amino acids. Based on the electrophoresis data, MTGase addition enhanced protein polymerization. During gastric and intestinal digestion process, proteins from bio-tofu were degraded into low molecular mass peptides. Our results suggested that incorporation of MTGase could lead to enzymatic modification of proteins of bio-tofu which may help in controlling energy intake and decrease the chance of food allergy. PMID:27994970

  17. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  18. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants : A study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Eline; Schaafsma, Anne; Nhien, Nguyen V.; Khor, Geok Lin; Kema, Ido P.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 mu g/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with

  19. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  20. Analyzing B-vitamins in Human Milk: Methodological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. However, there is insufficient information about the concentration of nutrients in human milk. For some nutrients, including B-vitamins, maternal intake affects their concentration in human milk but the extent to which inadequate maternal diets affect milk B-vitamin content is poorly documented. Little is known about infant requirements for B-vitamins; recommendations are generally set as Adequate Intakes (AI) calculated on the basis of the mean volume of milk (0.78 L/day) consumed by infants exclusively fed with human milk from well-nourished mothers during the first six months, and the concentration of each vitamin in milk based on reported values. Methods used for analyzing B-vitamins, commonly microbiological, radioisotope dilution or more recently chromatographic, coupled with UV, fluorometric and MS detection, have rarely been validated for the complex human milk matrix. Thus the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of analytical methods is important for understanding infant requirements for these nutrients, the maternal intakes needed to support adequate concentrations in breast milk. This review summarizes current knowledge on methods used for analyzing the B-vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and pantothenic acid, vitamin B-12, folate, biotin, and choline in human milk, their chemical and physical properties, the different forms and changes in concentration during lactation, and the effects of deficiency on the infant.

  1. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of homogenization of pasteurized human milk on gastric digestion in the preterm infant: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Henry, Gwénaële; Dirson, Emelyne; Rousseau, Florence; Carrière, Frédéric; Dupont, Didier; Bourlieu, Claire; Deglaire, Amélie

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that homogenization of Holder-pasteurized human milk (PHM) could improve fat absorption and weight gain in preterm infants, but the impact on the PHM digestive kinetics has never been studied. Our objective was to determine the impact of PHM homogenization on gastric digestion in preterm infants. In a randomized controlled trial, eight hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control to compare the gastric digestion of PHM and of homogenized PHM (PHHM). PHM was obtained from donors and, for half of it, was homogenized by ultrasonication. Over a six-day sequence, gastric aspirates were collected twice a day, before and 35, 60 or 90 min after the start of PHM or PHHM ingestion. The impact of homogenization on PHM digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested using a general linear mixed model. Results were expressed as means ± SD. Homogenization leaded to a six-fold increase in the specific surface (P Homogenization increased the gastric lipolysis level (P Homogenization enhanced the proteolysis of serum albumin (P Homogenization of PHM increased the gastric lipolysis level. This could be a potential strategy to improve fat absorption, and thus growth and development in infants fed with PHM; however, its gastrointestinal tolerance needs to be investigated further. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  4. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  6. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet- disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta- analytically (n

  7. Utilization of milk energy by suckling mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Kirsten Bislev

    2004-01-01

    A total of 36 mink dams and their litters of 3, 6 or 9 kits were used for determination of milk intake of the suckling young by means of deuterium dilution technique, and chemical composition of milk and of kit bodies. Measurements were performed during lactation weeks 1-4, each week with 3 dams...... with each litter size. Milk intake was determined over a 48 h measurement period, and by the end of this milk samples were collected and 2 kits (litters of 6 and 9) or 1 kit per litter (litters of 3) were killed for body chemical composition. Based on the results, different models were applied...... for calculation of the energetic efficiency of milk. Dam milk yield increased steadily from week 1 until week 3 but only slightly from week 3 to 4. The increase declined with increasing litter size, and for dams suckling 9 kits the increment from week 3 to week 4 was only 2 g. The dry matter content of milk...

  8. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal......Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role...... in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW...

