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Sample records for intake decreases lipids

  1. Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signaling--a lipidomics approach.

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    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence of the multiple beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but physiological mechanisms behind these effects are not completely known. Little information is available on the effects of consumption of different type of fish. The aim of this study was to investigate how fatty fish or lean fish in a diet affect serum lipidomic profiles in subjects with coronary heart disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A pilot study was designed which included altogether 33 subjects with myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack in an 8-week parallel controlled intervention. The subjects were randomized to either fatty fish (n = 11, lean fish (n = 12 or control (n = 10 groups. Subjects in the fish groups had 4 fish meals per week and subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork and chicken. A fish meal was allowed once a week maximum. Lipidomics analyses were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Multiple bioactive lipid species, including ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerols, decreased significantly in the fatty fish group, whereas in the lean fish group cholesterol esters and specific long-chain triacylglycerols increased significantly (False Discovery Rate q-value <0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 8-week consumption of fatty fish decreased lipids which are potential mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be related to the protective effects of fatty fish on the progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases or insulin resistance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00720655.

  2. The emulsified lipid Fabuless (Olibra) does not decrease food intake but suppresses appetite when consumed with yoghurt but not alone or with solid foods: a food effect study.

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    Chan, Y-K; Strik, C M; Budgett, S C; McGill, A-T; Proctor, J; Poppitt, S D

    2012-02-01

    The lipid emulsion Fabuless (Olibra) has been shown in some studies to decrease short/medium term energy intake (EI) and prevent weight regain. The purported mechanism is the ileal brake. Whether Fabuless is efficacious under a range of dietary conditions is unknown since studies have administered the emulsion within a fermented, semi-liquid dairy yoghurt, and outcomes have been inconsistent. To determine whether Fabuless suppresses post-ingestive satiety and short-term food intake under a range of dietary conditions and forms we administered the emulsion co-presented with 185 mL water, stirred into a semi-liquid dairy yoghurt, and co-presented with a solid food breakfast muffin. This was a cross-over study in 18 lean men randomised to 6 treatments: (i) lipid emulsion, LE (15 g Fabuless, containing 4.2g lipid, 0.2 MJ)+water, (ii) lipid control, LC (15 g non-emulsified lipid/water, containing 4.2g lipid, 0.2 MJ)+water, (iii) lipid emulsion+yoghurt, LE+Y (1.2 MJ), (iv) lipid control+yoghurt, LC+Y (1.2 MJ), (v) lipid emulsion+muffin, LE+M (1.2 MJ), (vi) lipid control+muffin, LC+M (1.2 MJ), each given as a test breakfast at 8.30 am. Participants rated postprandial appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS), and ad libitum energy intake was measured at a lunch meal 3.5h later. The lipid emulsion increased fullness compared with an energy-matched lipid control but only when administered within the semi-liquid fermented yoghurt (P<0.05). There were no effects on satiety ratings when co-presented with water or with the solid food muffin. Energy and macronutrient intake were not significantly decreased by any of the emulsion treatments. We conclude that effects are small, the format in which lipid emulsions are consumed influences postprandial satiety, and there is no evidence that this emulsion alters eating behaviour at the subsequent meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECT OF KIMCHI INTAKE ON LIPID PROFILES AND BLOOD PRESSURE

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    Hyun Ju Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kimchi is a Korean fermented vegetable and has recognized as a healthy food. Some interventional studies have reported an inverse association between kimchi intake and higher lipid levels in healthy and obese people. However, kimchi intake and hypertention were still uncertain. This study is carried out to investigate whether the serum lipid profiles and blood pressure would be influenced by the amount of kimchi intake. Design for the clinical study by controlling the meal consumption and physical activity of the subjects for 7 days was approved by IRB at P Hospital (No.2011075. For the study, 100 volunteers assigned into 2 groups, low (15 g/day, n=50 and high kimchi intake group (210 g/day, n=50, temporarily stayed together at the dormitory during the 7-day experimental period. Three meals with different amount of kimchi were provided and subjects were asked to maintain the normal physical activity as usual. Significant decrease in the concentration of fasting blood glucose, TG, total-C, and LDL-C for the both group was observed after 7 days of kimchi intake regardless of amount of kimchi intake. Only FBG suppression effect was significantly different (p<0.01. Furthermore, people with hypercholesterolemia (≤19 mg/dL showed greater improvements in total cholesterol levels in high kimchi intake group. One notable finding in this study was that urinary Na excretion for the high kimchi intake group was significantly increased (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions by kimchi intake. Higher intake of kimchi appears to be a modest beneficial effect to lipid lowering, without any effect on blood pressure in spite of increased sodium excretion. Long-term study should be clarified whether kimchi intake associated with hypertension.

  4. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion.

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    Sugimoto-Kawabata, Kanami; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelder, Thomas; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Cohen, Louis H; Havekes, Louis M; Princen, Hans M; van den Hoek, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterol-lowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose and lipid metabolism and its mechanisms of action in high-fat-fed hyperlipidemic APOE*3 Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice. Mildly insulin-resistant E3L mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1.5% colestilan for 8 weeks. Colestilan treatment decreased body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased food intake. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were decreased, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity, particularly in peripheral tissues. In addition, colestilan decreased energy expenditure and physical activity, whereas it increased the respiratory exchange ratio, indicating that colestilan induced carbohydrate catabolism. Moreover, kinetic analysis revealed that colestilan increased [(3)H]NEFA incorporation in biliary cholesterol and phospholipids and increased fecal lipid excretion. Gene expression analysis in liver, fat, and muscle supported the above findings. In summary, colestilan decreases weight gain and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed E3L mice by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and increased fecal lipid excretion.

  5. High fat intake and equine lipid metabolism

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    Geelen, Suzanne Nicole Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of fat feeding on lipid metabolism in horses. Highfat diets have attained considerable interest as a potential tool to improve performance.Many factors affect performance so that large numbers of horses are needed to unequivocally determine the effect of diet on

  6. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

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    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  7. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

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    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  8. Small particle size lipid emulsions, satiety and energy intake in lean men.

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    Chan, Y K; Budgett, S C; MacGibbon, A K; Quek, S Y; Kindleysides, S; Poppitt, S D

    2017-02-01

    Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat dairy emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control. Secondly, we investigated a small-PS palmolein based 'hard' fat emulsion (fractionated palm oil, PS, 104nm) and non-emulsified control. This was a 6 arm, randomized, cross-over study in 18 lean men, with test lipids delivered in a breakfast meal: (i) Fabuless® emulsion (FEM); (ii) dairy emulsion with dairy emulsifier (DEDE); (iii) dairy emulsion with soy lecithin emulsifier (DESE); (iv) dairy control (DCON); (v) palmolein emulsion with dairy emulsifier (PEDE); (vi) palmolein control (PCON). Participants rated postprandial appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS), and ad libitum energy intake (EI) was measured at a lunch meal 3.5h later. Dairy lipid emulsions did not significantly alter satiety ratings or change EI relative to dairy control (DEDE, 4035kJ; DESE, 3904kJ; DCON, 3985kJ; P>0.05) nor did palm oil based emulsion relative to non-emulsified control (PEDE, 3902 kJ; PCON, 3973kJ; P>0.05). There was no evidence that small-PS dairy lipid emulsions or commercial Fabuless altered short-term appetite or food intake in lean adults. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Dietary intake and lipid profile in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

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    Woestenenk, Janna W; Schulkes, Dorothea A; Schipper, Henk S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339179414; van der Ent, Cornelis K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164028536; Houwen, Roderick H J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087887991

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are advised to derive 35% of their daily energy intake from dietary fat. Whether this high fat intake is associated with dyslipidaemia is unknown. We described the lipid profile and dietary intake in paediatric patients with CF. METHODS: 110 fasting lipid

  10. Dietary Fatty Acids and Changes in Blood Lipids during Adolescence: The Role of Substituting Nutrient Intakes.

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    Harris, Carla; Buyken, Anette; Koletzko, Sibylle; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Schikowski, Tamara; Koletzko, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Standl, Marie

    2017-02-11

    The relevance of dietary fatty acids (FA) for blood lipids should be assessed in the context of substituting nutrients. Such evidence is lacking for adolescents. This study describes prospective associations of dietary FA with changes in serum lipids during adolescence, and considers the theoretical isocaloric replacements of saturated FA (SFA) with other FA or carbohydrates (CHO). Children from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts, with data on FA intakes (at age 10 years) and serum lipids (at age 10 and 15 years), were included (n = 1398). Associations of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA, with changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TAG), and total cholesterol to HDL ratio (TOTAL:HDL), were assessed by linear regression. Substitution models assessed isocaloric replacements of SFA with MUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA or CHO. Higher SFA intakes were associated with decreasing TAG. No associations were observed for fatty acid intakes with LDL, HDL or TOTAL:HDL. In females, replacing SFA with CHO was associated with increasing LDL, TAG and TOTAL:HDL. Our findings confirm observations in adults, although sex-specific determinants seem relevant in our adolescent population. Overlooking the nutrient context when limiting SFA intakes might have detrimental consequences appreciable as early as adolescence.

  11. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

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    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  12. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

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    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  13. Captopril intake decreases body weight gain via angiotensin-(1-7).

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    Oh, Young-Bin; Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Byung Mun; Park, Byung Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] plays a beneficial role in cardiovascular physiology by providing a counterbalance to the function of angiotensin II (Ang II). Although Ang II has been shown to be an adipokine secreted by adipocyte and affect lipid metabolism, the role of Ang-(1-7) in adipose tissue remains to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Ang-(1-7) affects lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Ang-(1-7) increased glycerol release from primary adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. A lipolytic effect of Ang-(1-7) was attenuated by pretreatment with A-779, a Mas receptor blocker and with an inhibitor of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or eNOS. However, losartan and PD123319 did not cause any change in Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis. Ang-(1-7)-induced lipolysis had an addictive effect with isoproterenol. In normal rats, chronic intake of captopril for 4 wks decreased body weight gain and the amount of adipose tissue and increased plasma Ang-(1-7) level. These effects were attenuated by administration of A-779. The levels of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) were significantly increased by treatment with captopril and these captopril-mediated effects were attenuated by the administration of A-779. There was no difference in diameter of adipocytes among sham, captopril- and captopril+A-779-treated groups. The similar effects of captopril on body weight, expression of Mas receptor, and p-HSL were observed in Ang-(1-7)-treated rats. These results suggest that captopril intake decreased body weight gain partly through Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor/PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

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    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...

  15. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

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    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  16. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.

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    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2014-06-24

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  17. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  18. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

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    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel lipidated neuromedin U analogs with increased stability and effects on food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Louise S.; Pedersen, Søren L.; van Witteloostuijn, Søren Blok;

    2015-01-01

    was investigated using a human embryonic kidney 293-based inositol phosphate accumulation assay. All lipidated analogs had preserved in vitro activity on both NMU receptors with potency improving as the lipidation site was moved away from the receptor-interacting C-terminal octapeptide segment. In vivo efficacy......Neuromedin U (NMU) is a 25 amino acid peptide expressed and secreted in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. Data have shown that peripheral administration of human NMU decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance in mice, suggesting that NMU receptors constitute a possible...... anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drug target. However, the clinical use of native NMU is hampered by a poor pharmacokinetic profile. In the current study, we report in vitro and in vivo data from a series of novel lipidated NMU analogs. In vitro plasma stability studies of native NMU were performed...

  20. Dose-dependent effect of nutritional sulfite intake on visual evoked potentials and lipid peroxidation.

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    Ozturk, Nihal; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Derin, Narin; Akpinar, Deniz; Agar, Aysel; Aslan, Mutay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the dose-dependent effect of sulfite (SO₃²⁻) ingestion on brain and retina by means of electrophysiological and biochemical parameters. Fifty two male Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were randomized into four experimental groups of 13 rats as follows; control (C), sulfite treated groups (S(1); 10 mg/kg/day, S₂; 100mg/kg/day, S₃; 260 mg/kg/day). Control rats were administered distilled water, while the other three groups were given sodium metabisulfite (Na₂S₂O₅) of amounts mentioned above, via gavage for a period of 35 days. All components of visual evoked potential (VEP) were prolonged in S₂ and S₃ groups compared with S₁ and C groups. Plasma-S-sulfonate levels, which are an indicator of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) exposure, were increased in Na₂S₂O₅ treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the significant increments in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels occurred with increasing intake of Na₂S₂O₅. Though not significant, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were observed to decrease with increasing doses of Na₂S₂O₅. In conclusion, Na₂S₂O₅ treatment in rats caused a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and all VEP latencies. The data indicate that lipid peroxidation could play an important role in sulfite toxicity.

  1. Association of dietary caloric intake with blood pressure, serum lipids and anthropometric indices in patients with hypertension.

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    Mathew, Siji; Chary, T M

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dietary caloric intake was studied on blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) according to age and gender. The study population consisted of 400 healthy individuals as controls and 746 first time detected untreated hypertensive (HTN) subjects. The subjects were regrouped according to amount of calorie intake per day i.e. high and low calorie intake diet within two age-groups: 30-50 years and 51-80 yrs. Blood samples were drawn from all the subjects, following an overnight fast and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C were measured by standard methods. Serum LDL-C was calculated by Fredrickson-Friedwald formula. BP and anthropometric measurements were measured by a standardized protocol. Highly significant increases in TC, TG, LDL-C, anthropometric and atherogenic indices were seen. While a decrease in HDL-C was observed in high calorie HTN, as compared to low calorie controls. Gender-wise, men had increased values compared to women, except, HDL-C and BMI. With increase in age, all parameters increased in both the subject categories, except atherogenic and anthropometric indices. Hypertensive subjects with high calorie intake diet showed an increase in BP, serum lipids and BMI which might be the major contributor in precipitation of hypertension and also in increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

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    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  3. Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, A D; Stabler, D; Patch, H M; Tooker, J F; Grozinger, C M; Wright, G A

    2016-12-15

    Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake. We restricted B. terrestris adults to single synthetic diets varying in protein:lipid ratios (P:L). The bees over-ate protein on low-fat diets and over-ate lipid on high-fat diets to reach their targets of lipid and protein, respectively. The bees survived best on a 10:1 P:L diet; the risk of dying increased as a function of dietary lipid when bees ate diets with lipid contents greater than 5:1 P:L. Hypothesizing that the P:L intake target of adult worker bumble bees was between 25:1 and 5:1, we presented workers from both species with unbalanced but complementary paired diets to determine whether they self-select their diet to reach a specific intake target. Bees consumed similar amounts of proteins and lipids in each treatment and averaged a 14:1 P:L for B. terrestris and 12:1 P:L for B. impatiens These results demonstrate that adult worker bumble bees likely select foods that provide them with a specific ratio of P:L. These P:L intake targets could affect pollen foraging in the field and help explain patterns of host-plant species choice by bumble bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  5. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  6. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  7. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Castagnino, Pablo S; Lage, Josiane F; Arcuri, Pedro B; Berchielli, Telma T

    2015-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (ptype of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.

  8. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  9. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  10. Lipid oxidation in overweight men after exercise and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, Fabien; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie; Garrigue, Eric; Moro, Cédric; Crampes, François; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Berlan, Michel; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Harant, Isabelle; Rivière, Daniel; Brondel, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Fat oxidation (FO) is optimized during low- to moderate-intensity exercise in lean and obese subjects, whereas high-intensity exercise induces preferential FO during the recovery period. After food intake during the postexercise period, it is unknown if FO differs according to the intensity exercise in overweight subjects. Fat oxidation was thus evaluated in overweight men after low- and high-intensity exercise during the recovery period before and after food intake as well as during a control session. Ten healthy, sedentary, overweight men (age, 27.9 +/- 5.6 years; body mass index, 27.8 +/- 1.3 kg m(-2); maximal oxygen consumption, 37 +/- 3.9 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) exercised on a cycloergometer (energy expenditure = 300 kcal) at 35% (E35) or 70% (E70) maximal oxygen consumption or rested (Cont). The subjects were fed 30 minutes after the exercise with 300 kcal (1256 kJ) more energy in the exercise sessions than in the Cont session. Respiratory quotient and FO were calculated by indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were analyzed to measure plasma glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, and insulin. During exercise, mean respiratory quotient was lower (P < .05) and FO was higher (P < .01) in the E35 than in the E70 session (FO [in mg min(-1)]: E35 = 290 +/- 12, E70 = 256 +/- 38, and Cont = 131 +/- 7). Conversely, FO was higher in the E70 than in both the E35 session and the Cont session during the immediate recovery as well as during the postprandial recovery period (P = .005 for all; FO from the end of the exercise to the end of the session [in grams]: E70 = 45.7 +/- 8.9, E35 = 38.2 +/- 6.8, and Cont = 36.0 +/- 4.3). Blood parameters did not differ between the 3 sessions but changed according to the absorption of the nutrients. In overweight subjects, high-intensity exercise increased FO during the postexercise period even after food intake compared with the low-intensity exercise and the control session.

  11. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches) or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs) modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effec...

  12. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P.; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M.; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E.; Peterson, Jonathan M.; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A.; Townsend, Craig A.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2011-01-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:21490364

  13. Pharmacological glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase inhibition decreases food intake and adiposity and increases insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, Francis P; Aja, Susan; Tu, Yajun; Han, Wan Fang; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Landree, Leslie E; Peterson, Jonathan M; Daniels, Khadija; Wong, Kody; Wydysh, Edward A; Townsend, Craig A; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2011-07-01

    Storage of excess calories as triglycerides is central to obesity and its associated disorders. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) catalyze the initial step in acylglyceride syntheses, including triglyceride synthesis. We utilized a novel small-molecule GPAT inhibitor, FSG67, to investigate metabolic consequences of systemic pharmacological GPAT inhibition in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. FSG67 administered intraperitoneally decreased body weight and energy intake, without producing conditioned taste aversion. Daily FSG67 (5 mg/kg, 15.3 μmol/kg) produced gradual 12% weight loss in DIO mice beyond that due to transient 9- to 10-day hypophagia (6% weight loss in pair-fed controls). Continued FSG67 maintained the weight loss despite return to baseline energy intake. Weight was lost specifically from fat mass. Indirect calorimetry showed partial protection by FSG67 against decreased rates of oxygen consumption seen with hypophagia. Despite low respiratory exchange ratio due to a high-fat diet, FSG67-treated mice showed further decreased respiratory exchange ratio, beyond pair-fed controls, indicating enhanced fat oxidation. Chronic FSG67 increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice. Chronic FSG67 decreased gene expression for lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue and liver and decreased lipid accumulation in white adipose, brown adipose, and liver tissues without signs of damage. RT-PCR showed decreased gene expression for orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptides AgRP or NPY after acute and chronic systemic FSG67. FSG67 given intracerebroventricularly (100 and 320 nmol icv) produced 24-h weight loss and feeding suppression, indicating contributions from direct central nervous system sites of action. Together, these data point to GPAT as a new potential therapeutic target for the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

  14. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...... (MR) imaging, and liver fat by (1)H MR spectroscopy.Results:Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted...

  15. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  16. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  17. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imamura Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards, which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1 to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2 to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses, as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%, five backs (31%, and three controls (12% had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes

  18. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura Hiroyuki; Iide Kazuhide; Yoshimura Yoshitaka; Kumagai Kenya; Oshikata Reika; Miyahara Keiko; Oda Kazuto; Miyamoto Noriko; Nakazawa Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and ba...

  19. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  20. Room Service Improves Nutritional Intake and Increases Patient Satisfaction While Decreasing Food Waste and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Sally; Maunder, Kirsty; Krikowa, Renee; MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen

    2017-07-01

    /day, P=0.003) intake, as well as energy and protein intake as a percentage of requirements (63% vs 75%; P=0.024 and 65% vs 85%; P=0.011, respectively). Total mean plate waste decreased from 29% (traditional foodservice model) to 12% (room service) (Pnutritional intake and enhance patient satisfaction in a budget constrained health care environment. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  2. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile in overweight and obese schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Ana Elisa Madalena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high blood lipid levels and obesity are one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. Some environmental factors are supposed to be involved in this relationship, such as dietary factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and blood lipids levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 147 overweight and obese schoolchildren in Botucatu city, Brazil. The anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference and skinfolds, pubertal staging evaluation and biochemical tests were taken in all children. Three 24h-recall were applied in order to estimate the dietary intake and its relationship with blood lipid levels. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was assessed at the level of 0.05. The data were processed in SAS software (version 9.1.3; SAS Institute. Results At this study, 63% of children were obese (body mass index higher than 95th percentile and 80% showed high body fat percentage. The percentage of children with abnormal total cholesterol and triglycerides was 12% and 10%, respectively, and 28% presented at least one abnormal lipid levels. The average values of anthropometric measurements were higher in children with elevated lipid levels. Total cholesterol levels were positively related to full-fat dairy products and triglycerides levels to saturated fat percentage. Conclusions Saturated fat was positively associated with elevated lipid levels in overweight and obese schoolchildren. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since childhood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  3. Nudge to nobesity I: Minor changes in accessibility decrease food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to erase obesity over a period of years. We examine the effect of slight changes in the accessibility of different foods in a pay-by-weight-of-food salad bar in a cafeteria serving adults for the lunch period. Making a food slightly more difficult to reach (by varying its proximity by about 10 inches or changing the serving utensil (spoon or tongs modestly but reliably reduces intake, in the range of 8-16%. Given this effect, it is possible that making calorie-dense foods less accessible and low-calorie foods more accessible over an extended period of time would result in significant weight loss.

  4. Evidence of decreased muscle protein turnover in gilts selected for low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Harris, A J; Hollinger, K; Punt, R M; Grubbs, J K; Selsby, J T; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of muscle protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) to the biological basis for genetic differences in finisher pigs selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake is defined as the difference between expected feed intake (based on the achieved rate of BW gain and backfat depth of individual pigs) and the observed feed intake of the individual pig. We hypothesized that protein turnover would be reduced in pigs selected for low RFI. Twelve gilts from a line selected for 7 generations for low RFI and 12 from a contemporary line selected for 2 generations for high RFI were paired by age and BW and fed a standard corn-soybean diet for 6 wk. Pigs were euthanized, muscle and liver samples were collected, and insulin signaling, protein synthesis, and protein degradation proteins were analyzed for expression and activities. Muscle from low RFI pigs tended to have less μ- and m-calpain activities (P = 0.10 and 0.09, respectively) and had significantly greater calpastatin activity and a decreased μ-calpain:calpastatin activity ratio (P 0.05). Postmortem proteolysis was determined in the LM from the eighth generation of the low RFI pigs versus their high RFI counterparts (n = 9 per line). Autolysis of μ-calpain was decreased in the low RFI pigs and less troponin-T degradation product was observed at 3 d postmortem (P < 0.05), indicating slowed postmortem proteolysis during aging in the low RFI pigs. These data provide significant evidence that less protein degradation occurs in pigs selected for reduced RFI, and this may account for a significant portion of the increased efficiency observed in these animals.

  5. Identification of subpopulations of prairie voles differentially susceptible to peer influence to decrease high alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M.J. Anacker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer influences are critical in the decrease of alcohol (ethanol abuse and maintenance of abstinence. We previously developed an animal model of inhibitory peer influences on ethanol drinking using prairie voles and here sought to understand whether this influential behavior was due to specific changes in drinking patterns and to variation in a microsatellite sequence in the regulatory region of the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (avpr1a. Adult prairie voles’ drinking patterns were monitored in a lickometer apparatus that recorded each lick a subject exhibited during continuous access to water and 10% ethanol during periods of isolation, pair housing of high and low drinkers, and subsequent isolation. Analysis of fluid consumption confirmed previous results that high drinkers typically decrease ethanol intake when paired with low drinkers, but that a subset of voles do not decrease. Analysis of bout structure revealed differences in the number of ethanol drinking bouts in the subpopulations of high drinkers when paired with low drinkers. Lickometer drinking patterns analyzed by visual and by cross-correlation analyses demonstrated that pair housing did not increase the rate of subjects drinking in bouts occurring at the same time. The length of the avpr1a microsatellite did not predict susceptibility to peer influence or any other drinking behaviors. In summary, subpopulations of high drinkers were identified by fluid intake and number of drinking bouts, which did or did not lower their ethanol intake when paired with a low drinking peer, and these subpopulations should be explored for testing the efficacy of treatments to decrease ethanol use in groups that are likely to be responsive to different types of therapy.

  6. Lipid profile and nutritional intake in children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes improve after a structured dietician training to a Mediterranean-style diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadario, F; Prodam, F; Pasqualicchio, S; Bellone, S; Bonsignori, I; Demarchi, I; Monzani, A; Bona, G

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate if nutritional intakes and lipid profile fulfill international guidelines and recommendations before and after a structured dietician training to a Mediterranean- style diet in an Italian pediatric population with Type 1 diabetes. A 6-month prospective cohort study. Baseline and after-intervention nutritional intakes, lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and clinical parameters of 96 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes were assessed. A comparative computerized system which was approved and validated by the Italian Diabetologist Association was used to define the amounts of nutrients. At baseline mean daily dietary intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids were respectively (mean ± SEM) 51.8 ± 0.5, 15.9 ± 0.2, 33.8 ± 0.6%, with a contribution of cholesterol of 248.7 ± 12.5 mg/day. Fiber assumption was 18.0 ± 0.4 g/day. The 64.5% and 29.1% (plipid parameter higher than 75(th) and 95(th) percentiles, respectively, of selected cut points (American Diabetes Association guidelines for total and LDL-cholesterol and American Academy of Pediatrics standards for HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides). Six months after the dietician intervention, dietary lipids and cholesterol decreased (plipid parameter (plipids intake and a suboptimal lipid profile. A structured dietician training to a Mediterranean-style diet improves the quality of nutrient intakes being followed by a reduction of LDL-cholesterol, non- HDL-cholesterol, and total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios.

  7. Improved meal presentation increases food intake and decreases readmission rate in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniela Abigail; Boaz, Mona; Krause, Ilan; Elis, Avishay; Chernov, Karina; Giabra, Mursi; Levy, Miriam; Giboreau, Agnes; Kosak, Sigrid; Mouhieddine, Mohamed; Singer, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Reduced food intake is a frequent problem at a hospital setting, being a cause and/or consequence of malnutrition. Food presentation can affect food intake and induce nutritional benefit. To investigate the effect of improved meal presentation supported by gastronomy expertise on the food intake in adults hospitalized in internal medicine departments. Controlled before and after study. Two hundred and six newly hospitalized patients in internal medicine departments were included and divided in two groups, a) control: receiving the standard lunch from the hospital and b) experimental: receiving a lunch improved in terms of presentation by the advices received by the Institut Paul Bocuse, Ecully, Lyon, France together with the hospital kitchen of the Beilinson Hospital, without change in the composition of the meal. The amount of food left at the participants' plates was estimated using the Digital Imaging Method, which consisted in photographing the plates immediately to previous tray collection by the researcher. In addition, the nutritionDay questionnaire was used to measure other variables concerned to their food intake during hospitalization. Charlson Comorbidity Index was calculated. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demography or Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients who received the meal with the improved presentation showed significantly higher food intake than those who received the standard meal, despite reported loss in appetite. Participants from the experimental group left on their plate less starch (0.19 ± 0.30 vs. 0.52 + 0.41) (p  0.05). Both of the groups were asked how hungry they were before the meal and no significance was shown. More participants from the experimental group reported their meal to be tasty in comparison to those in the control group (49.5% vs. 33.7% p < 0.005). Length of stay was not different but readmission rate decreased significantly in the study group (p < 0.02) from 31.2% to 13

  8. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  10. Stability and Reliability of Plasma Level of Lipid Biomarkers and Their Correlation with Dietary Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ah Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and stability of plasma lipid biomarkers and their association with dietary fat intake were evaluated among 48 subjects who were randomly chosen from the participants of a validation study of the population-based cohort, the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS. Four spot blood samples, one taken each season, were measured for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The reliability and stability of these measurements were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and by the correlations between a randomly chosen measurement with the mean of measurements across seasons using a bootstrap approach. The median levels for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were 177.5, 164.5, 41.0, and 102.5 (mg/dl, respectively. The ICCs of the biomarkers ranged from 0.58 (LDL-cholesterol to 0.83 (HDL-cholesterol. The correlation between randomly chosen spot measurements and the mean measurement were 0.91, 0.86, 0.93, and 0.83 for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. The correlations of lipid biomarkers with dietary fat intake and other lifestyle factors were comparable to other previous reports. In conclusion, this study suggests that measurements of lipid biomarkers from a single spot blood sample are a good representation of the average blood levels of these biomarkers in the study population and could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies.

  11. Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Increase Energy and Macronutrient Intakes from Complementary Food among Malawian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Jaimie; Kumwenda, Chiza; Arimond, Mary; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Rehman, Andrea M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Ulla; Filteau, Suzanne; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-02-01

    Low intakes of good-quality complementary foods (CFs) contribute to undernutrition and consequently negatively affect health, growth, and development. Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are designed to ensure dietary adequacy in micronutrients and essential fatty acids and to provide some energy and high-quality protein. In populations in which acute energy deficiency is rare, the dose-dependent effect of LNSs on CF intakes is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in energy and macronutrient intakes from CF between a control (no supplement) group and 3 groups that received 10, 20, or 40 g LNS/d. We collected repeated interactive 24-h dietary recalls from caregivers of rural Malawian 9- to 10-mo-old infants (n = 748) to estimate dietary intakes (LNS and all non-breast-milk foods) of energy and macronutrients and their dietary patterns. All infants were participating in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of various doses of LNS for preventing undernutrition. Dietary energy intakes were significantly higher among infants in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group (396, 406, and 388 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d; each pairwise P energy intakes between groups who were administered the different LNS doses (10 g LNS/d compared with 20 g LNS/d: P = 0.72; 10 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P ≥ 0.67; 20 g LNS/d compared with 40 g LNS/d: P = 0.94). Intakes of protein and fat were significantly higher in the LNS intervention groups than in the control group. No significant intergroup differences were found in median intakes of energy from non-LNS CFs (357, 347, and 296 kcal/d in the 10-, 20-, and 40-g LNS/d groups, respectively, compared with 345 kcal/d in the control group; P = 0.11). LNSs in doses of 10-40 g/d increase intakes of energy and macronutrients among 9- to 10-mo-old Malawian infants, without displacing locally available CFs

  12. SREBP-1c Gene Silencing can Decrease Lipid Deposits in Bovine Hepatocytes Cultured in Vitro

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    Qinghua Deng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder that occurs during early lactation in high-producing dairy cows. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c is an important transcription factor that regulates lipid synthesis by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism genes. Methods: In this study, we reduced the expression of SREBP-1c by adenovirus-mediated SREBP-1c with a low expression vector (AD-GFP-SREBP-1c to study the effects of SREBP-1c on lipid deposits in bovine hepatocytes. The expression levels and enzyme activities of SERBP-1c and its target genes were determined by real-time PCR, western blot, and ELISA. Results: These results showed that Ad-GFP-SREBP-1c could inhibit SREBP-1c expression. The expression of the lipid synthesis enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC was down-regulated. The expression levels of the lipid oxidation enzymes long-chain fatty acyl-COA synthetase (ACSL-1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase І (CPT-І, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT- II, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA-DH (HADH were significantly elevated. Furthermore, the expression levels of factors involved in the assembly and transport of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs, such as apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB, apolipoprotein E (ApoE, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP were decreased comparison with the negative control and the blank control groups, but the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR was elevated. The concentrations of TG (triglyceride and VLDL were also reduced. Conclusion: These data suggest that low SREBP-1c expression can decrease lipid synthesis, increase lipid oxidation, and decrease the TG and VLDL content in bovine hepatocytes.

