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Sample records for intake colostrum production

  1. Colostrum and milk production

    Quesnel, H; Farmer, Chantal; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  2. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  3. Long-term effects of maternal arginine supplementation and colostrum intake on pre- and postweaning growth in pigs

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Ramaekers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    /d (ARG; n = 11) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation to d 28 of lactation (weaning). Colostrum intake of individual piglets was determined based on piglet birth weight, weight gain (0–24 h), and duration of suckling in the colostrum period (0–24 h). At weaning, all...... procedure of SAS was used to estimate effects of dietary treatment, sex, piglet colostrum intake, and birth weight on pre- and postweaning growth. Piglet birth weight and preweaning growth were not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Postweaning ADG of ARG pigs was increased compared with that of CON...... pigs (P = 0.01). Piglet colostrum intake was positively related to preweaning (P colostrum on growth. Piglet birth weight was not related to pre- and postweaning ADG (P > 0.10) when piglet colostrum intake was taken into account...

  4. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured...... CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g = –106 + 2.26 WG + 200 BWB + 0.111 D – 1,414 WG/D + 0.0182 WG/BWB (R2 = 0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum...

  5. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcoconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P

  6. Colostrum and milk production in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Purup, Stig

    2016-01-01

    ) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation (in 2 blocks). Piglets were weighed 0, 12, 24, and 36 h after birth of the first piglet and on d 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in lactation for estimation of colostrum and milk intake. Colostrum samples obtained at 0......, 12, 24, and 36 h after parturition and milk from sows on d 3, 10, 17, and 24 of lactation were analyzed for macrochemical composition. Also, the content of IGF-I was determined in colostrum. Arginine supplementation decreased lactose and increased DM content of colostrum (P ... on colostrum or milk yield, piglet weight, piglet ADG, or fat content of colostrum and milk was observed (P > 0.10). Concentration of protein and IGF-I tended to be increased in ARG-fed sows. In conclusion, arginine supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation affected macrochemical composition...

  7. Relationship between birth order, birth weight, colostrum intake, acquisition of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets

    Jean Le Dividich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between birth order (BO, birth weight (BW0, colostrum intake (CI, level of passive immunity and pre-weaning mortality of piglets. The animals used were 551 cross-bred piglets [Piétrain × (Large-White × Landrace] born from 40 sows. Colostrum immunoglobulins G (IgG determinations were made from 17 sows. Colostrum samples were obtained at birth of the first piglet then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h later, and on the first-two and the last-two piglets born. Serum IgG determinations from 68 piglets were made at 2d of age and at weaning. Individual CI was estimated from body weight gain. Relative birth order (RBO and BW0 within-litter were weakly (R20.10 but increased by 26 ± 1.6 g per 100 g increase in BW0 (p0.10. It was concluded that despite last-born piglets obtained less passive immunity than first-born, they were not at higher risk of dying before weaning. Major causes of mortality were low birth weight and insufficient colostrum (energy intake.

  8. Degalactosylated/Desialylated Bovine Colostrum Induces Macrophage Phagocytic Activity Independently of Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Tomohito; Sasaki, Toshihide; Hamada, Ken; Yamada, Hisatsugu; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Inui, Toshio; Mette, Martin; Tokunaga, Ken; Hayakawa, Akio; Go, Akiteru; Oosaki, Tomohiro

    2015-08-01

    Colostrum contains antibodies, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), and, therefore, has potent immunomodulating activity. In particular, IgA has an O-linked sugar chain similar to that in the group-specific component (Gc) protein, a precursor of the Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). In the present study, we investigated the macrophage-activating effects of degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum. We detected the positive band in degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum by western blotting using Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that degalactosylated/ desialylated bovine colostrum could significantly enhance the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and of intestinal macrophages in vivo. Besides, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum did not mediate the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Similar to the use of GcMAF, degalactosylated/desialylated bovine colostrum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for various immunotherapies. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs....... 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  10. Effects of amount of colostrum replacer, amount of milk replacer, and housing cleanliness on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves to 8 weeks of age.

    Quigley, J D; Hill, T M; Deikun, L L; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-11-01

    Newborn Holstein bull calves (n = 96) were assigned randomly at birth to receive 150 g (C150) or 450 g (C450) of IgG in the first 24 h of life from a lacteal-based colostrum replacer in 2 trials. Mass of product fed was 500 and 1,500 g, respectively. Replacer was reconstituted with warm water and administered by esophageal feeder at approximately 1, 6, and 12 h of age. Thereafter, calves were fed 2 L of whole milk twice daily at approximately 0700 and 1700 h until transported to the experimental facility at 2 to 3 d of age. Calves fed C450 had greater serum total protein and IgG concentrations at 2 to 3 d of age. Failure of passive transfer of immunity (serum IgG calves fed C150 and C450, respectively. Calves (n = 48) in trial 1 were assigned randomly within colostrum group to receive 0.68 kg/d of milk replacer (MR) for 42 d, and then 0.34 kg/d for 7 d (moderate MR, MMR) or 1 kg/d of MR for 5 d, 1.36 kg/d for 37 d, and 0.68 kg/d for 7 d (high MR, HMR). Starter and water were available for ad libitum consumption. Calves fed HMR had greater average daily gain, higher average fecal scores, more days with abnormal fecal scores, and more medical days than calves fed MMR. Calves fed HMR also had lower starter intake and tended to have lower gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed MMR. Calves fed C450 and MMR began eating calf starter earlier and ate more starter than other groups from 3 wk. In trial 2, calves (n = 48) were assigned randomly within colostrum group to housing in nursery pens bedded with clean, dry straw (clean bedding) or soiled straw used in previous studies (dirty bedding). Milk replacer was fed at 0.68 kg/d for 39 d, and then 0.34 kg/d for 3 d along with free-choice texturized starter and water. Calves fed C450 had fewer days with abnormal fecal scores and days with medical treatments compared with calves fed C150. Calves housed in dirty bedding tended to grow more slowly and have lower gain-to-feed ratio than calves housed with clean bedding. Temporal

  11. Investigations on the presence of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of foals, prior to and after colostrum intake

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The titer of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum was tested in two groups of mares and their foals. The first group consisted of 12 mares, Standardbred and Serbian Trotter breed, who were vaccinated against equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy. On the contrary, 12 mares from the second group, of Lipizzaner breed, were not vaccinated. The mares’ blood samples for antibodies titer investigation were taken 30, 15 and 7 days before the expected partus, then immediately after the partus, while their foals’ blood samples were taken immediately after foaling, then just before colostrum intake, and finally 1, 2, 3 and 7 days later. The titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was tested by the method of virus - neutralization, on microtiter plates with constant dose of the virus and serial double dilutions of the serum. In unvaccinated mares, titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was either low or not present, but on the contrary, in the vaccinated ones the antibodies titer ranged from 1:32 to 1:256. In the foals originating from both vaccinated and unvaccinated there were not found specific antibodies in the serum before colostrum intake. After the colostrum intake, the values of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 significantly increased in the foals originating from the vaccinated mares, and ranged from 1:8 to 1:32.

  12. Evaluation of hyperimmune colostrum production in bovine against cariogenic streptococci and its impact on growth and bacterial biofilm formation

    Fateme Ramezanalizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental caries is the most common infectious diseases. Among the oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered as the main causes of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing specific antibodies against cariogenic bacteria and its antimicrobial effects on the growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant bovine immunized with killed antigens of strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mutans with Streptococcus Sobrinus and Streptococcus sobrinus through intramuscular injections. After delivery, The colostrum samples were collected, and the changes of anti-streptococci antibodies titers in colostrum and serum were determined by agglutination. Also,their antimicrobial effects against the growth and adhesion of oral streptococci were surveyed by the microtiter plate method. Data were analysed by One-Wey ANOVA in SPSS software. Results: The results showed that in hyperimmunized bovine , the antibodies titers against injected bacteria were from 1.1000 to 1.3000 in sera samples and from 1.320 to 1.1280 in whey of colostrum samples. Colostrum of hyperimmune cows reduced the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus Sobrinus about 69 and 43 percents, respectively and also, the low dilutions of it reduced bacterial growth. Conclusion:  According to the antibacterial effect immune colostrum on two strains of cariogenic bacteria in vitro, It appears that this material could be useful in the prevention and control of dental caries.

  13. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  14. Intake to Production Ratio

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  15. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation

    Krogh, Uffe; Bruun, Thomas S.; Williams, Charlotte Amdi

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study yield and composition of colostrum and transient milk from 36 second-parity sows fed a standard lactation diet (CON) low in fiber or one of two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF), combined with one of three fat sources, palm fatty acid.......05), indicating altered intermediary metabolism. Colostrum yield, predicted from piglet birth weight, suckling duration and weight gain, was unaffected by dietary treatments (P>0.10). Colostral (24 h) and transient milk dry matter contents were greater in SOYO compared with PFAD and C8TG sows (PColostrum...... (12 and 24 h) and transient milk lactose contents were greatest in CON-fed sows compared with sows fed ALF or SBP diets (Pcolostrum composition, but did not affect colostrum yield of sows....

  16. Carotenoids of human colostrum.

    Patton, S; Canfield, L M; Huston, G E; Ferris, A M; Jensen, R G

    1990-03-01

    Colostrum, the initial postpartum secretion of the breast, ordinarily has a distinct yellow color due to carotenoids of its fat globules. This pigmentation progressively diminishes as milk production increases during the first week of lactation. Identity of these carotenoids was investigated by means of thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and spectral analysis. Alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin were revealed as major chromogens. A component corresponding to lutein and/or zeaxanthin was also detected by both chromatographic techniques. Extracts of 23 saponified colostrum samples from 10 donors revealed considerable variation in total carotenoid concentration (0.34-7.57 micrograms/ml of colostrum). Multiparous mothers had greater mean colostrum carotenoid concentrations than did the primiparae, 2.18 +/- 1.94 vs 1.14 +/- 1.32 micrograms/ml, respectively. Seven of the eight primiparous donors' samples had little or no yellow color. These findings imply a difference in carotenoid transport by breasts that have lactated as compared to those that have not. The interrelation of carotenoids, lactation and breast cancer is discussed.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5230... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production of...

  18. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; MILA, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs

  19. The effect of bovine colostrum products on intestinal dysfunction and inflammation in a preterm pig model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), primarily seen in preterm infants, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but risk factors include prematurity, enteral feeding (especially with milk formula), and the intestinal microbiota. Mother’s milk, rich...... in bioactive factors, has a protective effect against NEC, but not all preterm infants are able to receive mother’s milk. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if bovine colostrum (BC), also rich in bioactive factors, could serve as an alternative to mother’s milk. A preterm pig model of NEC...... formula. All three BC products maintained trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on the immature pig intestine. A simple and standardized system was required to investigate the effects of milk formula versus BC on intestinal epithelial cells. In Study III, the IPEC-J2 cell line was evaluated as an in vitro...

  20. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  1. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding...... the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium...... relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions...

  2. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Background: Management of short bowel syndrome (SBS) aims to achieve intestinal autonomy to prevent fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient deficiencies and maintain adequate development. Remnant intestinal adaptation is required to obtain autonomy. In the newborn pig, colostrum has been shown to support...... intestinal development and hence adaptive processes. Aim: The efficacy of bovine colostrum to improve intestinal function in children with SBS was evaluated by metabolic balance studies. Materials and Methods: Nine children with SBS were included in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twenty percent...... of enteral fluid intake was replaced with bovine colostrum or a mixed milk diet for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Intestinal absorption of energy and wet weight was used to assess intestinal function and the efficacy of colostrum. Results: Colostrum did not improve energy or wet weight...