  9. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dijkstra, J; Tafaj, M; Steingass, H; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production performance to different variables including physical, chemical, and starch-degrading characteristics of the diet. Further, extensive data were used to model the magnitude of ruminal pH fluctuations and determine the threshold for the development of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Results of this study showed that to minimize the risk of SARA, the following events should be avoided: 1) a daily mean ruminal pH lower than 6.16, and 2) a time period in which ruminal pH is content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) or the ratio between peNDF and rumen-degradable starch from grains in the diet increased up to 31.2 +/- 1.6% [dry matter (DM) basis] or 1.45 +/- 0.22, respectively, so did the daily mean ruminal pH, for which a asymptotic plateau was reached at a pH of 6.20 to 6.27. This study also showed that digestibility of fiber in the total tract depends on ruminal pH and outflow rate of digesta from reticulorumen; thereby both variables explained 62% of the variation of fiber digestibility. Feeding diets with peNDF content up to 31.9 +/- 1.97% (DM basis) slightly decreased DM intake and actual milk yield; however, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were increased, resulting in greater milk energy efficiency. In conclusion, a level of about 30 to 33% peNDF in the diet may be considered generally optimal for minimizing the risk of SARA without impairing important production responses in high-yielding dairy cows. In terms of improvement of the accuracy to assessing dietary fiber adequacy, it is suggested that the content of peNDF required to stabilize ruminal pH and maintain milk fat content without compromising milk energy efficiency can be arranged based

  10. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  11. Lead, cadmium and arsenic in human milk and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Maya; Daou, Farah; Hassan, Hussein; Yamani, Osama; Kharma, Joelle Abi; Attieh, Zouheir; Elaridi, Jomana

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their reported contamination in breast milk and potential harm. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination in breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 74 breast milk samples were collected from primaparas according to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. A survey was administered to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The milk samples were analyzed for the presence of arsenic, cadmium and lead using microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic contamination was found in 63.51% of breast milk samples (mean 2.36 ± 1.95 μg/L) whereas cadmium and lead were detected in 40.54% and 67.61% of samples respectively (means 0.87 ± 1.18 μg/L and 18.18 ± 13.31 μg/L). Regression analysis indicated that arsenic contamination was associated with cereal and fish intake (p = 0.013 and p = 0.042 respectively). Residence near cultivation activities (p = 0.008), smoking status before pregnancy (p = 0.046), potato consumption (p = 0.046) and education level (p = 0.041) were associated with lead contamination. Cadmium contamination was significantly associated with random smoke exposure (p = 0.002). Our study is the first in Lebanon to report toxic metal contamination in breast milk. Although estimated weekly infant intake of these metals from breast milk was found to be lower than the limit set by international guidelines, our results highlight the need for developing strategies to protect infants from exposure to these hazardous substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  14. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  15. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  16. Supplementation of bangun-bangun leaf (Coleus amboinicus Lour and Zn-vitamin E to improve metabolism and milk production of Etawah cross bred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sientje Daisy Rumetor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Coleus amboinicus L. and zinc-vitamin E supplementation in ration to improve rumen metabolism and milk production of Etawah crossbred goat. In the first experiment, 6 treatments were evaluated using in vitro batch culture. It was found that Coleus amboinicus and Zn-vitamin E supplementation significantly (P< 0.01 increase dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA concentration, but decrease NH3 concentration, rumen pH and total microbe. In the second experiment, 8 treatments were evaluated using in vivo experiment on 24 goats. The result showed that Coleus amboinicus and Zn-vitamin E supplementation significantly increase dry matter and TDN intake and milk production.

  17. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  18. The effects of feeding rations that differ in fiber and fermentable starch within a day on milk production and the daily rhythm of feed intake and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2017-01-01

    A daily pattern of feed intake, milk synthesis, and plasma metabolites and hormones occurs in dairy cows fed a total mixed ration once or twice a day. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations within a day, complementing these rhythms, would improve milk production. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were housed in tie stalls with feed tubs, and feed weight was recorded every 10 s for observation of feeding behavior. Rations were a low fiber and high fermentable starch ration [LFHS; 27.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 31.7% starch based on 55.7% corn silage and 14.1% steam-flaked corn], a high fiber and low fermentable starch ration (HFLS; 31.7% NDF and 22.3% starch based on 44% corn silage, 26.3% alfalfa haylage, and no steam-flaked corn), and a total mixed ration that was a 1:3 ratio of LFHS and HFLS (30.7% NDF, 24.5% starch). The control treatment (CON) cows were fed the total mixed ration at 0700h, the high/low treatment (HL) fed HFLS ration at 0700h and LFHS ration at 2200h, and the low/high (LH) treatment fed LFHS ration at 0700h and HFLS ration at 1100h (LFHS and HFLS rations fed at a 1:3 ratio). No effect was found of treatment on daily milk, but LH decreased milk fat concentration and yield compared with HL (0.2 percentage units and 0.24kg, respectively). Daily dry matter and NDF intake and total-tract digestibility did not differ between treatments. The HL treatment reduced intake at the morning-conditioned meal after feeding and reduced intake before the evening feeding. A treatment by time of day interaction was found for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF concentration, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma insulin, and fatty acid concentration, and body temperature. The CON and LH treatments increased the daily amplitude of fecal NDF by 1.0 and 1.1 percentage units compared with HL. Plasma insulin was higher in HL than CON at 0100 and 0400h, but lower at 1300 and