  13. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  14. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  15. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  16. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  17. Antidepressants may lead to a decrease in niacin and NAD in patients with poor dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Margaretha; Swanepoel, Annie; Bipath, Priyesh

    2015-03-01

    The term niacin is the generic name for the two compounds nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, the major dietary precursors for two important coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP. Niacin is important for the maintenance of cellular integrity and energy production and is involved in more than 500 intracellular reactions. Deficiencies of niacin may contribute to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Patients who develop nutritional deficiencies as a result of poor dietary intake, especially inadequate intake of proteins and vitamins, could potentially suffer from niacin deficiency and NAD depletion. However, de novo synthesis of niacin and NAD in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism may compensate for impaired dietary intake. The rate of synthesis of NAD and niacin from tryptophan oxidation depends on the induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Niacin synthesis is not limited by a decrease in tryptophan and excessive IDO activity may therefore lead to a decline in tryptophan levels. Antidepressants have an anti-inflammatory effect, including reduction of interferon-gamma and therefore inhibition of IDO, the rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway. In theory, this could account for increased serotonin as more tryptophan becomes available for serotonin synthesis. However, the downside may be that less NAD and niacin are synthesised downstream, which could exacerbate common psychiatric problems. It is our hypothesis that patients with poor dietary intake, who are treated with antidepressants, are at risk of developing niacin/NAD deficiency with possible development of associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. We therefore propose that niacin supplementation be considered in patients with inadequate diets who are treated with antidepressants. We believe that if this does not happen, a subclinical niacin deficiency may result

  18. Life style risks of Parkinson's disease: association between decreased water intake and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Akira; Otsuka, Mieko

    2004-10-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction, especially constipation, is one of the major problems in the daily life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). About 60 to 80% of PD patients suffer from constipation. Several studies have proven that constipation appears about 10 to 20 years prior to motor symptoms. More recently, Abbott et al. have found from a large scale prospective study that lower frequency bowel movements predict the future risk of PD. Furthermore, Braak et al. have found that Lewy neuritis and Lewy bodies, the hallmarks of PD pathology, appear in the dorsal nucleus of vagus in the earliest stage of the disease and then extend upward through the brain stem to reach the substantia nigra in the third stage. They also hypothesize that some yet undefined toxins break through the mucosal barrier of the intestine and are incorporated into the axon terminal of the vagus nerve and transported in a retrograde manner to the vagus nucleus. In this study, we assessed bowel movements and nutritional status in Japanese patients with PD. We found that intake of water was significantly decreased in PD patients from early life and associated with their constipation. Ninety four patients with PD (M 50, F 44) were enrolled. Nutritional status was assessed using the Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Total water intake was calculated from the consumption of coffee, green tea, and tea. We also questioned the behavior of water drinking from the early stage of life. The questionnaire for bowel movements concerned the frequency of defecation, age of onset of constipation, and age of onset of motor dysfunction. Less than one bowel movement in 3 days was defined as constipation. The nutritional status of PD patients did not differ significantly from those of controls though several studies have shown excess intake of animal fats or reduced consumption of coffee are risks in PD. In contrast, water intake was significantly lower in PD patients than controls (604

  19. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  20. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  1. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L

    2017-11-01

    The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina Barra Raiol

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

  3. Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yael T. Joffe; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 −174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat i...

  4. Melatonin Supplementation Decreases Aerobic Exercise Training Induced-Lipid Peroxidation and Malondialdehyde in Sedentary Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaadini Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five percent of consumed oxygen produces a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS including free radicals and other chemical products such as malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA increases lipid peroxidation such as low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c. Melatonin can decrease MDA and lipid peroxidation, but there are limited data about melatonin supplementation on MDA and lipid peroxidation of women. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation on exercise-induced MDA and lipid peroxidation of sedentary young women. Twenty sedentary young (20–25 years old women were selected and randomly divided into two exercise training-supplement (n=10 and exercise training (n=10 groups. Pretest/posttest body mass, BMI, rest heart rate (RHR, body fat percent, menstrual cycle, blood sampling for MDA and lipid profile were collected. Aerobic exercise training was performed for 8 weeks, triple weekly. Melatonin supplementation was ingested at 3 mg/day for exercise training-supplement. Results showed that the long term exercise training increased MDA concentrations, and melatonin supplementation significantly suppressed MDA surge (−25.2±2.87; 95% CI=−30.91 to −19.49. Moreover, post-exercise training LDL-c levels significantly declined due to melatonin supplementation in sedentary young women (19.5±2.41; 95% CI=12.272 to 25.728. We concluded that 3 mg melatonin supplementation following aerobic exercise training would attenuate ROS and improve lipid profile of young sedentary women.

  5. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Donsmark, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms relating intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) to muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity. An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (...... show a decrease in IMTG in response to both lipolytic stimuli. Furthermore, we identify two PAT family proteins, ADRP and TIP47, associated with IMTG. Finally, we demonstrate HSL translocation to IMTG and ADRP after stimulation with epinephrine or contraction....

  6. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  7. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and obesity : increased energy intake or decreased physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Postma, A.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamps, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity is a well-known problem in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL), and it might be the result of an excess in energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. The aim of this study is to describe energy intake and physical activity during treatment for ALL with inter

  8. Influence of water salinity on genes implicated in somatic growth, lipid metabolism and food intake in Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Tovar, Mario Oswaldo; Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Unniappan, Suraj; Canosa, Luis Fabián

    2017-08-01

    Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, is an euryhaline fish of commercial importance in Argentina. This work aimed to determine if water salinity affects the expression of genes involved in somatic growth (gh; ghr-I; ghr-II; igf-I), lipid metabolism (Δ6-desaturase) and food intake (nucb2/nesfatin-1). First, we identified the full-length cDNA sequences of Δ6-desaturase (involved in lipid metabolism) and nesfatin-1 (an anorexigen). Then, pejerrey juveniles were reared during 8weeks in three different water salinity conditions: 2.5g/L (S2.5), 15g/L (S15) and 30g/L (S30) of NaCl. Brain, pituitary, liver and muscle samples were collected in order to analyze mRNA expression. The expression of gh and ghr-II mRNAs increased in the pituitary of fish reared at S2.5 and S30 compared with the S15 group. The expression of ghr-I was higher in the liver of S30 group compared to S2.5 and S15. Igf-I mRNA expression in liver increased with the increment of water salinity, while it decreased in the muscle of S15 and S30 groups. Δ6-desaturase expression increased in S2.5 group compared to S15 in both liver and muscle. S30 caused a decrease in the Δ6-desaturase expression in liver compared to S15. The S30 treatment produced an increase in nucb2/nesfatin-1 mRNA expression in the brain and liver compared to S2.5 and S15. The changes in gene expression observed could help pejerrey perform better during salinity challenges. The S30 condition would likely promote pejerrey somatic growth in the long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Construction of Escherichia coli Mutant with Decreased Endotoxic Activity by Modifying Lipid A Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and its derivatives are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, but these purified proteins are always contaminated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. LPS is recognized by the toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex of mammalian immune cells and leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is a vital step to remove LPS from the proteins before use for therapeutic purpose. In this study, we constructed BL21 (DE3 ∆msbB28 ∆pagP38 mutant, which produces a penta-acylated LPS with reduced endotoxicity. The plasmids harboring pagL and/or lpxE were then introduced into this mutant to further modify the LPS. The new strain (S004 carrying plasmid pQK004 (pagL and lpxE produced mono-phosphoryated tetra-acylated lipid A, which induces markedly less production of tumor necrosis factor-α in the RAW264.7 and IL-12 in the THP1, but still retains ability to produce recombinant proteins. This study provides a strategy to decrease endotoxic activity of recombinant proteins purified from E. coli BL21 backgrounds and a feasible approach to modify lipid A structure for alternative purposes such as mono-phosphoryl lipid A (MPL as vaccine adjuvants.

  10. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  12. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake.

  13. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10......,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within...

  14. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Design: Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P < 0.05). Translocation frequency was not associated with the intake of vitamin E, α-carotene, or lycopene from food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for ≥median compared with intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). Conclusion: High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons. PMID:19793852

  15. Dietary protein intake is associated with favorable cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajifaraji, Majid; Bahadoran, Zahra; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that dietary protein content and type are related to cardiometabolic risk factors including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum fasting glucose, and blood pressure. This population-based study was conducted on 2537 subjects aged 19 to 70 years and selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Associations between intakes of total protein as well as the animal-to-plant (A/P) protein ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. Dietary protein intakes were 13.7% and 13.6% of energy, in men and women, respectively; the A/P protein ratio in women was significantly higher than in men (1.8 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.9). Body mass index was associated with total protein intake in men (β = 0.14, P = .01) and A/P protein ratio in women (β = 0.075, P = .01). Waist circumference was associated with total protein intake (β = -0.048, P = .03) and A/P protein ratio (β=0.031, P = .05) in women. Serum fasting glucose was associated with both total protein intake (β=0.061 and 0.11, P protein intake (β = 0.107 and 0.07, P protein intake (β = -0.125, P = .01). In conclusion, higher dietary protein intake was associated with enhanced HDL-C levels, WC, and diastolic BP, and a higher ratio of A/P protein intake was related with lower serum fasting glucose andWC.

  16. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corella, Dolores

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa

  17. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  18. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Peters, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and umam

  19. Intraduodenal infusion of a combination of tastants decreases food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, Van Mark; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, Dina; Peters, Jelmer; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Taste receptors are expressed not only in taste buds but also in the gastrointestinal tract. It has been hypothesized that these receptors may play a role in satiety and food intake. Objective: This study investigated the effect of intraduodenal tastant infusions (bitter, sweet, and u

  20. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376283718; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an

  1. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  2. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an aft

  3. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  4. StAR overexpression decreases serum and tissue lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yanxia; Xu, Leyuan; Ren, Shunlin; Pandak, William M.; Chen, Sifeng; Yin, Lianhua

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism as initiated by mitochondrial CYP27A1 is a ubiquitous pathway capable of synthesizing multiple key regulatory oxysterols involved in lipids homeostasis. Previously we have shown that the regulation of its activities within hepatocytes is highly controlled by the rate of mitochondrial cholesterol delivery. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing expression of the mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, StAR, is able to lower lipids accumulation in liver, aortic wall, as well as in serum in a well-documented animal model, apoE−/− mice. ApoE−/− mice, characterized by increased serum, liver, and endothelial cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 3 months of age, were infected with recombinant CMV-StAR adenovirus to increase StAR protein expression. Six days following infection, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides had decreased 19 % (P80% (Plipid staining. This study demonstrates for the first time a possible therapeutic role of the CYP27A1–initiated pathway in the treatment of dyslipidemias. PMID:19373502

  5. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... markers of glucose homeostasis and 4 markers of lipolysis were derived from glucose, insulin, C-peptide, nonesterified fatty acid, and glycerol concentrations during a 3-hour frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test. Intramuscular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Forty...

  6. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  7. Changes induced by diet and nutritional intake in the lipid profile of female professional volleyball players after 11 weeks of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between cardiovascular disease and lipid profile is well known. Apart from a heart-healthy diet, exercise is the primary factor that can modify this lipid-associated cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential changes in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc), as well as atherogenic indices (TC/HDLc and LDLc/HDLc), and also to analyse the diet over 11 weeks of training in female professional volleyball players. Methods The lipid profile of 22 female professional volleyball players was analysed on Day T0 (pre-preseason) and Day T11 (after 11 weeks of training). The consumption of fats by the players was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, confirmed by seven days of full dietary records. Results By the end of the study, the LDLc levels and both atherogenic indices of the players had decreased (p volleyball players during the first 11 weeks of training in the season was heart healthy, because their lipid profile improved, despite an inadequate intake of fats. PMID:24330488

  8. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  9. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  10. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustme...

  11. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A.; Freiberg, J.J.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    years of age from the Copenhagen General Population Study. We also studied 9319 individuals 20 to 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1166 of whom developed cardiovascular events during 14 years of follow-up. Compared with fasting levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein...... to HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 did not change in response to normal food intake. The maximum changes after normal food and fluid intake from fasting levels were -0.2 mmol/L for total cholesterol, -0.2 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -0.1 mmol...

  12. Urine 24-Hour Sodium Excretion Decreased between 1953 and 2014 in Japan, but Estimated Intake Still Exceeds the WHO Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Sugimoto, Minami; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Background: Accurate monitoring of sodium intake is necessary for evaluating strategies used to reduce sodium intake. However, no repeat survey has been conducted in representative populations in Japan to examine trends in sodium intake with the use of 24-h urinary sodium excretion, a standard evaluation method for sodium intake monitoring.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine potential trends in sodium intake by examining previous reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations.Methods: We systematically searched for reports of 24-h urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (mean age range: 18-69 y). We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English-language articles and hand-searched 7 Japanese scientific journals for Japanese-language articles. Trends in urinary sodium excretion were examined with the use of weighted linear regression and random-effects meta-regression analyses, with adjustment or stratification to address study characteristics (population mean age, percentage of men, and sample size) and study assessment for completeness of urine collection.Results: We identified 68 reports of urinary sodium excretion from 53 articles published from 1953 through 2014 that showed high rates of urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations (weighted mean: 4900 mg/d). The rate of urinary sodium excretion significantly decreased between 1953 and 2014, by 4350 mg/d (P < 0.001); however, the rate of reduction in urinary sodium excretion was variable and decreased with time (P-linear trend <0.001 and P-quadratic trend <0.001). In the random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that assessed completeness of urine collection with creatinine excretion, no significant relation between urinary sodium excretion and year was observed from 1978 to 2014 (β = -16, P = 0.40).Conclusion: Despite a decrease in urinary sodium excretion in healthy Japanese adult populations between 1953 and

  13. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-19

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  14. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  15. Antidepressant treatment decreases daily salt intake and prevents heart dysfunction following subchronic aortic regurgitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Omoto, Ana Carolina Mieko; Siqueira, Tamires Ferreira; Matsubara, Luiz Shigueto; Roscani, Meliza Goi; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2015-05-15

    Depression is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with heart failure. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve these outcomes. Left ventricular volume overload induced hypertrophy that is associated with aortic regurgitation (AR) leads to ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the SSRI paroxetine on cardiac function, as well as on fluid intake and excretion, in subchronic AR. Male Wistar rats (260 to 280g) received sham (SH) surgery or AR induced by retrograde puncture of the aortic valve leaflets. The presence of AR was confirmed by echocardiography (ECHO) exams. Four weeks after AR surgery, subcutaneous injections of paroxetine (PAR: 10mg/kg 3 times in a week) or saline were administered. The rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups and treated for 4 weeks: AR-PAR, ARsaline, SH-PAR and SH-saline. At the end of the treatment period, fractional shortening was preserved in AR-PAR, compared to AR-saline (46.6±2.7% vs 38.3±2.2%, respectively). Daily 0.3 M NaCl intake was reduced in PAR-treated rats. Natriuresis was increased in weeks 2-3 after PAR treatment. Our results suggest that augmentation of central 5-HT neurotransmission has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular remodeling following volume overload. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown.

  16. Tungstate decreases weight gain and adiposity in obese rats through increased thermogenesis and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Marc; Corominola, Helena; Canals, Ignasi; Saura, Josep; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon

    2005-10-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and the limitations of current treatments raise the need for finding novel therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. The purpose of the current study was first to investigate the effects of tungstate on body weight and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Second, we aimed to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. Oral administration of tungstate significantly decreased body weight gain and adiposity without modifying caloric intake, intestinal fat absorption, or growth rate in obese rats. Moreover, the treatment ameliorated dislipemia and insulin resistance of obese rats. These effects were mediated by an increase in whole-body energy dissipation and by changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue. Furthermore, treatment increased the number of small adipocytes with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that tungstate treatment may provide the basis for a promising novel therapy for obesity.

  17. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osamah Hussein; Masha Grosovski; Etti Lasri; Sergio Svalb; Uzi Ravid; Nimer Assy

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n =6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters.RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD+ olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, P < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95±0.07, P < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09±0.1,P < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group(0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group,ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group(1.58±0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil(3.3±0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0±0.4), and MCDD +butter group (2.9±0.36) were increased by 108%, 91%and 87%, respectively (P < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all treatment groups

  18. Mitofusin 2 decreases intracellular lipids in macrophages by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun; Ge, Beihai [Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430030 (China); He, Chao [Department of Cardiology, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 433000 (China); Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiaowen [Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Kejian [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Shihezi University (China); Qian, Cuiping; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Wenzhong [Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430030 (China); Guo, Xiaomei, E-mail: xmguo@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Cardiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Mfn2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation by activating cholesterol transporters. • PPARγ is involved in the Mfn2-mediated increase of cholesterol transporter expressions. • Inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 is involved in Mfn2-induced PPARγ expression. - Abstract: Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to reveal how Mfn2 functions in the atherosclerosis. Mfn2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in arterial atherosclerotic lesions of both mice and human compared with healthy counterparts. Here, we observed that Mfn2 increased cellular cholesterol transporter expression in macrophages by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, an effect achieved at least partially by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated alterations in cholesterol transporter expression, which may have significant implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease.

  19. Tyrosine administration decreases glutathione and stimulates lipid and protein oxidation in rat cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaravatti, Angela M; Magnusson, Alessandra S; de Oliveira, Amanda S; Rosa, Andréa P; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Zanin, Fernanda R; Pederzolli, Carolina D; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2009-09-01

    Tyrosine levels are abnormally elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of patients with inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism especially in tyrosinemia type II which is caused by deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and provokes eyes, skin and central nervous system disturbances. We have recently reported that tyrosine promoted oxidative stress in vitro but the exact mechanisms of brain damage in these disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effect of L-tyrosine (500 mg/Kg) on oxidative stress indices in cerebral cortex homogenates of 14-day-old Wistar rats. A single injection of L-tyrosine decreased glutathione (GSH) and thiol-disulfide redox state (SH/SS ratio) while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were enhanced. In contrast, the treatment did not affect ascorbic acid content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These results indicate that acute administration of L-tyrosine may impair antioxidant defenses and stimulate oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in cerebral cortex of young rats in vivo. This suggests that oxidative stress may represent a pathophysiological mechanism in hypetyrosinemic patients.

  20. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Clara; Donsmark, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Londos, Constantine; Sztalryd, Carole; Holm, Cecilia; Galbo, Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil

    2006-11-01

    A better understanding of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms relating intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) to muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity. An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (TG), among them the PAT family members: perilipin, ADRP (for adipocyte differentiation-related protein), and TIP47 (for tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa). Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is thought to be the major enzyme responsible for IMTG hydrolysis in skeletal muscle. In adipocytes, regulation of HSL by intracellular redistribution has been demonstrated. The existence of such regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle has long been hypothesized but has never been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to characterize the PAT family proteins associated with IMTG and to investigate the effect of epinephrine stimulation or muscle contraction on skeletal muscle TG content and HSL intracellular distribution. Rat soleus muscles were either incubated with epinephrine or electrically stimulated for 15 min. Single muscle fibers were used for morphological analysis by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. We show a decrease in IMTG in response to both lipolytic stimuli. Furthermore, we identify two PAT family proteins, ADRP and TIP47, associated with IMTG. Finally, we demonstrate HSL translocation to IMTG and ADRP after stimulation with epinephrine or contraction.

  1. Lipid malnutrition of patients with liver cirrhosis: effect of low intake of dietary lipid on plasma fatty acid composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okita,Misako

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The plasma fatty acid composition of cirrhotic patients and their dietary intake of fatty acids were determined. Significantly lower plasma arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were observed in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls. A remarkably low dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplied from fish, vegetable oil and pulses was shown in cirrhotic patients. Positive correlations were observed between plasma arachidonic acid concentrations and clearance rate of indocyanine green (KICG (r = 0.826, p less than 0.05 and between dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels and cholinesterase activities (r = 0.841, p less than 0.05. From these results, we conclude that a supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids is necessary for the nutritional treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.

  2. Hydrostatic pressure decreases membrane fluidity and lipid desaturase expression in chondrocyte progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Kevin; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2014-01-22

    Membrane biomechanical properties are critical in modulating nutrient and metabolite exchange as well as signal transduction. Biological membranes are predominantly composed of lipids, cholesterol and proteins, and their fluidity is tightly regulated by cholesterol and lipid desaturases. To determine whether such membrane fluidity regulation occurred in mammalian cells under pressure, we investigated the effects of pressure on membrane lipid order of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells and desaturase gene expression. Hydrostatic pressure linearly increased membrane lipid packing and simultaneously repressed lipid desaturase gene expression. We also showed that cholesterol mimicked and cholesterol depletion reversed those effects, suggesting that desaturase gene expression was controlled by the membrane physical state itself. This study demonstrates a new effect of hydrostatic pressure on mammalian cells and may help to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in hydrostatic pressure sensing in chondrocytes.

  3. Simultaneous intake of oat bran and atorvastatin reduces their efficacy to lower lipid levels and atherosclerosis in LDLr-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone R B M; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Andersson, Kristina E; Klungel, Olaf H; Hellstrand, Per; Oste, Rickard; van Kranen, Henk; Garssen, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of separate and simultaneous dietary intake of atorvastatin (ATO) and the soluble fiber oat bran on serum and hepatic lipid levels and the degree of atherosclerosis. Ninety female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet containing either low dose (0.0025%), high dose (0.01%) or no ATO, with or without oat bran (27%) (n=15 per group) for 16 weeks. Both ATO and oat bran were effective in reducing serum total cholesterol levels (low ATO: -5.48, high ATO: -9.12, oat bran: -3.82 mmol/l, compared to control (no ATO/no oat bran), all pdietary fiber, and on the relative timing of intake of the statin and the dietary fiber. Future studies should focus on these aspects to provide further insight into the exact mechanism of this food-drug interaction.

  4. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  5. Brazil nuts intake improves lipid profile, oxidative stress and microvascular function in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koury Josely C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a chronic disease associated to an inflammatory process resulting in oxidative stress that leads to morpho-functional microvascular damage that could be improved by some dietary interventions. In this study, the intake of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa, composed of bioactive substances like selenium, α- e γ- tocopherol, folate and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been investigated on antioxidant capacity, lipid and metabolic profiles and nutritive skin microcirculation in obese adolescents. Methods Obese female adolescents (n = 17, 15.4 ± 2.0 years and BMI of 35.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, were randomized 1:1 in two groups with the diet supplemented either with Brazil nuts [BNG, n = 08, 15-25 g/day (equivalent to 3 to 5 units/day] or placebo [PG (lactose, n = 09, one capsule/day] and followed for 16 weeks. Anthropometry, metabolic-lipid profiles, oxidative stress and morphological (capillary diameters and functional [functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity (RBCV at baseline and peak (RBCVmax and time (TRBCVmax to reach it during post-occlusive reactive hyperemia, after 1 min arterial occlusion] microvascular variables were assessed by nailfold videocapillaroscopy at baseline (T0 and after intervention (T1. Results T0 characteristics were similar between groups. At T1, BNG (intra-group variation had increased selenium levels (p = 0.02, RBCV (p = 0.03 and RBCVmax (p = 0.03 and reduced total (TC (p = 0.02 and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. Compared to PG, Brazil nuts intake reduced TC (p = 0.003, triglycerides (p = 0.05 and LDL-ox (p = 0.02 and increased RBCV (p = 0.03. Conclusion Brazil nuts intake improved the lipid profile and microvascular function in obese adolescents, possibly due to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids and bioactive substances. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00937599

  6. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: decreased CIMT, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Fogelman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. Objective: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. Design: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL] and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0.2 g/day of ethanolic extract of licorice root for 12 months, and a control group that received a placebo. Results: Of 110 eligible participants, 94 (41–80 years old completed the study. A significant CIMT decrease from 0.92±0.25 mm to 0.84±0.21 mm was observed in the experimental group compared with an increase from 0.85±0.17 mm to 0.88±0.19 mm in the control group. Mean plasma total cholesterol levels and LDL cholesterol decreased, at the range baseline to 1 year, from 284±32 mg/dl to 262±25 mg/dl and from 183±8.5 mg/dl to 174±9.1 mg/dl, respectively, for the experimental group (p<0.001 and from 291±35 to 289±31 mg/dl and from 177.6±10.7 to 179.3±9.6 (p=0.08, respectively, for the control group. Mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL did not change significantly in either group. In the experimental group, systolic blood pressure decreased from 138±12 mmHg to 125±13 mmHg after 1 year (p=0.01 and increased from 136±15 mmHg to 137±13 mmHg in the control group. Diastolic blood pressure decreased from 92±9 mmHg to 84±10 mmHg (p=0.01 in the experimental group and increased from 89±11 mmHg to 90±8 mmHg in the control group. Conclusion: Following 1 year of licorice consumption, mean CIMT, total cholesterol, LDL levels, and blood pressure were decreased. This suggests that licorice may attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and of related cardiovascular diseases.

  7. FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, PUFA intake and blood lipids in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Standl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated cholesterol levels in children can be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in later life. In adults, it has been shown that blood lipid levels are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster in addition to nutritional and other exogenous and endogenous determinants. Our aim was to investigate whether lipid levels are determined by the FADS genotype already in children and whether this association interacts with dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids. METHODS: The analysis was based on data of 2006 children from two German prospective birth cohort studies. Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides were measured at 10 years of age. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the FADS gene cluster were genotyped. Dietary n-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression modeling was used to assess the association between lipid levels, n-3 fatty acid intake and FADS genotype. RESULTS: Individuals carrying the homozygous minor allele had lower levels of total cholesterol [means ratio (MR ranging from 0.96 (p = 0.0093 to 0.98 (p = 0.2949, depending on SNPs] and LDL [MR between 0.94 (p = 0.0179 and 0.97 (p = 0.2963] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. Carriers of the heterozygous allele showed lower HDL levels [β between -0.04 (p = 0.0074 to -0.01 (p = 0.3318] and higher triglyceride levels [MR ranging from 1.06 (p = 0.0065 to 1.07 (p = 0.0028] compared to homozygous major allele carriers. A higher n-3 PUFA intake was associated with higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and lower triglyceride levels, but these associations did not interact with the FADS1 FADS2 genotype. CONCLUSION: Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride concentrations may be influenced by the FADS1 FADS2 genotype already in 10 year old children. Genetically determined blood lipid levels during childhood might

  8. Desipramine enhances the ability of risperidone to decrease alcohol intake in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Danielle; Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2014-08-30

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine reduces alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia. We have proposed that clozapine׳s ability to decrease alcohol drinking relates to its weak blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor and potent blockade of the norepinephrine α-2 receptor, as well as its ability to elevate plasma and brain norepinephrine. Another atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, which is a potent blocker of both the dopamine D2 receptor and norepinephrine α-2 receptor, does not decrease alcohol drinking. In this study, we used the Syrian golden hamster to test whether the ability of risperidone to reduce alcohol drinking would be enhanced if it was used in combination with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine. Hamsters were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until they reached a steady drinking baseline. They were then treated daily with each drug or drug combination for 20 days. Risperidone (0.2mg/kg) only transiently decreased alcohol drinking. However, 5.0mg/kg, and possibly 1.0mg/kg, desipramine added to 0.2mg/kg risperidone appeared to produce a more substantial and relatively sustained effect than risperidone alone. Data from this study provide leads toward the development of new treatments for patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism, and also for those with alcoholism alone.

  9. Ceramide displaces cholesterol from lipid rafts and decreases the association of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuijuan; Alterman, Michail; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2005-08-01

    Addition of exogenous ceramide causes a significant displacement of cholesterol in lipid raft model membranes. However, whether ceramide-induced cholesterol displacement is sufficient to alter the protein composition of caveolin-enriched lipid raft membranes is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether increasing endogenous ceramide levels with bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) depleted cholesterol and changed the protein composition of caveolin-enriched membranes (CEMs) isolated from immortalized Schwann cells. bSMase increased ceramide levels severalfold and decreased the cholesterol content of detergent-insoluble CEMs by 25-50% within 2 h. To examine the effect of ceramide on the protein composition of the CEMs, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling of cells in culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although ceramide rapidly depleted lipid raft cholesterol, the levels of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) decreased by 25% only after 8 h. Importantly, replenishing the cells with cholesterol rapidly reversed the loss of Cav-1 from the CEMs. Ceramide-induced cholesterol depletion increased the association of 5'-nucleotidase and ATP synthase beta-subunit with the CEMs but had a minimal effect on changing the abundance of other lipid raft proteins, such as flotillin-1 and G-proteins. These results suggest that the ceramide-induced loss of cholesterol from CEMs may contribute to altering the lipid raft proteome.

  10. Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Alves, Tiago; Ladiges, Warren; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Jurczak, Michael J; Choi, Cheol Soo; Shulman, Gerald I; Samuel, Varman T

    2017-08-01

    We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKCθ activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Short-term sleep loss decreases physical activity under free-living conditions but does not increase food intake under time-deprived laboratory conditions in healthy men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; Benedict, Christian; Lehnert, Hendrik; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    .... We aimed to test the hypothesis that acute sleep loss decreases physical activity while increasing food intake, thereby shifting 2 crucial behavioral components of energy homeostasis toward weight gain...

  12. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Terrier, Frédéric; Schrama, Johan W; Médale, Françoise; Geurden, Inge

    2012-06-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 weeks one of the four isoproteic diets containing fish oil (FO) or CO as fat source (FS), incorporated at 5% (low fat, LF) or 15% (high fat, HF). Fat level or FS did not modify food intake (g/kg(0·8) per d), despite higher intestinal cholecystokinin-T mRNA in trout fed the HF-FO diet. The HF diets relative to the LF ones induced higher growth and adiposity, whereas the replacements of FO by CO resulted in similar growth and adiposity. This, together with the substantial retention of C12 (57% of intake), suggests the relatively low oxidation of ingested C12. The down-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT-1) confirms the minor dependency of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on CPT-1 to enter the mitochondria. However, MCFA did not up-regulate mitochondrial oxidation evaluated using hepatic hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase as a marker, in line with their high retention in body lipids. At a low lipid level, MCFA increased mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, elongase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in liver, showing the hepatic activation of fatty acid synthesis pathways by MCFA, reflected by increased 16 : 0, 18 : 0, 16 : 1, 18 : 1 body levels. The high capacity of trout to incorporate and transform C12, rather than to readily oxidise C12, contrasts with data in mammals and may explain the absence of a satiating effect of CO in rainbow trout.

  13. Statin Intake Is Associated With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity During Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Carvalho, George; Sato, Tamaki; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph; Codere-Maruyama, Takumi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Schricker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical trauma impairs intraoperative insulin sensitivity and is associated with postoperative adverse events. Recently, preprocedural statin therapy is recommended for patients with coronary artery disease. However, statin therapy is reported to increase insulin resistance and the risk of new-onset diabetes. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative statin therapy and intraoperative insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this prospective, nonrandomized trial, patients taking lipophilic statins were assigned to the statin group and hypercholesterolemic patients not receiving any statins were allocated to the control group. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp technique during surgery. The mean, SD of blood glucose, and the coefficient of variation (CV) after surgery were calculated for each patient. The association between statin use and intraoperative insulin sensitivity was tested by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS We studied 120 patients. In both groups, insulin sensitivity gradually decreased during surgery with values being on average ∼20% lower in the statin than in the control group. In the statin group, the mean blood glucose in the intensive care unit was higher than in the control group (153 ± 20 vs. 140 ± 20 mg/dL; P statin group (SD, P statin use was independently associated with intraoperative insulin sensitivity (β = −0.16; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Preoperative use of lipophilic statins is associated with increased insulin resistance during cardiac surgery in nondiabetic, dyslipidemic patients. PMID:22829524

  14. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  15. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Cho, Jacob; Kim, Ronald; Michaelides, Michael; Primeaux, Stefany; Bray, George; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-02-02

    Dopamine (DA) and DA D₂ receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Porange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  17. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2012-12-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE.

  18. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  19. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... to decrease. Litter size reduction in offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams further increased body weight and adiposity, and up-regulated genes involved in hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation and VLDL transport compared with all other groups. Litter size reduction did not have any impact on body...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....

  20. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Chronic caffeine intake decreases circulating catecholamines and prevents diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Silvia V; Nunes da Silva, Tiago; Gonzalez, Constancio; Mota Carmo, Miguel; Monteiro, Emilia C; Guarino, Maria P

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term caffeine intake prevents the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in two pathological animal models: the high-fat (HF) and the high-sucrose (HSu) diet rat. We used six groups of animals: control; caffeine-treated (Caff; 1 g/l in drinking water during 15 d); HF; caffeine-treated HF (HFCaff); HSu; caffeine-treated HSu (HSuCaff). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the insulin tolerance test. Blood pressure, weight gain, visceral fat, hepatic glutathione, plasma caffeine, insulin and NO, and serum NEFA and catecholamines were measured. Caffeine reversed insulin resistance and hypertension induced by both the HF and HSu diets. In the HF-fed animals caffeine treatment restored fasting insulin levels to control values and reversed increased weight gain and visceral fat mass. In the HSu group, caffeine reversed fasting hyperglycaemia and restored NEFA to control values. There were no changes either in plasma NO or in hepatic glutathione levels. In contrast, caffeine totally prevented the increase in serum catecholamines induced by HF and HSu diets. To test the hypothesis that inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system prevents the development of diet-induced insulin resistance we administered carvedilol, an antagonist of β1, β2 and also α1 adrenoceptors, to HF and HSu rats. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and hypertension, mimicking the effect of caffeine. We concluded that long-term caffeine intake prevented the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in HF and HSu models and that this effect was related to a decrease in circulating catecholamines.