  3. Importance and utilization of colostrum

    Rajka Božanić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Colostrum is natural concentrate of nutritional and protection factors, immunoglobulins and growth factors. Since the unique components and characteristics of colostrum are not specific for species, colostrum can bee excellent food supplement for people of all ages. In this paper the composition of cow’s and human colostrum is discussed, as well as main imunofactors and growth factors in it. Special emphasis is given on therapeutic effect of colostrum in prevention and therapy of some disorders.

  4. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  6. Perspectives on Immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring. The mechanism of transfer varies among mammalian species. Cattle provide...... a readily available immune rich colostrum and milk in large quantities, making those secretions important potential sources of immune products that may benefit humans. Immune milk is a term used to describe a range of products of the bovine mammary gland that have been tested against several human diseases....... The use of colostrum or milk as a source of immunoglobulins, whether intended for the neonate of the species producing the secretion or for a different species, can be viewed in the context of the types of immunoglobulins in the secretion, the mechanisms by which the immunoglobulins are secreted...

  7. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF WATER BUFFALO COLOSTRUM: FIRST RESULTS

    P. Catellani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal colostrum contains many substances with antibacterial activity such as lysozyme and lactoferrin which should inhibit the microbial growth. The aim of this research is to understand if colostrum can be considered a safe product, considering that Regulation (EC N° 1662/2006, which has modified the Regulation (EC N° 853/2004, introducing colostrum as human food. Microbiological tests, made on water buffalo colostrum, aiming to obtain the total microbial count (maximum concentration: 3,6•104 ufc/ml, the quantitative evaluation of total (maximum the highest concentration found: 2,3•103 ufc/ml and fecal coliforms (maximum concentration: 4,9•102 ufc/ml and the qualitative search of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, showed that there is not a microbial growth in colostrum, that it can be considered a safe food, from the microbial point of view

  8. Short communication: Absorption of protein and immunoglobulin g in calves fed a colostrum replacer.

    Smith, G W; Foster, D M

    2007-06-01

    A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alternative to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality, limited colostrum reserves, or to break the cycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. However, it is important to make sure these products are effective and are capable of providing adequate serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available colostrum replacer product in dairy calves. Holstein calves from a single dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at birth. Group 1 (n = 21) calves were given 4 quarts of colostrum via esophageal feeder within 3 h of birth and served as the control group for this study. Group 2 (n = 21) received 2 packages of a colostrum replacer product, and group 3 (n = 21) received 3 packages of the colostrum replacer product within 3 h of birth. Blood samples from all calves were collected 24 h after colostrum administration and analyzed for serum total protein and IgG concentrations. Calves fed fresh colostrum had significantly higher serum total protein levels and IgG concentrations compared with calves fed the colostrum replacer product. Calves fed the colostrum replacer also had a significantly higher percentage of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL). The colostrum replacer product evaluated in this study failed to routinely provide adequate IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

  9. Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products

    Pedersen, A.M.; Torpet, L.A.; Reibel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa......Primary Sjögren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, bovine colostrum, saliva, xerostomia, oral mucosa...

  10. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance

    Flummer, Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)2 equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1......, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days –3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows....... Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during...

  11. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    ; colostrum was also subject to a fecal contamination, frequently found in samples. The majority of samples had a high SCC, probably for a stress situation during cows birth. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant correlation (P<0.001 between SPC and PAC. Faulty samples conditions must lead to a great accuracy during controls of raw colostrum by the competent authorities. The examined farms need some interventions, aimed at optimizing all aspects of management, in view of the improvement of product that is used both for calves feeding and human destination.

  12. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  13. Spontaneous galactosylation of agalactoglycoproteins in colostrum.

    Oubihi, M; Kitajima, K; Aoki, N; Matsuda, T

    2000-05-12

    We have found that spontaneous galactosylation of GlcNAc residues occurs in bovine colostrum, but not in dialyzed colostrum, without adding UDP-Gal as a donor substrate. UDP-Gal was shown to be present in bovine colostrum at a level ranging from 200 to 600 microM. When a tracer UDP-[(14)C]Gal was added to the dialyzed colostrum together with a Gal beta1,4-specific beta-galactosidase, remarkable incorporation of radioactivity into 24-28 kDa and 33 kDa RCA1-positive glycoproteins was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography. Some 100-140 kDa agalactoglycoproteins of a CHO mutant cell line were also galactosylated on a blotted membrane by the incubation in the colostrum.

  14. Antimicrobial factors in bovine colostrum

    Hannu Korhonen

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the content of certain antimicrobial proteins in the colostrum of five Ayrshire cows during the first 9 milkings and in milk 14 days from parturition. The following factors were analyzed: total whey protein (WP, total immunoglobulins (Ig, lactoferrin (LF, lactoperoxidase (LP, lysozyme (LZM, and Salmonella typhimurium antibody titer towards somatic (04,12 and flagellar (H1.5, Hi antigens. The content of all factors varied considerably in the first milking of the various cows, but the difference in content for all but LP and LZM decreased along with the number of milkings. The concentrations of WP, Ig and LF were at their highest in the first milking and dropped markedly in the following milkings. On the other hand, the LP concentration was on average greatest during the 3rd and 4th milkings, and the LZM concentration during the 7th and 8th milkings. The colostral whey from the first milking had the following concentrations on average: WP 69.2 mg/ml, Ig 52.0 mg/ml, LF 1.53 mg/ml, LP 22.8 µg/ml and LZM 0.40µ/ml. In the milk whey the concentrations were as follows: WP 12.2 mg/ml, Ig 0.95 mg/ml, LF 0.09 mg/ml, LP 20.1 µg/ml and LZM 0.37 µg/ml. Agglutinating antibodies to a human pathogenic strain of S. typhimurium were found against both O and H antigens in the colostrum of all cows. One cow, which had been vaccinated with S. typhimurium before parturition, had significantly higher titers than the unvaccinated animals. The latter were found to have antibodies only in the first two or three milkings post partum while the vaccinated cow still had antibodies in the milk 14 days post partum. The results obtained permit the assumption that in addition to antibodies, the nonspecific antibacterial factors (LF, LP and LZM may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of colostrum and thus enhance the resistance of a newborn calf to microbial infections during the first week of life.

  15. Influence of different seasons during late gestation on Holstein cows' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of their calves

    Trifković, Julijana; Jovanović, Ljubomir; Đurić, Miloje; Stevanović-Đorđević, Snežana; Milanović, Svetlana; Lazarević, Miodrag; Sladojević, Željko; Kirovski, Danijela

    2018-02-01

    Season may affect calves' thermal comfort and behavior, but the data related to the overall influence of seasonal variations on dams' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of calves are limited. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a 49-day-long low air temperature (LAT) season (5.20 ± 0.46 °C mean air temperature) and a 53-day-long high air temperature (HAT) season (27.40 ± 0.39 °C mean air temperature) on dams' colostrum quality and physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of their calves during the first 7 days of life. The dams' colostrum was sampled at 2, 14, and 26 h after calving, before feeding of their calves. Calves' blood samples were taken before the first colostrum intake and on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life. Calves' physiological parameters were measured on days 0 and 7. HAT season significantly reduced the quality of dams' colostrum. The ingestion of the low-quality colostrum, combined with the thermal discomfort during HAT season, probably provoked impaired physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters in samples taken from the post-colostral calves. Additionally, intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed on day 7, which suggested an enhanced insulin response in HAT season calves. This study highlights the importance of adequate supporting strategies for the care of the late gestation cows and postnatal calves during the HAT season.

  16. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-04

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  17. Effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum.

    Melo, Larisse Rayanne Miranda de; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Dantas, Raquel Costa Silva; Ramalho, Héryka Myrna Maia; Dimenstein, Roberto

    To evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with vitamin E on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum and its supply to the newborn. This randomized clinical trial enrolled 99 healthy adult pregnant women; of these, 39 were assigned to the control group and 60 to the supplemented group. After an overnight fast, 5mL of blood and 2mL of colostrum were collected. After the first sampling (0h milk), the supplemented group received 400IU of supplementary vitamin E. Another 2mL milk aliquot was collected in both groups 24h after supplementation (24h milk). The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The α-tocopherol content provided by colostrum was calculated by considering a daily intake of 396mL of milk and comparing the resulting value to the recommended daily intake for infants aged 0-6 months (4mg/day). The initial mean concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum was 1509.3±793.7μg/dL in the control group and 1452.9±808.6μg/dL in the supplemented group. After 24h, the mean α-tocopherol concentration was 1650.6±968.7μg/dL in the control group (p>0.05) and 2346.9±1203.2μg/dL in the supplemented group (pvitamin E supply to the newborn to 9.3mg/day. Initially, 18 women in the supplemented group provided colostrum α-tocopherol contents below 4mg/day; after supplementation only six continued to provide less than the recommended amount. Maternal vitamin E supplementation increases the supply of the vitamin to the infant by providing more than twice the Recommended Daily Intake. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  19. A proteomics study of colostrum and milk from the two major small ruminant dairy breeds from the Canary Islands: a bovine milk comparison perspective

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M.; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Colostrum and milk feeding are key factors for the newborn ruminant survival, affecting the future performance of the animal. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the potential of feeding newborn ruminants (mainly goat kids and lambs) with colostrum and milk from other more productive...... and milk proteomics and metabolomics....

  20. A Stepwise, Pilot Study of Bovine Colostrum to Supplement the First Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants (Precolos)

    Li, Yanqi; Juhl, Sandra M; Ye, Xuqiang

    2017-01-01

    STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake...

  1. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    Cabrera Rafael A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG. The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Results Sow parity had a significant (P Conclusion We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  2. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction...... of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example...... modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products...

  3. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n = 106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the Yangtze River outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p’-DDE, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93  μg g"−"1 lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p < 0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p′-DDE/p,p′-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p′-DDT/p,p′-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (−)-enantiomer of o,p’-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p’-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.33 ± 7.34 μg kg"−"1bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01 mg kg"−"1 bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs. - Highlights: • DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were determined by GC/MS and GC/MS–MS. • Maternal age and pregnancy BMI were positively associated with levels of DDTs. • DDT residues was primarily from past technical usage but new sources also existed. • An enrichment was found for (−)-enantiomer of o,p’-DDD and (+)-enantiomer of o,p’-DDT. • Some neonates in this region were potentially at high risk from

  4. Prevention and treatment of influenza with hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibody.

    Wy Ching Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of specific vaccines and antiviral drugs, influenza continues to impose a heavy toll on human health worldwide. Passive transfer of specific antibody (Ab may provide a useful means of preventing or treating disease in unvaccinated individuals or those failing to adequately seroconvert, especially now that resistance to antiviral drugs is on the rise. However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bovine colostrum, which contains approximately 500 g of IgG per milking per animal, has been investigated as a source of polyclonal antibody for delivery to the respiratory tract. IgG and F(ab'2 were purified from the hyperimmune colostrum of cows vaccinated with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 vaccine and were shown to have high hemagglutination-inhibitory and virus-neutralizing titers. In BALB/c mice, a single administration of either IgG or F(ab'2 could prevent the establishment of infection with a sublethal dose of PR8 virus when given as early as 7 days prior to exposure to virus. Pre-treated mice also survived an otherwise lethal dose of virus, the IgG- but not the F(ab'2-treated mice showing no weight loss. Successful reduction of established infection with this highly virulent virus was also observed with a single treatment 24 hr after virus exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that a novel and commercially-scalable technique for preparing Ab from hyperimmune bovine colostrum could allow production of a valuable substitute for antiviral drugs to control influenza with the advantage of eliminating the need for daily administration.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake

    Megan Racey MSc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Intake of Dairy Products in Adolescent Males and Females With Different Levels of Habitual Intake.

    Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.

  7. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  8. Comparison of Milk Oligosaccharides Pattern in Colostrum of Different Horse Breeds

    Difilippo, E.; Willems, H.A.M.; Vendrig, J.C.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum oligosaccharides are known to exhibit prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties. Oligosaccharide composition is species-specific, and equine colostrum has been reported to contain unique oligosaccharides. Therefore, equine oligosaccharides (EMOS) from colostrum from different horse breeds

  9. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica.

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-03-01

    Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children.

  10. Impact of delivery mode on the colostrum microbiota composition.

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Peroni, Diego Giampietro; Grossi, Enzo; Facchin, Valentina; Comberiati, Pasquale; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-09-25

    Breast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network). Twenty-nine Italian mothers (15 vaginal deliveries vs 14 Cesarean sections) were enrolled in the study. The microbiota of colostrum samples was analyzed by next generation sequencing (Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine). The colostrum microbiota network associated with Cesarean section and vaginal delivery was evaluated by means of the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), a mathematical methodology based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture. Numerous differences between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum were observed. Vaginal delivery colostrum had a significant lower abundance of Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Prevotella spp. when compared to Cesarean section colostrum samples. Furthermore, the mode of delivery had a strong influence on the microbiota network, as Cesarean section colostrum showed a higher number of bacterial hubs if compared to vaginal delivery, sharing only 5 hubs. Interestingly, the colostrum of mothers who had a Cesarean section was richer in environmental bacteria than mothers who underwent vaginal delivery. Finally, both Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum contained a greater number of anaerobic bacteria genera. The mode of delivery had a large impact on the microbiota composition of colostrum. Further studies are needed to better define the meaning of the differences we observed between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum microbiota.

  11. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  12. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  13. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  14. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF SOWS WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - PRRS

    Michal ROLINEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRRS occurrence on sow colostrum immunological quality. We realised the experiment on 20 sows (breed: Large white. From farm without presences of PRRS were 10 sows and other 10 sows were from farm with presence of PRRS. We took the samples of sows colostrums during sucking. We detected concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM in sows colostrum in time of 0 hours to 12 hours after beginning of farrowing with pig Ig ELISA quantitation kits. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgG at the beginning of farrowing, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgA at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgM at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. Lower concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins in group with PRRS can be caused of presence of PRRS. Virus PRRS can evocate synthesis of cytokine IL-10, which inhibited the function of macrophages and lymphocytes and so PRRS decrease the production of immunoglobulins and their concentration in blood of sows and consequently also concentration of immunoglobulins in sows colostrum.

  15. Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

    1980-06-01

    A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use.

  16. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  17. Mild heat treatment does not reduce the colitis-protective effects of bovine colostrum in preterm pigs

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Sangild, Per Torp; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Objective and study: Fresh bovine colostrum (BC) prevents development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. Spray drying and pasteurization are required to use BC in clinical settings but this may also reduce its bioactivity. In studies on preterm pigs, we compared raw BC with spray...... in the colostrum products and studied treatment-related aggregation of proteins. Results: POW and POWPAS pigs showed lowered gut NEC severity, IL-1β and IL-8 levels and lactic acid levels, and higher intestinal villus heights, hexose absorption, hydrolase activities (lactase, maltase, peptidases) than FORM pigs...... of growth factors (TGF-β1 and -β2) and aggregation of milk proteins. Conclusion: Spray drying and pasteurization affect BC proteins but such treatments do not necessarily decrease its trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on the immature intestine. It remains to be studied if such colostrum products also...

  18. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  19. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  20. Composition of colostrum and milk of South African indigenous ...

    Samples of colostrum, early and late lactation milk from thirteen South African indigenous Nguni goats (SAING) were analysed for contents of total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash and energy. Relationships between colostrum or milk and some parameters such as litter size (LS), milk yield (MY) and ...

  1. The colostrum proteome, ruminant nutrition and immunity: a review.

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, Andrè M; Castro, Noemi; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-02-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed. The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques and commercial kits available for high abundant protein depletion in colostrum. We will finally focus on how proteomics has been used to address this issue and how it can contribute to the major questions about colostrum associated immunology.

  2. Nitrite and Nitrate Content in Meat Products and Estimated Intake in Denmark From 1998 to 2006

    Leth, Torben; Fagt, Sisse; Nielsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    The content of nitrite and nitrate in cured meat products has been monitored in Denmark seven times between 1995 and 2006. The maximum permitted added amounts of sodium nitrite in Denmark (60 mg kg(-1) for most products up to 150 mg kg(-1) for special products) have not been exceeded, except...... period with levels varying between 6 and 20 mg sodium nitrite kg(-1) with sausages, meat for open sandwiches and salami-type sausages being the greatest contributors. The mean intake of sodium nitrate was around 1 mg day(-1), which is very low compared with the total intake of 61 mg day(-1). The mean...... group, only very few persons were responsible for the high intake. The conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the saliva and the degradation of nitrite during production and storage must also be considered when evaluating the intake of nitrite....

  3. Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review. Part I: biotechnological standards, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and principles of treatment.

    Struff, W G; Sprotte, G

    2007-04-01

    Mammals supply their newborn before birth, at birth or shortly after birth with antibodies, immunocytes and humoral constituents. This "borrowed immunity" is a form of passive immunization to protect the newborn against environmental pathogens until it establishes its own pathogen recognition and disposal systems. In cows, goats, horses and some other animal species, most immunoglobulins are obtained from the colostrum, the first milk after birth, via the gut but in humans the majority of immunoglobulins, and those of the IgG-class in particular, are acquired from the mother by placental transport in the weeks prior to parturition. It has long been known that the consumption of bovine colostrum by humans has therapeutic effects e.g. in gastrointestinal infections, but only since the second half of the last century has it been possible to prepare stable, standardized preparations of colostrum. These biologics are administered to patients in combination with standard therapies as so-called balanced supportive diets. Investigations with standardized colostrum preparations in animal models of human disease and estimates of bovine IgG activity in the human GI-tract, described in this review, have provided preclinical data supporting the use of bovine colostrum in human diseases. On the other hand, the number of bovine colostrum products with a sufficiently large and reliable database is limited and the precise nature of the therapeutic targets is still being evaluated.

  4. Detection of specific antibody producing cells in porcine colostrum by in ovo translation of their mRNA

    Kortbeek-Jacobs, N.; Donk, H. van der

    1978-01-01

    An improved method is described for the determination of antibody producing cells in sows colostrum. The test system comprises in ovo translation of mRNA from swine colostral cells and analysis of the translation products by radioimmunoassay with specific antibodies and antigen. (C.F.)

  5. The effect of intermittent lighting on metabolizable energy intake and heat production of male broilers.

    Ohtani, S; Leeson, S

    2000-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of an intermittent lighting (IL) schedule with repeated cycles of 1 h light and 2 h darkness with a continuous lighting (CL) schedule on the performance, ME intake, and heat production of male broiler chickens. Body weight gain and feed intake were temporarily reduced after the changing from CL to IL; however, they were significantly higher in IL vs CL chickens during the subsequent period of 3 to 6 wk of age. The IL chickens exhibited a higher ME intake at 6 and 8 wk of age than did CL chickens. Total heat production in IL chickens was higher than for CL chickens, although heat production during the dark period was less than that during the light period for IL chickens. The higher feed intake observed in IL chickens appears to explain the superior body weight gain in IL broilers in simple terms.

  6. Seasonal changes of buffalo colostrum: physicochemical parameters, fatty acids and cholesterol variation.

    Coroian, Aurelia; Erler, Silvio; Matea, Cristian T; Mireșan, Vioara; Răducu, Camelia; Bele, Constantin; Coroian, Cristian O

    2013-02-26

    Colostrum has many beneficial effects on newborns due to its main compounds (proteins, fats, lactose, essential fatty acids, amino acids) as well as protective antibodies that confer to the body. The buffaloes are the second important species for milk production in the world after cows. The importance of the species is also conferred by a longer longevity, high dry content of milk and a strong organic resistance when compared with cows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of buffalo colostrum compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol and physicochemical parameters during the first seven days postpartum and under the impact of the season, summer on pasture and winter on dry diet (hay based). Fat from colostrum differs depending on the postpartum day showing mean values of 11.31-7.56% (summer season) and 11.22-7.51% (winter season). These values gradually decreased starting with first day postpartum until day seven. Dry substance and protein presented a similar evolution to fat reaching the lowest values at the end of the colostral period. Lactose, ash and pH showed a gradually increase reaching the maximum on day seven postpartum. The highest titres of fatty acids from colostrum are: butyric acid (C4:0), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and the lowest values showed up in myristoleic acid (C14:1), cis-10-pentadecanoic acid (C15:1), pentadecylic acid (C15:0) and margaric acid (C17:0) for both seasons. Higher concentrations have been recorded for the summer season in general. Cholesterol concentration decreased from 12.93 and 12.68 mg/100 mL (summer and winter season) to 9.02 and 7.88 mg/100 mL in the end of the colostral period. Physicochemical compounds of buffalo colostrum were influenced by season and postpartum day of milking. Excepting lactose all other parameters gradually decreased during colostral period. Fatty acids and cholesterol showed the same evolution, presenting higher values for the summer season

  7. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Christensen, L. B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss >= 3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium...... to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk...... of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings....

  8. The Colostrum Proteome, Ruminant Nutrition and Immunity: A Review

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    In this review authors address colostrum proteins implications in different domestic ruminant species. The colostrogenesis process and how different factors, such as litter size or nutrition during gestation can alter the different components concentrations in colostrum are also reviewed....... The different colostrum fractions will be described, focusing on high and low abundant proteins. This review describes the major function of such proteins and their role on the passive immune transfer and nutrition in the newborn animal. It will be also performed a comprehensive review on different techniques...

  9. Mercury and methylmercury intake estimation due to seafood products for the Catalonian population (Spain)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study estimates mercury and methylmercury levels in fish and fishery products commercialized in the city of Barcelona from 2001 to 2007. Combining food levels data with the consumption data of 2158 people (as the median of two 24-hour-recall), the total Mercury intake of the Catalonian population was calculated. Mercury was detected in 32,8% of analyses samples. The general population average weekly intake of total mercury in Catalonian population was 0.783 ?g/k...

  10. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    Domenica Scumaci

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome.

  11. Blood lactose after dairy product intake in healthy men.

    Pimentel, Grégory; Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Freiburghaus, Carola; von Ah, Ueli; Münger, Linda H; Pralong, François P; Vionnet, Nathalie; Greub, Gilbert; Badertscher, René; Vergères, Guy

    2017-12-01

    The absence of a dedicated transport for disaccharides in the intestine implicates that the metabolic use of dietary lactose relies on its prior hydrolysis at the intestinal brush border. Consequently, lactose in blood or urine has mostly been associated with specific cases in which the gastrointestinal barrier is damaged. On the other hand, lactose appears in the blood of lactating women and has been detected in the blood and urine of healthy men, indicating that the presence of lactose in the circulation of healthy subjects is not incompatible with normal physiology. In this cross-over study we have characterised the postprandial kinetics of lactose, and its major constituent, galactose, in the serum of fourteen healthy men who consumed a unique dose of 800 g milk or yogurt. Genetic testing for lactase persistence and microbiota profiling of the subjects were also performed. Data revealed that lactose does appear in serum after dairy intake, although with delayed kinetics compared with galactose. Median serum concentrations of approximately 0·02 mmol/l lactose and approximately 0·2 mmol/l galactose were observed after the ingestion of milk and yogurt respectively. The serum concentrations of lactose were inversely correlated with the concentrations of galactose, and the variability observed between the subjects' responses could not be explained by the presence of the lactase persistence allele. Finally, lactose levels have been associated with the abundance of the Veillonella genus in faecal microbiota. The measurement of systemic lactose following dietary intake could provide information about lactose metabolism and nutrient transport processes under normal or pathological conditions.