  19. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  1. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  2. Herbage intake and milk yield in Comisana ewes as effect of 4 vs 7 h of grazing during late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Bernardo; Marletta, Donata; De Angelis, Anna; Di Paola, Fortunato; Bordonaro, Salvatore; Avondo, Marcella

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two Comisana ewes at late lactation were used in two trials carried out during late spring in 2 consecutive years, with the aim to evaluate the effect of the duration of grazing on herbage intake and performance. In each trial, 16 pluriparous Comisana lactating ewes were equally divided into two groups which grazed in two separate areas of natural pasture from 11:00 to 15:00 h (group 4H) or from 10:00 to 17:00 (group 7H). A concentrate mixture (500 g/day) was also offered to each ewe. The mean maximum temperature was, respectively, 23.5 ± 3.8 °C during experiment 1 and 27.0 ± 3.1 °C during experiment 2. Probably as a consequence of the differences in climatic conditions, the results on herbage intake and milk production were different during the two trials. Herbage dry matter intake was not affected by the duration of grazing during trial 1, whereas it was significantly lower in 4H group compared to that in 7H group (0.67 vs 1.02 kg/day; P ewes were able to reach good intake levels despite grazing during the hottest hours; with higher temperatures throughout the trial (trial 2), the 4H ewes reduced ingestion. Milk production was higher in 4H group during trial 1 (778 vs 707 g/day; P = 0.006), whereas it was not affected by the number of hours of grazing during trial 2, despite the higher intake levels reached by the 7H group. In conclusion, 3 extra hours of grazing for ewes at late lactation on a low quality pasture could be nullified in terms of yield response.

  3. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  4. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  5. Survey of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate plasticiser contamination of retail Danish milks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    1991-01-01

    concentration of DEHP lower than 50-mu-g/litre in retail whole milk. Based on these data and the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for DEHP of 25-mu-g/kg body weight laid down by the EEC Scientific Committee for Food, it is concluded that the intake of DEHP from milk and milk products does not, even through a whole...

  6. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, Victor; Outor-Monteiro, D.; Mourão, J.L.; Cone, J.W.; Guimaraes Dias Lourenco, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit

  7. Activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, H.; Kahr, G.; Oswald, K.

    1991-12-01

    We have measured the activity concentrations of iodine-131 and radiocesium in pasteurized fresh milk following the Chernobyl accident. Average monthly concentrations of radiocesium are given until December 1991. Samples originated from the local dairy (Milchhof Graz, Austria) and the measured activities in milk represent a large part of the total intake in the population of Graz. Observed activities are also compared with the activity levels obtained after the earlier nuclear contaminations. From the data of our measurements for radiocesium we have estimated the internal effective dose equivalent due to the intake of contaminated milk during the first year after the fallout. Results indicate that the averaged consumer rates for milk, usually used for predictions of dose, were too high. We have also observed great differences in the activity levels of raw milk and the activities in milk consumed by the population. (authors)

  8. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-06-08

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  9. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  10. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each experiment, 10 randomly selected Holstein cows were fed the five diets according to a double 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. ... In the trial using a 50 : 50 mixture of LH and OH as roughage source, the fat content of milk ...