  2. Experimental prestorage filtration removes antibodies and decreases lipids in RBC supernatants mitigating TRALI in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Christopher C; Kelher, Marguerite R; Khan, Samina Y; LaSarre, Monica; West, F Bernadette; Land, Kevin J; Mish, Barbara; Ceriano, Linda; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel

    2014-05-29

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) remains a significant cause of transfusion-related mortality with red cell transfusion. We hypothesize that prestorage filtration may reduce proinflammatory activity in the red blood cell (RBC) supernatant and prevent TRALI. Filters were manufactured for both small volumes and RBC units. Plasma containing antibodies to human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 or human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-3a was filtered, and immunoglobulins and specific HNA-3a and HLA-2a neutrophil (PMN) priming activity were measured. Antibodies to OX27 were added to plasma, and filtration was evaluated in a 2-event animal model of TRALI. RBC units from 31 donors known to have antibodies against HLA antigens and from 16 antibody-negative controls were filtered. Furthermore, 4 RBC units were drawn and underwent standard leukoreduction. Immunoglobulins, HLA antibodies, PMN priming activity, and the ability to induce TRALI in an animal model were measured. Small-volume filtration of plasma removed >96% of IgG, antibodies to HLA-A2 and HNA-3a, and their respective priming activity, as well as mitigating antibody-mediated in vivo TRALI. In RBC units, experimental filtration removed antibodies to HLA antigens and inhibited the accumulation of lipid priming activity and lipid-mediated TRALI. We conclude that filtration removes proinflammatory activity and the ability to induce TRALI from RBCs and may represent a TRALI mitigation step.

  3. The relationship between vegetables and fruits intake and glycosylated hemoglobin values, lipids profiles and nitrogen status in type II inactive diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Tabesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the glycosylated hemoglobin, therefore choosing the appropriate diet with high fruits and vegetables may help to develop antioxidant defense and reduce the HbA1C in diabetic patients but it did not have any impact on lipids profiles, BUN/creatinine and urine protein 24 h.

  4. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Blokker, B.A.; Siebelink, E.; Kok, F.J.; Afman, L.A.; Tome, D.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a pa

  5. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  6. Salmon Protamine Decreases Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Inhibiting Lipid Absorption in an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model and in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Daiki; Arai, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Protamine has been used as an antiheparin drug and a natural preservative in various food products. However, limited studies have evaluated the physicochemical and functional properties of protamine. Hence, we assessed the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of lipid absorption following salmon protamine intake in in vitro and in vivo studies. In initial experiments, a salmon protamine hydrolyzate (PH) was prepared using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion suppressed pancreatic lipase activity and micellar cholesterol solubility. This PH had higher bile acid-binding capacity and emulsion breakdown activity than casein hydrolyzate and l-arginine. However, the hypolipidemic functions of protamine were dramatically reduced by pancreatin digestion. In further experiments, groups of male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 5% (wt/wt) salmon protamine or a protamine amino acid mixture. After 4 wk of feeding with experimental diets, reductions in serum and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol contents were observed in the presence of protamine, reflecting inhibition of TAG, cholesterol, and bile acid absorption. These data suggest that the formation of insoluble PH-bile acid complexes is critical before the bile acid-binding capacity is reduced. Therefore, dietary salmon protamine may ameliorate lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lundström

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT depot after a three-hour long mild cold exposure.Nine volunteers were investigated with chemical-shift-encoded water-fat MRI at baseline, after a three-hour long cold exposure and after subsequent short reheating. Changes in fat fraction (FF and R2*, related to ambient temperature, were quantified within cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue (considered as suspected BAT, denoted sBAT after semi-automatic segmentation. In addition, FF and R2* were quantified fully automatically in subcutaneous adipose tissue (not considered as suspected BAT, denoted SAT for comparison. By assuming different time scales for the regulation of lipid turnover and perfusion in BAT, the changes were determined as resulting from either altered absolute fat content (lipid-related or altered absolute water content (perfusion-related.sBAT-FF decreased after cold exposure (mean change in percentage points = -1.94 pp, P = 0.021 whereas no change was observed in SAT-FF (mean = 0.23 pp, P = 0.314. sBAT-R2* tended to increase (mean = 0.65 s-1, P = 0.051 and SAT-R2* increased (mean = 0.40 s-1, P = 0.038 after cold exposure. sBAT-FF remained decreased after reheating (mean = -1.92 pp, P = 0.008, compared to baseline whereas SAT-FF decreased (mean = -0.79 pp, P = 0.008, compared to after cold exposure.The sustained low sBAT-FF after reheating suggests lipid consumption, rather than altered perfusion, as the main cause to the decreased sBAT-FF. The results obtained demonstrate the use of the cooling-reheating protocol for detecting changes in the cervical-supraclavicular fat depot, being the main human brown adipose tissue depot, in terms of lipid content and perfusion.

  8. Saturated lipids decrease mitofusin 2 leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress activation and insulin resistance in hypothalamic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Brenda; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Tovar, Armando; Montiel, Teresa; Massieu, Lourdes; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Camacho, Alberto

    2015-11-19

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria dysfunction contribute to insulin resistance generation during obesity and diabetes. ER and mitochondria interact through Mitofusin 2 (MTF2), which anchors in the outer mitochondrial and ER membranes regulating energy metabolism. Ablation of MTF2 leads to ER stress activation and insulin resistance. Here we determine whether lipotoxic insult induced by saturated lipids decreases MTF2 expression leading to ER stress response in hypothalamus and its effects on insulin sensitivity using in vitro and in vivo models. We found that lipotoxic stimulation induced by palmitic acid, but not the monounsaturated palmitoleic acid, decreases MTF2 protein levels in hypothalamic mHypoA-CLU192 cells. Also, palmitic acid incubation activates ER stress response evidenced by increase in the protein levels of GRP78/BIP marker at later stage than MTF2 downregulation. Additionally, we found that MTF2 alterations induced by palmitic, but not palmitoleic, stimulation exacerbate insulin resistance in hypothalamic cells. Insulin resistance induced by palmitic acid is prevented by pre-incubation of the anti-inflammatory and the ER stress release reagents, sodium salicylate and 4 phenylbutirate, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that lipotoxic insult induced by high fat feeding to mice decreases MTF2 proteins levels in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus. Our data indicate that saturated lipids modulate MTF2 expression in hypothalamus coordinating the ER stress response and the susceptibility to insulin resistance.

  9. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine decreases food intake, body weight, and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; de Bruin, Kora; la Fleur, Susanne E; van den Brink, Wim; Booij, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The novel triple monoamine inhibitor tesofensine blocks dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake and is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity. Obesity is associated with lower striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability, which may be related to disturbed regulation of food intake. This study assesses the effects of chronic tesofensine treatment on food intake and body weight in association with changes in striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/3R) availability of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Four groups of 15 DIO rats were randomized to one of the following treatments for 28 days: 1. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg), 2. vehicle, 3. vehicle+restricted diet isocaloric to caloric intake of group 1, and 4. tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg)+ a treatment-free period of 28 days. Caloric intake and weight gain decreased significantly more in the tesofensine-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated rats, which confirms previous findings. After treatment discontinuation, caloric intake and body weight gain gradually increased again. Tesofensine-treated rats showed significantly lower D2/3R availability in nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum than both vehicle-treated rats and vehicle-treated rats on restricted isocaloric diet. No correlations were observed between food intake or body weight and D2/3R availability. Thus, chronic tesofensine treatment leads to decreased food intake and weight gain. However, this appears not to be directly related to the decreased striatal D2/3R availability, which is mainly a pharmacological effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid metabolism disturbances contribute to insulin resistance and decrease insulin sensitivity by malathion exposure in Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasram, Mohamed Montassar; Bouzid, Kahena; Douib, Ines Bini; Annabi, Alya; El Elj, Naziha; El Fazaa, Saloua; Abdelmoula, Jaouida; Gharbi, Najoua

    2015-04-01

    Several studies showed that organophosphorus pesticides disturb glucose homeostasis and can increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on glucose metabolism regulation, in vivo, during subchronic exposure. Malathion was administered orally (200 mg/kg), once a day for 28 consecutive days. Plasma glucose, insulin and Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased while hepatic glycogen content was decreased in intoxicated animals compared with the control group. Furthermore, there was a significant disturbance of lipid content in subchronic treated and post-treated rats deprived of malathion for one month. In addition, we used the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β). Our results show that malathion increases insulin resistance biomarkers and decreases insulin sensitivity indices. Statistical analysis demonstrates that there was a positive and strong significant correlation between insulin level and insulin resistance indices, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β. Similarly, a negative and significant correlation was also found between insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices. For the first time, we demonstrate that malathion induces insulin resistance in vivo using homeostasis model assessment and these changes were detectable one month after the end of exposure. To explain insulin resistance induced by malathion we focus on lipid metabolism disturbances and their interaction with many proteins involved in insulin signaling pathways.

  12. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery...

  13. Long term ingestion of a preload containing fructo-oligosaccharide or guar gum decreases fat mass but not food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Chaumontet, Catherine; Fromentin, Gilles; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Rasoamanana, Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Fermentable dietary fibre such as fructo-oligosaccharide and viscous dietary fibers such as guar gum and alginate affect energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of long term intake of these three dietary fibers on food intake, meal pattern, body weight and fat accumulation in mice. Over a period of 3weeks, the mice were fed daily with a preload containing 32mg of fructo-oligosaccharide or alginate or 13mg of guar gum. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly, while meal patterns, adiposity and the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were evaluated at the end of the study period. The 3 dietary fibers produced a similar decrease in total daily food intake (14 to 22%) at the end of the first week, and this effect disappeared over time. The 3 dietary fibers induced a slight variation in satiation parameters. Body weight and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were not affected by any of the treatment. Preload of fructo-oligosaccharide and guar gum induced a similar and substantial decrease in the development of adiposity (17% and 14%, respectively), while alginate had no effect. Our results demonstrate mainly that the inhibitory effect of dietary fiber on food intake is lost over time, and that guar gum limits fat storage.

  14. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  15. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, N B; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Dirksen, C; Nielsen, S; Kristiansen, V B; Toräng, S; Wewer Albrechtsen, N J; Rehfeld, J F; Hartmann, B; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J

    2016-11-01

    Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery through combined actions from GLP-1 and PYY. GLP-1 actions can be blocked using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Exendin 9-39 (Ex-9), whereas PYY actions can be inhibited by the administration of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor preventing the formation of PYY3-36. Appetite-regulating gut hormones and appetite ratings during a standard mixed-meal test and effects on subsequent ad libitum food intake were evaluated in two studies: in study 1, nine patients with type 2 diabetes were examined prospectively before and 3 months after RYGB with and without Ex-9. In study 2, 12 RYGB-operated patients were examined in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design on four experimental days with: (1) placebo, (2) Ex-9, (3) the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, to reduce formation of PYY3-36 and (4) Ex-9/sitagliptin combined. In study 1, food intake decreased by 35% following RYGB compared with before surgery. Before surgery, GLP-1 receptor blockage increased food intake but no effect was seen postoperatively, whereas PYY secretion was markedly increased. In study 2, combined GLP-1 receptor blockage and DPP-4 inhibitor mediated lowering of PYY3-36 increased food intake by ~20% in RYGB patients, whereas neither GLP-1 receptor blockage nor DPP-4 inhibition alone affected food intake, perhaps because of concomitant marked increases in the unblocked hormone. Blockade of actions from only one of the two L-cell hormones, GLP-1 and PYY3-36, resulted in concomitant increased secretion of the other, probably explaining the absent effect on food intake on these experimental days. Combined blockade of GLP-1 and PYY actions increased food intake after RYGB, supporting that these hormones have a role in

  16. Astaxanthin Normalizes Epigenetic Modifications of Bovine Somatic Cell Cloned Embryos and Decreases the Generation of Lipid Peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Wu, H; Zhuo, W W; Mao, Q F; Lan, H; Zhang, Y; Hua, S

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is an extremely common antioxidant scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocking lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of astaxanthin supplementation on oocyte maturation, and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in maturation medium with astaxanthin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/l), respectively. We found that 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased the proportion of oocyte maturation. Oocytes cultured in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation were used to construct SCNT embryos and further cultured with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/l astaxanthin. The results showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin significantly improved the proportions of cleavage and blastulation, as well as the total cell number in blastocysts compared with the control group, yet this influence was not concentration dependent. Chromosomal analyses revealed that more blastomeres showed a normal chromosomal complement in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin treatment group, which was similar to that in IVF embryos. The methylation levels located on the exon 1 of the imprinted gene H19 and IGF2, pluripotent gene OCT4 were normalized, and global DNA methylation, H3K9 and H4K12 acetylation were also improved significantly, which was comparable to that in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Moreover, we also found that astaxanthin supplementation significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation. Our findings showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin to oocyte maturation medium and embryo culture medium improved oocyte maturation, SCNT embryo development, increased chromosomal stability and normalized the epigenetic modifications, as well as inhibited overproduction of lipid peroxidation.

  17. The Relationship Between Carotenoids Intake and Serum Lipids in Adults%成人膳食中类胡萝卜素摄入量与血脂关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳晖; 常东; 潘洪志; 陈文华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究成人膳食中类胡萝卜素的摄入状况与血脂的关系. 方法 采用问卷调查法,调查130名35~60岁人群连续3d的膳食情况,根据膳食摄人情况计算5种类胡萝卜素(包括α-胡萝卜素、β-胡萝卜素、β-隐黄质、番茄红素、叶黄素/玉米黄质)每此摄入量,将调查人群按类胡萝卜素摄入量四分位间距分组,观察类萝卜素的摄入量与血脂的关系. 结果 第1组人群血清甘油三酯水平明显低于第4组人群,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).相关分析结果表明,类胡萝卜素的摄入量与血清中甘油三酯含量呈显著负相关(P<0.05). 结论 结果提示成人膳食类胡萝卜素的摄入与甘油三酯水平具有相关性,摄入类胡萝卜素可能对血脂有一定程度的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between carotenoids intake and serum lipids in adults. Methods Dietary intake for a consecution of 3 days was investigated in 130 objects aged 35 to 60 years old by a questionnaire. Daily Intake of five carotenoids, including α-carotene, β- carotene, β- cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, were calculated. The investigation objects were classified into four groups according to the quartiles of the carotenoids intake: Group 1 (P100 - P75), Group 2 (P75 - P50), Group 3 (P50 - P25), Group 4 (P25 - P0). The relationship between carotenoids intake and serum lipids was explored. Results The serum triglyceride level in Group 1 was significantly lower than that in Group 4 (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the carotenoids intake and serum triglyceride level. Conclusions Serum triglyceride level in adult is correlated with the dietary intake of carotenoids. Carotenoids intake might protect lipids increase to some extent.

  18. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  19. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  20. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Rosendal, A; Nielsen, M O; Raun, K

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Diabetes Foundation, there is an urgent need to investigate the impact of maternal health and nutrition during pregnancy to understand the background for the accelerating incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we specifically concentrated on the role of overfeeding during different developmental periods. Sprague-Dawley rats were offered chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (chow plus chocolate and soft drink) during gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were randomly cross-fostered within each dietary group into small and normal litter sizes until weaning, giving four dietary groups. At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid oxidation, VLDL transport and insulin receptor were down-regulated, whereas FGF21 expression was up-regulated. Independent of postnatal litter size, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams aged 21 days had still increased hepatic TG and up-regulated FGF21 expression, while plasma insulin started to decrease. Litter size reduction in offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams further increased body weight and adiposity, and up-regulated genes involved in hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation and VLDL transport compared with all other groups. Litter size reduction did not have any impact on body weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced bodyweight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Hoek-van den Hil, E.F.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid

  3. Reported Action to Decrease Sodium Intake Is Associated with Dining Out Frequency and Use of Menu Nutrition Information among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-08-03

    Restaurant foods have been shown to be high in sodium and limited sodium content information provided through menu nutrition information (MNI) is available at the point of purchase. Dining out and use of MNI are behaviors that can be altered by consumers who are trying to decrease their sodium intake. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reported consumer actions to decrease sodium intake and dining out frequency and awareness and use/or intended use of MNI. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from 5,588 US adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the 2013-2014 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey household interview. The main outcomes were dining out frequency and seeing MNI, using MNI if seen, or would use MNI if provided. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of consumers reporting and not reporting action to decrease sodium intake and the outcome measures. Reported consumer action to decrease sodium intake compared to no action was associated with an overall decreased dining out frequency of approximately one meal per week (mean±standard error=3.12±0.10 compared to 4.11±0.14; Pdecrease their sodium intake compared to those who were not for both fast-food or pizza establishments and restaurants with wait staff (odds ratio ranged from 1.17 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.32] to 2.24 [95% CI 1.82 to 2.76]; P values ranged from decrease sodium intake, consumers reporting actions indicate they dine out less frequently, specifically at fast-food or pizza restaurants and report they are more likely to use MNI. These results may inform the restaurant industry of the actions of a potentially growing consumer group and provide insights for future public health initiatives targeting population sodium reduction. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (ɛlipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid δD measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid δD values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  5. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.

  6. Lipid intake in children under 3 years of age in France. A position paper by the Committee on Nutrition of the French Society of Paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Legrand, P; Bocquet, A; Girardet, J-P; Bresson, J-L; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M L; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

    2014-04-01

    Lipids are an important source of energy for young children and play a major role in the development and functioning of nervous tissue. Essential fatty acids and their long-chain derivatives also fulfill multiple metabolic functions and play a role in the regulation of numerous genes. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail [ANSES]) have recently recommended a minimum daily intake in preformed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mother's milk remains the only reference, but the large variability in its DHA content does not guarantee that breastfed children receive an optimal DHA intake if the mother's intake is insufficient. For children fed with infant formulas, ARA and DHA intake is often below the recommended intake because only one-third of infant formulas available on the market in France are enriched in LC-PUFAs. For all children, linoleic acid (LA) intake is on average higher than the minimal recommended values. The consequences of these differences between intake and recommended values are uncertain. A cautious attitude is to come close to the current recommendations and to advise sufficient consumption of DHA in breastfeeding women. For bottle-fed children, infant formulas enriched in LC-PUFAs and with moderate levels of LA should be preferred. LC-PUFA-rich fish should be consumed during breastfeeding, and adapted vegetable oils when complementary foods are introduced.

  7. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Conti, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Objective The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Methods Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Results Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. Conclusion The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. PMID:24316258

  8. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vanessa; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell J; Jayalath, Viranda H; Mirrahimi, Arash; Agarwal, Arnav; Chiavaroli, Laura; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; Sacks, Frank M; Di Buono, Marco; Bernstein, Adam M; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Vuksan, Vladimir; Bazinet, Richard P; Josse, Robert G; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A

    2014-05-13

    Evidence from controlled trials encourages the intake of dietary pulses (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) as a method of improving dyslipidemia, but heart health guidelines have stopped short of ascribing specific benefits to this type of intervention or have graded the beneficial evidence as low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected trials for relevant articles published through Feb. 5, 2014. We included RCTs of at least 3 weeks' duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet that did not include dietary pulses. The lipid targets investigated were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. We pooled data using a random-effects model. We identified 26 RCTs (n = 1037) that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Diets emphasizing dietary pulse intake at a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol levels compared with the control diets (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.25 to -0.09 mmol/L). Treatment effects on apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol were not observed. Our findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels. Trials of longer duration and higher quality are needed to verify these results. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01594567.

  9. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P; Conti, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced neural response to food cues following exercise is accompanied by decreased energy intake in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S N; Silvert, L; Keller, K L; Genin, P M; Morio, B; Pereira, B; Duclos, M; Boirie, Y; Thivel, D

    2016-01-01

    Acute exercise has been found to favor a transient anorexigenic effect in obese adolescents. Although the role of some gastro-peptides has been suggested as an explanation for this observed reduced energy intake after exercise, it is unknown whether neural pathways involved in the regulation of food intake are modulated in youth. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and aerobic capacities were assessed in 19 obese adolescent boys. Participants were randomized to remain at rest in a sitting position (CON condition) or to exercise 45 min at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX condition) by the end of the morning. An attentional computer task with electroencephalography recording was completed immediately after the exercise or sitting period to measure an event-related component (P3b) reflecting the level of cognitive engagement in the processing of food cues. A lunch test-meal was offered ad libitum and appetite feelings assessed at regular intervals using visual analog scales. The 45-min cycling exercise set at 65% VO2max induced a mean energy expenditure of 399±75 kcal. Both absolute (Pintake were significantly reduced after EX (1037±260 and 639±256 kcal, respectively) compared with CON (1116±243 and 1011±239 kcal, respectively). The energy ingested derived from each macronutrient and self-reported appetite remained unchanged. Although the amplitudes of the P3b component evoked by food and non-food visual stimuli were not significantly different during CON, the response to food cues was significantly reduced compared with non-food stimuli after exercise (Pfood cues compared with non-food ones in obese adolescents that may contribute to their subsequently reduced energy intake.

  11. Triomics Analysis of Imatinib-Treated Myeloma Cells Connects Kinase Inhibition to RNA Processing and Decreased Lipid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B; Yuan, Min; Helenius, Katja P; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Asara, John M

    2015-11-03

    The combination of metabolomics, lipidomics, and phosphoproteomics that incorporates triple stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) protein labeling, as well as (13)C in vivo metabolite labeling, was demonstrated on BCR-ABL-positive H929 multiple myeloma cells. From 11 880 phosphorylation sites, we confirm that H929 cells are primarily signaling through the BCR-ABL-ERK pathway, and we show that imatinib treatment not only downregulates phosphosites in this pathway but also upregulates phosphosites on proteins involved in RNA expression. Metabolomics analyses reveal that BCR-ABL-ERK signaling in H929 cells drives the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and RNA biosynthesis, where pathway inhibition via imatinib results in marked PPP impairment and an accumulation of RNA nucleotides and negative regulation of mRNA. Lipidomics data also show an overall reduction in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid incorporation with a significant decrease in lysophospholipids. RNA immunoprecipitation studies confirm that RNA degradation is inhibited with short imatinib treatment and transcription is inhibited upon long imatinib treatment, validating the triomics results. These data show the utility of combining mass spectrometry-based "-omics" technologies and reveals that kinase inhibitors may not only downregulate phosphorylation of their targets but also induce metabolic events via increased phosphorylation of other cellular components.

  12. Minocycline increases the life span and motor activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in manganese treated Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, E; Contreras, R; Medina-Leendertz, S; Mora, M; Villalobos, V; Bravo, Y

    2012-03-29

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Minocycline in the life span, motor activity, and lipid peroxidation of Drosophila melanogaster treated with manganese. Two days after emerging from the pupa male wild-type D. melanogaster were fed for 13 days with corn media containing 15 mM manganese. Then, they were divided in six groups of 300 flies each: group (a) remained treated with manganese (Mn group); group (b) began treatment with Minocycline (0.05 mM) (Mn-Minocycline group); group (c) received no additional treatment (Mn-no treatment group); group (d) simultaneously fed with manganese and Minocycline (Mn+Minocycline group). Additionally, a control (group e) with no treatment and another group (f) fed only with Minocycline after emerging from the pupa were added. All the manganese treated flies (group a) were dead on the 25th day. The life span in group f (101.66±1.33 days, mean S.E.M.) and of group b (97.00±3.46 days) were similar, but in both cases it was significantly higher than in group e (68.33±1.76 days), group c (67.05±2.30 days) and in those of group d (37.33±0.88). Manganese (groups a and d) decreased motor activity in D. melanogaster. In the Minocycline fed flies (groups b and f) a higher motor activity was detected. In Mn-Minocycline and Mn+Minocycline treated flies a significant decrease of MDA levels was detected when compared to the Minocycline group indicating that Minocycline and Mn appear to have a synergistic effect. In conclusion, Minocycline increased the life span and motor activity and decreased MDA formation of manganese treated D. melanogaster, probably by an inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species. Manganese also exerted an antioxidant effect as shown by the significant decrease of MDA levels when compared to control flies.

  13. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  14. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs. Effects of body weight and nutrient intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.

    1994-01-01

    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate and composi

  15. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  16. Smoking is associated with increased adrenal responsiveness, decreased prolactin levels and a more adverse lipid profile in 650 white patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Hougaard, David M.

    2011-01-01

    ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) tests. S-PCOS has significantly higher fasting lipid profile and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (basal and ACTH-stimulated) than NS-PCOS patients, whereas prolactin levels were decreased. No significant differences were found in body composition and measures of insulin resistance....... We concluded that smoking was associated with increased adrenal responsiveness, decreased prolactin levels and a more adverse lipid profile in PCOS patients, whereas smoking was unassociated with body composition and insulin resistance. Smoking may be associated with the prevalence of individual...

  17. A high-fat diet reduces ceramide synthesis by decreasing adiponectin levels and decreases lipid content by modulating HMG-CoA reductase and CPT-1 mRNA expression in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-09-01

    Molecules involved in skin function are greatly affected by nutritional conditions. However, the mechanism linking high-fat (HF) diets with these alterations is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular changes in skin function that result from HF diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diets for 28 days. The skin levels of ceramide, lipids and mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism were evaluated using TLC, oil red O staining and quantitative PCR, respectively. The serum adiponectin concentration was determined by ELISA. HF diets led to reduced ceramide levels and lowered skin lipid content. They also decreased mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in the skin and those of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α -PPAR-α), which upregulates SPT and HMG-CoA reductase expression. The HF diets reduced the serum concentration of adiponectin, which acts upstream of PPAR-α. Finally, these diets led to increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme that acts in β-oxidation. Our study suggests that HF diets reduce ceramide and lipid synthesis in the skin by reducing levels of SPT and HMG-CoA reductase through lowered adiponectin and PPAR-α activity. Additionally, they decrease lipid content by enhancing β-oxidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-10

     To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide.  Global modeling study.  183 countries.  Full adult population in each country.  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years.  Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction was best in South Asia (I$116/DALY); across the world

  19. Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: global analysis across 183 nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali M; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Powles, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. Design Global modeling study. Setting 183 countries. Population Full adult population in each country. Intervention A “soft regulation” national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program. To account for heterogeneity in efficacy across countries, a range of scenarios were evaluated, including 10%, 30%, 0.5 g/day, and 1.5 g/day sodium reductions achieved over 10 years. We characterized global sodium intakes, blood pressure levels, effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease rates in 2010, each by age and sex, in 183 countries. Country specific costs of a sodium reduction policy were estimated using the World Health Organization Noncommunicable Disease Costing Tool. Country specific impacts on mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were modeled using comparative risk assessment. We only evaluated program costs, without incorporating potential healthcare savings from prevented events, to provide conservative estimates of cost effectiveness Main outcome measure Cost effectiveness ratio, evaluated as purchasing power parity adjusted international dollars (equivalent to the country specific purchasing power of US$) per DALY saved over 10 years. Results Worldwide, a 10% reduction in sodium consumption over 10 years within each country was projected to avert approximately 5.8 million DALYs/year related to cardiovascular diseases, at a population weighted mean cost of I$1.13 per capita over the 10 year intervention. The population weighted mean cost effectiveness ratio was approximately I$204/DALY. Across nine world regions, estimated cost effectiveness of sodium reduction

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging cooling-reheating protocol indicates decreased fat fraction via lipid consumption in suspected brown adipose tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundström, Elin; Strand, Robin; Johansson, Lars; Bergsten, Peter; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether a water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cooling-reheating protocol could be used to detect changes in lipid content and perfusion in the main human brown adipose tissue (BAT...

  1. Administration of Selenium Decreases Lipid Peroxidation and Increases Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Pervinl; Kabaca, Gulcan; Firat, Refia Deniz; Degirmencioglu, Sevgin

    2017-10-01

    The imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant status plays a pivotal role in diabetes mellitus (DM). Selenium is a integral component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Se treatment induces angiogenesis and improves endothelial function through increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of selenium on oxidative stress, VEGF, and endothelin 1 (ET1) in a DM rat model. We performed an experimental animal study with 64 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. Rats were divided into the following groups (n=8): control (C)7, C21, C+sodium selenite (Se)7, and C+Se21 (control rats), and DM7, DM21, DM+Se7, and DM+Se21 (diabetic rats). Diabetes was induced by 2-deoxy-2-(3-methyl-3-nitrosoureido)- D-glucopyranose [streptozotocin (STZ)]. Three weeks after STZ, DM+Se7 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 0.4 mg/kg Se for 7 days. The DM+Se21 rats received these injections for 21 days. The same dose/duration of Se was administered to the C+Se7 and C+Se21 groups. The remaining rats (C7, C21, DM7, DM21) received physiologic saline injections for 7 or 21 days. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and endothelial function markers (VEGF and ET1) in plasma samples were measured. Diabetic rats (DM7 and DM21) had significantly increased plasma FRAP (P=0.002, P=0.001), AOPP (P=0.024, P=0.01), MDA (P=0.004, P=0.001), and ET1 (P=0.028, P=0.003) levels compared with C7 and C21 control rats. VEGF (P=0.02, P=0.01) significantly decreased in DM7 and DM21 diabetic rats compared with their controls (C7, C21). Se administration reversed the increased MDA and decreased VEGF levels, and lowered plasma glucose levels in the DM+Se7 and DM+Se21 diabetic groups compared with diabetic rats (DM7, DM21). We observed positive correlations between FRAP-AOPP (r=0.460), FRAP-ET1 (r=0.510), AOPP-MDA (r=0.270), and AOPP-ET1 (r=0.407), and a negative

  2. Treatment of genetically obese mice with the iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin reduces body weight by decreasing food intake and increasing fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Bijl, Nora; Bijland, Silvia; van Roomen, Cindy P; Houben-Weerts, Judith H; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Houten, Sander M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Romijn, Johannes A; Groen, Albert K; Aerts, Johannes M; Voshol, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on substrate oxidation patterns, food intake, and body weight gain in obese mice. Eight ob/ob mice treated with 100 mg/(kg d) AMP-DNM mixed in the food and 8 control ob/ob mice were placed in metabolic cages during the first, third, and fifth week of the experiment for measurement of substrate oxidation rates, energy expenditure, activity, and food intake. Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment. Initiation of treatment with AMP-DNM resulted in a rapid increase in fat oxidation by 129% (P = .05), a decrease in carbohydrate oxidation by 35% (P = .01), and a reduction in food intake by approximately 26% (P fat oxidation rates, increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a expression. Treatment with AMP-DNM increased plasma levels of the appetite-regulating peptide YY compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM rapidly reduces food intake and increases fat oxidation, resulting in improvement of the obese phenotype. These features of AMP-DNM, together with its insulin-sensitizing capacity, make it an attractive candidate drug for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Lipid-metabolizing Genetic Polymorphisms on Body Mass Index and Their Interactions with Soybean Food Intake:A Study in a Chinese Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jin Wei; CHEN Da Fang; TANG Xun; LI Na; WU Yi Qun; LI Shuai; LI Jin; QIN Xue Ying; ZHANG Zong Xin; HU Yong Hua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of known polymorphisms in the lipid metabolic pathway with body mass index (BMI), and estimate their interactions with soybean food intake. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in a Chinese Han population. BMI, soybean food intake, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs599839, rs3846662, rs3846663, rs12916, rs174547, rs174570, rs4938303, and rs1558861 were measured in 944 subjects. A multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association of the studied polymorphisms with BMIs. The expectation-maximization algorithm was employed to evaluate the extent of linkage disequilibrium between pairwise polymorphisms. The gene-environment interaction was assessed in the general multifactor dimensionality reduction model. Results The polymorphisms of rs3846662 and rs3846663 were associated with 10% highest BMIs when comparing to the 10% lowest values both in individuals and haplotype-based association tests. Although no statistically significant gene-environment interactions were found, people with the haplotype composed of C allele in rs3846662 and T allele in rs3846663 and low frequency of soybean intake had significantly higher risk to overweight and obesity as compared with those with the haplotype consisting of T allele in rs3846662 and C allele in rs3846663 and highly frequent soybean food intake, with an odds ratio of 1.64 (95%confidence interval: 1.15-2.34, P Conclusion Our study has suggested that rs3846662 and rs3846663 may be the potential candidate polymorphisms for obesity, and their effect on the pathogenesis could be mediated by the frequency of soybean food intake.

  4. The sigma-receptor antagonist BD-1063 decreases ethanol intake and reinforcement in animal models of excessive drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Zhao, Yu; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2009-05-01

    Sigma-Receptors (SigRs) have been implicated in behavioral and appetitive effects of psychostimulants and may also modulate the motivating properties of ethanol. This study tested the hypothesis that SigRs modulate ethanol reinforcement and contribute to excessive ethanol intake. The effects of subcutaneous treatment with the potent, selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 on operant ethanol self-administration were studied in two models of excessive drinking-Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats and acutely withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats-and compared to ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of BD-1063 on self-administration of an equally reinforcing saccharin solution were determined in Wistar and sP rats. Gene expression of Sig-1R in reward-related brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was compared between ethanol-naive sP and Wistar rats and withdrawn ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. BD-1063 dose dependently reduced ethanol self-administration in sP rats (3.3-11 mg/kg) and withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats (4-11 mg/kg) at doses that did not modify mean ethanol self-administration in nondependent Wistar controls. BD-1063 did not reduce concurrent water self-administration and did not comparably suppress saccharin self-administration, suggesting selectivity of action. BD-1063 also reduced the breakpoints of sP rats to work for ethanol under a progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule. Ethanol-naive sP rats and 24-h withdrawn, dependent Wistar rats showed reduced Sig-1R mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens. The results suggest that SigR systems may contribute to innate or ethanol-induced increases in susceptibility to self-administer high ethanol levels, identifying a potential neuroadaptive mechanism contributing to excessive drinking and a therapeutic target for alcohol abuse and dependence.