  12. Antioxidative Activity of Colostrum and Human Milk: Effects of Pasteurization and Storage.

    Marinković, Vesna; Ranković-Janevski, Milica; Spasić, Snežana; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Djurović, Dijana; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Spasojević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20°C. Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate before use.

  13. Vitamin A nutritional status in high- and low-income postpartum women and its effect on colostrum and the requirements of the term newborn.

    Gurgel, Cristiane Santos Sânzio; Grilo, Evellyn C; Lira, Larissa Q; Assunção, Débora G F; Oliveira, Priscila G; Melo, Larisse R M de; de Medeiros, Silvia V; Pessanha, Luanna C; Dimenstein, Roberto; Lyra, Clélia O

    To evaluate the vitamin A status in serum and colostrum of postpartum women with different socioeconomic status, comparing the colostrum retinol supply with the vitamin A requirement of the newborn. Cross-sectional study conducted with 424 postpartum women. Vitamin A maternal dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Colostrum and serum retinol levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol concentrations <20μg/dL were indicative of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Vitamin A levels provided by colostrum <400μgRAE/day were considered as insufficient for term newborns. The mean maternal vitamin A intake during pregnancy was 872.2±639.2μgRAE/day in low-income women and 1169.2±695.2μgRAE/day for high-income women (p<0.005). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 6.9% (n=18) in the low-income group and 3.7% (n=6) in the high-income group. The estimated mean retinol intake by infants of the high- and low-income mothers were 343.3μgRAE/day (85.8% AI) and 427.2μgRAE/day (106.8% AI), respectively. Serum vitamin A deficiency was considered a mild public health problem in both populations; however, newborns of low-income women were more likely to receive lower retinol levels through colostrum when compared with newborns of high-income mothers. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrum to dairy calves.

    Besser, T E; Gay, C C; Pritchett, L

    1991-02-01

    Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration less than 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding. The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed greater than or equal to 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

  15. Relationship between milk intake and mucus production in adult volunteers challenged with rhinovirus-2.

    Pinnock, C B; Graham, N M; Mylvaganam, A; Douglas, R M

    1990-02-01

    In the first of three studies investigating the widely held belief that "milk produces mucus," 60 volunteers were challenged with rhinovirus-2, and daily respiratory symptoms and milk and dairy product intake records were kept over a 10-day period. Nasal secretion weights were obtained by weighing tissues collected and sealed immediately after use. Information was obtained on 51 subjects, yielding 510 person-days of observation. Subjects consumed zero to 11 glasses of milk per day (mean, 2.7; SE, 0.08), and secretion weights ranged from zero to 30.4 g/day (mean, 1.1; SE, 0.1). In response to an initial questionnaire, 27.5% reported the practice of reducing intake of milk or dairy products with a cold or named milk or dairy products as bad for colds. Of the latter group, 80% stated the reason as "producing more mucus/phlegm." Milk and dairy product intake was not associated with an increase in upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms of congestion or nasal secretion weight. A trend was observed for cough, when present, to be loose with increasing milk and dairy product intake; however, this effect was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Those who believe "milk makes mucus" or reduce milk intake with colds reported significantly more cough and congestion symptoms, but they did not produce higher levels of nasal secretions. We conclude that no statistically significant overall association can be detected between milk and dairy product intake and symptoms of mucus production in healthy adults, either asymptomatic or symptomatic, with rhinovirus infection.

  16. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Luoto, Raakel; Laitinen, Kirsi; Nermes, Merja; Isolauri, Erika

    2012-06-01

    The breast milk bioactive substances such as adiponectin, have a presumably long-term impact upon the health and well-being of a child. To determine the impact of probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration. Altogether 256 pregnant women were randomized into three study groups: dietary intervention with probiotics (diet/probiotics) or with placebo (diet/placebo) and a control group (control/placebo). The intervention group received dietary counseling provided by a nutritionist, the main focus being the amount and the type of dietary fat. The probiotics used were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis in combination. Dietary intake was evaluated by food records at every trimester of pregnancy. Breast milk samples were collected after birth (colostrum) for adiponectin concentration analysis (n=181). The dietary intervention increased the colostrum adiponectin concentration (ng/mL, geometric mean [95% CI]), the difference being significant when comparing to the control group; 12.7 [10.6-29.7] vs. 10.2 [9.9-13.2], P=0.024. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy (kg) correlated inversely with colostrum adiponectin concentration; β (SE)=-1.7 (0.1), P=0.020, and gestational diabetes mellitus was associated with the likelihood of adiponectin concentration falling into the lowest quartile; OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, P=0.028. In showing that the colostrum adiponectin concentration is markedly dependent on maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy, and considering that colostrum adiponectin has potential effects on metabolism, nutrition, and immune function in the neonates, the results of this study underscore the importance of the metabolic homeostasis of the mother for the child's initial nutritional environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    De-Jia Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day, whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05 the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.

  18. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  19. In-depth analysis of low abundant proteins in bovine colostrum using different fractionation techniques

    Nissen, Asger; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    Bovine colostrum is well known for its large content of bioactive components and its importance for neonatal survival. Unfortunately, the colostrum proteome is complicated by a wide dynamic range, because of a few dominating proteins that hamper sensitivity and proteome coverage achieved on low...... abundant proteins. Moreover, the composition of colostrum is complex and the proteins are located within different physical fractions that make up the colostrum. To gain a more exhaustive picture of the bovine colostrum proteome and gather information on protein location, we performed an extensive pre......-analysis fractionation of colostrum prior to 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Physical and chemical properties of the proteins and colostrum were used alone or in combination for the separation of proteins. ELISA was used to quantify and verify the presence of proteins in colostrum. In total, 403 proteins were identified...

  20. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  2. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  3. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of colostrum to improve intestinal function in patients with short bowel syndrome

    Lund, Pernille; Sangild, Per Torp; Aunsholt, L.

    2012-01-01

    Colostrum is rich in immunoregulatory, antimicrobial and trophic components supporting intestinal development and function in newborns. We assessed whether bovine colostrum could enhance intestinal adaptation and function in adult short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients.......Colostrum is rich in immunoregulatory, antimicrobial and trophic components supporting intestinal development and function in newborns. We assessed whether bovine colostrum could enhance intestinal adaptation and function in adult short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients....

  5. Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-11-01

    Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4·7±1·5 h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50 mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 50·0%, a specificity of 49·5%, and a negative predictive value of 87·9%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk.

  6. The contribution of dairy products to micronutrient intake in the Netherlands

    Vissers, P.A.J.; Streppel, M.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of dairy products to the intake of various vitamins and minerals in several life stages in the Dutch population. Method: Data from 3 Dutch Food Consumption Surveys and the Leiden Longevity Study were used to estimate the contribution of dairy products—as

  7. Proteomics research on colostrum: a complex fluid with multiple physiological functions

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Baumrucker, Craig R.; Gross, Josef

    2018-01-01

    This chapter addresses several aspects related to colostrum, from its synthesis in the mammary gland to the absorption of the colostrum components by the newborn and its effects on the maturation of the immune and digestive system. This chapter also describes the different colostrum fractions, co...

  8. Maternal circulating vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition in healthy lactating women—A systematic approach

    Vries, de Jasmijn Y.; Pundir, Shikha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Keijer, Jaap; Kussmann, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Colostrum is the first ingested sole nutritional source for the newborn infant. The vitamin profile of colostrum depends on the maternal vitamin status, which in turn is influenced by diet and lifestyle. Yet, the relationship between maternal vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition has

  9. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children.

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-05-17

    Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41-50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose-response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend=0.01). The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend=0.07), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend=0.07), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend=0.08), respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  10. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  11. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  12. Cereal Intake Increases and Dairy Products Decrease Risk of Cognitive Decline among Elderly Female Japanese.

    Otsuka, R; Kato, Y; Nishita, Y; Tange, C; Nakamoto, M; Tomida, M; Imai, T; Ando, F; Shimokata, H

    2014-01-01

    If cognitive decline can be prevented through changes in daily diet with no medical intervention, it will be highly significant for dementia prevention. This longitudinal study examined the associations of different food intakes on cognitive decline among Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. The National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study. Participants included 298 males and 272 females aged 60 to 81 years at baseline who participated in the follow-up study (third to seventh wave) at least one time. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in all study waves. Nutritional intake was assessed using a 3-day dietary record in the second wave. Cumulative data among participants with an MMSE >27 in the second wave were analyzed using a generalized estimating equation. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an MMSE score ≤27 in each study wave according to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase of each food intake at baseline were estimated, after adjusting for age, follow-up time, MMSE score at baseline, education, body mass index, annual household income, current smoking status, energy intake, and history of diseases. In men, after adjusting for age, and follow-up period, MMSE score at baseline, the adjusted OR for a decline in MMSE score was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; p=0.032) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake. After adjusting for education and other confounding variables, the OR for a decrease in MMSE score did not reach statistical significance for this variable. In women, multivariate adjusted OR for MMSE decline was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.15-1.77; p=0.001) with a 1-SD increase in cereal intake and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.98; p=0.034) with a 1-SD increase in milk and dairy product intake. This study indicates that a 1-SD (108 g/day) decrease in cereal intake and a 1-SD (128 g/day) increase in milk and dairy product intake may have an

  13. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 h vs. 14 h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, A.; Sánchez-Macías, D.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (...

  15. Metabolomic profiles of colostrum and milk from lactating sows

    Curtasu, Mihai Victor; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2016-01-01

    Survival and growth of sucklingpiglets is highly dependent on the nutrients, growthfactors, and protective components provided bysow colostrum and milk. The macrochemical compositionundergoes large alterations during thelactation period, but knowledge of the compositionand variation of low...... molecular weight metabolitesis presently lacking. Samples of colostrum at 0, 12,24, and 36 h and milk samples on Day 3, 10, 17,and 24 relative to farrowing were collected from 4s parity sows fed a standard lactation diet. Sampleswere analyzed using a nontargeted metabolomicsapproach. Sample preparation...... and the variablesresponsible for separation. PCA revealed data clusteringaccording to sample type, with differencesobserved between colostrum and milk for both ionizationmodes. Positive ionization revealed a numberof highly influential metabolites, such as l-carnitine,acyl esters of carnitine (l-acetylcarnitine, 2...

  16. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    Deniece R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR or second-milking colostrum (transition milk on failure of passive transfer (FPT and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1, 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2, or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3. Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L. Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.. Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp. or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp. did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia.

  17. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  18. Hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates ghrelin production and food intake.

    Li, Qingjie; Yu, Quan; Lin, Li; Zhang, Heng; Peng, Miao; Jing, Chunxia; Xu, Geyang

    2018-04-09

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice. These changes were associated with a significant increase in mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. Overexpression of PPARγ enhanced mTORC1 signaling and suppressed ghrelin production in cultured mHypoE-42 cells. Our results suggest that hypothalamic PPARγ plays a vital role in ghrelin production and food intake in mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intake of cocoa products and risk of type-2 diabetes: the multiethnic cohort.