  11. Selenium and vitamin E concentrations in human milk and formula milk from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Majchrzak, D.; Elmadfa, I.; Cser, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic roles of vitamin E and selenium are closely related, and to a very great extent, each can compensate for the deficiency of the other. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the Se and vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) contents of breast milk and commercially available infant formulas in Hungary. The Se content was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while the α-, and γ-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean Se concentration was 17.4±2.8 μg/L in transitional and 13.8±2.3 μg/L in mature milk. It was found that, all of the starter (ST), the follow-on (FO) and the specialized formulas (SF) had lower Se content than breast milk. Transitional breast milk resulted in a higher Se intake (14 μg/day) than mature milk (11 μg/day). The daily Se intakes in Hungarian infants were within the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range. The natural vitamin E contents of human milk were similar during the early and late lactation. Mature breast milk had 3.30±1.13 mg/L α-TE concentration and this was significantly higher than that of in ST (1.98±1.57), and FO (1.77±0.78), or in SF ready to feed preparations (1.03±0.74). The present study suggests that the formulas for the optimal development of young infants, should contain concentrations of these antioxidants on a level which is comparable to that of the human milk. (author)

  12. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  13. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  14. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  15. Impact of diet composition on ileal digestibility and small intestinal morphology in early-weaned pigs fitted with a T-cannula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluess, J; Schoenhusen, U; Souffrant, W B; Jones, P H; Miller, B G

    2010-04-01

    Piglets, separated from their dam at 12 days of age and fed a milk substitute hourly, were used as a model for suckling. Animals were fitted with a terminal ileal T-cannula and a jugular vein catheter. At 28 days of age, half of the pigs had a dietary change to a cereal-based weaner diet fed as slurry, and the others remained on milk substitute. Animals were labelled by oral administration of 15N-labelled yeast for 10 days (days 15 to 25). Blood samples were taken twice a day to monitor 15N enrichment of the blood plasma. Diets included polyethylenglycol (PEG 4000) to allow calculation of apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and individual amino acids. Ileal bacterial nitrogen was calculated from D-alanine content of the digesta. Furthermore, small intestinal (SI) villus height and crypt depth were measured. Feed intake was increased by the dietary change. The total nitrogen flow was 3.2 ± 0.4 g/day and 5.9 ± 0.4 for the milk and weaner diet, respectively. Endogenous nitrogen flow at the terminal ileum was similar for both groups (milk diet 2.4 ± 0.4 v. weaner diet 2.2 ± 0.3 g/day), whereas the bacterial nitrogen content (0.08 ± 0.01 g/day milk diet v. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/day weaner diet, P diet v. 3.29 ± 0.12 g/day weaner diet, P diet group. The ileal apparent digestibility coefficient of protein was 0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.01 for the milk replacer and the weaner diet, respectively. Morphology measurements made along the SI at 25%, 50% and 75% were similar between piglets fed milk replacer and those fed a cereal-based weaner diet. The only statistical effect (P diet group. In conclusion, pigs, following a dietary change analogous to weaning, lack the capacity to fully digest a standard weaner diet. This may result in an increased nutrient content entering the large intestine and an altered microbiota. In the absence of a period of anorexia, often associated with traditional weaning, we saw no evidence of villous atrophy, but report here a significant crypt

  16. Natural radionuclides in Italian diet and their annual intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donatella Desideri; Maria Assunta Meli; Carla Roselli; Laura Feduzi; Nevio Forini; Alba Rongoni

    2014-01-01

    This study was dedicated to the evaluation of the background activity concentration of natural radionuclides as 228 Ra and 228 Th of 232 Th family, 226 Ra of 238 U family and 40 K in the Italian daily diet. These radionuclides were determined by gamma spectrometry. 40 K activity concentration, in the samples taken into account in the present paper, ranged between 70.5 (milk) and 181.1 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta), 226 Ra activity concentration ranged between 1.1 (milk) and 5.7 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta), 228 Ra and 228 Th activity concentration, in the same samples, ranged between 0.7 (milk) and 3.7 Bq kg ww -1 (pasta) and between 1.4 (milk) and 6.1 Bq kg ww -1 (flours) respectively. The annual intake of every radionuclide from foodstuffs ingestion was also calculated. The 94-95 % of the total intake comes from 40 K. For adults and children, the highest activity intake of all radioisotopes was from grain products, for infants it was from milk products. (author)

  17. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like 131 I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986