  5. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Janssens (Michelle); J. van Smeden (Jeroen); G.S. Gooris (Gert); W. Bras (Wim); G. Portale (Guiseppe); P.J. Caspers (Peter); R. Vreeken (Rob); T. Hankemeier (Thomas); S. Kezic (Sanja); R. Wolterbeek (Ron); A.P.M. Lavrijsen (Adriana); J.A. Bouwstra (Joke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a

  6. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S.; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P.; Bouwstra, Joke A.

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE. PMID:23024286

  7. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Kaushik, S.; Terrier, F.; Schrama, J.W.; Médale, F.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15 w

  8. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure.

  9. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  10. Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women: Preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Mary; Moss, Charlotte; Dhillo, Waljit S; Bottin, Jeanne; Frost, Gary

    2016-10-01

    With ageing there is frequently a loss of appetite, termed anorexia of ageing, which can result in under-nutrition. We do not know how appetite control alters with ageing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in the release of, and response to, gastrointestinal appetite hormones is altered in young compared to old healthy volunteers. We hypothesised that an increase in PYY and GLP-1 or a decrease ghrelin may result in a decreased appetite. A comparative experimental design, using a cross-sectional sample of ages from a healthy population, matched for sex and BMI was used. The study compared total ghrelin, acyl-ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1 and subjective appetite responses to ingestion of a standardised 2781kj (660 kcal) test meal. 31 female volunteers aged between 21 and 92yrs took part. Multiple linear regression showed that both age and sex had an independent effect on energy intake. Subjective appetite scores showed that hunger, pleasantness to eat, and prospective food intake were significantly lower in the older age groups. PYY incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was greater in the oldest old compared to younger ages f(3,27) = 2.9, p = 0.05. No differences in GLP-1, ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin were observed in the older compared to younger age groups. Our data suggest that there may be increases in postprandial PYY(3-36) levels in female octogenarians, potentially resulting in reduced appetite. There does not appear to be any change in ghrelin or acyl-ghrelin concentrations with ageing.

  11. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trendtrend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  12. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trendfast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  13. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golaleh Asghari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001, 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037, and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009 for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  14. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  15. A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  17. Dietary intake and plasma lipid levels: lessons from a study of the diet of health conscious groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorogood, M; Roe, L; McPherson, K.; J. Mann

    1990-01-01

    AIM--To re-examine the contentious relation between diet and plasma lipids within a population. DESIGN--Cross sectional sample from a large prospective cohort study of people eating different diets in Britain. Blood samples and diet records collected from subjects. SUBJECTS--Volunteers eating one of four distinct diets--namely, vegans, vegetarians, fish eaters who do not eat meat, and meat eaters. 52 Subjects selected from each group. METHODS--Examination of the relation between nutritional i...

  18. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  19. Lactobacillus gasseri NT decreased visceral fat through enhancement of lipid excretion in feces of KK-A(y) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonejima, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus gasseri NT significantly decreased visceral fat weight and triglyceride (TG) in the liver in KK-A(y) mice on a high-fat diet, but increased fecal TG. A decrease in lipase activity and down regulation of fatty acid transport proteins in the small intestine was involved in fat accumulation by L. gasseri NT.

  20. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kolden Midtbø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80% replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO, olive oil (OO or soy bean oil (SO. Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA, exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  1. Improvement of Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism, and Lipid Profile by the Intake of Powdered Asparagus (蘆筍 Lú Sǔn Bottom-stems and Cladophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus (蘆筍 Lú Sǔn; Asparagus officinalis L. is a common vegetable, long used as an herbal medicine. The cladophylls and bottom-stems of asparagus have various pharmacological effects, but they are generally discarded at harvesting. The present open clinical trial was performed to examine the effects of the intake of cladophylls and bottom-stems on the improvement of metabolic syndrome characterized by hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers ingested either cladophyll or bottom-stem powder (6 g/day daily for 10 weeks. The cladophyll intake resulted in significant reduction in the subjects’ diastolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and decreased both the left cardio-ankle vascular index score and the total cholesterol level (T-CHO. The bottom-stem intake significantly reduced the subjects’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure and FPG as well as T-CHO. These results suggest the possibility that asparagus cladophylls and bottom-stems differentially improve hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia.

  2. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  3. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without

  4. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  5. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Temme, E.H.M.; Koeman, F.T.; Noort, M.W.J.; Kremer, S.; Janssen, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavo

  6. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, W.L. van; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective: To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of con

  7. High-fibre pelleted rations decrease water intake but do not improve physiological indexes of welfare in food-restricted female broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M

    2006-02-01

    1. A 3x2 factorial experiment was conducted with three diets and two lines of broiler breeder females to evaluate the contribution of low-energy rations for improving the welfare of feed-restricted birds during rearing. Experimental diets were fed from 6 to 16 weeks of age and were created by diluting a conventional grower (Control) ration containing 11.0 MJ ME/kg with 200 (8.8 MJ ME/kg) or 400 (6.6 MJ ME/kg) g oat hulls/kg using Optimoist to facilitate the pelleting process. Welfare was assessed by changes in behaviour and physiological variables at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Birds were fed restricted quantities of feed to meet recommended body weight targets. 2. There was a decrease in the proportion of observations of drinking and an increase of preening in birds fed on the two experimental diets compared with the control. There was a linear decrease in litter moisture and the number of litter changes with increasing diet dilution, and water intake at 12 weeks was higher in the control than in the two experimental diets. There were no changes in physiological indexes of welfare (heterophil-lymphocyte ratio, plasma corticosterone and antibody responses) associated with the dietary treatments. 3. There were no important differences in the growth, behaviour or physiological responses to dietary treatment between the two lines of broiler breeders. Changes with age were similar to those reported in other experiments. 4. It was concluded that low-energy pelleted diets would improve litter conditions but not improve indexes of welfare in feed-restricted broiler breeders.

  8. Dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume is decreased and associated with depressive episodes and lipid peroxidation in bipolar II disorder: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zuzarte, Pedro; Westlye, Lars T; Bøen, Erlend; Josefsen, Dag; Boye, Birgitte; Hol, Per K; Malt, Ulrik F; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-12-01

    Reduced dentate gyrus volume and increased oxidative stress have emerged as potential pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder. However, the relationship between dentate gyrus volume and peripheral oxidative stress markers remains unknown. Here, we examined dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume longitudinally in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls and investigated whether BD-II is associated with elevated peripheral levels of oxidative stress. We acquired high-resolution structural 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and quantified hippocampal subfield volumes using an automated segmentation algorithm in individuals with BD-II (n=29) and controls (n=33). The participants were scanned twice, at study inclusion and on average 2.4 years later. In addition, we measured peripheral levels of two lipid peroxidation markers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]). First, we demonstrated that the automated hippocampal subfield segmentation technique employed in this work reliably measured dentate gyrus-CA4 volume. Second, we found a decreased left dentate gyrus-CA4 volume in patients and that a larger number of depressive episodes between T1 and T2 predicted greater volume decline. Finally, we showed that 4-HNE was elevated in BD-II and that 4-HNE was negatively associated with left and right dentate gyrus-CA4 volumes in patients. These results are consistent with a role for the dentate gyrus in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and suggest that depressive episodes and elevated oxidative stress might contribute to hippocampal volume decreases. In addition, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis that peripheral lipid peroxidation markers may reflect brain alterations in bipolar disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  10. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iagher Fabiola

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG (4 mg/g body weight was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C, coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO, fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO, obese control group (Ob, coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO. Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Results Obese animals (Ob presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30% and triacylglycerol (TG; 33% compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Conclusions Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  11. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Iodine treatment in children with subclinical hypothyroidism due to chronic iodine deficiency decreases thyrotropin and C-peptide concentrations and improves the lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Aeberli, Isabelle; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Grimci, Lindita; Bridson, John; Chaouki, Noureddine; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Jooste, Pieter L

    2009-10-01

    Chronic iodine deficiency (ID) increases thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations and produces a thyroid hormone pattern consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH). ScH may be associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Thus, the study aim was to determine if iodine treatment of children with elevated TSH concentrations due to ID would affect their lipid profile, insulin (C-peptide) levels, and/or subclinical inflammation. In controlled intervention trials of oral iodized oil or iodized salt, 5-14-year-old children from Morocco, Albania, and South Africa with TSH concentrations > or = 2.5 mU/L (n = 262) received 400 mg iodine as oral iodized oil or household distribution of iodized salt containing 25 microg iodine/g salt. At baseline and after 5 or 6 months, urinary iodine (UI) and blood concentrations of total thyroxine, TSH, C-reactive protein (CRP), C-peptide, and lipids were measured. Median (range) UI at baseline was 46 (2-601) microg/L. Compared to the control group, iodine treatment significantly increased UI and total thyroxine and decreased TSH, C-peptide, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio fell from 3.3 to 2.4 after iodine treatment (p Iodine treatment had no significant effect on concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or C-reactive protein. Correction of ID-associated ScH improves the insulin and lipid profile and may thereby reduce risk for cardiovascular disease. This previously unrecognized benefit of iodine prophylaxis may be important because ID remains common in rapidly developing countries with increasing rates of obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood...... for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations....

  14. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pdiet-induced obese (DIO) rats, chronic ODT8-SST increased cumulative 2-week food intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  17. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The sec

  18. Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The

  19. Pistachio intake increases high density lipoprotein levels and inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Nur; Aksoy, Mehmet; Bagci, Cahit; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine; Yaman, Abdullah; Tarakcioglu, Mehmet; Soydinc, Serdar; Sari, Ibrahim; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2007-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that nuts have protective effects against coronary artery disease by improving lipid profile and inhibiting lipid oxidation. However, data about pistachio nuts are limited, and to our knowledge, there is no study investigating the effects of pistachio intake on lipid oxidation and serum antioxidant levels. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effects of pistachio intake on serum lipids and determine whether consumption of pistachio would alter serum antioxidant levels. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=12 for each): control group fed basic diet for 10 weeks and treated groups fed basic diet plus pistachio which constituted 20% and 40% of daily caloric intake, respectively. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and decreased total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, compared with those not taking pistachio. However, TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unaffected by pistachio consumption. Consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake increased serum paraoxonase activity by 35% and arylesterase activity by 60%, which are known to inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation, compared with the control group. However, increased antioxidant activity was blunted when pistachio intake was increased to 40% of daily caloric intake. In conclusion, the present results show that consumption of pistachio as 20% of daily caloric intake leads to significant improvement in HDL and TC/HDL ratio and inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation. These results suggest that pistachio may be beneficial for both prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.

  20. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  1. Peripheral injections of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist S38151 decrease food intake and body weight in rodent obesity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile eDella-Zuana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound S38151 is a nanomolar antagonist that acts at the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1. S38151 is more stable than its purely peptide counterpart, essentially because of the blockade of its N-terminus. Therefore, , its action on various models of obesity was studied. Acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. administration of S38151 in wild-type rats counteracted the effect of the stable precursor of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, NEI-MCH, in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.5 to 50 nmol/kg. In genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats, daily i.c.v. administration of S38151 induced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 20 nmol/kg inhibition of food intake, water intake, and body weight gain, as well as increased motility (maximal effect observed at 20 nmol/kg. In Zucker fa/fa rats, intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (30 mg/kg induced complete inhibition of food consumption within 1 h. Daily intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (10 and 30 mg/kg into genetically obese ob/ob mice or diet-induced obese mice is able to limit body weight gain. Furthermore, S38151 administration (10 and 30 mg/kg does not affect food intake, water intake, or body weight gain in MCHR1-deleted mice, demonstrating that its effects are linked to its interaction with MCH1. These results validate MCH1 as a target of interest in obesity. S38151 cannot progress to the clinical phase because it is still too poorly stable in vivo.

  2. A salt reduction of 50% in bread does not decrease bread consumption or increase sodium intake by the choice of sandwich fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Temme, Elisabeth H M; Koeman, Fari T; Noort, Martijn W J; Kremer, Stefanie; Janssen, Anke M

    2011-12-01

    Bread is a major contributor to sodium intake in many countries. Reducing the salt (NaCl) content in bread might be an effective way to reduce overall sodium intake. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of gradually lowering the salt content in brown bread, with and without flavor compensation (KCl and yeast extract), on bread consumption and sodium intake compensation by choice of sandwich fillings. A total of 116 participants (age: 21 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 2 kg/m²) consumed a buffet-style breakfast on weekdays for 4 wk. Participants received either regular bread (control group: n = 39), bread whose salt content was gradually lowered each week by 0, 31, 52, and 67% (reduced group: n = 38), or bread whose salt content was also gradually lowered each week but which was also flavor compensated (compensated group: n = 39). A reduction of up to 52% of salt in bread did not lead to lower consumption of bread compared to the control (P = 0.57), whereas less bread was consumed when salt was reduced by 67% (P = 0.006). When bread was flavor compensated, however, a reduction of 67% did not lead to lower consumption (P = 0.69). Salt reduction in bread (with and without flavor compensation) did not induce sodium intake compensation (P = 0.31). In conclusion, a salt reduction of up to 52% in bread or even up to 67% in flavor-compensated bread neither affected bread consumption nor choice of sandwich fillings.

  3. Dietary Fat Intake Modifies the Effect of a Common Variant in the LIPC Gene on Changes in Serum Lipid Concentrations during a Long-Term Weight-Loss Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Ng, San San; Bray, George A; Ryan, Donna H; Sacks, Frank M; Ning, Guang; Qi, Lu

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of HDL and LDL. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common variants in the HL gene (LIPC) associated with HDL cholesterol. We tested the effect of a common variant in LIPC on changes in blood lipids in response to weight-loss diets in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial. We genotyped LIPC rs2070895 in 743 overweight or obese adults aged 30-70 y (61% women) who were assigned to high-fat (40% energy) or low-fat (20% energy) diets for 2 y. We measured serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol at baseline and 2 y of intervention. At 2 y of intervention, dietary fat modified effects of the variant on changes in serum TC, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (P-interaction: 0.0008, 0.004, and 0.03, respectively). In the low-fat group, as compared to the G allele, the A allele tended to be related to the decrease in TC and LDL cholesterol concentrations [TC (β ± SE): -5.5 ± 3.0, P = 0.07; LDL cholesterol: -4.8 ± 2.5, P = 0.06] and a lower increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (β ± SE: -1.37 ± 0.69, P = 0.048), whereas an opposite effect in the high-fat diet group was evident [TC (β ± SE): 7.3 ± 2.7, P = 0.008; LDL cholesterol: 4.1 ± 2.3, P = 0.07], and there was no genetic effect on changes in HDL cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.54). Dietary fat intake modifies the effect of a common variant in LIPC on changes in serum lipids during a long-term weight-loss intervention in overweight or obese adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Chronic Administration of a Combination of Six Herbs Inhibits the Progression of Hyperglycemia and Decreases Serum Lipids and Aspartate Amino Transferase Activity in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shafiee-Nick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a polyherbal compound, containing six plants (Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis and Teucrium polium were tested on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused an approximately 3-fold increase in fasting blood sugar level after 2 days. The diabetic control rats showed further increase in blood glucose after 30 days (384 ± 25 mg/dl in day 30 versus 280 ± 12 mg/dl in day 2, P<0.001. Administration of the compound blocked the increase of blood glucose (272 ± 7 and 269 ± 48 mg/dl at day 2 and day 30, respectively. Also, there was significant difference in the level of triglyceride (60 ± 9 versus 158 ± 37 mg/dl, P<0.01, total cholesterol (55 ± 2 versus 97 ± 11 mg/dl, P < 0.01 and aspartate amino transferase activity (75 ± 12 versus 129 ± 18 U/L, P<0.05 between treated rats and diabetic control group. In conclusion, the MSEC inhibited the progression of hyperglycemia and decreased serum lipids and hepatic enzyme activity in diabetic rats. Therefore, it has the potential to be used as a natural product for the management of diabetes.

  5. Chronic administration of a combination of six herbs inhibits the progression of hyperglycemia and decreases serum lipids and aspartate amino transferase activity in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Vafaee Bagheri, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal compound, containing six plants (Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis and Teucrium polium) were tested on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused an approximately 3-fold increase in fasting blood sugar level after 2 days. The diabetic control rats showed further increase in blood glucose after 30 days (384 ± 25 mg/dl in day 30 versus 280 ± 12 mg/dl in day 2, P < 0.001). Administration of the compound blocked the increase of blood glucose (272 ± 7 and 269 ± 48 mg/dl at day 2 and day 30, respectively). Also, there was significant difference in the level of triglyceride (60 ± 9 versus 158 ± 37 mg/dl, P < 0.01), total cholesterol (55 ± 2 versus 97 ± 11 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and aspartate amino transferase activity (75 ± 12 versus 129 ± 18 U/L, P < 0.05) between treated rats and diabetic control group. In conclusion, the MSEC inhibited the progression of hyperglycemia and decreased serum lipids and hepatic enzyme activity in diabetic rats. Therefore, it has the potential to be used as a natural product for the management of diabetes.

  6. Tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules decrease reactive oxygen species levels and improve bovine embryonic development during in vitro oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Remião, Mariana Härter; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Domingues, William Borges; Haas, Cristina; Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Ourique, Aline; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols can be improved by adding chemical supplements to the culture media. Tretinoin is considered an important retinoid in embryonic development and its association with lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC) represents an innovative way of improving its solubility, and chemical stability, and reducing its toxicity. The effects of supplementing IVM medium with TTN-LNC was evaluated by analyzing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), S36-phosphorilated-p66Shc levels and caspase activity in early embryonic development, and expression of apoptosis and pluripotency genes in blastocysts. The lowest concentration tested (0.25μM) of TTN-LNC generated higher blastocyst rate, lower ROS production and S36-p66Shc amount. Additionally, expression of BAX and SHC1 were lower in both non-encapsulated tretinoin (TTN) and TTN-LNC-treated groups. Nanoencapsulation allowed the use of smaller concentrations of tretinoin to supplement IVM medium thus reducing toxic effects related with its use, decreasing ROS levels and apoptose frequency, and improving the blastocyst rates.

  7. Lipid profiling following intake of the omega 3 fatty acid DHA identifies the peroxidized metabolites F4-neuroprostanes as the best predictors of atherosclerosis prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Gladine

    Full Text Available The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR(-/- received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R(2 = 0.97, p = 0.02, triglyceridemia (R(2 = 0.97, p = 0.01 and cholesterolemia (R(2 = 0.96, p<0.01. Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001 and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  8. Folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Badary, Dalia M

    2017-03-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in cellular metabolic activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of folic acid against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, six animals each. Negative control group received the vehicle, positive control group received 1mg/kg folic acid for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks orally, lead-exposed group received 10mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally (IP) for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks, and lead-treated group received 10mg/kg lead acetate IP and 1mg/kg folic acid orally for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks concurrently. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ- glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured. Hepatic total peroxide and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also investigated. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and periodic acid shiff's (PAS) were carried out. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Serum AST, ALT and GGT and hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β were significantly increased in lead-exposed group and were positively correlated with hepatic lead level. Moreover, lead-exposed rats showed hydropic degeneration, nuclear vesiculation, high lymphocytic infiltration, depletion of glycogen content and NF-κB expression. Concomitant folic acid administration resulted in a significant alleviation of biochemical and structural alteration-induced by lead. This was associated with reduction of hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β and reduction of NF-κB expression. In conclusion, folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

  9. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  10. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  11. Sodium aspartate as a specific enhancer of salty taste perception-sodium aspartate is a possible candidate to decrease excessive intake of dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomohiro; Kohori, Jun; Koike, Shin; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Shoji, Takayuki

    2014-11-01

    The excessive intake of dietary salt is a global issue in health. Attempts have been made to address this issue, including the development of salt substitutes. Yet, none of these substances are currently in wide use, because of their weak saltiness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sodium aspartate (Asp-Na) on salty taste perception using the bullfrog glossopharyngeal nerve response and human sensory tests. When added to the mixture of NaCl and KCl, Asp-Na significantly enhanced the glossopharyngeal nerve response to the mixture by 1.6-fold compared to control. Asp-Na did not enhance the response to NaCl, nor did Asp-Na enhance the response to sour, bitter, or umami stimuli. The optimal concentration for Asp-Na to enhance the salt mixture was 1.7mM. The largest enhancement was induced when NaCl and KCl were mixed at equimolar concentrations. Asp-Na significantly suppressed the glossopharyngeal nerve response to quinine hydrochloride, which suggests that bitterness of KCl is suppressed by Asp-Na. The salty taste enhancing effect of Asp-Na was also confirmed with human sensory tests. The present results suggested that the mixture of NaCl and KCl containing Asp-Na can be used as a salt substitute. In addition to demonstrating that Asp-Na enhanced salt taste responses in an experimental animal and human, our findings provide clues to identify the elusive salty taste receptors.

  12. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  13. Neuropeptide FF analog RF9 is not an antagonist of NPFF receptor and decreases food intake in mice after its central and peripheral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletínská, Lenka; Tichá, Anežka; Nagelová, Veronika; Spolcová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Elbert, Tomáš; Zelezná, Blanka

    2013-03-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to the RF-amide family of peptides bearing the identical C-terminal amino acid sequence (R-F-NH2). In addition to NPFF, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), another RF-amide, binds to NPFF receptors with high affinity. A selective antagonist of PrRP has not yet been identified, but a selective antagonist of NPFF, 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9), was recently reported to antagonize the hyperalgesic effect of NPFF after central administration to mice. In the present study, RF9 competed with NPFF analog D-Y-L-(N-Me)-F-Q-P-Q-R-F-NH2 (1DMe) in binding to CHO-K1 cell membranes transfected with the human NPFF2 receptor. In rat pituitary RC-4B/C cells, where the expression of the NPFF2 receptor was proved by immunodetection, RF9 did not reverse the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 induced by [Tyr(1)]NPFF. In vivo experiments with fasted mice confirmed that centrally injected [Tyr(1)]NPFF significantly lowered food intake. However, RF9, a putative NPFF2 antagonist, did not reverse the anorectic effect of [Tyr(1)]NPFF. Paradoxically, RF9 itself exhibited an anorectic effect in fasted mice not only after intracerebroventricular but also after subcutaneous administration. This finding casts doubt on claims that RF9 is an NPFF antagonist.

  14. The Effect of High Dietary Fiber Intake on Decrease of Risk of Colorectal Cancer%高纤维膳食对降低结直肠癌发病风险的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜元

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer( CRC)increases rapidly in recent years. The role of dietary structure in CRC pathogenesis has caught much attention. This review summarizes the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC. Accumulating evidence reveals that up to 90% CRC can be prevented by improvement of dietary structure,and high fiber intake(10-35 g/d)decreases 10%-17% of risk of CRC. All kinds of dietary fiber have preventive effect. So far, dietary fiber intake in Chinese people does not reach the recommended level. Optimization of dietary structure,increase intake of whole grains,vegetable and fruit,addition of fiber to daily food are effective approaches for prevention of CRC.%近年我国结直肠癌( CRC)发病率呈快速升高趋势,饮食结构在其发病中的作用备受关注。本文阐述膳食纤维与CRC的发病关系。资料显示,近90%的CRC可通过合理的饮食加以预防,坚持高纤维膳食(10~35 g/d)人群的CRC发病风险下降10%~17%,各种食物的纤维均有预防作用。目前国人膳食纤维摄入量低于推荐量,调整饮食结构,推广粗粮,多吃蔬果,在传统食品中添加纤维是预防CRC的有效措施。

  15. Research and exploring for lipid-decreasing therapy of coronary heart disease patients%冠心病降脂治疗的研究与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温涛

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia(HLP)is one of the major risk factors for causing coronary heart disease(CHD).Atorvastatin which is a kind of cholesterol synthesis inhibi-tor has been commonly used to treat coronary heart disease.Ezetimibe is a kind of cholesterol absorbing inhibitor and its coupling with atorvastatin can get better treatment effect for decreasing cholesterol level.And this therapy has been widely used for patient with hyperlipidaemia.But for the patients with normal or nearly normal lipid level, the use of this therapy and relevant reports are very few.Hence,in this paper,using this therapy for those coronary heart disease patients is analyzed and discussed specific-al y,which may provide a new view on exploring more effective therapies for treating coronary heart disease.%高脂血症是冠心病发病的主要危险因素之一。胆固醇合成抑制剂阿托伐他汀为治疗冠心病常用药物,胆固醇吸收抑制剂依折麦布联用阿托伐他汀可以获得更好的降脂疗效,并且已经广泛应用于高脂血症的治疗。但对于血脂正常或接近正常的冠心病患者,依折麦布联用阿托伐他汀这种治疗方案还不常用,相关报道也不多见。为此,本文对该治疗方案针对上述冠心病患者的使用作了具体的分析和讨论,为探索更有效的冠心病治疗方案提供了可以借鉴的新思路。

  16. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit and Vegetables Decreases the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N; Wactawski-Wende, J; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H.; Hou, L; Stoller, ML

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p

  17. Chronic local inflammation in mice results in decreased TRH and type 3 deiodinase mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus independently of diminished food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; W.M. Wiersinga; E. Fliers

    2006-01-01

    During illness, changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, known as nonthyroidal illness and characterised by decreased serum triiodothyronine (T-3) and thyroxine (T-4) without an increase in TSH. A mouse model of chronic illness is local inflammation, induced by a turpentine injection in each hin

  18. Liver lipid content and inflammometabolic indices in peripartal dairy cows are altered in response to prepartal energy intake and postpartal intramammary inflammatory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graugnard, D E; Moyes, K M; Trevisi, E; Khan, M J; Keisler, D; Drackley, J K; Bertoni, G; Loor, J J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding a control diet (CON) or a moderate energy diet (overfed, OVE) during the dry period (∼45d) and a postpartum intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on blood metabolic and inflammatory indices, milk production, and hepatic gene expression. A subset of cows (n=9/diet) in CON (1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter) and OVE (1.62 Mcal/kg of dry matter) received an intramammary LPS challenge (200 μg; CON-LPS, OVE-LPS, respectively). Liver biopsies were harvested at -14 d from calving, and postpartum at 2.5h post-LPS on d 7, 14, and 30. Prepartum, the OVE group was in more positive energy balance (EB) and had greater body condition score compared with CON. In contrast, during wk 1 postpartum and before the LPS challenge, the OVE group was in greater negative EB than CON. Prepartal diet did not affect postpartal milk production or dry matter intake. At 2h postchallenge on d 7, we observed an increase in serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and bilirubin and a decrease in hydroxybutyrate, regardless of diet. That was coupled with greater haptoglobin in OVE-LPS compared with CON-LPS. In addition, OVE-LPS cows versus CON nonchallenged, OVE nonchallenged, and CON-LPS had greater liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration 2.5h postchallenge on d 7. The concentration of TAG in liver of OVE-LPS remained elevated by 30d postpartum. The liver TAG concentration in OVE-LPS compared with CON-LPS cows was associated with greater serum concentration of NEFA and reactive oxygen metabolites on d 10 and 14 postpartum. Cows in OVE-LPS also had greater concentrations of ceruloplasmin, cholesterol, and vitamin E from d 10 through 21. Among 28 genes associated with fatty acid oxidation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and gluconeogenesis, only SAA3 (which encodes an acute phase protein) was greater in CON-LPS compared with OVE-LPS at 2.5h postchallenge. Expression of HP, which encodes another acute phase protein, was greater in OVE-LPS than in CON

  19. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Is Positively Associated with Baseline Triglyceride Concentrations, and Changes in Intake Are Inversely Associated with Changes in HDL Cholesterol over 12 Months in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I; McKeown, Nicola M; Goodman, Elizabeth; Eliasziw, Misha; Chomitz, Virginia R; Gordon, Catherine M; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to greater cardiometabolic risk in adults. Although longitudinal evidence is sparse among children, SSB intake reduction is targeted to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in this group. We investigated characteristics associated with consumption of SSBs in a multi-ethnic sample of children/adolescents and measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SSB intake and plasma HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) over 12 mo. In a diverse cohort of children aged 8-15 y, cross-sectional associations (n = 613) between baseline SSB intake and blood lipid concentrations and longitudinal associations (n = 380) between mean SSB intake, changes in SSB intake, and lipid changes over 12 mo were assessed with multivariable linear regression. Greater SSB intake was associated with lower socioeconomic status, higher total energy intake, lower fruit/vegetable intake, and more sedentary time. In cross-sectional analysis, greater SSB intake was associated with higher plasma TG concentrations among consumers (62.4, 65.3, and 71.6 mg/dL in children who consumed >0 but children who decreased their intake by ≥1 serving/wk (4.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared with children whose intake stayed the same (2.0 ± 0.8 mg/dL) or increased (1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P = 0.02). In a multi-ethnic sample of children, intake of SSBs was positively associated with TG concentrations among consumers, and changes in SSB intake were inversely associated with HDL cholesterol concentration changes over 12 mo. Further research in large diverse samples of children is needed to study the public health implications of reducing SSB intake among children of different racial/ethnic groups. The Daily D Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01537809. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Diacylglycerol oil does not affect portal vein transport of nonesterified fatty acids but decreases the postprandial plasma lipid response in catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown several beneficial effects of dietary diacylglycerol oil (DAG oil), but the mechanism behind these effects is still not clear. One hypothesis is that an increase in portal vein transport of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) with subsequent oxidation in the liver might...... on postprandial lipid variables was examined. Portal vein transport of NEFA did not differ when pigs were administered the 2 oil bolus diets, consistent with the similar portal plasma concentrations of oleic and linolenic acids during h 1 after feeding. Glycerol, on the contrary, was transported by the portal...... be responsible for the positive effects. We examined the portal vein transport of NEFA and other lipid related variables, in response to DAG and triacylglycerol (TAG) bolus feeding and a bolus of standard pig feed in 4 portal vein and mesenteric artery catheterized pigs. Also, the effect of the boluses...

  1. Iodine Treatment in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Due to Chronic Iodine Deficiency Decreases Thyrotropin and C-Peptide Concentrations and Improves the Lipid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    M.B. Zimmermann; Aeberli, I; Boonstra, A.; Grimci, L.; Bridson, J; Chaouki, N.; Mbhenyane, X.; Jooste, P L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic iodine deficiency (ID) increases thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations and produces a thyroid hormone pattern consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH). ScH may be associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Thus, the study aim was to determine if iodine treatment of children with elevated TSH concentrations due to ID would affect their lipid profile, insulin (C-peptide) levels, and/or subclinical inflammation. Methods: In controlled intervention trials of oral ...

  2. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise F Hoek-van den Hil

    Full Text Available Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG were decreased with 14% (p<0.001 and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA were increased with 13% (p<0.01. Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05 in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3. Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3 were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  3. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  4. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Brant, Lívia Hipólito Cardozo; Mafra, Denise; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  6. Jarrib Baleha--a pilot nutrition intervention to increase water intake and decrease soft drink consumption among school children in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Haidar, Gina; Lahham Salameh, Nina; Afifi, Rema A

    2011-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (2005) indicated that in Lebanon, 33% of students in grades 7-9 drink carbonated soft drinks two or more times per day. Observational evidence suggests that students do not drink enough water. A pilot project called Jarrib Baleha ['try without it'] was implemented with 110 students in grades 3 and 4 in two schools in Lebanon to promote drinking water instead of soft drinks. Specific objectives included increasing knowledge about the benefits of water and the harms of soft drinks, increasing confidence in choosing water over soft drinks, and increasing actual water drinking behavior while decreasing soft drink consumption. Four 50-minute theory-informed, interactive and participatory sessions were implemented --by a graduate student in partial fulfillment of requirements for a MPH degree--over a period of two weeks. The intervention sessions--based on the Health Belief Model--took place during a class period. Process evaluation measured satisfaction of the students with the sessions. Impact evaluation measured changes in knowledge, attitudes including self-efficacy, and behavior, using a self-administered questionnaire completed prior to and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis using crosstabs was carried out to compare pretest and posttest scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Comparison of the knowledge index between pretest and posttest indicated that, overall, knowledge increased from 6.0769 to 9.1500 (p = 0.000). Compared to pretest, students at posttest also felt more confident to drink less soft drinks and more water (p drink water when thirsty (p soft drinks when going to a restaurant (p drinking 6 or more cups of water increased from 27.7% to 59.1% (p = 0.000); and those drinking less than one can of soft drink/day increased from 25.5% to 57.6% (p = 0.000). These results are encouraging and suggest the Jarrib Baleha intervention could be implemented on a wider scale with students from both public

  7. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  8. Diacylglycerol oil does not affect portal vein transport of nonesterified fatty acids but decreases the postprandial plasma lipid response in catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown several beneficial effects of dietary diacylglycerol oil (DAG oil), but the mechanism behind these effects is still not clear. One hypothesis is that an increase in portal vein transport of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) with subsequent oxidation in the liver might be respons......Studies have shown several beneficial effects of dietary diacylglycerol oil (DAG oil), but the mechanism behind these effects is still not clear. One hypothesis is that an increase in portal vein transport of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) with subsequent oxidation in the liver might...... be responsible for the positive effects. We examined the portal vein transport of NEFA and other lipid related variables, in response to DAG and triacylglycerol (TAG) bolus feeding and a bolus of standard pig feed in 4 portal vein and mesenteric artery catheterized pigs. Also, the effect of the boluses...... on postprandial lipid variables was examined. Portal vein transport of NEFA did not differ when pigs were administered the 2 oil bolus diets, consistent with the similar portal plasma concentrations of oleic and linolenic acids during h 1 after feeding. Glycerol, on the contrary, was transported by the portal...