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Jacobs, Simone; Shvetsov, Yurii; Boushey, Carol J; Setiawan, Veronica W; Kolonel, Laurence N; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2018-05-24

    As cocoa products may be protective against chronic disease due to their polyphenol content, the current study determined the association of chocolate consumption and flavanol intake with type-2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. The analysis included 151,691 participants of Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, African American, and white ancestry with 8487 incident T2D cases after 7.8 ± 3.5 years of follow-up. T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by at least one of three administrative data sources. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and flavanols from cocoa products were estimated from self-reported consumption of chocolate candy and drinks. Cox hazard regression, adjusted for potential confounders was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For chocolate candy, both the highest vs. lowest (≥10 vs. cocoa products (≥3 vs. products and cocoa-derived flavanols experience a reduced risk of developing T2D even after controlling for sugar intake, diet quality, and other aspects of the diet.

  20. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 ...

  1. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2013-01-01

    and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA(1c), insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist......), cheese intake was inversely associated with 2hPG (β = -0.048, 95% CI -0.095; -0.001). Fermented dairy intake was inversely associated with FPG (β = -0.028, 95% CI -0.048; -0.008) and HbA(1c) (β = -0.016, 95% CI -0.030; -0.001). Total dairy intake and the dairy subgroups were not related to HOMA-IR...... and HOMA-B in the maximally-adjusted model. Furthermore, there was no significant association between intake of total dairy or any of the dairy subgroups and incidence of T2D. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a modest beneficial effect of cheese and fermented dairy on glucose regulation measures; however...

  2. Effect of continuous milking on immunoglobulin concentrations in bovine colostrum

    Verweij, J.J.; Koets, A.P.; Eisenberg, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous milking is defined as a dairy cattle management system without a planned dry period for cows in late gestation. Continuous milking has been described to reduce health problems common in periparturient cattle, but may affect colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration and subsequently calf

  3. Intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children.

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2010-07-01

    In vitro studies show that milk or milk components may have cariostatic properties. However, the results of epidemiological studies on the association between intake of dairy products and dental caries have been inconsistent. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children. Study subjects were 2058 Japanese children aged 3 years. Information on diet was assessed with a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire for children. The consumption of dairy products was categorized into 3 levels in order to represent the tertiles as closely as possible. Dental caries was assessed by a visual examination. Adjustment was made for sex, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, between-meal snack frequency, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home, and paternal and maternal educational levels. Compared with yogurt consumption at the lowest tertile ( or =4 times/week) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries, showing a clear dose-response relationship (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.98, P for trend=0.04). There were no material associations between intake of cheese, bread and butter, or milk and the prevalence of dental caries. These data suggest that a high consumption of yogurt may be associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries in young children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN METABOLISM AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GOAT KIDS RAISED UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Sandra G. Solaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five wether goat kids (BW of 21.76 + 0.76 were randomly assigned to one of three production systems for 14 weeks to evaluate intake, digestibility and goat performance. Production systems were: 1 feedlot (FL, housed in individual pens and fed 40% protein pellets, 40% soybean hulls and 20% bermudagrass hay; 2 grazing continuously on 1 hectare bahiagrass pasture (BP supplemented daily with 150 g of protein pellets/hd; and 3 browsing rotationally on 4, 0.5 hectare mimosa (MB supplemented daily with 100 g cracked corn/hd. Body weights were recorded every two weeks. Feed intake and digestibility were measured on eight goats from each treatment groups. Goats were fitted with canvas fecal collection bags, allowed for 3 days of adjustments followed by 5 days of fecal collection. Feces, feed offered, pasture and browse samples were analyzed for acid insoluble ash to determine digestibility and predict intake. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected to measure volatile fatty acids and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Total feed and medication costs also were recorded. Goats on FL system gained faster (P 0.10 in butyrate and valerate. However, acetate: propionate was lower (P 0.10 BUN. Numerically, browse system was most cost effective and bahaigrass pasture was most expensive in terms of animal production.

  5. Maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in elderly hypertensive subjects following detraining.

    Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro de; Santos, Neucilane Silveira Dos; Aguiar, Larissa Pereira; Sousa, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether maintenance of exercise training benefits is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects after detraining. Twenty-eight elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise training program followed by 6 weeks of detraining, and were classified according to milk and dairy products intake as low milk (exercise training, there was a significant reduction (pexercise training benefits related to pressure levels, lower extremity strength and aerobic capacity, is associated with adequate milk and dairy products intake in hypertensive elderly subjects following 6 weeks of detraining.

  6. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents.

    Almon, Ricardo; Patterson, Emma; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Engfeldt, Peter; Sjöström, Michael

    2010-06-16

    Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (pproducts than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents). We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  7. Dairy product intake and bone properties in 70-year-old men and women.

    Hallkvist, Olle M; Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter; Hult, Andreas

    2018-01-29

    In the present population-based study including 70-year-old men and women, total dairy product intake was associated with a weak positive association with tibia trabecular and cortical cross-sectional areas. Milk consumption has recently been suggested to increase fracture risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate associations between dairy product consumption and peripheral bone properties. Furthermore, we explored whether consumption of milk and fermented dairy products affected bone properties differently. The Healthy Aging Initiative is a population-based, cross-sectional study investigating the health of 70-year-old men and women. Out of the 2904 individuals who met the inclusion criteria, data on self-reported daily dairy product consumption (dl/day), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) examinations at the 4 and 66% scan sites of the tibia and radius, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were collected from 2040 participants. Associations between dairy product consumption and bone properties were examined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, muscle area, meal size, dietary protein proportion, current smoking status, and objectively measured physical activity. Total dairy product intake was associated with larger trabecular (2.296 (95% CI, 0.552-4.039) mm 2 , per dl/day increase, p = 0.01) and cortical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in the tibia (1.757 (95% CI, 0.683-2.830 mm 2 , p = 0.001) as measured by pQCT and higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the radius (3.231 (95% CI, 0.764-5.698) mg/cm 2 , p = 0.01) as measured by DXA. No other measurement in the tibia, radius, femoral neck, or lower spine was associated significantly with dairy product intake. Bone properties did not differ according to the type of dairy product consumed. No evidence of a negative association between dairy product consumption and bone health was found. Furthermore, total dairy product consumption was associated with

  8. Cellular responses to Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis in colostrum-deprived and colostrum-replete holstein calves supplemented with fat-soluble vitamins

    Immune benefits of colostrum are attributed to passively transferred IgG but also to growth factors, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and leukocytes. Non-nutritive compounds in colostrum promote Th2-biased immune responses to early microbial encounters and prevent harmful, inappropriate inflammat...

  9. Effects of irradiated sow colostrum on some biochemical and haematological measurements in newborn piglets

    Vellenga, L; Wensing, T; Breukink, H J; Hagens, F H

    1986-11-01

    Some biochemical and haematological variables were measured in piglets during the first 48 hours after birth. The piglets were reared either by the sow, or bottle-fed with colostrum (either natural or sterilised by irradiation), or a commercial milk replacer. Mean haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts decreased by approximately 45 per cent in all the groups between birth and 48 hours, but leucocyte counts increased more markedly in the colostrum-fed groups. All the colostrum-fed groups showed rapid increases in serum total protein concentrations which were almost entirely due to increases in gamma globulin concentrations. There was no difference in this respect between natural colostrum and colostrum sterilised by irradiation with 500 Krad of gamma rays. Colostrum sterilised by irradiation can protect piglets against infectious agents and simplify the rearing of piglets under specific pathogen free conditions.

  10. Methylmercury determination in fish and seafood products and estimated daily intake for the Spanish population.

    Sahuquillo, I; Lagarda, M J; Silvestre, M D; Farré, R

    2007-08-01

    The mercury content of 25 samples of fish and seafood products most frequently consumed in Spain was determined. A simple method comprising cold vapour and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine separately inorganic and organic mercury. In all samples inorganic mercury content was below 50 microg kg(-1). There was wide variability, among not only the mercury levels of different fish species, but also for different samples of the same species - with the methylmercury content ranging from below 54 to 662 microg kg(-1). The highest mean methylmercury content was found in fresh tuna. Based on an average total fish consumption of 363 g/person week(-1), the methylmercury intake was estimated to be 46.2 microg/person week(-1). Therefore, the mercury intake of Spanish people with a body weight Food Additives (JECFA) provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 1.6 microg kg(-1) body weight, but exceeds the US National Research Council (NRC) limit of 0.7 microg kg(-1) body weight week(-1) based on a benchmark dose.

  11. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  12. Doxorubicin-Induced Gut Toxicity in Piglets fed Bovine Milk and Colostrum

    Shen, René Liang; Rathe, Mathias; Jiang, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a milk diet containing bovine colostrum (BC) would reduce intestinal toxicity in doxorubicin-treated piglets. METHODS: Study 1 investigated intestinal parameters nine days after...... Colostrum supplementation had limited effects on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in milk-fed piglets suggesting that colostrum and a bovine milk diet enriched with whey protein provided similar...

  13. The impact of processing meat and fish products on phosphorus intake in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Gimeno-Orna, José A; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Alvarez-Lipe, Rafael; Sahdalá-Santana, Laura; Gracia-García, Olga; Luzón-Alonso, Marta

    2013-11-13

    The use of phosphate additives in meat and fish processing leads to a phosphorus overload that we cannot quantify through labelling or food composition tables. We analysed this increase by measuring phosphorus content in these products by spectrophotometry. We determined the phosphorus/protein ratio in fresh meat and fish products with varying degrees of processing by spectrophotometry (phosphorus) and the Kjeldahl method (proteins). We contrasted these results with those reflected in the food composition tables. The phosphorus/protein ratio was higher in processed meat products (15.83 mg/g) than in battered (11.04 mg/g) and frozen meat products (10.5mg/g), and was lower in fresh (8.41 mg/g) and refrigerated meat products (8.78 mg/g). Fresh white fish had a phosphorus/protein ratio of 8.58mg/g, while it increased by 22% (10.3mg/g) in frozen white fish and by 46% (12.54 mg/g) in battered fish. The information in the tables was poor and confusing, and no reference is made to the brands tested. Processing meat and fish products poses a serious obstacle to the reduction of phosphorus intake. The current regulatory framework does not assist us in the objective of reducing phosphorus additives, since it considers them safe for public consumption. Overcoming these barriers requires a coordinated effort to demonstrate that a high intake of these additives may be harmful to the general population and it should be more closely examined by regulators.

  14. Caseins from bovine colostrum and milk strongly bind piscidin-1, an antimicrobial peptide from fish.

    Kütt, Mary-Liis; Stagsted, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A model system of bovine colostrum and piscidin, a fish-derived antimicrobial peptide, was developed to study potential interactions of antimicrobial peptides in colostrum. We did not detect any antimicrobial activity of colostrum using the radial plate diffusion assay; in fact colostrum completely abrogated activity of added piscidin. This could not be explained by degradation of piscidin by colostrum, which was less than ten percent. We found that colostrum even protected piscidin against degradation by added proteases. We further observed that colostrum and milk rapidly quenched the fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin but not that of fluorescein. This effect was not seen with BSA and the specific quenching of fluorescein-piscidin by colostrum was saturably inhibited with unlabeled piscidin. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that fluorescein-piscidin bound to casein micelles with no apparent binding to IgG or whey proteins. Further, addition of pure caseins was able to quench fluorescence of fluorescein-piscidin and to inhibit the antimicrobial activity of piscidin. The interaction between caseins and piscidin could be dissociated by guanidine hydrochloride and recovered piscidin had antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Based on our results we propose that caseins could be carriers for antimicrobial peptides in colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  16. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  17. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  18. Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study

    Egeberg, R; Olsen, Anja Viendahl; Loft, S

    2010-01-01

    incident cases of rectal cancer that developed during 10.6 years (median) of follow-up among 26 630 men and 29 189 women taking part in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of colon and rectal cancer related to total or individual WG product intake were calculated using Cox......BACKGROUND: Consumption of wholegrain (WG) products may protect against colon and rectal cancer. METHODS: The associations between total and individual WG product consumption and colon and rectal cancer risk were prospectively examined using data on 461 incident cases of colon cancer and 283...... regression. RESULTS: Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77-0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50 g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined...