  18. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  19. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an indicator of microbial protein supply in Sri Lankan local Zebu cattle and crossbred milking cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakshala Seresinhe; Pathirana, K.K.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of purine derivative (PD) method to Sri Lankan Zebu cattle and their crosses. In the first experiment four male Zebu cattle (LW 100 kg) were used to determine the response of PD excretion at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of the voluntary intake). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter were not affected (P > 0.05) but nitrogen retention was increased with increasing levels of feed intake. The PD excretion were 1.91, 1.46, 1.21 and 0.66 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d for 95, 80, 60 and 40% of the voluntary intake levels, respectively. The proportion of allantoin in total PD was 82.6%. The excretion of creatinine was 1.05, 1.04, 0.92 and 0.84 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d, respectively. Daily output of total PD showed a positive response to the level of feed intake, while creatinine excretion was independent of dietary treatments. The correlation between PD excretion and digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) was significant (r 2 0.70). Nevertheless, the PDC index was affected (P > 0.05) by the level of feed intake and the correlation of the PDC index and DOMI was significant as well (r 2 =0.63). Results of spot urine analysis showed that the sampling period had little or no influence on the concentration of total PD or creatinine in urine. The PDC index was affected by the level of feed intake, but not by the time of sampling. In the second experiment, crossbred milking cows showed a higher PD excretion when fed with the experimental ration as compared with the farm ration. The mean PD excretion were 3.45 and 5.21 mmol/d for farm and experimental diets respectively. Allantoin accounted for more than 80% of the total PD, as in the previous experiment. In conclusion, urinary PD excretion appears to be a valid and non-invasive procedure to assess the microbial protein supply in local Zebu cattle and crossbred milking cows in Sri Lanka. Spot urine sampling also appeared to be a satisfactory method for

  20. Fuels derived from starch digestion have different effects on energy intake and metabolic responses of cows in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrón-Duarte, Laura B; Allen, Michael S

    2018-03-07

    Absorbed fuels from the digestion of starch include propionic acid (PA) produced by ruminal fermentation and glucose (GLU) from intestinal digestion, which may be partially metabolized to lactic acid (LA) by intestinal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these fuels on dry matter intake (DMI) and feeding behavior of cows in the postpartum period. We hypothesized that these fuels affect feed intake differently and that their effects are related to differences in their hepatic metabolism. Glucose was expected to have little effect on feed intake because little or no GLU is extracted from the blood by the liver. Whereas both LA and PA are anaplerotic and can stimulate oxidation of acetyl CoA in hepatocytes, hepatic extraction of PA is greater than LA, which depends on cytosolic redox state. Continuous isoenergetic infusions (150 kcal of ME/h) of PA, LA, or GLU or no infusion were administered abomasally to 8 ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (12.4 ± 6.2 d postpartum) in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment, with four 1-d infusion periods, balanced for carry-over effects. Treatment sequences were assigned to cows randomly, and treatments included control (CON, no infusion), PA (0.41 mol/h), LA (0.46 mol/h), and GLU (0.22 mol/h). Solutions containing treatments were infused at 500 mL/h for 22 h/d and provided ~3.3 Mcal/d. Feeding behavior was recorded by a computerized data acquisition system. Gross energy digestibility of the diet was determined for each cow and used to calculate metabolizable energy intake (MEI) from the diet. Total MEI was calculated as the sum of MEI from the diet plus energy from infusions. Data were analyzed statistically with a mixed model including the fixed effect of treatment and random effects of block and cow within block. Each treatment was compared with CON by contrasts. Compared with CON, PA decreased DMI by 24% (14.3 vs. 18.9 kg/d) and total MEI by 13% (34.8 vs. 40.2 Mcal/d) with a tendency to

  1. Target Fortification of Breast Milk: How Often Should Milk Analysis Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rochow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Target fortification (TFO reduces natural macronutrient variation in breast milk (BM. Daily BM analysis for TFO increases neonatal intensive care unit work load by 10–15 min/patient/day and may not be feasible in all nurseries. The variation of macronutrient intake when BM analysis is done for various schedules was studied. In an observational study, we analyzed 21 subsequent samples of native 24-h BM batches, which had been prepared for 10 healthy infants (gestational age 26.1 ± 1.3 weeks, birth weight: 890 ± 210 g. Levels of protein and fat (validated near-infrared milk analyzer, as well as lactose (UPLC-MS/MS generated the database for modelling TFO to meet recommendations of European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition. Intake of macronutrients and energy were calculated for different schedules of BM measurements for TFO (n = 1/week; n = 2/week; n = 3/week; n = 5/week; n = 7/week and compared to native and fixed dose fortified BM. Day-to-day variation of macronutrients (protein 20%, carbohydrate 13%, fat 17%, energy 10% decreased as the frequency of milk analysis increased and was almost zero for protein and carbohydrate with daily measurements. Measurements two/week led to mean macronutrient intake within a range of ±5% of targeted levels. A reduced schedule for macronutrient measurement may increase the practical use of TFO. To what extent the day-to-day variation affects growth while mean intake is stable needs to be studied.