  9. Comparison of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a eucaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects: effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profile. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony S; McCourt, Hannah J; Ennis, Cieran N; Bell, Patrick M; Courtney, C Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    The effect of dietary sucrose on insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of diabetes and vascular disease is unclear. We assessed the effect of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a weight maintaining, eucaloric diet in overweight/obese subjects. Thirteen subjects took part in a randomised controlled crossover study (M:F 9:4, median age 46 years, range 37-56 years, BMI 31.7±0.9 kg/m(2)). Subjects completed two 6 week dietary periods separated by 4 week washout. Diets were designed to have identical macronutrient profile. Insulin action was assessed using a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp; glucose tolerance, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profiles were also assessed. There was no change in weight or body composition between diets. There was no difference in peripheral glucose utilization or suppression of endogenous glucose production. Fasting glucose was significantly lower after the 5% diet. There was no demonstrated effect on lipid profiles, blood pressure or vascular compliance. A low-sucrose diet had no beneficial effect on insulin resistance as measured by the euglycaemic glucose clamp. However, reductions in fasting glucose, one hour insulin and insulin area under the curve with the low sucrose diet on glucose tolerance testing may indicate a beneficial effect and further work is required to determine if this is the case. Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN50808730. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurosecretory protein GL stimulates food intake, de novo lipogenesis, and onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ochi, Yuta; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Shiki; Bentley, George E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-11

    Mechanisms underlying the central regulation of food intake and fat accumulation are not fully understood. We found that neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), a newly-identified neuropeptide, increased food intake and white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats. NPGL-precursor gene overexpression in the hypothalamus caused increases in food intake, WAT, body mass, and circulating insulin when fed a high calorie diet. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPGL induced de novo lipogenesis in WAT, increased insulin, and it selectively induced carbohydrate intake. Neutralizing antibody administration decreased the size of lipid droplets in WAT. Npgl mRNA expression was upregulated by fasting and low insulin levels. Additionally, NPGL-producing cells were responsive to insulin. These results point to NPGL as a novel neuronal regulator that drives food intake and fat deposition through de novo lipogenesis and acts to maintain steady-state fat level in concert with insulin. Dysregulation of NPGL may be a root cause of obesity.

  11. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid...... profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo...

  12. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  13. The PPARalpha agonist, fenofibrate decreases levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines in the small intestine of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Golbas, Golfam; Hansen, Harald S.

    2014-01-01

    ). Their mechanism of action involves activation of PPARalpha and of the vagus nerve (2). We have previously shown that a prolonged intake of a diet high in fat (45E% fat) will decrease the intestinal levels of these signaling lipids in a time and dose-dependent manner (3,4), suggesting that this effect may...

  14. Metabolic effects of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention combined with low or high dairy intake in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Astrup, Arne;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  15. Ox-LDL promote NRK52E cell intake lipid through LOX-1%Ox-LDL通过LOX-1促进NRK52E细胞摄取脂质的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞; 丁国华; 刘红燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨血凝素样氧化低密度脂蛋白受体-1(LOX-1)在氧化低密度脂蛋白(oxLDL)刺激肾小管上皮细胞摄取脂质中的作用.方法 体外培养NRK52E,加入不同浓度(0,25,50,100μg/ml)的ox-LDL及预先与LOX-1阻滞剂多聚肌苷酸(polyinosonic acid,poly I)和爱兰苔胶(carrageenan)作用2 h,再加入50μg/ml的ox-LDL,24 h后用Realtime-PCR测定LOX-1 mRNA的表达水平,Western blot测定LOX-1蛋白表达,用油红O法测定细胞内脂质聚集情况.结果 在25~100μ/ml范围内随着ox-LDL浓度的增加,LOX-1 mRNA和蛋白的表达增加,分别为0 μg/ml的2.13、10.14、20.81倍和2.53、12.18、21.45倍,各组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);而随着LOX-1 mRNA和蛋白的表达增加细胞内脂质聚集也增加,分别为0μg/ml的3.2,6.4和12.5倍(P<0.05);polyI或carrageenan使50μg/ml的ox-LDL诱导的LOX-1 mRNA和蛋白的表达分别下降(48%,47%)和(72%,65%),同时细胞内脂质聚集减少41%和49%,LOX-1与细胞内脂质呈正相关(r=0.97,P<0.05).结论 ox-LDL诱导NRK52E细胞表达LOX-1,又通过LOX-1促进脂质在细胞内聚集从而损伤细胞,这种诱导作用可被LOX-1的阻断剂部分阻断.%Objective To investigate the effect of lectin like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 ( LOX-1 ) in NRK52E intaking lipid induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein ( ox-LDL). Methods NRK-52E was incubated with ox-LDL (0,25,50, and 100 g/ml ) for 24 hours or pre-treated with the chemical blocker of LOX-1 receptor- polyI or carrageenan, and then exposed to 50 μg/ml of ox-LDL. LOX-Ⅰ mRNA was examined by real-time PGR. LOX-1 protein was assessed by Western blot analysis. Lipid deposit was examined by oil red O. Results LOX-1 mRNA expression in 25,50,100 μg/ml ox-LDL group was 2. 13, 10. 14, 20. 81 times of that in 0 g/ml ox-LDL group ( P <0. 05 ,respectively). LOX-1 protein expression in 25,50,100 μg/ml ox-LDL group was 2. 53,12. 18,21.45 times of that in 0 μg/ml ox-LDL group( P <0. 05

  16. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic.

  17. Limited Weight Loss or Simply No Weight Gain following Lifestyle-Only Intervention Tends to Redistribute Body Fat, to Decrease Lipid Concentrations, and to Improve Parameters of Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Lenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate whether lifestyle-only intervention in obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight redistributes parameters of body composition and reverses metabolic abnormalities. Study Design. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were assessed in 111 overweight or obese children (CA of 11.3 ± 2.8 years; 63 females and 48 males, during 8 months of lifestyle intervention. Patients maintained or lost weight (1–5% (group A; n: 72 or gained weight (group B. Results. Group A patients presented with a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( and , resp., BMI (, z-score BMI (, waist circumference (, fat mass (, LDL-C (, Tg/HDL-C ratio (, fasting and postprandial insulin (, and HOMA (, while HDL-C ( and QUICKI increased (. Conversely, group B patients had an increase in BMI (, waist circumference (, SBP (, and in QUICKI (, while fat mass (, fasting insulin (, and HOMA ( decreased. Lean mass, DBP, lipid concentrations, fasting and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin, and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP remained stable. Conclusions. Obese children who maintain or lose a modest amount of weight following lifestyle-only intervention tend to redistribute their body fat, decrease blood pressure and lipid levels, and to improve parameters of insulin sensitivity.

  18. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Materials and methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. Conclusions The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress. PMID:26355954

  19. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbon Sohrab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs, which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. Materials and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years, T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22 and group B (Placebo, n=22. At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML and pentosidine were assayed. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001. After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05 and MDA decreased (P<0.01 in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups. Conclusions: The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress.

  20. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  1. ApoER2 expression increases Aβ production while decreasing Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP endocytosis: Possible role in the partitioning of APP into lipid rafts and in the regulation of γ-secretase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Guojun

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ through the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent studies highlight APP endocytosis and localization to lipid rafts as important events favoring amyloidogenic processing. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are poorly understood. ApoER2 is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R family exhibiting slow endocytosis rate and a significant association with lipid rafts. Despite the important neurophysiological roles described for ApoER2, little is known regarding how ApoER2 regulates APP trafficking and processing. Results Here, we demonstrate that ApoER2 physically interacts and co-localizes with APP. Remarkably, we found that ApoER2 increases cell surface APP levels and APP association with lipid rafts. The increase of cell surface APP requires the presence of ApoER2 cytoplasmic domain and is a result of decreased APP internalization rate. Unexpectedly, ApoER2 expression correlated with a significant increase in Aβ production and reduced levels of APP-CTFs. The increased Aβ production was dependent on the integrity of the NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2. We also found that expression of ApoER2 increased APP association with lipid rafts and increased γ-secretase activity, both of which might contribute to increased Aβ production. Conclusion These findings show that ApoER2 negatively affects APP internalization. However, ApoER2 expression stimulates Aβ production by shifting the proportion of APP from the non-rafts to the raft membrane domains, thereby promoting β-secretase and γ-secretase mediated amyloidogenic processing and also by incrementing the activity of γ-secretase.

  2. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  3. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consu

  4. 5-Cholesten-3β,25-Diol 3-Sulfate Decreases Lipid Accumulation in Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Leyuan; Kim, Jin Koung; Bai, Qianming; Zhang, Xin; Kakiyama, Genta; Min, Hae-Ki; Sanyal, Arun J; Pandak, William M.; Ren, Shunlin

    2013-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) increases lipogenesis at the transcriptional level, and its expression is upregulated by liver X receptor α (LXRα). The LXRα/SREBP-1c signaling may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously reported that a cholesterol metabolite, 5-cholesten-3β,25-diol 3-sulfate (25HC3S), inhibits the LXRα signaling and reduces lipogenesis by decreasing SREBP-1c expression in primary hepatocytes. T...

  5. High-fat diet intake from senescence inhibits the attenuation of cell functions and the degeneration of villi with aging in the small intestine, and inhibits the attenuation of lipid absorption ability in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    We examined the effect of a high-fat diet from senescence as a means of preventing malnutrition among the elderly. The senescence-accelerated mouse P8 was used and divided into three groups. The 6C group was given a normal diet until 6 months old. The 12N group was given a normal diet until 12 months old. The 12F group was given a normal diet until 6 months old and then a high-fat diet until 12 months old. In the oral fat tolerance test, there was a decrease in area under the curve for serum triacylglycerol level in the 12N group and a significant increase in the 12F group, suggesting that the attenuation of lipid absorption ability with aging was delayed by a high-fat diet from senescence. To examine this mechanism, histological analysis in the small intestine was performed. As a result, the degeneration of villi with aging was inhibited by the high-fat diet. There was also a significant decrease in length of villus in the small intestine in the 12N group and a significant increase in the 12F group. The high-fat diet from senescence inhibited the degeneration of villi with aging in the small intestine, and inhibited the attenuation of lipid absorption ability.

  6. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  7. Associations of human retinal very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with dietary lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Liu, Aihua; Hageman, Gregory S; Bernstein, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    The human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series. Eyes from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donors have significantly decreased levels of VLC-PUFAs and low n-3/n-6 ratios. These results are consistent with the protective role of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs against AMD and emphasize the importance of monitoring systemic biomarkers of lipid intake when undertaking clinical trials of lipid supplements for prevention and treatment of retinal disease.

  8. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  9. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, J.K.; Astrup, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy...... intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy...... metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate...

  10. 黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖降血脂功能研究%Study on lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides from monopterus albus bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖(Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides,CHS)对高脂小鼠的降血脂功能.方法:将经预处理后的黄鳝骨经碱提、酶解、过柱(大孔吸附树脂)、脱盐得到CHS,灌胃给高脂小鼠,研究其降血脂功能.结果:多糖低、中剂量组(9、27 mg/kg)与高脂模型组比较,能显著降低高脂小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平(P<0.01),对血清三酰甘油(TG)水平升高也有一定的抑制作用,但差异不显著;而高剂量组(81 mg/kg)仅能显著降低血清TC水平(P<0.05);各组对小鼠体重和腹部脂肪均影响不大.结论:27 mg/kg的CHS能显著降低高脂小鼠TC和LDL-C水平,并在一定程度上抑制小鼠TG水平的升高,具有一定降血脂功能.%Objective: To study the lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides (CHS), which was extract ed from monopterus albus bone on hyperlipidermia mice. Methods: CHS was extracted from pretreated monopterus albus bones by alkali-liquor extraction, enzyme decomposition, column separation and desalination. Then it was used on hyperlipidermia mice to observe the function of lipid-decreasing. Results: The total serum cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipopro-tein (LDL-C) were very significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the low and middle-dosage groups (9, 27 mg/kg) compared with hyperlipidermia model group, and the rising of triglyceride (TG) was also be inhibited a little, but without distinct diversity; the TC level of the high-dosage group (81 mg/kg) could be obviously decreased (P<0.05); there had no effects on the weight and belly fat of mice of each groups. Conclusion: CHS (27 mg/kg) can decrease the TC and LDL-C level of hiperlipemia mice, inhibite the raisen of TG in a certain degree, and show some colesterol-lowering function.

  11. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  12. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  13. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto, NJ; Ziolkovska, A; Hooper, L.; Elliott, P.; Cappuccio, FP; Meerpohl, JJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of decreased sodium intake on blood pressure, related cardiovascular diseases, and potential adverse effects such as changes in blood lipids, catecholamine levels, and renal function. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Latin American and Caribbean health science literature database, and the reference lists of previous re...

  14. 武警某执勤部队膳食铁与血脂水平的相关性研究%Associations between intake of dietary iron and blood lipid in soldiers of Armed Police Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚琳; 王磊; 李严; 李卉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between intake of the dietary iron and blood lipid in the soldiers of Armed Police Forces .Methods Dietary survey for 3 days by dietary weighing method was made and the total iron content , heme-iron and non heme-iron intakes were counted in 115 soldiers.Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL cholesterol ( LDL-C) were also measured .Logistic regression models and one-way ANOVA were used to assess associa-tions and prevalence between the total iron content , heme-iron and non heme-iron intakes and dyslipidemia risks after adjusting for age , BMI and energy consumption .Results The average iron intake was higher than the Chinese DRIs value .The total dietary iron , heme iron and non-heme iron contents were 47.1mg, 26.5mg and 19.9mg, respectively.The total dietary iron content and heme-iron were positively associated with the blood total cholesterol ( TC) , triglycerides ( TG) , and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) ( P<0.05).With increasing dietary iron content and heme-iron, dyslipidemia risks were significantly increased .Conclusion Dietary iron from animal foods may have a bad effect on the blood lipid levels .%目的:研究武警某执勤部队战士膳食铁与血脂间的关系,为进一步提供合理膳食结构、保持机体血脂代谢平衡提供理论基础。方法115名战士作为调查对象,采用3 d称重法对其食堂伙食供应情况连续调查,计算其食物总铁元素、动物来源的血红素铁及植物来源的非血红素铁摄入量;取空腹静脉血,全自动生化分析仪检测血浆总胆固醇( total cholesterol , TC)、三酰甘油(triglycerides,TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL cholesterol,HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL cholesterol, LDL-C),采用多元回归分析食物总铁元素、动物性食物来源的血红蛋白铁,以及植物性食物来源的非血红蛋白铁摄

  15. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  16. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  17. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  18. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  19. Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes: Study of the Northeast and Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on the energy and nutrient intakes of beneficiaries from the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Methods: The study used data from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamento Famíliar, which assessed individual food intake on two nonconsecutive days of individuals aged more than 10 years. Based the personal information booklet, food intake values were transformed into nutritional values (energy and nutrients. Analysis of the impact measure was preceded by propensity score matching, a technique that matches some socioeconomic characteristics of beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. Once the score was calculated, the impact of the Bolsa Família Program was estimated by nearest neighbor matching. Results: The program increased energy and macronutrient intakes and decreased calcium and vitamin A, D, E, and C intakes of adolescent beneficiaries in both regions. Adult beneficiaries from the Southeast region increased their fiber, iron, and selenium intakes, and those from the Northeast region decreased their energy, lipid, added sugar, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, and pyridoxine intakes. Conclusion: The results show a positive impact of the program on the energy and macronutrient intakes, and a negative impact on the intakes of most study micronutrients, especially in adolescents, which reinforce the importance of implementing intersectoral actions to improve the nutritional quality of the Bolsa Família Program beneficiaries' diet.

  20. Effects of Nutritional Intervention on Vitamins and Minerals Intake at Overweight and Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Posea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims- To evaluate the impact of nutritional intervention on vitamins and minerals from intake food and anthropometric parameters at overweight and obese patients. Material and methods- To a sample of 40 overweight and obese patients we evaluated the nutritional content of food intake (kilocalories, macro and micronutrients. We also measured anthropometric parameters like weight, body mass index, body fat, percent of body fat, abdominal circumference and arterial tension. Results- After the nutritional intervention, overweight and obese patients had significantly lower level of intake carbohydrates (P=.018, lipids (P=.002, B1 vitamin (P<.001, B3 vitamin (P=.02 and E vitamin (P=.016. There is a significantly increased level of proteins (P<.001. Regarding the minerals, we found that the intake levels of following‘s decreased: sodium (P<.001, magnesium (P=.006, zinc (P=.035, copper (P=.002, manganese (P<.001. Phosphorus is the only mineral of which the intake level increased significantly (P<.001. All the anthropometric parameters decreased significantly: weight (P<.001, body mass index (P<.001, body fat (P<.001, percent of body fat (P<.001, abdominal circumference (P<0.001, systolic arterial tension (P<.001, diastolic arterial tension (P=.002. Conclusions- All the patients had imbalanced intake of vitamins and minerals both before and after intervention. There is a significant improved on anthropometric measures after nutritional intervention. We need to promote healthy lifestyle changes to prevent the risks associated with obesity.

  1. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (Pintake than the control throughout the day. There were no significant differences in satiety from visual analog scale scores (P>.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  3. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  4. Associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intakes in French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Lelièvre, Eva; Lampuré, Aurélie; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2017-05-30

    Few studies have focused on the influence of retirement on dietary behaviors. Our study aimed at assessing the associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intake in French adults, particularly according to spousal retirement and baseline income. This prospective study included 577 French participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort who retired over a 5-year follow-up (2009-2014 or 2010-2015). At baseline and every year, dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h records. Repeated measures of dietary intake were analysed using mixed models adjusted for energy with random effects of time and period (before and after retirement) to assess changes following retirement for each gender. After retirement, intakes of saturated fatty acids and sodium increased in both genders. Women showed specific changes after retirement: decrease in the score of adherence to recommendations and in intakes of fruits, proteins, vitamins; increase in intakes of fatty sweet products. In men with the lowest income at baseline, specific changes in intake were associated with retirement such as decrease in intake of dairy products and increase in intake of lipids. Transition to retirement was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. These results may help defining interventions during this vulnerable life-period. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consents were obtained from all participants.

  5. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  6. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  7. Effect of Adzuki Beans Alcohol Extract on Decreasing Lipid and Anti-obesity of the Mice Fed a High-fat Diet%红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料小鼠的降脂减肥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴波; 刘笑然; 濮邵京; 赵波; 万平; 高建明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: in order to research on the effects of adzuki beans alcohol extract (AAE)on decreasing lipid and anti -obesity of the Kunming male and female mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods Hie mice fed a basic diet and a high-fat diet were consider as control groups. Mice treated with AAE at low, middle, high does (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg body weight of mice) by gavage were considered as experimental groups and the mice were fed a high-fat diet. During the experimental period(8weeks),Mice got diet and water freely. The daily food intake was measured on Monday and Thursday in each week. Bodyweight was measured once a week. After 8 weeks, Lees index, liver weight and adipose weight of different part were measured. The glucose level, total cholesterol(TC), triglycercide(TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C in mice blood were detected.Result Comparing with hight-fat group, AAE experimental groups significantly decreased bodyweight and adipose weight of different part to the male and female mice (P<0.05,0.01) and showed a significant difference in decreasing the lees index,liver weight to the female mice (P<0.05, 0.01). But, AAE experimental groups did not show a significant difference to the male mice on lees index, liver weight. During the experimental period, the ability of AAE in promoting appetite of male and female mice was found. To the blood indexes, the function of AAE in decreasing lipid was merely found in female mice while the high does group exhibited the best efficacy .Conclusion AAE has effect of anti-obesity on the mice fed high-fat diet. Effectiveness of decreasing lipid and anti-obesity to the female mice was better than the male mice.%目的:研究红小豆醇提物对摄食高脂料的昆明白雌、雄小鼠的降脂减肥作用.方法:以饲喂基础料、高脂科的小鼠为对照,以红小豆醇提物按低、中、高(即50、100、200 mg/kg小鼠体重)3个剂量分别强饲给摄食高脂料的小鼠,即试验

  8. Coconut oil increases HDL-c and decreases triglycerides in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiani Figueiredo Santana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body composition and serum lipid profile in rats, supplemented with coconut oil, are evaluated and compared to other lipid sources. Female Wistar rats received by gavage 1 mL kg-1 of saline, soybean oil, lard or coconut oil during 21 days. At the end of the study period, body composition, food intake, feces, urine, organ weight and serum lipid profile were assessed. No statistical differences between the groups were found in body composition, food intake, fecal and urinary analysis, and organ weight. In the case or plasma lipid concentrations, coconut oil and lard raised total cholesterol levels, without changes in LDL levels. On the other hand there was no change in total cholesterol levels in the soybean oil group. HDL fraction increased in all groups when compared to that in the saline group; this increase was more significant in the coconut oil group. There was significant reduction of serum triglycerides only in the coconut oil group when compared to the saline group. Supplementation with coconut oil did not interfere in weight and body composition of the animals used in current study, but revealed significant effect on the increase of HDL-c levels and decrease of serum triglycerides.

  9. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  10. Tocopherol isoforms in parenteral lipid emulsions and neutrophil activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Beunk, J.; Naber, A.H.J.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that exists in several isoforms. Patients on total parenteral nutrition depend on lipid emulsions for their tocopherol intake. In the present study, we analysed the content of tocopherol isoforms in various lipid emulsions. We also

  11. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  12. Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Steiner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long‐term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged. Study of the lipolytic and lipogenic pathways has identified several regulatory proteins modulated by alcohol that contribute to these effects. Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter‐4 availability at the membrane. As an endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT releases several adipokines that are negatively modulated following chronic alcohol consumption including adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. When these effects are combined with the enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators that are induced by chronic alcohol, a proinflammatory state develops within WAT, contributing to the observed lipodystrophy. Lastly, while chronic alcohol intake may enhance thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT, definitive mechanistic evidence is currently lacking. Overall, both WAT and BAT depots are impacted by chronic alcohol intake and the resulting lipodystrophy contributes to fat accumulation in peripheral organs, thereby enhancing the pathological state accompanying chronic alcohol use disorder.

  13. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  14. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  15. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  16. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Couet, C.; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.; Steingrimsdottir, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.; Moreiras, O.; Becker, W.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Vidal-Jessel, S.; Salminen, I.; Moschandreas, J.; Sigfússon, N.; Martins, I.; Carbajal, A.; Ytterfors, A.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Background: High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undersirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Design: Cross-sectional study in ei

  17. Ten-year increase in the prevalence of obesity and reduction in fat intake in Brazilian women aged 35 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Roseli Gomes; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2010-03-01

    Data from two population-based surveys conducted in 1995 and 2005 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined to determine changes in the prevalence of obesity and macronutrient intake among women according to socio-economic level. Weight and height were measured, and food intake was based on a food-frequency questionnaire. A probabilistic sample of about 1000 women aged 35 years or older participated in each survey. Prevalence of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) increased in the 10-year period (17-24%), as well as energy intake (2.408-2.912 kcal) (pintake adjusted for energy, although lipid intake decreased among those women of low education but not among the more educated women. An overall reduction in the intake of cholesterol was also observed (273 mg vs 212 mg; pfat intake, Brazilian women at greatest risk of obesity had a reduction in fat intake and cholesterol, and increased intake of carbohydrate. This group needs to be given a clear message regarding energy reduction in order to curb the obesity epidemic.

  18. Effects of adjusted proportional macronutrient intake on serum uric acid,blood lipids,renal function,and outcome of patients with gout and overweight%调整饮食结构对痛风伴超重者血尿酸、血脂、肾功能及结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾瑶池; 黄淑芬; 穆桂萍; 王太芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of adjusted proportional macronutrient intake on serum uric acid,blood lipids,renal function,and nutritional status of patients with gout and overweight.Methods Sixtyseven patients with gout and overweight were randomized into high protein group and low purine group for 6 months.Each patient had had at least one gouty attacks during the six months before enrollment.Dietary recommendations consisted of calorie restriction to 6276 kJ per day with 40% derived from carbohydrate,30% from protein,and 30% from fat,and the refined carbohydrates were replaced with complex ones and saturated fats with mono-and polyunsaturated ones.High protein group didn't limit purine intake.The two dietary consisted of isoenergetic (6276 kJ).Dietary of low purine group consisted of 60% derived from carbohydrate,10% from protein,and 30% from fat,and limited of parine < 150 mg/d.At onset and 6 months after intervention,fasting blood samples were taken for determination of uric acid(UA),total cholesterol(TC),triglycerides(TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),fasting plasma glucose(FBG),serum creatinine(SCr),blood urea nitrogen(BUN),albumin(ALB),total protein(TP),and hemoglobin(Hb);the number of gout attacks was recorded.Results Sixty-one persons completed the study.Dietary measures resulted in weight loss[(65.75 ± 3.26)vs(69.31 ± 7.78)kg,P =0.043)and a decrease in the frequency of sixmonth gout attacks(17 vs 28,P =0.000).After the trial,compared to low-purine group,UA[(420.25 ±36.78)vs(466.81 ±41.97)μmol/L,P=0.000],TC[(5.69±0.46)vs(6.49±1.04)mmol/L,P=0.007),TG[(2.15 ±0.54)vs(3.13 ±0.62)mmol/L,P =0.000]and FBG[(5.63 ±0.82)vs(6.49 ±0.64)mmol/L,P =0.000]decreased significantly in the high protein group.There were no significant differences in LDL-C[(3.55 ±0.80)vs(3.73 ±0.72)mmol/L,P =0.445],SCr[(96.63 ± 16.97)vs(94.28 ±13.35)μmol/L,P =0.597],and BUN[(4.89 ± 1.25)vs(4.46 ± 1

  19. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  20. Siofor influence on the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Chernysheva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to research siofor influence (metformin on the activity of the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods — 62 patients with metabolic syndrome at the age from 30 till 60 were examined and treated by siofor (1700 mg per day during a year. The process of lipid peroxidation was studied due to the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum. Antioxidant capacity was based on the antioxidant reaction in the blood serum with definite number of exogenic hydrogen dioxide (mkmole/l with the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results — Intensification of process of lipid peroxidation has been observed at patients with metabolic syndrome — the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum has been 2.9 (1.9, 3.9 mkM (presented as median and interquartile range, antioxidant activity of blood serum has been decreased — 276.4 (239.0, 379.9 mkmole/l. In 12 months of siofor intake hydroperoxide level has been decreased till 1.1 (0.8, 1.9 mkМ, but antioxidant activity has been increased and amounted 320.0 (278.9, 334.3 mkmole/l. Conclusion — Siofor has been proved to be a highly effective medicine for correction of process of lipid peroxidation and for improvement of antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome.

  1. Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increases food intake and brown adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Alan A; Rayner, D Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-Heun; Wahle, Klaus W; Morris, Amanda C; Williams, Lynda M

    2009-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  2. Changes of lipid and fatty acid absorption induced by high dose of citric acid ester and lecithin emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadouki, Mohamed; Bouchoucha, Michel

    2014-09-01

    To describe the effect of two food emulsifiers, lecithin (E322) and citric acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c), on the intestinal absorption of lipids. The experiment was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats randomly assigned in three groups. For two groups of six rats, 30% of the lipid intake was replaced with lecithin (L) or citric acid ester of mono and diglycerides, (E); the remaining 12 rats were the control group (C). Diet and fecal fat analysis was used to determine the apparent lipid absorption (ALA) and fatty acids. ALA was significantly lower in the group E than in the groups C and L (p emulsifier decreased the intestinal absorption of lipids.

  3. Cordyceps sinensis biomass produced by submerged fermentation in high-fat diet feed rats normalizes the blood lipid and the low testosterone induced by diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire dos Santos, Leandro; Rubel, Rosália; Bonatto, Sandro José Ribeiro; Zanatta, Ana Lucia; Aikawa, Júlia; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Habu, Sascha; Prado, Karin Braun; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation obtained from submerged fermentation on blood lipid and low testosterone induced by high-fat diet (HFD). The experiments were carried out using a long-term intake of HFD and HFD plus Simvastatin or C. sinensis (4 months). Our results show that plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL were decreased by Cordyceps sinensis biomass supplementation (CSBS). A long-term intake of HFD caused a significant liver damage which has been reverted by CSBS. CSBS normalized decreasing testosterone levels observed in high-fat diet feed rats. All these findings lead us to suggest that C. sinensis was able to decrease blood lipid concentration, increase hepatoprotective activity and normalize testosterone levels. PMID:27847459

  4. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).Materials and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years),...

  5. Nonfasting lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in individuals with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Whether lipid profiles should be collected from fasting or nonfasting individuals is controversial, particularly in the diabetic population. We examined the influence of normal food intake on lipid profiles in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.......Whether lipid profiles should be collected from fasting or nonfasting individuals is controversial, particularly in the diabetic population. We examined the influence of normal food intake on lipid profiles in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals....

  6. Obesity alters the gustatory perception of lipids in the mouse: plausible involvement of lingual CD36[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, Michael; Bernard, Arnaud; Ancel, Déborah; Buttet, Marjorie; Martin, Céline; Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Merlin, Jean-François; Poirier, Hélène; Niot, Isabelle; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Besnard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    A relationship between orosensory detection of dietary lipids, regulation of fat intake, and body mass index was recently suggested. However, involved mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, whether obesity can directly modulate preference for fatty foods remains unknown. To address this question, exploration of the oral lipid sensing system was undertaken in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. By using a combination of biochemical, physiological, and behavioral approaches, we found that i) the attraction for lipids is decreased in obese mice, ii) this behavioral change has an orosensory origin, iii) it is reversed in calorie-restricted DIO mice, revealing an inverse correlation between fat preference and adipose tissue size, iv) obesity suppresses the lipid-mediated downregulation of the lipid-sensor CD36 in circumvallate papillae, usually found during the refeeding of lean mice, and v) the CD36-dependent signaling cascade controlling the intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in taste bud cells is decreased in obese mice. Therefore, obesity alters the lipid-sensing system responsible for the oral perception of dietary lipids. This phenomenon seems to take place through a CD36-mediated mechanism, leading to changes in eating behavior. PMID:23840049

  7. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support divers...

  8. Dietary Lipid Levels Influence Lipid Deposition in the Liver of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) by Regulating Lipoprotein Receptors, Fatty Acid Uptake and Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Liao, Kai; Wang, Tianjiao; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lipid accumulation has been observed in fish fed a high-lipid diet. However, no information is available on the mechanism by which dietary lipid levels comprehensively regulate lipid transport, uptake, synthesis and catabolism in fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to gain further insight into how dietary lipids affect lipid deposition in the liver of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea). Fish (150.00±4.95 g) were fed a diet with a low (6%), moderate (12%, the control diet) or high (18%) crude lipid content for 10 weeks. Growth performance, plasma biochemical indexes, lipid contents and gene expression related to lipid deposition, including lipoprotein assembly and clearance, fatty acid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism, were assessed. Growth performance was not significantly affected. However, the hepato-somatic and viscera-somatic indexes as well as plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly increased in fish fed the high-lipid diet. In the livers of fish fed the high-lipid diet, the expression of genes related to lipoprotein clearance (LDLR) and fatty acid uptake (FABP11) was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of genes involved in lipoprotein assembly (apoB100), triacylglycerol synthesis and catabolism (DGAT2, CPT I) was significantly down-regulated compared with fish fed the control diet, and hepatic lipid deposition increased. In fish fed the low-lipid diet, the expression of genes associated with lipoprotein assembly and clearance (apoB100, LDLR, LRP-1), fatty acid uptake (CD36, FATP1, FABP3) and triacylglycerol synthesis (FAS) was significantly increased, whereas the expression of triacylglycerol catabolism related genes (ATGL, CPT I) was reduced compared with fish fed the control diet. However, hepatic lipid content in fish fed the low-lipid diet decreased mainly due to low dietary lipid intake. In summary, findings of this study provide molecular

  9. Evaluation of lipid profile and oxidative stress in STZ-induced rats treated with antioxidant vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI; rats receiving vitamin E (GII; STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV. Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05 blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV. Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Nutrition Therapy for Liver Diseases Based on the Status of Nutritional Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization.