  19. Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Loft, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    No clear relationship between whole grain products and risk of breast cancer has been established. In a large prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by tumour receptor status [oestrogen receptor (ER......) and progesterone receptor (PR)] and tumour histology (ductal/lobular). It was further investigated whether the association differed by use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The study included 25,278 postmenopausal women participating in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study (1993-1997). During a mean...... follow-up time of 9.6 years, 978 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Associations between intake of whole grain products and the breast cancer rate were analysed using Cox's regression model. A higher intake of whole grain products was not associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Per an increment...

  20. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  1. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 μg/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 μg/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 μg/kg) and Cd (0.01 μg/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 μg/kg and 0.8-1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Tripathi, R.M.; Raghunath, R.; Sastry, V.N.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    1999-03-09

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 {mu}g/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 {mu}g/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 {mu}g/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 {mu}g/kg) and Cd (0.01 {mu}g/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 {mu}g/kg and 0.8-1.0 {mu}g/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Effect of IGF-rich colostrum on bowel adaptation in neonatal piglets with short bowel syndrome

    Heemskerk, V. H.; van Heurn, L. W. E.; Farla, P.; Buurman, W. A.; Piersma, F.; ter Riet, G.; Heineman, E.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide growth factor with mitogenic effects on intestinal epithelial crypt cells occurs naturally in high concentrations in colostrum. The hypothesis for this study was that colostrum rich in IGF-1 could promote small bowel adaptation in

  4. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters

    Meulen, van der J.; Kwakernaak, C.; Kan, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14¿32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems

  5. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    Struijk, E.A.; Heraclides, A.; Witte, D.R.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Toft, U.; Lau, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and

  6. An in vivo characterization of colostrum protein uptake in porcine gut during early lactation

    Danielsen, Marianne; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Bendixen, Emøke

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the bioactive roles of colostrum proteins has gained much attention, and in particular, their potential use in human and veterinary medicine has been extensively studied. However, studies of bioactivity have mainly been conducted in vitro, but it has not yet been well characterized...... at the individual protein level which colostrum components are internalized by the intestinal tissue of the neonate. The aim of this study was to characterize the in vivo processing of porcine colostrum in the gastrointestinal tract, and describe which of the potential bioactive proteins can be observed...... in the small intestinal tissue, and therefore may be functionally important. Using 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis we mapped the proteins in porcine colostrum. The colostrum proteins were then traced in the stomach content, as well as in the small intestinal tissue of 5 piglets suckled for 24 h. For comparison, we also...

  7. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  8. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-12-17

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait.

  9. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  10. Early provision of oropharyngeal colostrum leads to sustained breast milk feedings in preterm infants

    Ruth Snyder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal colostrum (OC application strategies have been shown to be feasible and safe for very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Evidence to support the nutritional and clinical advantages of OC care remains somewhat theoretical. The objectives of this study were to a confirm the feasibility and safety of OC application in preterm infants and b determine if OC application is associated with improved nutritional and clinical outcomes from birth to discharge. We hypothesized that OC application in the first few days would promote sustained breast milk feedings through discharge. Methods: An observational longitudinal study was conducted in 133 VLBW infants during 2013–14, after an OC protocol was adopted. Maternal and infant characteristics, infant vital signs during administration, nutritional outcomes, and common neonatal morbidities were assessed and compared to 85 age- and weight-matched VLBW infants from a retrospective control cohort from 2012, prior to the implementation of the OC protocol. Results: There were no adverse events or changes in vital signs during the application of OC. VLBW infants who received OC continued to receive the majority of their enteral feeds from human breast milk at six 6 of age and through discharge (p < 0.01. There was no difference in maternal characteristics known to affect breast milk production, and rates of common neonatal morbidities were statistically similar between groups. Conclusion: OC application for VLBW infants is safe and practical in a neonatal intensive care unit setting and is associated with increased rates of breast milk feeding. Key Words: oropharyngeal colostrum, infant nutrition, prematurity, neonatology

  11. Relation of Lycopene Intake and Consumption of Tomato Products to Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    Jacques, Paul F.; Lyass, Asya; Massaro, Joseph M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for cardioprotective effects of lycopene is inconsistent. Studies of circulating lycopene generally report inverse associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but studies based on lycopene intake do not. The failure of the dietary studies to support the findings based on biomarkers may be due in part to misclassification of lycopene intakes. To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterize the relation be...

  12. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  13. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  14. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children.

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort 'Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study'. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001-2007. One hundred and ten (age 3-10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content and cod liver/fish oil supplements.

  15. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2018-02-01

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of vitamin D

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of vitamin D and to provide, if necessary, revised Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) of vitamin D for all relevant population groups. The ULs...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg...

  18. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  19. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  20. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  1. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: A controlled dietary intervention study

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Brink, E.J.; Boetje, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bijlsma, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Veer, P.V.'.; Tomé, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Baak, M.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  2. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains : a controlled dietary intervention study

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Boetje, Martine; Siebelink, Els; Bijlsma, Sabina; Engberink, Marielle F.; van 't Veer, Pieter; Tome, Daniel; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  3. Use of FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Bovine Colostrum Analysis

    P. Navrátilová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transformation near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR in combination with partial least squares (PLS method were used to determine the content of total solids, fat, non-fatty solids, lactose and proteins in bovine colostrum. Spectra of 90 samples were measured in the reflectance mode with a transflectance cuvette in the 10000-4000 cm-1 spectral ranges with 100 scans. Calibration was performed and statistical values of correlation coefficients (R and standard error of calibration values (SEC were computed for total solids (0.986 and 0.919, respectively, fat (0.997 and 0.285, respectively, non-fatty solids (0.995 and 0.451, respectively, lactose (0.934 and 0.285, respectively and protein (0.999 and 0.149, respectively. The calibration models developed were verified by cross validation. It follows from the study that FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used to determine the components of bovine colostrum.

  4. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  5. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  6. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  7. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    Appukutty Mahenderan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.

  8. UDP ratios on intake and milk production efficiency in Saanen ewes

    Unknown

    Feed intake was significantly influenced by the RDP: UDP ratio and the LD diet achieved a higher feed intake than the MD and HD diets. The HD diet has a better feed conversion efficiency largely due to a better utilisation of body reserves to complement available protein (Change in body Weight, Table 1). The milk ...

  9. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production.

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R

    2011-07-01

    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of refractometry for assessing bovine colostrum quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Buczinski, S; Vandeweerd, J M

    2016-09-01

    Provision of good quality colostrum [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration ≥50g/L] is the first step toward ensuring proper passive transfer of immunity for young calves. Precise quantification of colostrum IgG levels cannot be easily performed on the farm. Assessment of the refractive index using a Brix scale with a refractometer has been described as being highly correlated with IgG concentration in colostrum. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Brix refractometry to diagnose good quality colostrum. From 101 references initially obtain ed, 11 were included in the systematic review meta-analysis representing 4,251 colostrum samples. The prevalence of good colostrum samples with IgG ≥50g/L varied from 67.3 to 92.3% (median 77.9%). Specific estimates of accuracy [sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)] were obtained for different reported cut-points using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve model. For the cut-point of 22% (n=8 studies), Se=80.2% (95% CI: 71.1-87.0%) and Sp=82.6% (71.4-90.0%). Decreasing the cut-point to 18% increased Se [96.1% (91.8-98.2%)] and decreased Sp [54.5% (26.9-79.6%)]. Modeling the effect of these Brix accuracy estimates using a stochastic simulation and Bayes theorem showed that a positive result with the 22% Brix cut-point can be used to diagnose good quality colostrum (posttest probability of a good colostrum: 94.3% (90.7-96.9%). The posttest probability of good colostrum with a Brix value <18% was only 22.7% (12.3-39.2%). Based on this study, the 2 cut-points could be alternatively used to select good quality colostrum (sample with Brix ≥22%) or to discard poor quality colostrum (sample with Brix <18%). When sample results are between these 2 values, colostrum supplementation should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Imunidade passiva, ingestão de colostro e mortalidade em cabritos Moxotó criados em sistemas extensivo e intensivo Passive immunity, colostrum ingestion, and mortality of Moxotó kids raised under extensive and intensive breeding systems

    C.M. Soares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dosou-se a proteína sérica total para avaliar a aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos Moxotó. Para tal, formaram-se quatro grupos experimentais, sendo dois sistemas de criação, extensivo e intensivo, e dois manejos de colostro, ingestão natural e artificial. Tanto no sistema intensivo quanto no extensivo, os teores de proteína no soro foram significativamente mais altos nos animais com ingestão natural de colostro, 7,11±0,2g/dL, do que nos com ingestão artificial, 6,35±0,17g/dL. Independentemente da forma de ingestão de colostro, os cabritos do sistema intensivo tiveram teores de proteína sérica total, 7,21±0,19g/dL, mais elevados que os do sistema extensivo, 6,25±0,18g/dL, no entanto a imunidade passiva foi satisfatória nos dois grupos de animais. Ocorreu alta mortalidade de crias no sistema extensivo, 37%, devido ao complexo hipotermia/inanição em decorrência dos baixos níveis de colostro ingeridos. No sistema intensivo de criação não ocorreu mortalidade de cabritos. A produção de colostro das cabras criadas intensivamente, 163,5±14,71mL, foi mais alta que das cabras criadas extensivamente, 53,75±19,12mL. O peso total dos cabritos foi semelhante nos dois sistemas de criação, 2881±252,78g no sistema extensivo, e 2297±194,59g no sistema intensivo. Conclui-se que a ingestão de colostro nos dois sistemas de produção permitiu adequada aquisição de imunidade em cabritos, porém o sistema extensivo determinou severa deficiência nutricional nas mães, com baixa produção de colostro e graves perdas de neonatos.The acquisition of passive immunity in Moxotó kids was determined by dosages of total serum proteins. Four experimental groups were formed in two breeding systems - extensive and intensive - and two managements of colostrum intake - suckling from the mother or supplying in bottles. In both breeding systems, the serum protein levels were significantly higher in kids with natural ingestion of

  12. Estimation of effective dose from the atmospheric nuclear tests due to the intake of marine products

    Nakano, Masanao

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to understand long-term risk of nuclear energy. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop sustainable nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl of Radionuclides in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection-diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was from one third to two thirds of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. It means that probabilistic assessment can contribute to the design and optimisation of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  13. Oral Colostrum Macrophage-activating Factor for Serious Infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Three Case Reports.

    Inui, Toshio; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Sakamoto, Norihiro; Mette, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades. Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy. Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects. We demonstrate that colostrum MAF shows promising clinical results in patients with infectious diseases and for symptoms of fatigue, which is common in many chronic diseases. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  15. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

    Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Paweł; Pięt, Małgorzata; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Wilczak, Maciej; Rzymski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L -1 ), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L -1 ), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L -1 ), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L -1 ) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L -1 . Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.