  2. Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes = Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Modesto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRMforam 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica(DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upperthird of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: drymatter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third ofcassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement were

  3. Should there be a target level of docosahexaenoic acid in breast milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina Harris; Harris, William S

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the evidence for and against establishing a target level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in breast milk. Two target levels for milk DHA have been recently proposed. One (∼0.3% of milk fatty acids) was based on milk DHA levels achieved in women consuming the amount of DHA recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for pregnant and lactating women (at least 200 mg DHA/day). Another (∼1.0%) was based on biomarker studies of populations with differing lifelong intakes of fish. Populations or research cohorts with milk DHA levels of 1.0% are associated with intakes that allow both the mother and infant to maintain relatively high DHA levels throughout lactation. Lower milk DHA levels may signal suboptimal maternal stores and possibly suboptimal infant intakes. Based on the current data, a reasonable milk DHA target appears to be approximately 0.3%, which is about the worldwide average. Although this may not be the 'optimal' level (which remains to be defined), it is clearly an improvement over the currently low milk DHA levels (∼0.2%) seen in many Western populations.

  4. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  5. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sung; Kim, Young-Youn; Oh, Jeong-Kyu; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97), but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20) nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21) was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade de feno de baixa qualidade suplementado com nitrogênio não protéico em bovinos Intake and digestibility of low-quality hay with nonprotein nitrogen supplementation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mateus Mallmann

    2006-02-01

    detergent fiber. Digestibility of organic matter, organic matter of forage, neutral detergent fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose were not affected by nonprotein nitrogen level; total intake of these components showed a quadratic response to nonprotein nitrogen supplementation. Organic matter metabolic fecal excretion was not affected by supplementation, suggesting a simultaneous increase in both passage (intake increase and digestion rates (stable digestibility. The digestible organic matter intake showed a quadratic response with the increase of urea supplementation levels. The relationship between rumen degradable protein intake and digestible organic matter intake showed a maximization point, when rumen degradable protein intake was equivalent to 8.1% of digestible organic matter intake.

  7. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, salty, fatty, and savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. The results suggest that it could be beneficial to use dark chocolate as a substitute for milk chocolate. In summary, these results suggest...

  8. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

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    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  9. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  10. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  11. Potential population-level nutritional impact of replacing whole and reduced-fat milk with low-fat and skim milk among US children aged 2-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Cross-sectional modeling study. Data from the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 8,112 children aged 2-19 years. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Survey-weighted linear regression models. Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107-119) and 77 (95% CI, 73-82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient-rich beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  13. Caesium contamination in human milk and transfer factor from diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Campos Venuti, G.; Rogani, A.; Baronciani, D.; Petrone, M.

    1992-01-01

    A study on caesium contamination in human milk, as a consequence of the Chernobyl fallout, was conducted in 1989 on a group of women from one of the areas of northern Italy most heavily affected by the radioactive fallout. Their diet was studied, and the caesium intake was calculated by using the mean food activity concentration in that area. The caesium transfer factor was evaluated both as the ratio of caesium concentration in mother's milk to the daily intake, and by using a simplified milk compartment model. (author)

  14. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gratton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71 and HOMI (15.7 kg OM were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d, milk fat yield (742 g/d and milk protein yield (667 g/d were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  15. Gamma ray irradiated goat milk: comparative sensorial analysis with pasteurized goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Maria Sylvia de C.C. do Amaral; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Goat milk consumption has increased in the last years, due to its better digestibility and for constituting a good alternative to cow milk for intolerant people. Brazil has over 10 millions goats, mainly in the Northeast area. Considering that it is very important to increase the shelf-life for this product, this work was done to test the gamma-radiation as a preservation method, evaluating acceptability by sensorial analysis compared with pasteurized milk. The goat milk was bought in the Animal Production Department/ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, and irradiated with 3,5 kGy in the Food Irradiation Laboratory/CENA/USP, using a cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammabeam-650, from Nordion, Canada. After irradiation, the samples were maintained under refrigeration at 5 deg C and submitted to sensorial analysis at 1 st , 7 th and 15 th days by 30 untrained tasters. The results indicated, by Tukey test, a significant preference for the pasteurized milk in comparison to the irradiated one, because a hard caprine flavor was developed by the irradiation. (author)

  16. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues

  17. Performance and nutrient intake of Zebu Heifers fed guinea grass ...