  11. Nutrition therapy for liver diseases based on the status of nutritional intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakashima, Manabu; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2012-01-01

    The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization.

  12. Evidence that a lipolytic enzyme--hematopoietic-specific phospholipase C-β2--promotes mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells by decreasing their lipid raft-mediated bone marrow retention and increasing the promobilizing effects of granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, M; Poniewierska-Baran, A; Borkowska, S; Schneider, G; Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Suszynska, M; Abdel-Latif, A; Kucia, M; Ratajczak, J; Ratajczak, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and are retained there by the interaction of membrane lipid raft-associated receptors, such as the α-chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the α4β1-integrin (VLA-4, very late antigen 4 receptor) receptor, with their respective specific ligands, stromal-derived factor 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, expressed in BM stem cell niches. The integrity of the lipid rafts containing these receptors is maintained by the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (GPI-A). It has been reported that a cleavage fragment of the fifth component of the activated complement cascade, C5a, has an important role in mobilizing HSPCs into the peripheral blood (PB) by (i) inducing degranulation of BM-residing granulocytes and (ii) promoting their egress from the BM into the PB so that they permeabilize the endothelial barrier for subsequent egress of HSPCs. We report here that hematopoietic cell-specific phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2) has a crucial role in pharmacological mobilization of HSPCs. On the one hand, when released during degranulation of granulocytes, it digests GPI-A, thereby disrupting membrane lipid rafts and impairing retention of HSPCs in BM niches. On the other hand, it is an intracellular enzyme required for degranulation of granulocytes and their egress from BM. In support of this dual role, we demonstrate that PLC-β2-knockout mice are poor mobilizers and provide, for the first time, evidence for the involvement of this lipolytic enzyme in the mobilization of HSPCs.

  13. Higher Dietary Intake of Vitamin D May Influence Total Cholesterol and Carbohydrate Profile Independent of Body Composition in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2017-08-16

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  14. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources...... interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...

  15. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls.Methods:in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study.Results:Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin Conclusions: Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims...... and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose, which should be “decreased” or “reduced” in foods in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised...

  18. Tumour necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and NO• are increased and associated with decreased free-radical scavenging enzymes in patients with Weill-Marchesani syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun B. Karabulut

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS is a rare systemic disorder with both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritances. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species such as O2⋅-, H2O2 and OH• causes lipid peroxidation (LPO, whereas antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx mediate defence against oxidative stress. Excess tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and NO• react with O2⋅- and cause further antioxidant depletion with an increase in mutation frequency by H2O2. This study investigated the levels of SOD, GSHPx, catalase (CAT, TNF-α, NO• and LPO in patients with WMS.

  19. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morillas-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD.

  20. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (palcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  2. Effect of lipids from Erabu sea snake, Laticauda semifasciata, on plasma glucose, insulin, and adipocytokine concentrations of normal and streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobuya; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Shimizu, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the influence of Erabu sea snake lipid on levels of plasma insulin and adipocyte-derived hormones. Normal male mice (6 months) and streptozotocin-diabetic mice (a single administration, 150 mg/kg i.p.) were fed diets containing 10% fat as either lard or a mixture of 5% lard and 5% sea snake lipid for 4 months. The normal mice on the sea snake lipid diet had a significantly lower plasma glucose concentration (198 +/- 16 mg/dl; 148 +/- 11 mg/dl) than those mice on the lard diet. Although plasma insulin concentrations were not influenced by the dietary fat type, leptin (10 +/- 1 ng/ml; 16 +/- 2 ng/ml) and adiponectin (18 +/- 1 mug/ml; 21 +/- 1 mug/ml) concentrations were significantly higher in the sea snake lipid group than in the lard group. However, these effects of a sea snake lipid intake were not evident in the streptozotocin-diabetic mice. The results suggest that the decrease in plasma glucose following the intake of sea snake lipids could be related to a corresponding increase in leptin and adiponectin level. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532 rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05. When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020 and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048. In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Can rye intake decrease risk of human breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Adlercreutz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rye contains more fibre and bioactive compounds than other cereals used for bread production. The fibre and compounds of the fibre complex could provide protection against breast cancer (BC. Objective: To review the evidence and theoretical background for a role of rye and some of its components in the prevention of BC. Design: A short review based to a great extent on the work by scientists in the Nordic countries. Results: Some of the possible mechanisms by which the fibre complex could reduce BC risk are presented. The fibre through its effect on fermentation increases esterification of bile acids reducing toxicity of the free bile acids and is involved in the production of butyrate with potential anticancer effects including BC. The fibre reduces the enterohepatic circulation of the oestrogens leading to lower plasma oestrogen concentrations. The fibre complex contains bioactive compounds such as lignans and alkylresorcinols that are antioxidative and potentially anticarcinogenic. In addition, vitamins, minerals, and phytic acid in rye may provide protection against BC. Conclusion: Rye products made from wholegrain rye flour are likely to contribute to reduced BC risk.

  6. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  7. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  8. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  9. Lipid profile response to weight loss program in overweight and obese patient is related with gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moraleda, Blanca; Peinado Lozano, Ana Belén; Morencos Martínez, Esther; López-Plaza, Bricia; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Calderón Montero, Francisco Javier

    2015-06-01

    The risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases with age, however CVD is markedly higher in men than in no-menopausal women. There are few interventions where compare the different effects to lose weight on lipid profile between men and women. The aim of this study was to compare the response on the lipid profile by gender after a weight loss program, and determine whether there are differences by age group. One hundred eighty (96 women and 84 men) overweight and obese participants (BMI 25-34.9 kg/m2) aged 18-50 years were randomised into treatment groups. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake). Energy intake, body composition) and blood lipid profile were recorded at baseline and after of treatment. The response of HDL varied between men and women (p = 0.001). While in women it decreased (HDL: -2.94%, p = 0.02), HDL was elevated in men (HDL: 5% p = 0.02). After intervention men achieved decrease significantly LDL values a 6.65% more than women (p = 0.01). For TG concentrations there were significant differences between men and women in baseline however, only men had a significant chance in post-training measured (p = 0.001). TC showed significant differences between men and women in baseline (p = 0.013). After intervention, men and women showed a significant decreased to TC (p = 0.01). Men achieve a positive greater change on lipid profile than women. In addition, the favorable lipid profile response decreases with increasing age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Inulin on Lipid Profile, Inflammation and Blood Pressure in Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia together with biochemical alterations of lipid profile, insulin resistance and inflammation . Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inulin on lipid profile, inflammation and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.   Methods: In this controlled, randomized clinical trial, 49 women with type 2 diabetes (fiber intake 0.04 . Changes in diastolic blood pressures, LDL-c and HDL-c were not significant in inulin group compared with the maltodextrin group. A significant decrease in systolic, diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c, hs-CRP and significant increase in HDL-c were observed in inulin group compared to baseline.   Conclusions: Inulin supplementation may improve lipid profile, hs-CRP and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Effects of consuming diets containing various fats or citrus flavanones on plasma lipid and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle; Torre, Celina; Salas, Anna; Iraculis, Neus; Compagnucci, Marco; Romano, Victor; Kirschvink, Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    To compare in overweight cats the effects of feeding moderate-energy diets with moderate fat content but with saturated fat (beef tallow), saturated fat plus citrus flavanones, or monounsaturated fat (olive oil) on plasma lipids and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations. 20 overweight cats with mean+/-SD body weight of 5.2+/-0.2 kg and mean body condition score of 7.8+/-0.2 (9-point scale). Body weight, plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, and urinary F2-isoprostane concentration (as marker of oxidative stress) were measured at the beginning of the study, when the cats were fed a maintenance diet, and after 1, 3, and 5 months of consuming test diets. In overweight cats, citrus flavanones supplementation of the saturated fat diet was associated with lower energy intake and with lower plasma lipids and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations than in cats fed the saturated fat alone. Monounsaturated fat feeding resulted in lower food intake than in cats fed saturated fat. However, plasma lipids concentrations remained within reference limits throughout the study. Although the clinical relevance of these findings is unknown, the significant differences detected indicated that lower energy intake with citrus flavanones supplementation or with substitution of saturated fat for monounsaturated fat could be good strategies for decreasing plasma lipids concentration and oxidative stress in overweight cats, even before considerable loss of body weight is observed.

  12. The thrifty lipids: endocannabinoids and the neural control of energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The 'thrifty gene hypothesis' posits that evolution preferentially selects physiological mechanisms that optimize energy storage to increase survival under alternating conditions of abundance and scarcity of food. Recent experiments suggest that endocannabinoids - a class of lipid-derived mediators that activate cannabinoid receptors in many cells of the body - are key agents of energy conservation. The new evidence indicates that these compounds increase energy intake and decrease energy expenditure by controlling the activity of peripheral and central neural pathways involved in the sensing and hedonic processing of sweet and fatty foods, as well as in the storage of their energy content for future use.

  13. Fasting consequences during Ramadan on lipid profile and dietary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Pirsaheb

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the effects on lifestyle and lipid profile while fasting during holy month of Ramadan. Material and Methods: An interventional cohort study designed with 160 subjects who were fasting during Ramadan recruited from different mosques in Kermanshah. Data were collected in three stages at the beginning and at the end of Ramadan as well as one month following Ramadan using demographic and FFQ questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured and a 5 ml blood sample was collected in order to measure BUN, Creatinine, and lipid profile analysis. Results: Significant increases was observed in total cholesterol (P=0.02, LDL-C (P=0.001, HDL-C (P=0.001, and BUN (P=0.002 following Ramadan compared with earlier measurements. Triglyceride (TG level decreased following Ramadan (P=0.04 but returned to the same level one month later. Systolic blood pressure increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased during fasting period. There was a significant decrease in cereals, dairy products, and meat consumption while consumption of fruits and vegetables have been increased during Ramadan (P=0.003. Conclusion: Our results revealed increased levels of T-Chol and LDL-C in fasting as well as HDL-C. Increased HDL-C may prevent the side effects of T-Chol and LDL-C in healthy subjects. Given the metabolic changes that occurred during Ramadan, healthy eating and intake of low fat and low sugar diet during Ramadan are highly recommended.

  14. Fasting Consequences during Ramadan on Lipid Profile and Dietary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondos Pirsaheb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim was to assess the effects on lifestyle and lipid profile while fasting during holy month of Ramadan. Material and Methods: An interventional cohort study designed with 160 subjects who were fasting during Ramadan recruited from different mosques in Kermanshah. Data were collected in three stages at the beginning and at the end of Ramadan as well as one month following Ramadan using demographic and FFQ questionnaires. Blood pressure was measured and a 5 ml blood sample was collected in order to measure BUN, Creatinine, and lipid profile analysis. Results: Significant increases was observed in total cholesterol (P=0.02, LDL-C (P=0.001, HDL-C (P=0.001, and BUN (P=0.002 following Ramadan compared with earlier measurements. Triglyceride (TG level decreased following Ramadan (P=0.04 but returned to the same level one month later. Systolic blood pressure increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased during fasting period. There was a significant decrease in cereals, dairy products, and meat consumption while consumption of fruits and vegetables have been increased during Ramadan (P=0.003. Conclusion: Our results revealed increased levels of T-Chol and LDL-C in fasting as well as HDL-C. Increased HDL-C may prevent the side effects of T-Chol and LDL-C in healthy subjects. Given the metabolic changes that occurred during Ramadan, healthy eating and intake of low fat and low sugar diet during Ramadan are highly recommended.

  15. Decrease of Obesity by Allantoin via Imidazoline I1-Receptor Activation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of the imidazoline I1-receptor (I1R is known to regulate appetite. Allantoin, an active ingredient in the yam, has been reported to improve lipid metabolism in high fat diet- (HFD-fed mice. However, the effect of allantoin on obesity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of allantoin on HFD-induced obesity. The chronic administration of allantoin to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks significantly decreased their body weight, and this effect was reversed by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block I1R. The epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT cell size and weight in HFD-fed mice were also decreased by allantoin via the activation of I1R. In addition, allantoin significantly decreased the energy intake of HFD-fed mice, and this reduction was associated with a decrease in the NPY levels in the brain. However, no inhibitory effect of allantoin on energy intake was observed in db/db mice. Moreover, allantoin lowered HFD-induced hyperleptinemia, and this activity was abolished by I1R blockade with efaroxan. Taken together, these data suggest that allantoin can ameliorate energy intake and eWAT accumulation by activating I1R to improve HFD-induced obesity.

  16. Recent advances in the field of omega-3-lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    During the last 15-20 years the use of fish and algae oils for human applications has received increasing attention from academia, industry and consumers. This is due to the fact that a growing body of evidence supports that marine omega-3 lipids have a wide range of health beneficial effects...... consumption. Due to their polyunsaturated nature omega-3 lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The last part of the presentation will discuss possible means to prevent or reduce lipid oxidation in omega-3 lipids in dietary supplements and in foods enriched with these healthy lipids. Possible means......, and at the same time the intake of these healthy lipids is far below the recommendable level in many parts of the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of recent advances in the body of knowledge about the health benefits of omega-3 lipids. For many years fish oil produced from wild fish has been...

  17. Composition of bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen of sheep as influenced by feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Repetto, J L; Centeno, C; Lamrani, F

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed intake on the chemical composition of bacteria associated with the solid (solid-associated bacteria; SAB) and liquid (liquid-associated bacteria; LAB) fractions of rumen digesta, the digestive passage kinetics and their relationships. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous infusion of 15NH3 from four ruminally-cannulated wethers provided successively with a hay-concentrate diet (2 : 1 w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight 0.75. SAB had a higher content of organic matter and total lipids (P bacteria and a decrease (P = 0.033) in their amino acid concentrations. Significant increases of rumen outflow rates of liquid and particles were also observed with increased feed intake. Rates of rumen outflow showed positive and negative linear relationships (P bacteria respectively. SAB contained significantly higher proportions of leucine, isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine and lower proportions of alanine, methionine and valine than LAB. The increase in feed intake also induced significant changes in the amino acid profile of bacteria, increasing arginine and methionine and decreasing alanine and glycine proportions. Results show that the outflow rate of rumen contents is a major factor in determining the proportion of nucleic acids and protein in rumen bacteria and explains some of the differences observed between LAB and SAB.

  18. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  19. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirab...

  20. [Vitamin D intake and the prevention of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis in Japan is increasing. Osteoporotic fractures have been causes of "bedridden" status among the elderly in recent years, and vitamin D has the potential to decrease the incidence of these health problems of osteoporosis. This article tried to clarify the preventive effect of increased vitamin D intake on osteoporosis in Japan. Vitamin D intake of 700-800 IU/day together with sufficient calcium intake is recommended to prevent fractures in the elderly, and vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day is recommended to prevent bone loss in adult women. The author also discusses the importance of increasing vitamin D intake in public health in Japan.

  1. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  2. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.

  3. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan

    interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources...... prediction. A pipeline combining these tools in a single workflow is described, and the potential impact in the field of metabolomics highlighted....

  4. Dampened Mesolimbic Dopamine Function and Signaling by Saturated but not Monounsaturated Dietary Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Florea, Marc; Rodaros, Demetra; Poirier, Isabelle; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Christine; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Overconsumption of dietary fat is increasingly linked with motivational and emotional impairments. Human and animal studies demonstrate associations between obesity and blunted reward function at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear to what degree such changes are a consequence of an obese state and whether they are contingent on dietary lipid class. We sought to determine the impact of prolonged ad libitum intake of diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fat, separate from metabolic signals associated with increased adiposity, on dopamine (DA)-dependent behaviors and to identify pertinent signaling changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male rats fed a saturated (palm oil), but not an isocaloric monounsaturated (olive oil), high-fat diet exhibited decreased sensitivity to the rewarding (place preference) and locomotor-sensitizing effects of amphetamine as compared with low-fat diet controls. Blunted amphetamine action by saturated high-fat feeding was entirely independent of caloric intake, weight gain, and plasma levels of leptin, insulin, and glucose and was accompanied by biochemical and behavioral evidence of reduced D1R signaling in the NAc. Saturated high-fat feeding was also tied to protein markers of increased AMPA receptor-mediated plasticity and decreased DA transporter expression in the NAc but not to alterations in DA turnover and biosynthesis. Collectively, the results suggest that intake of saturated lipids can suppress DA signaling apart from increases in body weight and adiposity-related signals known to affect mesolimbic DA function, in part by diminishing D1 receptor signaling, and that equivalent intake of monounsaturated dietary fat protects against such changes.

  5. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toxqui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW, on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01, oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073, and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006 and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011. Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body.

  6. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  7. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  8. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  9. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  10. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  11. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  12. Acute effects of epigallocatechin gallate from green tea on oxidation and tissue incorporation of dietary lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M; Petzke, K J; Raederstorff, D; Wolfram, S; Klaus, S

    2012-05-01

    To examine in mice the acute effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea bioactive polyphenol on substrate metabolism with focus on the fate of dietary lipids. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diets supplemented with EGCG extracted from green tea (TEAVIGO, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Basel, Switzerland) at different dosages up to 1% (w/w). Effects of EGCG on body composition (quantitative magnetic resonance), food intake and digestibility, oxidation and incorporation of exogenous lipids (stable isotope techniques: (13)C-labeled palmitate and diet supplemented with corn oil as a natural source of (13)C-enriched lipids) as well as gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR) in liver and intestinal mucosa were investigated. Short-term supplementation (4-7 days) of dietary EGCG increased energy excretion, while food and energy intake were not affected. Fecal energy loss was accompanied by increased fat and nitrogen excretion. EGCG decreased post-prandial triglyceride and glycogen content in liver, increased oxidation of dietary lipids and decreased incorporation of dietary 13C-enriched lipids into fat tissues, liver and skeletal muscle. EGCG dose dependently reversed high-fat diet-induced effects on intestinal substrate transporters (CD36, FATP4 and SGLT1) and downregulated lipogenesis-related genes (ACC, FAS and SCD1) in liver in the post-prandial state. Anti-obesity effects of EGCG can be explained by a decreased food digestibility affecting substrate metabolism of intestinal mucosa and liver, leading to increased post-prandial fat oxidation and reduced incorporation of dietary lipids into tissues.

  13. A mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone modulates muscle lipid profile and improves mitochondrial respiration in obesogenic diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Fouret, Gilles; Lambert, Karen; Ferreri, Carla; Rieusset, Jennifer; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Lecomte, Jérôme; Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Badia, Eric; Murphy, Michael P; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2016-04-14

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome components including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance is increasing in both developed and developing countries. It is generally accepted that the development of these features is preceded by, or accompanied with, impaired mitochondrial function. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of a mitochondrial-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) on muscle lipid profile modulation and mitochondrial function in obesogenic diet-fed rats. For this purpose, twenty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed one of the following diets: (1) control, (2) high fat (HF) and (3) HF+MitoQ. After 8 weeks, mitochondrial function markers and lipid metabolism/profile modifications in skeletal muscle were measured. The HF diet was effective at inducing the major features of the metabolic syndrome--namely, obesity, hepatic enlargement and glucose intolerance. MitoQ intake prevented the increase in rat body weight, attenuated the increase in adipose tissue and liver weights and partially reversed glucose intolerance. At the muscle level, the HF diet induced moderate TAG accumulation associated with important modifications in the muscle phospholipid classes and in the fatty acid composition of total muscle lipid. These lipid modifications were accompanied with decrease in mitochondrial respiration. MitoQ intake corrected the lipid alterations and restored mitochondrial respiration. These results indicate that MitoQ protected obesogenic diet-fed rats from some features of the metabolic syndrome through its effects on muscle lipid metabolism and mitochondrial activity. These findings suggest that MitoQ is a promising candidate for future human trials in the metabolic syndrome prevention.

  14. The combined effects of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum LDL-C and HDL-C levels: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamori Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia due to high total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or low HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. Both SIRT1 and PUFAs can influence the expression of genes for nuclear receptors and transcription factors related to lipid metabolism such as LXRα, LXRβ, PPARα, SREBP-1c. Methods A total of 707 Japanese males and 723 females were randomly selected from the participants who visited a medical center for routine medical check-ups. We analyzed the combined effects of the genotype/haplotype of the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio on the determination of serum lipid levels. Results We found that the SIRT1 gene marked with haplotype 2 was associated with decreased serum LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, the associations between the SIRT1 haplotype 2 and decreased LDL-C and increased HDL-C levels were only observed in the low n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group, but not in the high n-6/n-3 PUFA intake ratio group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the combination of genetic variation in the SIRT1 gene and dietary n-6 and/or n-3 PUFA intake influence the determination of inter-individual variations of serum levels of LDL-C and HDL-C.

  15. Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Nielsen, S. E.; Haraldsdottir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers of oxida......Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of intake of flavonoid-containing black currant and apple juice on urinary excretion of quercetin and on markers...... of oxidative status. Design: This was a crossover study with 3 doses of juice (750, 1000, and 1500 mL) consumed for 1 wk by 4 women and 1 man corresponding to an intake of 4.8, 6.4, and 9.6 mg quercetin/d. Results: Urinary excretion of quercetin increased significantly with dose and with time. The fraction...... excreted in urine was 0.29-0.47%. Plasma quercetin did not change with juice inter vention, Plasma ascorbate increased during intervention because of the ascorbate in the juice. Total plasma malondialdehyde decreased with time during the 1500-mL juice intervention, indicating reduced lipid oxidation...

  16. Metformin inhibits food intake and neuropeptide Y gene expression in the hypothalamus***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yale Duan; Rui Zhang; Min Zhang; Lijuan Sun; Suzhen Dong; Gang Wang; Jun Zhang; Zheng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Metformin may reduce food intake and body weight, but the anorexigenic effects of metformin are stil poorly understood. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single intracere-broventricular dose of metformin and compound C, in a broader attempt to investigate the regula-tory effects of metformin on food intake and to explore the possible mechanism. Results showed that central administration of metformin significantly reduced food intake and body weight gain, par-ticularly after 4 hours. A reduction of neuropeptide Y expression and induction of AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hypothalamus were also observed 4 hours after metformin administration, which could be reversed by compound C, a commonly-used antagonist of AMP-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, metformin also improved lipid metabolism by reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein. Our findings suggest that under normal physiological conditions, central regulation of appetite by metformin is related to a decrease in neuropeptide Y gene expres-sion, and that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase may simply be a response to the anorexigenic effect of metformin.

  17. Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan S. Naughton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR are a current research focus in the area of obesity due to the system’s role in food intake and glucose and lipid metabolism. Importantly, overweight and obese individuals often have higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG and an altered pattern of receptor expression. Consequently, this leads to an increase in orexigenic stimuli, changes in fatty acid synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose utilisation, with preferential energy storage in adipose tissue. As endocannabinoids are products of dietary fats, modification of dietary intake may modulate their levels, with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid based endocannabinoids being able to displace arachidonic acid from cell membranes, reducing AEA and 2-AG production. Similarly, oleoyl ethanolamide, a product of oleic acid, induces satiety, decreases circulating fatty acid concentrations, increases the capacity for β-oxidation, and is capable of inhibiting the action of AEA and 2-AG in adipose tissue. Thus, understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.

  18. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  19. Fastende og ikkefastende lipider--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    cholesterol -0.1 mmol/l, and for triglycerides +0.3 mmol/l. Highest versus lowest tertile of nonfasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and lowest versus highest tertile of nonfasting HDL cholesterol predicted a 1.7-to 2.2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events.......We tested the hypotheses that lipid levels change minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. The maximum changes after normal food intake from fasting levels were as follows: total cholesterol -0.2 mmol/l, LDL cholesterol -0.2 mmol/l, HDL...

  20. Fastende og ikkefastende lipider--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that lipid levels change minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. The maximum changes after normal food intake from fasting levels were as follows: total cholesterol -0.2 mmol/l, LDL cholesterol -0.2 mmol/l, HDL...... cholesterol -0.1 mmol/l, and for triglycerides +0.3 mmol/l. Highest versus lowest tertile of nonfasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and lowest versus highest tertile of nonfasting HDL cholesterol predicted a 1.7-to 2.2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events....

  1. Weight loss associated with reduced intake of carbohydrate reduces the atherogenicity of LDL in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Ingrid; Zern, Tosca; Herron, Kristin; West, Kristy; Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S; Shachter, Neil S; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a 3-tier intervention including dietary modifications (ie, moderate energy restriction, decreased carbohydrate, increased protein), increased physical activity, and the use of carnitine as a dietary supplement was evaluated on plasma lipids and the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in a population of overweight and obese premenopausal (aged 20-45 years) women. Carnitine or a placebo (cellulose) was randomly assigned to the participants using a double-blind design. Carnitine supplementation was postulated to enhance fat oxidation resulting in lower concentrations of plasma triglycerides. Seventy women completed the 10-week protocol, which followed a reduction in their energy intake by 15% and a macronutrient energy distribution of 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate. In addition, subjects increased the number of steps taken per day by 4500. As no differences were observed between the carnitine and placebo groups in all the measured parameters, all subjects were pooled together for statistical analysis. Participants decreased (Pweight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were decreased by 4.5%, 8.0%, 12.3%, and 19.2% (Pweight loss (weight) associated with reduced caloric intake, lower dietary carbohydrate, and increased physical activity impacts the atherogenicity of LDL.

  2. Antiobesity efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is associated with peripheral tissue-specific modulation of lipid metabolic regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decara, Juan; Arrabal, Sergio; Beiroa, Daniel; Rivera, Patricia; Vargas, Antonio; Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Ballesteros, Joan; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-11-12

    To investigate the role of glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in peripheral lipid metabolism. Both lean and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO) rats were used to compare the peripheral effects of the subcutaneous and repeated administration of the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide on the expression of key regulators involved in lipid metabolism, β-oxidation and thermogenesis in liver, abdominal muscle, and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). We observed that liraglutide reduced caloric intake, body weight, and plasma levels of triglycerides and VLDL in a diet-independent manner. However, changes in liver fat content and the expression of lipid metabolism regulators were produced in a diet and tissue-dependent manner. In lean rats, liraglutide increased the gene/protein expression of elements involved in lipogenesis (ChREBP, Acaca/ACC, Fasn/FAS, Scd1/SCD1, PPARα/γ), β-oxidation (CPT1b), and thermogenesis (Cox4i1, Ucp1/UCP1) in eWAT and muscle, which suggest an increase in fatty-acid flux and utilization to activate energy expenditure. Regarding DIO rats, the specific reduction of liver lipid content by liraglutide was associated with a decreased expression of main elements involved in lipogenesis (phospho-ACC), peroxisomal β-oxidation (ACOX1), and lipid flux/storage (Pparγ/PPARγ) in liver, which suggest a recovery of lipid homeostasis. Interestingly, the muscle of DIO rats treated with liraglutide showed a decreased expression of PPARγ and the thermogenic factor UCP1. These results help us to better understand the peripheral mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism that underlay the effectiveness of GLP-1 analogues for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):600-611, 2016.

  3. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic). © Pharmacotherapy ... and inflammation. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and stimulation of glucose consumption by muscles may ..... tissues [26] and increasing insulin sensitivity [27]. Insulinotropic ...

  4. Beneficial effect of low ethanol intake on the cardiovascular system: possible biochemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Vasdev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudesh Vasdev1, Vicki Gill1, Pawan K Singal21Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada; 2Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manitoba, Faculty of Medicine, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CanadaAbstract: Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH. This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs.Keywords: low ethanol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, biochemical

  5. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  6. Lipid signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  7. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  8. Plant lipid signaling protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Heilmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by membranes consisting of various lipids, including sterols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids. Besides structural functions, membranes also contain lipids with regulatory and signaling roles. Such lipids include polyphosphoinositides, the low-abundant

  9. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  10. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  11. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N of essential amino acids (EAAs to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  12. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control, 1 (E1 and 2 (E2 % of added fat (saturated palm oil. Live weight gain (<.07 and feed conversion ratio (<.05 in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (<.05. Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (<.05 and liver fat content decreased (<.05 linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (<.001 leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (<.06 in the E1 group (quadratic response. Metabolizable intake of N (<.1 and fat (<.05 increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance.

  14. Obesity, food intake and exercise: Relationship with ghrelin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez; Serife Vatansever; Burcin Olcucu; Brad Schoenfeld

    2015-01-01

    ... – and long-term energy homeostasis. In the presence of increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and high food consumption, the relationship between exercise, appetite, food intake and ghrelin levels has important implications. In this review, we discuss the effect of acute and chronic exercise performance on appetite, food intake and ghrelin and their relationships.

  15. The cholesterol-lowering effects of oat varieties based on their difference in the composition of proteins and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lina; Tong, Li-Tao; Liu, Liya; Zhong, Kui; Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Sumei

    2014-12-05

    The aim of present study is to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects of the oat components other than the β-glucan in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Four-week-old male Wister rats were divided into 6 groups of 7 rats each with similar mean body weights and serum cholesterol concentrations. Rats were fed with the experimental diets containing 10% oats flour for 30 days. Food intake was recorded and monitored everyday to ensure the similar contents of protein, starch, lipid and cellulose in all groups. The lipids levels in serum, liver, and faeces were determined. The plasma total cholesterol concentrations in different oat groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group, and the effects were different among oat groups. The decrease extent of plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations increased with the increase of the proteins and lipids contents. Moreover, liver total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents were markedly decreased. The fecal bile acids concentrations in the oat groups were significantly increased. Oat proteins had lower Lysine/Arginin (0.59 ~ 0.66) and Methionin/Glycine (0.27 ~ 0.35) ratio than casein (Lysine/Arginin, 2.33; Methionin/Glycine, 1.51). Oat lipids contained higher contents of total Vitamin E and plant sterols than that in soybean oil. These results indicated that dietary oat improved hypercholesterolemia by increasing the excretions of fecal bile acids, and this improvement was not only related to β-glucan, but also attributed to the lipids and proteins. Oat proteins decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol contents due to their low Lysine/Arginin and Methionin/Glycine ratio. The co-existence of oleic acid, linoleic, vitamin E, or plant sterols accounted for the hypocholesterolemic properties of oat lipids.

  16. You Sank My Lipid Rafts!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tessa N.

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane is the membrane that serves as a boundary between the interior of a cell and its extracellular environment. Lipid rafts are microdomains within a cellular membrane that possess decreased fluidity due to the presence of cholesterol, glycolipids, and phospholipids containing longer fatty acids. These domains are involved in many…

  17. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  18. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  19. [Lipid - lowering effect of mate tea intake in dyslipidemic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Diego; Soto, Catalina; Méndez, Ailín; Corte, Carla; Kemnitz, Mariana; Avena, Virginia; Del Balzo, Diego; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El mate es la infusión nacional de Argentina y sus propiedades en la salud humana no han sido totalmente aclaradas. Objetivos: Evaluar las modificaciones del perfil lipídico en pacientes dislipidémicos suplementados con yerba mate. Métodos: Se estudiaron 121 individuos dislipidémicos (Colesterol Total (CT), Colesterol LDL (CLDL) y/o Triglicéridos (TG) elevados) de ambos sexos (74 mujeres y 47 varones) entre 40 y 60 años, sin tratamiento hipolipemiante. Luego de seis semanas de abstinencia de mate, se analizó su perfil lipídico e índice aterogénico (IA), composición corporal a través de antropometría y consumo reciente de energía, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos a través de cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo. Se indicó el consumo diario de mate preparado con 50g o 100g de yerba mate. Se indicó no alterar hábitos alimentarios, tabaquismo, medicación ni ejercicio físico. Se repitieron las determinaciones luego de seis y doce semanas. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante prueba T de Student para muestras relacionadas o prueba de Wilcoxon según normalidad de las variables (p.

  20. Effects of Arctium lappa aqueous extract on lipid profile and hepatic enzyme levels of sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Arctium lappa is known to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects in traditional medicine. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to study the effects of A. lappa root extract (AE on lipid profile and hepatic enzyme levels in sucrose-induced metabolic syndrome (MS in female rats. The study used 40 adult female Wistar rats weighing 150 g-250 g randomly divided into five groups: control, metabolic syndrome (MS, metabolic syndrome+AE at 50,100, 200 mg/kg. MS was induced by administering 50% sucrose in drinking water for 6 weeks. AE was intra-peritoneally administered daily at doses of 50,100, and 200 mg/kg for two sequential weeks at the end of the fourth week in metabolic syndrome rats. Twenty-four hours after the last administration of AE, blood was collected and centrifuged, and then the serum was used for the measurement of lipid profile and hepatic enzyme. Serum glucose, insulin, fasting insulin resistance index, body weight, water intake, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes were significantly increased although food intake was decreased in MS rats compared to the control rats. The lipids and liver enzymes were reduced by AE extracts in the MS group. This study showed that the A. lappa root aqueous extract exhibits a hypolipidemic activity of hyperlipidemic rats. This activity is practically that of a triple-impact antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective.