  17. Bacteriological, biochemical, and immunological modifications in human colostrum after Holder pasteurisation.

    Espinosa-Martos, I; Montilla, A; de Segura, A Gómez; Escuder, D; Bustos, G; Pallás, C; Rodríguez, J M; Corzo, N; Fernández, L

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Holder pasteurisation of human colostrum on a variety of microbiological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. Colostrum samples from 10 donors, and 8 samples of mature milk used as controls, were heated at 62.5°C for 30 minutes. Bacterial counts and the concentration of furosine, lactose, myoinositol, glucose, lactulose, cytokines, and immunoglobulins were determined before and after the heat treatment. Mean bacterial counts in nonpasteurised colostrum samples oscillated between 2.72 and 4.13 log10 colony-forming units per millilitre in the agar media tested. Holder pasteurisation led to the destruction of the bacteria originally present in the samples. Furosine was detected in all samples before pasteurisation and increased significantly after the heat treatment (from 6.60 to 20.59 mg/100 g protein). Lactulose content was below the detection limit in nonpasteurised colostrum, but it was detected in all samples and quantified in 7 of them (from 10.68 to 38.02 mg/L) after Holder pasteurisation. Lactose, glucose, and myoinositol concentrations did not change after Holder pasteurisation. The concentrations of most cytokines and immunoglobulins were significantly higher in colostrum than in mature milk samples. Immunoglobulin content, both in colostrum and in milk samples, was reduced during pasteurisation, whereas, among cytokines, only macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, interleukin-7, and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor concentrations were affected by this heat treatment. Lactulose and furosine content could be used as heat treatment indicators in colostrum samples. Holder pasteurisation modified the immunological profile of both colostrum and mature milk.

  18. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Griffiths, Katharine; Rong, Hou; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard; Loeffler, I.Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over a...

  19. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO 2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO 2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO 2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO 2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO 2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO 2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO 2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO 2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  20. Comparative proteomic exploration of whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS.

    Yang, Mei; Cao, Xueyan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing; Wu, Junrui

    2017-09-01

    Whey, an essential source of dietary nutrients, is widely used in dairy foods for infants. A total of 584 whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic method. The 424 differentially expressed whey proteins were identified and analyzed according to gene ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway, and multivariate statistical analysis. Biological processes principally involved biological regulation and response to stimulus. Major cellular components were extracellular region part and extracellular space. The most prevalent molecular function was protein binding. Twenty immune-related proteins and 13 proteins related to enzyme regulatory activity were differentially expressed in human and bovine milk. Differentially expressed whey proteins participated in many KEGG pathways, including major complement and coagulation cascades and in phagosomes. Whey proteins show obvious differences in expression in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, with consequences for biological function. The results here increase our understanding of different whey proteomes, which could provide useful information for the development and manufacture of dairy products and nutrient food for infants. The advanced iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to analyze differentially expressed whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.

  1. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  2. Identification of factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes assessed with the Brix refractometer.

    Torres-Rovira, Laura; Pesantez-Pacheco, Jose-Luis; Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira-Partida, Laura; Perez-Solana, Maria-Luz; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84-132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23-214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9-88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011-2013, n = 142-203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.

  3. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle.

    Bielmann, V; Gillan, J; Perkins, N R; Skidmore, A L; Godden, S; Leslie, K E

    2010-08-01

    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed. The aims of this study were to evaluate both optical and digital Brix refractometer instruments for the measurement of Ig concentration of colostrum as compared with the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay laboratory assessment and to determine the correlation between Ig measurements taken from fresh and frozen colostrum samples for both Brix refractometer instruments. This research was completed using 288 colostrum samples from 3 different farms. It was concluded that the optical and digital Brix refractometers were highly correlated for both fresh and frozen samples (r=0.98 and r=0.97, respectively). Correlation between both refractometer instruments for fresh and frozen samples and the gold standard radial immunodiffusion assay were determined to be very similar, with a correlation coefficient between 0.71 and 0.74. Both instruments exhibited excellent test characteristics, indicating an appropriate cut-off point of 22% Brix score for the identification of good quality colostrum. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumption of homegrown products does not increase dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by young children living in an industrialized area of Germany

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Juergen; Schrey, Petra; Hilbig, Annett; Kersting, Mathilde

    2005-01-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) was studied among young German children with different food consumption behaviour (consumption of own grown foodstuffs and of products from the supermarket). The study area comprised an industrialized and a rural area of West Germany. Dietary intake of contaminants was measured by the duplicate method according to the WHO guideline. A total 588 duplicate portions were collected daily from 84 individuals between May and September 1998. Intake of food groups was calculated from dietary records. Determination of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb was performed following high-pressure digestion of lyophilized samples by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Geometric mean weekly intake [μg/(kg bw .week)] was as follows: As 1.4, Cd 2.3, Hg 0.16, and Pb 5.3. Geometric mean intake corresponded to the percentage of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) as follows: As 9.7%, Cd 32%, Hg 3.3%, Pb 21%. As and Hg intake were mainly influenced by fish consumption. The amount of cereals and bakery wares mainly determined the Cd and Pb intake. Children living in the industrialized area with a substantial food consumption of own grown vegetables or products from domestic animals products had no increased dietary intake of the metals

  5. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  6. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration of multiparous Jersey cows at first and second milking is associated with parity, colostrum yield, and time of first milking, and can be estimated with Brix refractometry.

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Rolle, D; García-Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Jiménez, S; Valldecabres, A; Lago, A; Pandey, P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration with Brix refractometry and frozen samples by radial immunodiffusion. A total of 90.4 and 42.7% of the samples from first and second milking met industry standards of quality for IgG concentration (>50 g/L). Second and third lactation cows had similar colostrum IgG concentration but lower than cows on their fourth and greater lactation. At second milking, 56.4% of cows on their fourth or greater lactation had colostrum IgG concentrations >50 g/L. When colostrum yield increased from low (6 kg), IgG concentration decreased. Higher IgG concentration was observed on colostrum harvested at 50 IgG g/L was 20.9% based on logit equations with Youden's index criterion and 18.0% based on accuracy criterion. For colostrum harvested at second milking, similar Brix thresholds were obtained, 19.2 and 19.0%, regardless of whether Youden's index or accuracy was used as the selection criterion. Our results indicate that the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking relative to calving are associated with IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows. Second milking colostrum from mature Jersey cows should be evaluated to extend colostrum supply on dairies especially during times of shortage. Readings of %Brix can be used to rapidly estimate IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum harvested at first and second milking

  7. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  9. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  10. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. Detecting animal by-product intake using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    da Silva, D A F; Biscola, N P; Dos Santos, L D; Sartori, M M P; Denadai, J C; da Silva, E T; Ducatti, C; Bicudo, S D; Barraviera, B; Ferreira, R S

    2016-11-01

    Sheep are used in many countries as food and for manufacturing bioproducts. However, when these animals consume animal by-products (ABP), which is widely prohibited, there is a risk of transmitting scrapie - a fatal prion disease in human beings. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive methods to detect previous ABP intake to select safe animals for producing biopharmaceuticals. We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for 13 C and 15 N to trace animal proteins in the serum of three groups of sheep: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) for 89 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR). Groups 2 and 3 received diets with 30% bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) added to a vegetable diet (from days 16-89 in the AVP group and until day 49 in the AVPR group, when MBM was removed). The AVPR group showed 15 N equilibrium 5 days after MBM removal (54th day). Conversely, 15 N equilibrium in the AVP group occurred 22 days later (76th day). The half-life differed between these groups by 3.55 days. In the AVPR group, 15 N elimination required 53 days, which was similar to this isotope's incorporation time. Turnover was determined based on natural 15 N signatures. IRMS followed by turnover calculations was used to evaluate the time period for the incorporation and elimination of animal protein in sheep serum. The δ 13 C and δ 15 N values were used to track animal protein in the diet. This method is biologically and economically relevant for the veterinary field because it can track protein over time or make a point assessment of animal feed with high sensitivity and resolution, providing a low-cost analysis coupled with fast detection. Isotopic profiles could be measured throughout the experimental period, demonstrating the potential to use the method for traceability and certification assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Joint analysis of longitudinal feed intake and single recorded production traits in pigs using a novel horizontal model

    Shirali, M.; Strathe, A. B.; Mark, T.

    2017-01-01

    - and first-order Legendre polynomials of age on test, respectively. The fixed effect and random residual variance were estimated for each weekly FI trait. Residual feed intake (RFI) was derived from the conditional distribution of FI given the breeding values of ADG100 and LMP. The heritability of FI varied......A novel Horizontal model is presented for multitrait analysis of longitudinal traits through random regression analysis combined with single recorded traits. Weekly ADFI on test for Danish Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire boars were available from the national test station and were collected from 30...... to 100 kg BW. Single recorded production traits of ADG from birth to 30 kg BW (ADG30), ADG from 30 to 100 kg BW (ADG100), and lean meat percentage (LMP) were available from breeding herds or the national test station. The Horizontal model combined random regression analysis of feed intake (FI...

  14. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  15. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  16. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum.

    Grilo, Evellyn C; Lima, Mayara S R; Cunha, Lahyana R F; Gurgel, Cristiane S S; Clemente, Heleni A; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2) μg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9) μg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7) μg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05), showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2) μg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3) μg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05), representing an increase of 14.7%. This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  18. The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study

    Sluijs, van der I.; Forouhi, N.G.; Beulens, J.W.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. Objective: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different

  19. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are

  1. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energ...... silage aNDFom digestibility improved daily milk yield with 82 g (P = 0.04) and daily weight gain with 12 g (P = 0.03). Therefore, aNDFom digestibility is an important trait in maize used as whole crop silage for dairy cows.......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...

  2. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  3. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability

    Grant D. Brinkworth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP or control (CON. Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L and rhamnose (R excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140% compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05 and CON (−7 ± 13%, P < 0.02. The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults.

  5. Reduction in heat-induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability in rats by bovine colostrum and goat milk powders.

    Prosser, C; Stelwagen, K; Cummins, R; Guerin, P; Gill, N; Milne, C

    2004-02-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three dietary groups [standard diet (Cont; n = 8), standard diet plus bovine colostrum powder (BColost 1.7 g/kg; n = 8), or goat milk powder (GMilk 1.7 g/kg; n = 8)] to determine the ability of these supplements to reduce gastrointestinal hyperpermeability induced by heat. Raising core body temperature of rats to 41.5 degrees C increased transfer of (51)Cr-EDTA from gut into blood 34-fold relative to the ambient temperature value (P transferred into the blood of rats in either the BColost (27% of Cont) or GMilk group (10% of Cont) after heating, showing that prior supplementation with either bovine colostrum or goat milk powder significantly reduced the impact of heat stress on gastrointestinal permeability. The changes in the BColost group were not significantly different than those of the GMilk group. The potential mechanism of the protective effect of bovine colostrum and goat milk powders may involve modulation of tight junction permeability, because both powders were able to maintain transepithelial resistance in Madin Darby canine kidney cells challenged with EGTA compared with cells maintained in media only. The results show that bovine colostrum powder can partially alleviate the effects of hyperthermia on gastrointestinal permeability in the intact animal. Moreover, goat milk powder was equally as effective as bovine colostrum powder, and both may be of benefit in other situations where gastrointestinal barrier function is compromised.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan.

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Esaki, Hidetake; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Masahiko; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in bovine colostrum in Japan. We collected bovine colostrum samples from 210 dams from 21 dairy farms in Hokkaido prefecture (Japan) between March and June 2009. L. monocytogenes was detected in samples from 6 (28.6%) of the 21 farms. Of the 210 samples, 16 (7.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. We recovered 80 L. monocytogenes isolates; 44 (55%) isolates were classified as serotype 1/2b and 36 (45%) were classified as serotype 4b. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of the 80 isolates revealed six PFGE types. Two PFGE types corresponded to human listeriosis cases. Most L. monocytogenes isolates possessed virulence-associated genes (actA, hly, iap, inlA, inlC, mpl, plcA, plcB, opuCA, prfA, and clpC). One PFGE type isolate possessed an epidemic clone II marker. Our findings suggest that isolates from bovine colostrum have the potential to cause human and animal listeriosis. This is the first study on the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from bovine colostrum obtained from dairy farms. Our results have important implications for improving public health and elucidating the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in bovine colostrum.