  1. Hemin Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions. Furthermore, hemin diminishes the accumulation of triglyceride and increases in free fatty acid content in primary hepatocytes induced by palmitate. Oral administration of hemin decreases body weight, energy intake, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and improves insulin and glucose tolerance as well as hepatic insulin signaling and hepatic steatosis in male mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, hemin treatment decreases the mRNA and protein levels of some hepatic genes involved in lipogenic regulation, fatty acid synthesis and storage, and increases the mRNA level and enzyme activity of CPT1 involved in fatty acid oxidation. These data demonstrate that hemin can improve lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both cultured hepatocytes and mice fed a high-fat diet, and show the potential beneficial effects of hemin from food on lipid and glucose metabolism.

  2. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  3. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  4. Intake of up to 3 Eggs/Day Increases HDL Cholesterol and Plasma Choline While Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide is Unchanged in a Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Lemos, Bruno S; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), dietary records, and plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, choline, and TMAO) were measured during each intervention phase. BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose, and plasma triacylglycerol did not change throughout the intervention. Diastolic BP decreased with egg intake (P HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) (P HDL-c ratio (P HDL-c, a reduced LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, and increased plasma choline in combination with no change in plasma LDL-c or TMAO concentrations.

  5. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking....... At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association...... caffeine and smoking is biologically plausible, and the lack of effect among smokers may be due to faster metabolism of caffeine. Our findings suggest that especially nonsmoking women who wish to achieve a pregnancy might benefit from a reduced caffeine intake....

  6. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Morris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  7. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking....... At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association...

  8. Lipid synthesis inhibitors: effect on epidermal lipid conformational changes and percutaneous permeation of levodopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, Kumar; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2005-10-24

    A combination of lipid synthesis inhibitors was used to enhance the in vitro and in vivo permeation of levodopa (LD) across rat epidermis, and their influence on epidermal lipids was investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Rat epidermis was treated with ethanol and a combination of atorvastatin (750 microg/7 cm2), cerulenin (20 microg/7 cm2), and beta-chloroalanine (600 microg/7 cm2) for sustaining the reduced content of epidermal cholesterol, fatty acids (as triglycerides), and ceramide (as sphingosine), respectively, in viable rat skin. This treatment resulted in significant (P < .05) synthesis inhibition of skin lipids up to 48 hours and 6-fold enhancement in the in vitro permeation of LD. The effective plasma concentration of LD was achieved within 1 hour and maintained over 48 hours after topical application to rat epidermis treated with a combination of these lipid synthesis inhibitors. ATR-FTIR studies of inhibitor(s)-treated rat epidermis revealed a significant decrease (P < .05) in peak height and area for both asymmetric and symmetric C-H stretching absorbances, suggesting extraction of lipids. However, an insignificant (P < .05) shift in the frequency of these peaks suggested no fluidization of epidermal lipids by lipid synthesis inhibitors. A direct correlation was observed between epidermal lipid synthesis inhibition, decrease in peak height or area, and percutaneous permeation of LD. Skin lipid synthesis inhibition by a combination of lipid synthesis inhibitors seems to offer a feasible approach for enhancing the transcutaneous delivery of LD.

  9. D-Xylose suppresses adipogenesis and regulates lipid metabolism genes in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunjin; Lim, Ji Ye; Shin, Jae-Ho; Seok, Pu Reum; Jung, Sangwon; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2015-07-01

    D-Xylose, a natural pentose, has been reported to reduce postprandial glucose levels, although its effect on lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Therefore, this study hypothesized that d-xylose, as an alternative sweetener, suppresses adipogenesis and lipid metabolism by regulating blood lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and related gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a normal diet, a 60% HFD diet, or an HFD with 5% or 10% of the total sucrose content supplemented with d-xylose (Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 diets, respectively). Weight gain, food intake, and serum lipid levels for each group were measured. After 12 weeks, histopathology of liver sections and assays of gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in visceral fat and liver tissues were analyzed. Body weight gain; fasting blood glucose levels; weights of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues; and serum biochemical markers, including total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-/high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, were significantly lowered in the Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 groups. In addition, d-xylose supplementation resulted in the down-regulation of adipogenesis-related genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte protein 2, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in visceral adipose tissues. Histopathologically, Xylo 5 and Xylo 10 supplementation reduced HFD-induced fat accumulation in the liver and decreased expressions of fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. D-Xylose supplementation also enhanced lipid oxidation by increasing expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A; cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 10; and acyl-CoA oxidase. In conclusion, our finding suggests that d-xylose may help prevent or attenuate the progression of obesity-related metabolic disorders by alleviating adipogenesis

  10. Effects of a high intake of unsaturated and saturated oils on intestinal transference of calcium and calcium mobilization from bone in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, S; Islam, N; Ghosh, T K; Mitra, C

    1999-06-01

    Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

  11. Brain lipids in rats fed a diet supplemented with hen eggs of modified lipid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodžić Aida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to research the impact of a diet supplemented with egg yolks of modified content, having in mind the type of fat added to the laying hens diet, on the brain lipids and their fatty acid composition in rats. During four weeks of the experiment, 64 Wistar rats, divided into four groups of 16 animals each (eight animals of both sexes, were fed the commercial rat feed (group C, or the feed that contained 70% of the commercial rat feed and 30% of freshly boiled yolks from the eggs originating from laying hens fed with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Concentration and content of total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as the fatty-acid composition of the total brain lipids were determined in the lipid extracts of the rats brains. Under unfavourable conditions, which in our case could be high dietary intake of the total fat due to egg yolk addition, the amount of total fat in the brain tissue or the mass of the organ itself can be changed. Applied dietary treatments could also influence the level of de novo synthesis of total cholesterol in the rat brain. High dietary fat intake, as well as the fat quality regarding its fatty acid composition, appear to be able to significantly influence the fatty acid profile of the total brain lipids in adult rats, whereas the level and quality of the changes also depend on sex.

  12. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content.

  13. Daidzin decreases ethanol consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, G M; Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1996-09-01

    In a previous study, daidzin, a constituent of an ancient Chinese herbal treatment for alcoholism, decreased home-cage ethanol consumption in laboratory Syrian golden hamsters. The present study tested the generality of daidzin's antidipsotropic effects. Rats served as subjects in a two-lever choice procedure. At one lever, responses earned 10% ethanol, flavored with saccharin. At the other lever, responses earned an isocaloric starch solution. Daidzin decreased both ethanol and starch consumption, but the decreases in ethanol intake were larger. Changes in consumption were dose dependent, and differences in ethanol and food consumption increased slightly (but significantly) as dose increased. Daidzin produced a similar pattern of decreases in lever pressing. In baseline, there was an approximately equal distribution of responses between the two levers; at the highest daidzin dose, the relative number of responses at the ethanol lever decreased to 30%. These results replicate and extend earlier findings, and they encourage further research on daidzin's capacity to decrease ethanol consumption.

  14. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  15. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND INTAKE PATTERN IN A GROUP OF ESRD SPANISH PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Pérez Torres

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: The undernourished patients percentage (reflected by the albumin and prealbumin increase decrease after the nutritional program. The well-nourished patients drop his weight and protein intake

  16. The effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on whole body lipid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids yields several electrophilic, reactive carbonyl metabolites. We hypothesized that an increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) would lead to increased lipid peroxidation metabolites compared to a diet low in n-3. As part of a randomized crossov...

  17. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Russell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05 improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato. Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01. However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01 contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  18. APP Function and Lipids: A Bidirectional Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Mett, Janine; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular neuritic plaques, composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most prominent risk factor for sporadic AD, carrying one or two aberrant copies of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 alleles, closely links AD to lipids. Further, several lipid classes and fatty acids have been reported to be changed in the brain of AD-affected individuals. Interestingly, the observed lipid changes in the brain seem not only to be a consequence of the disease but also modulate Aβ generation. In line with these observations, protective lipids being able to decrease Aβ generation and also potential negative lipids in respect to AD were identified. Mechanistically, Aβ peptides are generated by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. The α-secretase appears to compete with β-secretase for the initial cleavage of APP, preventing Aβ production. All APP-cleaving secretases as well as APP are transmembrane proteins, further illustrating the impact of lipids on Aβ generation. Beside the pathological impact of Aβ, accumulating evidence suggests that Aβ and the APP intracellular domain (AICD) play an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis, either by direct effects or by affecting gene expression or protein stability of enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of different lipid classes. This review summarizes the current literature addressing the complex bidirectional link between lipids and AD and APP processing including lipid alterations found in AD post mortem brains, lipids that alter APP processing and the physiological functions of Aβ and AICD in the regulation of several lipid metabolism pathways.

  19. LIPID CONTENT AND CONDITION IN AN ESTUARINE TELEOST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding experiments conducted in the laboratory showed that total lipid ~I ... related to feeding level, and was not affected by temperature although food intake at ..... Blaxter & Holliday (1963) have shown that the reason for this relationship is that ... the neutral triglyceride fat was metabolized but a residual amount of fat was ...

  20. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  1. Calcium and dairy intake: Longitudinal trends during the transition to young adulthood and correlates of calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harnack, Lisa; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2009-01-01

    To describe changes in calcium and dairy intake during the transition from middle adolescence to young adulthood and to identify baseline correlates of calcium intake in young adulthood. Population-based, 5-year follow-up study (Project EAT: Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN schools and by mail at follow-up. Males and females (N = 1521) attending high school at baseline (mean age = 15.9 years) and with a mean age of 20.5 years at follow-up. Calcium intake. Mixed and linear regression methods were used to respectively examine trends and correlates of intake. During the transition to young adulthood, mean daily calcium intakes of females and males decreased by an average of 153 mg and 194 mg respectively. Mealtime milk availability, health/nutrition attitudes, taste preference for milk, healthful weight control behaviors, and peer support for healthful eating at baseline were associated with better follow-up calcium intake. Time spent watching television and lactose intolerance were associated with lower intake at follow-up. Nutrition interventions are needed to counter longitudinal decreases in calcium intake. Interventions targeted to adolescents should address the availability of milk at meals and other identified supports for healthful eating.

  2. The effect of defatted cocoa powder on cholesterol-induced changes of serum lipids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mousa Numan; Amr, Amira Mohammad

    2017-06-05

    Cocoa has been known for many health benefits, but its lipid-lowering activity still remains unresolved. To investigate effects of varying amounts of defatted cocoa on serum lipids in cholesterol-fed rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four cholesterol-free (control) and four cholesterol-supplemented (experimental) diets containing 0, 1, 2 or 3% defatted cocoa (DC) and given ad libitumto the rats for ten weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low- and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were quantified, atherogenic index (AI) was calculated, and other biological parameters were assessed. Food intake and body weight did not respond to DC. Compared to 0% DC, 3% DC had the most prominent effect on serum lipids inducing significant fall in LDL-C and TG, and rise in TC/TG in cholesterol-deprived rats, and increase in VLDL-C and AI, and decrease in HDL-C in cholesterol-fed rats. Compared to cholesterol-deprived rats, 3% DC caused significant rise in VLDL-C, AI and TC/TG, and fall in TG in cholesterol-fed rats. This lipid-modifying effect was markedly substantiated by corresponding linear trend responses to DC. Differences in lipid variables of rats fed on DC diets were less evident. Results suggest that, in contrast to cholesterol-free situations, defatted cocoa is seemingly incapable of counteracting the atherogenic effect of cholesterol in rats, perhaps in an interaction that is likely to have clinical implications in cardiometabolic conditions.

  3. Recent advances in the field of omega-3-lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    During the last 15-20 years the use of fish and algae oils for human applications has received increasing attention from academia, industry and consumers. This is due to the fact that a growing body of evidence supports that marine omega-3 lipids have a wide range of health beneficial effects......, and at the same time the intake of these healthy lipids is far below the recommendable level in many parts of the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of recent advances in the body of knowledge about the health benefits of omega-3 lipids. For many years fish oil produced from wild fish has been...... the most important source of marine omega-3 fatty acids. However, the production of fish oil has been stable during the last decade. Therefore, to meet the increased demand for omega-3 lipids new sources are available. The presentation will discuss possible future sources of omega-3 lipids for human...

  4. Colestilan decreases weight gain by enhanced NEFA incorporation in biliary lipids and fecal lipid excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugimoto-Kawabata, K.; Shimada, H.; Sakai, K.; Suzuki, K.; Kelder, T.; Pieterman, E.J.; Cohen, L.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Princen, H.M.; Hoek, A.M. van den

    2013-01-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) are cholesterollowering drugs that also affect hyperglycemia. The mechanism by which BASs exert these and other metabolic effects beyond cholesterol lowering remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a BAS, colestilan, on body

  5. Trends in caffeine intake among U.S. children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Amy M; Rossen, Lauren M; Schoendorf, Kenneth C

    2014-03-01

    Physicians and policy makers are increasingly interested in caffeine intake among children and adolescents in the advent of increasing energy drink sales. However, there have been no recent descriptions of caffeine or energy drink intake in the United States. We aimed to describe trends in caffeine intake over the past decade among US children and adolescents. We assessed trends and demographic differences in mean caffeine intake among children and adolescents by using the 24-hour dietary recall data from the 1999-2010 NHANES. In addition, we described the proportion of caffeine consumption attributable to different beverages, including soda, energy drinks, and tea. Approximately 73% of children consumed caffeine on a given day. From 1999 to 2010, there were no significant trends in mean caffeine intake overall; however, caffeine intake decreased among 2- to 11-year-olds (P caffeine intake, but this contribution declined from 62% to 38% (P caffeine intake in 1999-2000 but increased to nearly 24% of intake in 2009-2010 (P Energy drinks did not exist in 1999-2000 but increased to nearly 6% of caffeine intake in 2009-2010. Mean caffeine intake has not increased among children and adolescents in recent years. However, coffee and energy drinks represent a greater proportion of caffeine intake as soda intake has declined. These findings provide a baseline for caffeine intake among US children and young adults during a period of increasing energy drink use.

  6. Efeitos dos óleos de amendoim, açafrão e oliva na composição corporal, metabolismo energético, perfil lipídico e ingestão alimentar de indivíduos eutróficos normolipidêmicos The effects of peanut, safflower, and olive oil on body composition, energy metabolism, lipid profile and food intake of eutrophic, normolipidemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Lopes Sales

    2005-08-01

    received no treatment and the others received a milk shake for their breakfast, containing an amount of one of the oils (peanut, safflower or olive equivalent to 30% of their basal energy metabolism, for a period of 8 weeks. The levels of total blood cholesterol and fractions, triacylglycerols, body weight, body composition, basal metabolic rate, dietary induced thermogenesis, satiety and food intake were evaluated on the basal, 4th and 8th weeks. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the lipid profile or satiety, but the safflower oil group showed lower levels of blood lipids. Oil intake, irrespective of its composition, led to an increase in body weight, and olive oil consumption increased the hip circumference. CONCLUSION: Contrary to reports in the literature, the addition of oils to the diet increased body fat deposition, and had no effect on blood lipid profile or satiety. The use of oil to substitute other energetic nutrients of the diet should be investigated in future studies, with a larger number of volunteers and a longer period of intervention.

  7. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...

  8. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  9. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  12. Interfacial & colloidal aspects of lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, P J; Chu, B S

    2011-06-09

    Amongst the main issues challenging the food manufacturing sector, health and nutrition are becoming increasingly important. Global concerns such as obesity, the ageing population and food security will have to be addressed. Food security is not just about assuring food supply, but is also about optimising nutritional delivery from the food that is available [1]. Therefore one challenge is to optimise the health benefits from the lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Colloid scientists have an affinity for lipids because they are water insoluble, however this presents a challenge to the digestive system, which has to convert them to structures that are less insoluble so they are available for uptake. Despite this, the human digestive system is remarkably effective at digesting and absorbing most lipids. This is primarily driven through maximising energy intake, as lipids possess the highest calorific value, which was a survival trait to survive times of famine, but is now an underlying cause of obesity in developed countries with high food availability. The critical region here is the lipid-water interface, where the key reactions take place to solubilise lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Digestive lipases have to adsorb to the oil water interface in order to hydrolyse triacylglycerols into fatty acids and mono glycerides, which accumulate at the interface [2], and inhibit lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase, which is responsible for the majority of lipid hydrolysis, also requires the action of bile salts and colipase to function effectively. Bile salts both aid the adsorption of co-lipase and lipase, and help solubilise the lipolysis products which have accumulated at the interface, into mixed micelles composing bile salts and a range of other lipids, to facilitate transport to the gut mucosal surface prior to uptake and absorption. The process can be affected by the lipid type, as shorter chain, fatty acids are more easily absorbed, whereas the uptake of longer

  13. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M.; Kim, T.; McCarley, R.W.; Basheer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake–state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep–wake regulation. Methods In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light–dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Results Across the 24-h light–dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (–93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (–44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. Conclusion The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep–wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight. PMID:23585726

  14. Peptides and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo; Aranzazu Perianes Cachero; Lilian Puebla Jiménez; Vicente eBarrios; Eduardo eArilla

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the r...

  15. Lipid metabolism in trained rats: effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Waldecir P; Carnevali, Luiz C; Eder, Robson; Costa Rosa, Luis Fernando B P; Bacchi, Elfriede M; Seelaender, Marília C L

    2005-12-01

    Guarana is widely consumed by athletes, either in supplements or in soft drinks, under the belief that it presents ergogenic and "fat burning" effects. We examined the effect of guarana supplementation (14 days) upon aspects of lipid metabolism in sedentary (C) and trained rats (T). To isolate the effect of caffeine from that of other components of guarana, we adopted two different doses of whole extract (G1-0.130 g/kg; G2-0.325 g/kg) or decaffeinated extract (DG1, DG2). Body weight, food and water intake; muscle fat content, oleate incorporation, glycogen content, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity and mRNA expression; along with plasma lactate concentration, were assessed. Muscle oleate incorporation was decreased in rats receiving decaffeinated guarana in relation to G1 and G2; as was CPT I mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius. Whole extract supplementation, but not DG induced reduced plasma lactate concentration in trained rats. G1 showed higher muscle glycogen content compared with all other groups. The results show an effect of guarana on aspects of lipid metabolism, which is abolished by decaffeination. The changes in lipid metabolism of supplemented rats herein reported are associated with the methylxanthine content of guarana.

  16. Associations of Obesity and Dyslipidemia with Intake of Sodium, Fat, and Sugar among Koreans: a Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon Jung; Wang, Hye Won; Cheon, Se Young; Lee, Hwa Jung; Hwang, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hae Seong

    2016-10-01

    A qualitative systematic review was performed to identify associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans. We reviewed 6 Korean research databases (KMbase, KoreaMed, NDSL, DBpia, RISS, KISS) with the keywords "sodium intake," "fat intake," and "sugar intake." Total of 11 studies were investigated in this present study. Of these articles, 7 studies were related to sodium intake, 2 studies had a relation to fat intake, and 2 studies were associated with sugar intake. We indicated general characteristics, concentration of serum lipids, nutrition intake, and statistically significant results. High sodium intake contributed to increased etiology of hypertriglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypocholesterolemia, and a risk of being overweight. Fat intake was significantly associated with body fat, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia, and HDL hypocholesterolemia. Sugar intake from coffee drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages contributed to increased HDL hypocholesterolemia and continuous metabolic syndrome score. This qualitative review among Koreans represented that intake of sodium, fat, and sugar has a positive relationship with cause of obesity-related diseases. Especially, this present study has a great significance in terms of considered study that intake of the potentially hazardous nutrients among Koreans has an association with obesity and dyslipidemia. However, further studies such as randomized controlled trials on associations between sodium, fat, and sugar and obesity and dyslipidemia need to be continuously required in order to conduct quantitative systematic reviews and a meta-analysis for Koreans.

  17. Effect of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatnejad, E; Saki, A A

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary fibres on small intestine histomorphology and lipid metabolism in broilers from 1 to 21 day of age. In experiment 1, diets containing insoluble [cellulose (CEL); 2% and 4%] or soluble [carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); 2% and 4%] fibre were fed to broilers from day 1 to 21 post-hatch and ileal tissue was collected at day 21 of age for histological evaluation. In experiment 2, broilers diet was supplemented with 0%, 1% or 2% insoluble fibre (Arbocel) during day 7 to 21 post-hatch and plasma and liver lipid metabolism were evaluated at day 21. In experiment 1, inclusion of CMC reduced body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with others. Intestinal histomorphology was unaffected by CEL, but CMC led to an increase in crypt depth (CD) and serosa thickness and a decrease in villus height (VH), villus width (VW), VH:CD ratio and villus surface area (VSA), rather than control and CEL groups. Treatment did not affect goblet cell type. Moreover, the CMC-fed birds had greater total goblet cell count (GCC) as compared with others. In experiment 2, fibre inclusion was associated with increases in BWG from 7 to 14 day of age and an improvement in FCR, whereas FI was not influenced by treatments. Inclusion of fibre in the diet decreased the weight of the abdominal fat and cholesterol concentrations of liver and plasma. No significant effects on fatty acid composition of liver lipid were observed by fibre supplementation. These findings suggest dietary fibre affects performance, intestinal histomorphology and lipid metabolism in young chicks, which may directly affect poultry feeding strategies.

  18. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, M Altug; Yaymaci, Bengi; Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Acar, Goksemin; Altug, Tuncay; Demir, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia.

  19. Simulation of total dietary iodine intake in Flemish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lin, Y; Moreno-Reyes, R; Huybrechts, I

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the distribution of total iodine intake among Flemish preschoolers and to identify the major sources contributing to iodine intake. A simulation model using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic techniques was utilised. Scenario analyses were performed to assess iodine intake via dairy products, industrially added iodised salt in bread and discretionarily added iodised household salt. Relevant data from 3-d estimated dietary records of 696 preschoolers 2·5-6·5 years old were used. Usual iodine intakes were calculated using the Iowa State University method. With a more generalised utilisation of iodised salt in bread (44 % of the bakers in 2011 instead of 12 % in 2002), mean iodine intake increased from 159 to 164 μg/d using the McCance and Widdowson's food composition table and from 104 to 109 μg/d using the German food composition table. The percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake below the estimated average requirement (65 μg/d) decreased from 5-12 to 4-9 %, while the percentage of preschoolers with an iodine intake above the tolerable upper intake level (300 μg/d) remained constant (0·3-4 %). Mean iodine intake via food supplements was 4·2 μg/d (total population) and 16·9 μg/d (consumers only). Both in 2002 and 2011, sugared dairy products, milk and iodised salt (21·4, 13·1, and 8·7 %, respectively in 2011) were the main contributors to total iodine intake. In conclusion, dietary iodine intake could still be improved in Flemish preschoolers. The use of adequately iodised household salt and the more generalised use of iodised salt by bakers should be further encouraged.

  20. Binding of Serotonin to Lipid Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Wang, Chunhua; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj;

    2013-01-01

    dynamics (MD) simulations. 5-HT was found to interact strongly with lipid bilayers (partitioning coefficient ∼1200 in mole fraction units), and this is highly unusual for a hydrophilic solute like 5-HT which has a bulk, oil–water partitioning coefficient well below unity. It follows that membrane affinity...... and a prevailing residence between the phosphate and the carbonyl groups of the lipid. The unprotonated form of 5-HT shows the opposite orientation, with the primary amine pointing toward the membrane core. Partitioning of 5-HT was found to decrease lipid chain order. These distinctive interactions of 5-HT...

  1. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrer, E

    1999-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation seems to provide an important stimulus for metabolic control of food intake, because various inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, methyl palmoxirate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulated feeding in rats and/or mice, in particular when fed a fat-enriched diet, and long-term intravascular infusion of lipids reduced voluntary food intake in various species, including humans. The feeding response to decreased fatty acid oxidation was due to a shortening of the intermeal interval with meal size remaining unaffected. Thus, energy derived from fatty acid oxidation seems to contribute to control of the duration of postmeal satiety and meal onset. Since inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose affects feeding pattern similarly, and spontaneous meals were shown to be preceded by a transient decline in blood glucose in rats and humans, a decrease in energy availability from glucose and fatty acid oxidation seems to be instrumental in eliciting eating. Since the feeding response of rats to inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was abolished by total abdominal vagotomy and pretreatment with capsaicin destroying non-myelinated afferents and attenuated by hepatic branch vagotomy, fatty acid oxidation in abdominal tissues, especially in the liver, apparently is signalled to the brain by vagal afferents to affect eating. Brain lesions and Fos immunohistochemistry were employed to identify pathways within the brain mediating eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation. According to these studies, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata represents the gate for central processing of vagally mediated afferent information related to fatty acid oxidation. The lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons seems to be a major relay for pertinent ascending input from the NTS. In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating

  2. Carnitine supplementation accelerates normalization of food intake depressed during TPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, A; Meguid, M M; Renvyle, T; Yang, Z J; Beverly, J L

    1996-07-01

    When total parenteral nutrition (TPN; containing glucose, fat, and amino acids; caloric ratio 50:30:20) providing 100% of the rat's daily caloric intake is given for 3-4 days, food intake rapidly decreases by approximately 85%. After stopping TPN, there is a lag period of 3-4 days before food intake returns to previous level, which appears to be related to fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition. Carnitine plays a key role in the oxidation of fatty acids, and was demonstrated to reduce fat deposition in rats receiving TPN, by increasing beta oxidation. We therefore investigated whether rats receiving TPN supplemented with carnitine may prevent either the decrease or speed up the resumption or normalization of food intake, after TPN is stopped. Fourteen adult Fischer-344 rats had a central venous catheter inserted. After 10 recovery days, controls (n = 7) were infused with TPN providing 100% of rat's daily caloric intake for 3 consecutive days, followed by 4 more days of normal saline. The carnitine group (n = 7) received the same solution, but which provided 100 mg/kg/day carnitine. Daily food intake was measured and data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Both parenteral solutions depressed food intake maximally by almost 90% by day 3. Carnitine accelerated the normalization of food intake by decreasing the lag period by 1 day. We conclude that the addition of carnitine enhanced the normalization of post-TPN food intake and argue that this may be on the basis of enhanced fatty acid oxidation, a substrate known to play a significant role in the anorexia induced by TPN.

  3. Acute cocoa Flavanols intake has minimal effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress and nitric oxide production in healthy cyclists: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; Tonoli, Cajsa; Soares, Danusa Dias; Descat, Amandine; Drittij-Reijnders, Marie-José; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt; Stahl, Wilhelm; Heyman, Elsa; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa flavanols (CF) can stimulate vasodilation by improved nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. This study aimed to examine whether acute CF intake can affect exercise-induced changes in antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, inflammation and NO production, as well as exercise performance and recovery in well-trained cyclists. Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, VO2max: 30 ± 3 years, 63.0 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, double-blind, cross over study. On 2 separate occasions, subjects performed two 30-min time trials 1.5 (TT1) and 3 (TT2) hours after CF (900 mg CF) or placebo (PL, 13 mg CF) intake, interposed by passive rest. Lactate, glucose, heartrate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output were measured during the TTs. Blood was drawn at baseline, before and after each TT and analyzed for epicatechin serum concentrations, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC), uric acid (UA), malonaldehyde (MDA), L-arginine/ADMA, citrulline, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations. Relative changes in blood markers and pacing strategy during TT were analysed by repeated measured ANOVA. TT performance was compared between PL and CF by paired t-test. Epicatechin concentrations were increased by CF intake. Exercise-induced increase in TEAC/UA was improved by CF intake (F(1) = 5.57; p = .038) (post-TT1: PL: 113.34 ± 3.9%, CF: 117.64 ± 3.96%, post-TT2: PL: 108.59 ± 3.95%, CF: 123.72 ± 7.4% to baseline), while exercise-induced increases in MDA, IL-1 and IL-6 were not affected by CF intake. TNF-α was unaltered by exercise and by CF. Exercise-induced decreases in L-arginine/ADMA and increases in citrulline were not affected by CF intake. TT1 and TT2 performance and exercise-induced physiological changes were unaffected by CF intake. Acute CF intake increased total antioxidant capacity in rest and during exercise

  4. Obesity coexists with malnutrition?: adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview, socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel. A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6% were female. Mean age was 44.48±12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%, binge eating disorder (47.4%, type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%, sleep apnea (30.3% and dyslipidemia (18.4%. Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. B-complex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects, but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  5. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, platelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and monocyte chemotaxis in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E B; Nielsen, L K; Pedersen, J O; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J

    1990-07-01

    We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4 g of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) daily for 6 wk on plasma lipids, haemostasis and monocyte chemotaxis in 10 patients with untreated hypertension. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change, but the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced after the fish oil supplement. Platelet function was unaltered by intake of n-3. Plasma fibrinogen and fibronectin decreased after supplementation with n-3 PUFA, while the effects on fibrinolysis were equivocal. Monocyte chemotaxis was reduced by the supplement. These data lend support to a role for an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in the management of patients with hypertension.

  6. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  7. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  8. Moderately increased protein intake predominately from egg sources does not influence whole body, regional, or muscle composition responses to resistance training in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglay, H B; Apolzan, J W; Gerrard, D E; Eash, J K; Anderson, J C; Campbell, W W

    2009-02-01

    The effects of increased dietary protein on resistance training (RT)-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle fiber size are uncertain in older people. We hypothesized that the ingestion of more animal-based foods, especially eggs, to achieve a higher protein intake would enhance RT-induced changes in body composition. West Lafayette, IN. 36 older people (age 61 +/- 1 y; mean +/- SEM). Subjects completed RT three d/wk for 12 weeks, and consumed omnivorous diets that contained either 0.9 +/- 0.1 (lower protein) or 1.2 +/- 0.0 (higher protein) g protein x kg(-1) x d(-1) (12 +/- 3 and 17 +/- 5% of energy intakes, respectively), with the higher protein intake achieved by consuming more eggs, meats, and dairy foods. The lower and higher protein diets contained 213 +/- 21 and 610 +/- 105 mg cholesterol/d, respectively. Strength, body composition, serum lipid-lipoprotein profile, urinary creatinine, skeletal muscle fiber type and size. Among all subjects, over time (i.e. with RT) body weight was unchanged, lean mass (1.1 +/- 0.2 kg) increased, and fat mass (-1.4 +/- 0.2 kg) decreased (all changes P change from baseline. Serum total and LDL cholesterol decreased (P resistance training in older people.

  9. Protective and Lipid-decreasing Effects of Semen Cassiae Extract on Fat-ty Liver in Rats with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease%决明子提取物对高脂-高果糖诱导非酒精性脂肪肝大鼠的调脂保肝作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博萍; 陈依雨; 潘竞锵; 赵汝霞; 郑琳颍; 吕俊华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨决明子乙醇提取物(Semen Cassiae Extract,SCE)对高脂高糖饮食所致的非酒精性脂肪肝大鼠调脂保肝作用。方法 SD大鼠72只,雌雄各半,随机分成正常对照组(12只)和模型组(60只)。正常对照组给予普通饲料,饮用蒸馏水,模型组大鼠给予高脂饲料,饮用10%果糖水。饲养至第6周末,将模型组大鼠随机分为模型对照组(DW10mL· kg-1)、二甲双胍组(0.2g· kg-1)、决明子乙醇提取物(SCE)高(2g· kg-1)、中(1g· kg -1)、低(0.5g· kg -1)剂量组。连续灌胃给药4周后,测定大鼠血清中谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、谷胱甘肽-S转移酶( GST)活性,血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇( HLD-C)、总胆固醇( TC)、甘油三酯( TG)含量。测定大鼠肝脏组织TC、TG含量。测定大鼠的肝脏指数,并作HE染色观察病理组织学变化。结果与正常对照组相比,模型组大鼠血清TC、TG和 LDL-C的含量明显升高(P<0.01),HLD的含量明显降低(P<0.01);血清内AST、ALT和GST的含量明显升高(P<0.01),肝脏损伤指数增加,肝细胞内广泛性脂肪浸润。 SCE和二甲双胍处理4周后,均有不同程度的下调模型大鼠血清TC、TG和LDL-C的含量,升高HLD的含量( P<0.05,P<0.01);血清内AST、ALT和GST的含量有不同程度的下降( P<0.01,P<0.05),降低肝脏损伤指数,肝组织脂肪浸润明显减少,肝窦清晰,肝索排列整齐。结论决明子提取物对脂肪肝大鼠具有调脂保肝作用。%ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To investigate the protective and lipid-decreasing effects of Semen Cassiae Extract (SCE) on fatty liver in rats.METHODS 72 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (12) and model group (60).The normal rats were raised by standard animal diet ,while the model rats were fed with

  10. Nutritional intervention study with argan oil in man: effects on lipids and apolipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, A; Cherki, M; Drissi, A; Bamou, Y; El Messal, M; Idrissi-Oudghiri, A; Lecerf, J M; Adlouni, A

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether the consumption of virgin argan oil (VAO) is associated with a change in serum lipids and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in healthy Moroccans. Sixty volunteers consumed butter (25 g/day) during 2 weeks (stabilization period) and were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group received 25 g/day of VAO during 3 weeks (intervention period), and the control group received 25 g/day of extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Throughout the study, weight, blood pressure, and daily food intake were measured. Serum total cholesterol and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured at the end of each diet period. Analysis of food intake showed that the daily diet is isocaloric for the butter regimen (2,537 +/- 244 kcal/day) as well as for the VAO and EVO regimens (2,561+/- 246 and 2,560 +/- 253 kcal/day, respectively). Analysis of the lipid intake showed a reduction in saturated fatty acids with VAO and EVO regimens (27 +/- 1.4 and 26.4 +/- 3.4%, respectively) as compared with the stabilization period (41.6 +/- 2.4%). The analysis of serum lipids showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I in both VAO group (8.4%, p = 0.012, and 5.2%, p = 0.027, respectively) and EVO group (17.3%, p = 0.001, and 5.9%, p = 0.036, respectively). However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (13.8%, p = 0.037, and 7.8%, p = 0.039, respectively) decreased significantly only in EVO group as compared with the stabilization period, while triglycerides decreased significantly by 17.5% (p = 0.039) only in VAO group. These results confirm the cholesterol-lowering effect of EVO and show for the first time the triglyceride-lowering effect of VAO in men. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...... of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations...

  12. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  13. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1-3, respectively, and 18% in week 4-7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system.

  14. Diet and serum lipids: changes over socio-economic transition period in Lithuanian rural population

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    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since regaining of independence in 1990, Lithuania has been undergoing substantial political, economic, and social changes that affected the nutrition habits of population. Dietary changes might have impact on the trends of dietary related risk factors of chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to compare trends in diet and lipid profile of Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64 during two decades of transition period (1987-2007. Methods Four cross-sectional surveys were conducted within the framework of the Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme in five regions of Lithuania in 1987, 1993, 1999, and 2007. For each survey, a stratified independent random sample was drawn from the lists of the inhabitants aged 25-64 years registered at the primary health care centres. Altogether 3127 men and 3857 women participated in the surveys. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Serum lipids were determined using enzymatic methods. Predicted changes of serum cholesterol were calculated by Keys equation. Results The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids has decreased from 18.0 to 15.1 among men and from 17.6 to 14.8 among women over the period of 20 years. The average share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake increased from 5.3% to 7.1% among men and from 4.9% to 7.3% among women. The mean intake of cholesterol declined among women. Favourable trends in fatty acids composition were caused by increased use of vegetable oil for cooking and replacement of butter spread with margarine. Since 1987, the mean value of total cholesterol has decreased by 0.6 mmol/l. Total dietary effect accounts for a 0.26 mmol/l (43.3% decline in serum cholesterol among men and 0.31 mmol/l (50.8% decline among women. Conclusions Improvement in the quality of fat intake was observed in Lithuanian rural population over two decades of transition period. Positive changes in diet, mainly

  15. Uninephrectomy in rats on a fixed food intake results in adipose tissue lipolysis implicating spleen cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eArsenijevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2 and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups.UniNX resulted in the reduction of fat pad weight. UniNX was associated with increased circulating levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol, as well as increased fat pad mRNA of hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, suggesting enhanced lipolysis. No decrease in fat pad lipogenesis as assessed by fatty acid synthase activity was observed.Circulating hormones known to regulate lipolysis such as leptin, T3, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, angiotensin 1 and angiotensin 2 were not different between the two groups. In contrast, a select group of circulating lipolytic cytokines, including interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor, were increased after UniNX. These cytokines levels were elevated in the spleen, but decreased in the kidney, liver and fat pads. This could be explained by anti-inflammatory factors SIRT1, a member of the sirtuins, and the farnesoid x receptor, which were decreased in the spleen but elevated in the kidney, liver and fat pads (inguinal and epididymal. Our study suggests that UniNX induces adipose tissue lipolysis in response to increased levels of a subset of lipolytic cytokines of splenic origin.

  16. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  17. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, N. L.; Møller, A.

    2002-01-01

    slightly. The distribution in dietary intake of the five trace elements was estimated by combining the mean trace element concentrations with food consumption data from 1837 Danes aged 15-80 years. The lead intake for 1993-97 showed a decrease in comparison with similar estimates from the previous...... of the distribution in cadmium intake amounts to 34% of PTWI, which is relatively high, and therefore calls for a more detailed future risk assessment. The intakes of lead and mercury were 11% of PTWI and, like the intake of nickel, did not cause any health concern in the adult population. The Danes ingest close...

  18. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-17

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake.

  19. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. [Dietary reference intakes of phosphorus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) exists at the all organs and plays important physiological roles in the body. A wide range of food contains P, which is absorbed at a higher level (60-70%) and its insufficiency and deficiency are rarely found. P is used as food additives in many processed food, where risk of overconsumption could be an issue. P has less evidence in terms of nutrition. P has the adequate intake and the tolerable upper intake level, for risk reduction of health disorders associated with excess intake, at the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (2010 edition).

  1. The cardiometabolic benefits of flavonoids and dark chocolate intake in patients at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra-Iulia Suceveanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research proves that the cardiac and the metabolic functions are improved by the consumption of flavonoids, natural elements found in cocoa. The dark chocolate is the main alimentary compound rich in flavonoids, and for this reason it can be used to prevent some cardiometabolic disorders. This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between chocolate consumption and the cardiometabolic disorders risk in 85 patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Unit of Emergency Hospital “St. Apostle Andrew” of Constanta. Patients were split according to the quantity of the dark chocolate consumption into 2 groups. The study groups were matched by the demographic parameters, the BMI, the physical activity and other risk factors (fats, saturated lipids, etc. We found that the daily consumption of dark chocolate, with content of cocoa > 35% according to European recommendations, had cardiometabolic benefits. The risk of coronary heart disease was reduced with 23% by the daily dark chocolate intake. The cardiovascular disease mortality and the risk of any cardiovascular disease were decreased with 19%, respectively with 38%. The risk of incident diabetes decreased with 28% after daily dark chocolate consumption, regardless the gender of patients. The number of ischemic cerebral events was reduced with 32%. In summary, the daily consumption of dark chocolate rich in flavonoids decreases the cardiometabolic disorders in patients at risk [1].

  2. Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K; Koh-Banerjee, Pauline; Franz, Mary;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intake of whole grains is inversely associated with risk of diabetes and ischemic heart disease in observational studies. The lower risk associated with high whole-grain intakes may be mediated through improvements in glycemic control, lipid profiles, or reduced inflammation. OBJECTIV...

  3. Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Morgan, Donald A; Varela, Luis; Haynes, William G; Patterson, James T; Disse, Emmanuel; Pfluger, Paul T; López, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; DiMarchi, Richard; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2009-05-06

    We investigated a possible role of the central glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor system as an essential brain circuit regulating adiposity through effects on nutrient partitioning and lipid metabolism independent from feeding behavior. Both lean and diet-induced obesity mice were used for our experiments. GLP-1 (7-36) amide was infused in the brain for 2 or 7 d. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR or Western blot. To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity combined with experiments in genetically manipulated mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GLP-1 in mice directly and potently decreases lipid storage in white adipose tissue. These effects are independent from nutrient intake. Such CNS control of adipocyte metabolism was found to depend partially on a functional sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the effects of CNS GLP-1 on adipocyte metabolism were blunted in diet-induced obese mice. The CNS GLP-1 system decreases fat storage via direct modulation of adipocyte metabolism. This CNS GLP-1 control of adipocyte lipid metabolism appears to be mediated at least in part by the sympathetic nervous system and is independent of parallel changes in food intake and body weight. Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1.

  4. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  5. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  6. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  7. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  8. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Blomhoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective : To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design : A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C and time (25 minutes resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results : The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions : The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.

  10. Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2014-12-01

    The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than

  11. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population's economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental...... Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use.RESULTS: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds......BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...

  12. Drinking water intake by infants living in rural Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallois, Patrick; Gingras, Suzanne; Caron, Madeleine; Phaneuf, Denise

    2008-07-01

    Drinking water is a potential source of toxic contaminant and it is well known that water intake on a body weight basis decreases rapidly with increasing age. Nevertheless, few studies have been conducted on water intake of very young infants who might be particularly sensitive to some toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe the mean and distribution of total water intake of 2-month old infants living in agricultural areas. Mothers (n=642) of 8 to 9 week old infants were interviewed by phone to evaluate their feeding practice, including juice and cereal intake. There were 393 infants (61%) who drank some quantity of water and 278 (43%) consumed formula reconstituted with water. For formula-fed infants, the 10, 50 and 90th percentiles of daily water intake were 79, 112, and 179 ml/kg respectively. These values are much higher than the intake recommended by US EPA for infants under one year (US EPA, 1997). This study demonstrates the importance of considering water distribution intake in very young infants who may be particularly susceptible to water contaminants.

  13. Simulation model accurately estimates total dietary iodine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2009-07-01

    One problem with estimating iodine intake is the lack of detailed data about the discretionary use of iodized kitchen salt and iodization of industrially processed foods. To be able to take into account these uncertainties in estimating iodine intake, a simulation model combining deterministic and probabilistic techniques was developed. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997-1998) and an update of the Food Composition database were used to simulate 3 different scenarios: Dutch iodine legislation until July 2008, Dutch iodine legislation after July 2008, and a potential future situation. Results from studies measuring iodine excretion during the former legislation are comparable with the iodine intakes estimated with our model. For both former and current legislation, iodine intake was adequate for a large part of the Dutch population, but some young children (iodine levels, the percentage of the Dutch population with intakes that were too low increased (almost 10% of young children). To keep iodine intakes adequate, salt iodine levels should not be decreased, unless many more foods will contain iodized salt. Our model should be useful in predicting the effects of food reformulation or fortification on habitual nutrient intakes.

  14. Decreasing strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A; Williams, B; Arora, A K; McNamara, R; Yates, J; Fielder, A

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there has been a consistent change across countries and healthcare systems in the frequency of strabismus surgery in children over the past decade. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data on all strabismus surgery performed in NHS hospitals in England and Wales, on children aged 0–16 years between 1989 and 2000, and between 1994 and 2000 in Ontario (Canada) hospitals. These were compared with published data for Scotland, 1989–2000. Results: Between 1989 and 1999–2000 the number of strabismus procedures performed on children, 0–16 years, in England decreased by 41.2% from 15 083 to 8869. Combined medial rectus recession with lateral rectus resection decreased from 5538 to 3013 (45.6%) in the same period. Bimedial recessions increased from 489 to 762, oblique tenotomies from 43 to 121, and the use of adjustable sutures from 29 to 44, in 2000. In Ontario, operations for squint decreased from 2280 to 1685 (26.1%) among 0–16 year olds between 1994 and 2000. Conclusion: The clinical impression of decrease in the frequency of paediatric strabismus surgery is confirmed. In the authors’ opinion this cannot be fully explained by a decrease in births or by the method of healthcare funding. Two factors that might have contributed are better conservative strabismus management and increased subspecialisation that has improved the quality of surgery and the need for re-operation. This finding has a significant impact upon surgical services and also on the training of ophthalmologists. PMID:15774914

  15. Apolipoprotein A4-1/2 polymorphism and response of serum lipids to dietary cholesterol in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Meyboom, S.; Funke, H.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The response of serum lipids to dietary changes is to some extent an innate characteristic. One candidate genetic factor that may affect the response of serum lipids to a change in cholesterol intake is variation in the apolipoprotein A4 gene, known as the APOA4-1/2 or apoA-IVGln360His polymorphism.

  16. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  17. Nutrient intake of Swiss toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; Casetti, Luca; Haueter, Petra; Müller, Pascal; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes

    2017-08-10

    During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted. The dietary software nut.s(®) was used to analyse the data. A cohort of 188 healthy toddlers (aged 1-3 years) was analysed. The energy intake of most toddlers was below the recommended daily intake (RDI) but in accordance with earlier studies. Protein intake was three- to fourfold higher than the RDI and reached the proposed upper limit of 15% of total energy intake. Fat intake was in accordance with the RDI, but the balance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids should be improved. Carbohydrate intake met the RDI. For the micronutrients, iron and vitamin D intakes showed critical values. As in other European countries, the diet of Swiss toddlers in general seems adequate but does not meet all nutritional requirements. In particular, the quality of the fats and vitamin D supplementation should be improved. For proteins and iron, additional research is needed to gain more confidence in the recommendations.

  18. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  19. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative contributions from a range of interrelated factors.

  20. Lipid metabolism of orchiectomised rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Satoru; Kishida, Taro; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether lipid metabolism in orchiectomised (ORX) rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose. Sucrose was used as a fructose source. Sham-operated and ORX rats were fed one of the following three diets for 28 d: a maize starch-based diet without sucrose (SU0), a diet by which half or all of maize starch was replaced by sucrose (SU50 or SU100). Body-weight gain and food intake were increased by sucrose ingestion, but decreased by ORX. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was increased by ORX and dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma TAG concentration was decreased by ORX, but was increased dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration was decreased by ORX, but was not affected by sucrose ingestion. Liver TAG was increased by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, liver cholesterol concentration was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX. The hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, faecal excretion of bile acids was decreased. The mRNA level of microsomal TAG transfer protein, which is the gene related to hepatic VLDL production, was increased by ORX and sucrose ingestion. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein-1 was decreased by ORX, but not by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration tended to correlate with the level of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA (r 0·747, P = 0·088). These results show that lipid metabolism in ORX rats would be affected by the consumption of fructose-rich sweeteners such as sucrose and high-fructose syrup.

  1. Plasma ghrelin concentrations, food intake, and anorexia in liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Giulio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Lucidi, Paola; Villanova, Nicola; Zoli, Marco; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2004-05-01

    Ghrelin is related to feeding behavior and nutrition in several physiological and pathological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the anorexia and the decreased food intake of advanced liver failure might be associated with hyperghrelinemia. Fasting ghrelin was measured in 43 cirrhotic patients, food intake was self-assessed using the Corli score and a 3-d dietary record (n = 25), and anorexia/hunger was tested by a Likert scale. Fifty healthy subjects, matched for age and body mass index, served as controls. Ghrelin levels were not systematically increased in cirrhosis (414 +/- 164 vs. 398 +/- 142 pmol/liter in controls) but increased with decreasing Corli score (P = 0.014) and along the scale of anorexia/hunger (P = 0.0001), which were both related to the 3-d dietary record (P = 0.009 and P 500 pmol/liter) was significantly associated with a low calorie intake [odds ratio (OR), 3.03 for any 100-calorie reduced intake; P = 0.015], a reduced Corli score (OR, 3.09; P = 0.031), and the anorexia score (OR, 3.37; P = 0.009), after adjustment for body mass index. The study confirms the previously observed relationship of fasting ghrelin with food intake in disease-associated malnutrition. In the presence of anorexia, hyperghrelinemia might indicate a compensatory mechanism trying to stimulate food intake, which is nonetheless ineffective in the physiological range.

  2. A Nori but not a Konbu, dietary supplement decreases the cholesterolaemia, liver fat infiltration and mineral bioavailability in hypercholesterolaemic growing Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Arancha; Nieto, Ana; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2008-02-01

    The nutritional consequences of algae consumption in young populations consuming hypercholesterolaemic diets have hardly been investigated. This study tests the effect of algae supplementation of cholesterol-enriched balanced diets on growth, dietary efficiency ratio, mineral intake and absorption, organ weight and structure and cholesterolaemia in growing Wistar rats. Three groups of ten rats each were fed for 3 weeks with experimental diets containing 93 % casein-soyabean oil base with 2.4 % cholesterol-raising agent and 7 % supplement. The control group received cellulose (35 %), group 2 consumed Nori (33.8 % fibre) and group 3 consumed Konbu (36.1 % fibre). Food intake and body weight gain were not significantly affected. Algae groups presented significantly higher dietary efficiency ratio values than control rats. Apparent absorption of several minerals appeared significantly affected, mainly in Nori-fed rats, with a significant decrease in the ratio of Zn and Cu intakes and apparent absorption. Nori diet significantly decreased plasma cholesterol. Algae supplement did not significantly affect organ size and structure. Control and Konbu rats showed severe liver fat infiltration, while Nori rats exhibited a significantly lower degree of lipid-like hepatocyte vacuolization but light to moderate leukocyte infiltration. Light to moderate scaling off of the epithelium and moderate submucosa oedema was observed in all groups. Although long-term studies are needed to check the possible extrapolation of these data to human subjects, it can be concluded that a Nori, but not a Konbu, dietary supplement reverses the negative effect of dietary cholesterol intake and also appears to be related to mineral availability in growing subjects.

  3. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and lipid profiles in ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and triglycerides as well as accumulation of saturated fatty acids in the liver of the experimental rats.

  4. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: A combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Nikolsky, Y.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Verheij, E.R.; Smilde, A.K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Smith, G.J.; Kaznacheev, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Melnikov, A.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Greef, J. van der; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we treat

  5. Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Brunna Cristina Bremer; Di Pietro, Patrícia Faria; Stefanuto, Aliny; Klein, Graziela Alessandra; de Morais, Elayne Cristina; de Andrade, Fernanda; Wazlawik, Elisabeth; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ingestion of mate tea, with or without dietary intervention, on the markers of oxidative stress in dyslipidemic individuals. Seventy-four dyslipidemic volunteers participated in this randomized clinical trial. Subjects were divided into three treatment groups: mate tea (MT), dietary intervention (DI), and mate tea with dietary intervention (MD). Biochemical and dietary variables were assessed at the beginning of the study (baseline) and after 20, 40, 60, and 90 d of treatment. Participants in the MT and MD groups consumed 1 L/d of mate tea. Those in the DI and MD groups were instructed to increase their intake of fruit, legumes and vegetables and decrease their consumption of foods rich in cholesterol and saturated and trans-fatty acids. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as antioxidant capacity of serum (ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay), uric acid, reduced glutathione, paraoxonase-1 enzyme, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and protein carbonyl were analyzed. Participants in the DI group showed a significant decrease in total fat and saturated fatty acid intakes. Those in the DI and MD groups presented a significant increase in vitamin C consumption. For all groups, there was a significant increase in ferric reducing antioxidant potential and reduced glutathione concentrations but no significant changes in LOOH, protein carbonyl, and paraoxonase-1 values. The reduced glutathione concentration was positively correlated with the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, and vitamin C, whereas levels of LOOH were inversely correlated with intakes of vitamin C and fiber. In addition, LOOH correlated positively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inversely with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which had a positive association with paraoxonase-1. The ingestion of mate tea independently of the dietary intervention increased plasma and blood antioxidant protection in patients with dyslipidemia. Copyright

  6. Alkyl ether lipids, ion channels and lipid raft reorganization in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrès, Paul-Alain; Gajate, Consuelo; Bouchet, Ana Maria; Couthon-Gourvès, Hélène; Chantôme, Aurélie; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Besson, Pierre; Bougnoux, Philippe; Mollinedo, Faustino; Vandier, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Synthetic alkyl lipids, such as the ether lipids edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and ohmline (1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-β-lactose), are forming a class of antitumor agents that target cell membranes to induce apoptosis and to decrease cell migration/invasion, leading to the inhibition of tumor and metastasis development. In this review, we present the structure-activity relationship of edelfosine and ohmline, and we point out differences and similarities between these two amphiphilic compounds. We also discuss the mechanisms of action of these synthetic alkyl ether lipids (involving, among other structures and molecules, membrane domains, Fas/CD95 death receptor signaling, and ion channels), and highlight a key role for lipid rafts in the underlying process. The reorganization of lipid raft membrane domains induced by these alkyl lipids affects the function of death receptors and ion channels, thus leading to apoptosis and/or inhibition of cancer cell migration. The possible therapeutic use of these alkyl lipids and the clinical perspectives for these lipids in prevention or/and treatment of tumor development and metastasis are also discussed.

  7. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  8. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Emmanuelle Dias; Andretta, Aline; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Nehring, Jéssica; Dos Santos Paiva, Eduardo; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM) seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT) with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and the analyzed items were total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E) and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium). The software used was Avanutri Online(®). To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and pain threshold were used. 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group, there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Women with FM showed a lower qualitative and quantitative intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  10. The traditional ayurvedic medicine, Eugenia jambolana (Jamun fruit), decreases liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Driscoll, Maureen V; Seeram, Navindra P; Slitt, Angela L

    2012-04-01

    Cholestasis is a common disease of the liver. Chronic cholestasis eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis and fibrosis, and rodent chronic cholestasis models are used to study aspects of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Few pharmacological therapies exist for treatment of cholestasis or cirrhosis, but it is known that humans with better nutritional intake are less likely to develop certain types of cirrhosis. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) is a tropical berry fruit rich in antioxidant anthocyanin compounds. As anthocyanins decrease cellular lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, it was hypothesized that Jamun fruit extract (JFE) administration could protect against cholestatic liver injury and inflammation in mice. Starting 24 h after sham or bile-duct ligation (BDL) surgery, male C57Bl/6 mice were administered vehicle or JFE (100 mg/kg, po) for 10 days. Mice that underwent BDL had elevated serum ALT levels, which were reduced to 60% by JFE treatment. Likewise, BDL caused hepatic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, fibrosis and necrosis, all of which were largely improved by JFE. Interestingly, hepatoprotection was observed in JFE-treated BDL mice, despite suppressed transporter expression and increased hepatic bile acid concentrations. Jamun fruit phytochemicals decreased hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, and protected against hepatocellular injury in mice. Jamun warrants further investigation as a potential antioxidant/anti-inflammatory therapy not only to treat cholestasis but also other liver diseases with an inflammatory component. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  12. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  13. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  14. Nonivamide enhances miRNA let-7d expression and decreases adipogenesis PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Barbara; Holik, Ann-Katrin; Kretschy, Nicole; Somoza, Mark M; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Marko, Doris; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-06-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent principle, capsaicin (CAP), have been shown to be effective anti-obesity agents by reducing energy intake, enhancing energy metabolism, decreasing serum triacylglycerol content, and inhibiting adipogenesis via activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). However, the binding of CAP to the TRPV1 receptor is also responsible for its pungent sensation, strongly limiting its dietary intake. Here, the effects of a less pungent structural CAP-analog, nonivamide, on adipogenesis and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 cells were studied. Nonivamide was found to reduce mean lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, to a similar extent as CAP, up to 10.4% (P < 0.001). Blockage of the TRPV1 receptor with the specific inhibitor trans-tert-butylcyclohexanol revealed that the anti-adipogenic activity of nonivamide depends, as with CAP, on TRPV1 receptor activation. In addition, in cells treated with nonivamide during adipogenesis, protein levels of the pro-adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) decreased. Results from miRNA microarrays and digital droplet PCR analysis demonstrated an increase in the expression of the miRNA mmu-let-7d-5p, which has been associated with decreased PPARγ levels.

  15. Interactions between high salt intake and the musculoskeletal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to muscle and bone loss. However, high dietary salt (NaCl) intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss. We have recently shown that a very high salt intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a low-grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub Dec 2007). A decrease in pH, however, is on the one hand mandatory to activate osteoclast activity, on the other hand it might affect protein metabolism and thereby muscle mass. In head-down bed rest (HDBR) studies physiological adaptation as seen in microgravity is mimicked. In a recent short-term HDBR study of 14 days, we combined high salt intake and low mechanical loading to test if low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by high NaCl intake is an additive stimulus for increased bone resorption and muscle protein loss. The results show that high NaCl intake combined with low mechanical load exaggerates the increase in calcium excretion as well as the rise in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (both: p ¡ 0.001). Bone alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was not different according to NaCl intake (p = 0.74). Additionally, the slightly negative nitrogen balance in HDBR ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d) was exacerbated 3 fold by high NaCl intake ( 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d; p ¡ 0.001). These results were accompanied by reduced bicarbonate (p = 0.018) and base excess (p = 0.009) concentrations during high salt intake. In conclusion, HDBR and high salt intake cause -like in ambulatory test subjectsa low-grade metabolic acidosis. This may exacerbate bone resorption and nitrogen loss, which may then exaggerate disuse induced bone and muscle loss.

  16. Lipids and lipid binding proteins: a perfect match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Jan F C

    2015-02-01

    Lipids serve a great variety of functions, ranging from structural components of biological membranes to signaling molecules affecting various cellular functions. Several of these functions are related to the unique physico-chemical properties shared by all lipid species, i.e., their hydrophobicity. The latter, however, is accompanied by a poor solubility in an aqueous environment and thus a severe limitation in the transport of lipids in aqueous compartments such as blood plasma and the cellular soluble cytoplasm. Specific proteins which can reversibly and non-covalently associate with lipids, designated as lipid binding proteins or lipid chaperones, greatly enhance the aqueous solubility of lipids and facilitate their transport between tissues and within tissue cells. Importantly, transport of lipids across biological membranes also is facilitated by specific (membrane-associated) lipid binding proteins. Together, these lipid binding proteins determine the bio-availability of their ligands, and thereby markedly influence the subsequent processing, utilization, or signaling effect of lipids. The bio-availability of specific lipid species thus is governed by the presence of specific lipid binding proteins, the affinity of these proteins for distinct lipid species, and the presence of competing ligands (including pharmaceutical compounds). Recent studies suggest that post-translational modifications of lipid binding proteins may have great impact on lipid-protein interactions. As a result, several levels of regulation exist that together determine the bio-availability of lipid species. This short review discusses the significance of lipid binding proteins and their potential application as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  18. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  19. Lipid-mediated muscle insulin resistance: different fat, different pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Olesja; Jelenik, Tomas; Roden, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Increased dietary fat intake and lipolysis result in excessive lipid availability, which relates to impaired insulin sensitivity. Over the last years, several mechanisms possibly underlying lipid-mediated insulin resistance evolved. Lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols (DAG) associate with changes in insulin sensitivity in many models. DAG activate novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms followed by inhibitory serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) raises another lipid class, ceramides (CER), which induce pro-inflammatory pathways and lead to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of glucosylceramide and ganglioside synthesis results in improved insulin sensitivity and increased activatory tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 in the muscle. Incomplete fat oxidation can increase acylcarnitines (ACC), which in turn stimulate pro-inflammatory pathways. This review analyzed the effects of lipid metabolites on insulin action in skeletal muscle of humans and rodents. Despite the evidence for the association of both DAG and CER with insulin resistance, its causal relevance may differ depending on the subcellular localization and the tested cohorts, e.g., athletes. Nevertheless, recent data indicate that individual lipid species and their degree of fatty acid saturation, particularly membrane and cytosolic C18:2 DAG, specifically activate PKCθ and induce both acute lipid-induced and chronic insulin resistance in humans.

  20. Exercise decreases lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue and alters adipocyte cellularity during weight regain after weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Danielle Giles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX. Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: a ad libitum low fat diet (LFD, b ad libitum LFD plus EX, or c a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 & LPL, de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1, and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT & DGAT in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  1. Lipid-lowering effects of curcumin in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Sun; Su, Ying-Fang; Yang, Hui-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Chou, Janet I; Ueng, Kwo-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Human studies of curcumin extract on lipid-lowering effect have not been completely investigated and have had controversy results. This study tested the effect of daily curcumin extract for 12 weeks on weight, glucose, and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-five patients were randomized into two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from 40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p cholesterol (LDL) was significantly reduced (120.55 ± 36.81 to 106.51 ± 25.02 mg/dL, p curcumin may have a lowering cholesterol effect in male patients and an increasing HDL-C effect in female patients, both of which result in a decrease of T-Chol/HDL-C ratio. The intake of the curcumin extract of 1890 mg/day for 12 weeks was associated with lipid-lowering effect but did not improve weight and glucose homeostasis in the patients with metabolic syndrome. Daily curcumin consumption may be an alternative choice to modify cholesterol-related parameters, especially in metabolic syndrome patients.

  2. Chemical enhancer solubility in human stratum corneum lipids and enhancer mechanism of action on stratum corneum lipid domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A; Li, S Kevin

    2010-01-04

    Previously, chemical enhancer-induced permeation enhancement on human stratum corneum (SC) lipoidal pathway at enhancer thermodynamic activities approaching unity in the absence of cosolvents (defined as Emax) was determined and hypothesized to be related to the enhancer solubilities in the SC lipid domain. The objectives of the present study were to (a) quantify enhancer uptake into SC lipid domain at saturation, (b) elucidate enhancer mechanism(s) of action, and (c) study the SC lipid phase behavior at Emax. It was concluded that direct quantification of enhancer uptake into SC lipid domain using intact SC was complicated. Therefore a liposomal model of extracted human SC lipids was used. In the liposome study, enhancer uptake into extracted human SC lipid liposomes (EHSCLL) was shown to correlate with Emax. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate lipid phase alterations in enhancer-treated intact SC. IR spectra demonstrated an increase in the lipid domain fluidity and DSC thermograms indicated a decrease in the phase transition temperature with increasing Emax. These results suggest that the enhancer mechanism of action is through enhancer intercalation into SC intercellular lipids and subsequent lipid lamellae fluidization related to enhancer lipid concentration.

  3. A lipase based approach for studying the role of wheat lipids in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    While endogenous wheat lipids exert a major effect on bread quality, little is known on the way they impact on bread loaf volume (LV). Here we altered wheat flour lipid composition during bread making using lipases in situ. Lipopan F, Lecitase Ultra, and surfactants increased LV to similar extents. The increases in bread LV as a result of these enzymes were related to decreased levels of galactolipids and phospholipids and concomitant increased 'lyso'-lipid as well as free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The FFA formed were transferred to the free lipid fraction, while the 'lyso'-lipids remained in the bound lipid fraction. For optimal gas cell stabilisation, an equilibrium between the lipid classes present and hence, the type of mesophase formed, is essential. Sufficient levels of lipids forming lamellar mesophases and lipids forming hexagonal I mesophases, which respectively form condensed monolayers or emulsify (deleterious) non-polar lipids in dough liquor, are needed.

  4. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  5. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...... plasma Pi concentration decreased, net Pi recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of Pi was maintained at the expense of deposition of Pi in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary Pi secretion being the primary regulator of Pi homeostasis at low tP intakes....... On the contrary, maintaining salivary Pi recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves....

  6. Fatty acids intake and immune parameters in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid increase on life-expectancy represents a major challenge and economic burden for modern societies. Several studies have focused on the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA upon the immune system; however less attention has been paid to the effects of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In this work we investigated the relationship of habitual consumption of different types of fatty acids with different immune parameters in the elderly. Subjects and methods: 40 institutionalized elderly (76-95 y and 35 home-living middle-age subjects (57-65 y were recruited. Dietary intakes of macronutrients, fiber and fatty acids, as well as immune parameters such as serum cytokines levels (IL-10, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-17, TGF-β and IL-12, phagocytic activity and cytotoxic NK activity, were determined. Results: Elderly subjects had a lower intake of total lipids. MUFA intake was significantly lower in the elderly group than in middle-age adults whilst the contrary was true for PUFA. MUFA intake in the elderly was found to be positively associated with IL-12 (β = 0.879 and TNF-α (β = 0.789 serum concentrations, whilst PUFA intake was inversely related to levels of IL-12 (β = -0.534. These associations were not observed in the middle-age group. Conclusion: MUFA intake may contribute to the pro-inflammatory status present in the elderly. It may be advisable to develop future nutrient recommendations specific for elderly taking into account immune parameters.

  7. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  8. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets and identification of ACS-4 as a lipid droplet-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrablik, Tracy L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Petyuk, Vladislav A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Emily M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Watts, Jennifer [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-06-27

    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids for membrane synthesis and energy reserves. In this study, we characterized the lipid and protein composition of purified C. elegans lipid droplets. These lipid droplets are composed mainly of triacylglycerols, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer composed primarily of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols was rich in fatty acid species obtained from the dietary E. coli, including cyclopropane fatty acids and cis-vaccenic acid. Unlike other organisms, C. elegans lipid droplets contain very little cholesterol or cholesterol esters. Comparison of the lipid droplet proteomes of wild type and high-fat daf-2 mutant strains shows a relative decrease of MDT-28 abundance in lipid droplets isolated from daf-2 mutants. Functional analysis of lipid droplet proteins identified in our proteomic studies indicated an enrichment of proteins required for growth and fat homeostasis in C. elegans.

  9. A Brief Review on How Pregnancy and Sex Hormones Interfere with Taste and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Faas, Marijke M.; Melgert, Barbro N.; De Vos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Many physiological and behavioral changes take place during pregnancy, including changes in taste and an increase in food intake. These changes are necessary to ensure growth and development of a healthy fetus. Both hyperphagia and taste changes during pregnancy may be induced by sex hormones estrogen and progesterone that are increased during pregnancy. Indeed, it has been shown that estrogen decreases food intake, while progesterone increases food intake. This is for instance apparent from ...

  10. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Rose, Angela M; Julie A. Kennel; Holloman, Christopher H.; Gail L. Kaye; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  11. Boesenbergia pandurata Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Regulating Lipid Metabolism