  7. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  8. Correlation between parity and concentration of immunoglobulins A, G and M in human colostrum

    Gabriel André João Striker

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between parity andimmunoglobulin concentrations in human colostrum. Methods:82 puerperas aged 21-41 years were selected, with gestationalage ≥ 37 weeks, up to the fourth parity, good nutritional status andno gestational or puerperal diseases. The inclusion criteria for thenewborn were: weight > 2,500 g, Apgar score > 7 in the firstminute and exclusive maternal breastfeeding until discharge fromthe nursery. The mothers were divided into 2 groups: A -primiparous, B - multiparous. Colostrum was collected manuallyfrom 48 to 72 hours after delivery and the immunoglobulins weremeasured by ELISA technique. Results: No differences wereobserved regarding timing to collect colostrum; the earliercolostrum was collected, the higher the concentration of immunoglobulinA; primiparous women showed higher concentrations of IgA andIgM in their colostrum than multiparous women; there were nodifferences regarding IgG concentrations in the two groups.Conclusion: Primiparous women presented higher concentrationsof IgA and IgM in their colostrum than multiparous women.

  9. The Inhibition Effect of Cell DNA Oxidative Damage and LDL Oxidation by Bovine Colostrums

    Chih-Wei Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effect of bovine colostrums on inhibition of DNA oxidative damage and low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in vitro. Results showed that whey and skimmed milk exhibited not only higher inhibitory activities of oxidative damage of deoxyribose but also an inhibitory effect on the breakdown of supercoiled DNA into open circular DNA and linear DNA. The quantities of 8-OH-2′-dG formed under whey, caseins and skimmed milk treatment were 0.24, 0.24 and 1.24 μg/mL, respectively. The quantity of malondialdehyde formed through LDL oxidation induced by copprous ion was significantly decreased as colostrums protein solutions were added, in which whey and caseins led to a more significant decrease than skimmed milk. The formation of conjugated dienes could be inhibited by treatment with colostrums protein solutions. Whey exhibited the longest lag time of conjugated dienes formation among the colostrums proteins. The lag time of the whey was 2.33 times that of the control. From the results of foregoing, the bovine colostrums protein has potential value in the inhibition of DNA oxidation damage and LDL oxidation.

  10. Relationship Between Iodine Concentration in Maternal Colostrum and Neurobehavioral Development of Infants in Shanghai, China.

    Wu, Meiqin; Wu, Deqing; Wu, Wei; Li, Hui; Cao, Lulu; Xu, Jian; Yu, Xiaodan; Bian, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chonghuai; Wang, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that iodine plays an important role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. However, iodine concentration in the colostrum and its association with the neurobehavioral development of infants remains unclear. Colostrums from 150 women were collected, and their iodine concentrations were measured. The median colostrum iodine level was 187.8 μg/L. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III test was performed when the infants were about 18 months. The mean cognitive, language, and motor composite scores were 105.3 ± 9.8, 105.2 ± 11.1, and 104.6 ± 6.7, respectively. And the mean scores of the 5 subtests were 11.1 ± 2.0, 9.3 ± 2.0, 12.4 ± 2.3, 11.1 ± 1.2, and 10.4 ± 1.2, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in the cognition, language, or motor development of infants across different levels of colostrum iodine. After adjusting for a range of confounding factors, colostrum iodine concentration was a predictor of motor development, specifically gross motor development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors: A twin study.

    Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Gamma delta T cells are early responders to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in colostrum-replete Holstein calves

    Peripheral blood mononuclear and mesenteric lymph node cells (PBMC and MNL, respectively) were obtained from 30 calves that were assigned randomly at birth to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitam...

  13. Calcium intake and osteoporosis: the influence of calcium intake from dairy products on hip bone mineral density and fracture incidence - a population-based study in women over 55 years of age.

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Kołota, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and is most frequently observed in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present population-based cohort study was to assess the influence of Ca intake from dairy sources on hip bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence in a group of Polish women over 55 years of age. The main outcome measures included: bone mineral density, the number of previous fractures and the reported Ca intake from dairy sources, assessed by a diet questionnaire. The RAC-OST-POL Study was conducted in the District of Raciborz in the south of Poland. The study was carried out in a group of 625 women, randomly recruited from the general population of women aged >55 years. Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with femoral neck T-score ≤-2·5 than in the group with T-score >-2·5 (275 v. 383 mg/d; P = 0·0019). For total hip score, the difference was close to borderline significance (P = 0·0698). Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with previous fractures than in those without fracture history (336 v. 395 mg/d; P = 0·0254). The main dairy source of Ca in the analysed group included milk drinks, rennet cheese and milk. Higher dairy Ca intake is recommended, since a number of the women analysed were unable to satisfy their Ca requirement exclusively from their diet.

  14. Fermented Soy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with the Development of High Blood Pressure: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Nozue, Miho; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Charvat, Hadrien; Mori, Nagisa; Mutoh, Michihiro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Inoue, Manami; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-09-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies have investigated the short-term effect of soy product intake on blood pressure (BP) in normotensive people. To our knowledge, no prospective studies exist on the effect of habitual intake of fermented soy products, separate from total soy products, on BP in the general population. Objective: We examined the association between the habitual intake of soy products, including fermented soy products, and the development of high BP during a 5-y period among participants in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods: The study included normotensive participants aged 40-69 y at baseline (926 men and 3239 women) who completed 2 questionnaires and whose BP was measured at the baseline survey between 1993 and 1994 and the 5-y follow-up in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II. The intake of soy products was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication use. ORs and 95% CIs of high BP by frequency of soy products (miso, natto, and tofu) consumption, intake of total and fermented soy products, and intake of isoflavones from total and fermented soy products were estimated with the use of multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Multivariable-adjusted ORs of high BP for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of total and fermented soy product intake were 1.03 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.25; P -trend = 0.786) and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.92; P -trend = 0.009), respectively. The frequency of nonfermented soy product (tofu) intake was not associated with the development of high BP ( P -trend = 0.597). Conclusions: The intake of fermented soy products, but not total or nonfermented soy products, was inversely associated with developing high BP in men and women with normal BP. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  16. Amniotic fluid and colostrum as potential diets in the critical care of preterm infants

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Viberg Østergaard, Mette; Torp Sangild, Per

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid is the enteral “diet” of the developing fetus, while the first mammary gland secretion, colostrum, is the natural diet of the newborn mammal. Both diets contain nutrients but also growth factors, immune-modulating components, and antibacterial agents that support perinatal organ...... development, particularly of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Birth requires a sudden transition to nutrient uptake via the GI tract and exposure to microorganisms. Ingestion of amniotic fluid before birth and of colostrum just after birth helps to adapt GI functions and provides protection against...... and colostrum, and we describe how these fluids may have a therapeutic potential for GI conditions in some pediatric patients, particularly preterm infants. The composition of the two fluids varies widely among different species and the effects are likely highly species specific. Some effects may however...

  17. Effect of time of maize silage supplementation on herbage intake, milk production, and nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.

    Al-Marashdeh, O; Gregorini, P; Edwards, G R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maize silage at different times before a short grazing bout on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and N excretion of dairy cows. Thirty-six Friesian × Jersey crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked in 9groups of 4 cows by milk solids (sum of protein and fat) production (1.26±0.25kg/d), body weight (466±65kg), body condition score (4±0.48), and days in milk (197±15). Groups were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicates of 3 treatments: control; herbage only, supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage after morning milking approximately 9h before pasture allocation (9BH); and supplemented with 3kg of DM/cow of maize silage before afternoon milking approximately 2h before pasture allocation (2BH). Herbage allowance (above the ground level) was 22kg of DM/cow per day for all groups of cows. Cows were allocated to pasture from 1530 to 2030 h. Maize silage DM intake did not differ between treatments, averaging 3kg of DM/cow per day. Herbage DM intake was greater for control than 2BH and 9BH, and greater for 9BH than 2BH (11.1, 10.1, and 10.9kg of DM/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). The substitution rate (kilograms of herbage DM per kilograms of maize silage DM) was greater for 2BH (0.47) than 9BH (0.19). Milk solids production was similar between treatments (overall mean 1.2kg/cow per day). Body weight loss tended to be less for supplemented than control cows (-0.95, -0.44, and -0.58kg/cow per day for control, 2BH, and 9BH, respectively). Nitrogen concentration in urine was not affected by supplementation or time of supplementation, but estimated urinary N excretion tended to be greater for control than supplemented cows when urinary N excretion estimated using plasma or milk urea N. At the time of herbage meal, nonesterified fatty acid concentration was greater for control than supplemented cows and greater for 9BH than 2BH (0.58, 0.14, and 0.26mmol/L for

  18. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  19. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation in older adults during resistance training.

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Rooke, Julianne J; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Krentz, Joel R; Haines, Deborah M

    2014-06-01

    Bovine colostrum is the first milk secreted by cows after parturition and has high levels of protein, immunoglobulins, and various growth factors. We determined the effects of 8 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation versus whey protein during resistance training in older adults. Males (N = 15, 59.1 ± 5.4 y) and females (N = 25, 59.0 ± 6.7 y) randomly received (double-blind) 60 g/d of colostrum or whey protein complex (containing 38 g protein) while participating in a resistance training program (12 exercises, 3 sets of 8-12 reps, 3 days/ week). Strength (bench press and leg press 1-RM), body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), muscle thickness of the biceps and quadriceps (by ultrasound), cognitive function (by questionnaire), plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP, as a marker of inflammation), and urinary N-telopeptides (Ntx, a marker of bone resorption) were determined before and after the intervention. Participants on colostrum increased leg press strength (24 ± 29 kg; p < .01) to a greater extent than participants on whey protein (8 ± 16 kg) and had a greater reduction in Ntx compared with participants on whey protein (-15 ± 40% vs. 10 ± 42%; p < .05). Bench press strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, bone mineral content, and cognitive scores increased over time (p < .05) with no difference between groups. There were no changes in IGF-1 or CRP. Colostrum supplementation during resistance training was beneficial for increasing leg press strength and reducing bone resorption in older adults. Both colostrum and whey protein groups improved upper body strength, muscle thickness, lean tissue mass, and cognitive function.

  20. Analysis of ovine colostrum to detect antibody against progressive pneumonia virus.

    Taylor, T B; Banowetz, G M; Schipper, I A; Gabrielson, D A

    1982-01-01

    Immunoglobulins were isolated and purified from the colostrum and serum of progressive pneumonia virus infected sheep and also from non-infected control sheep. Four classes of immunoglobulins were isolated from sheep colostrum (IgG1, IgG2, IgA and Ig10s). Three classes of immunoglobulins were isolated from sheep serum (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM). Low levels of virus neutralizing activity were demonstrated only in the whole serum and purified serum IgG1 preparations. No complement fixing activity was...

  1. Influence of preservation methods on the quality of colostrum sourced from New Zealand dairy farms.

    Denholm, K S; Hunnam, J C; Cuttance, E L; McDougall, S

    2017-09-01

    To assess the effect of two temperatures (ambient temperature and 4°C), three preservation methods (no preservative, yoghurt and potassium sorbate), and two periods of storage (3 and 7 days) on Brix and total bacterial and coliform counts of colostrum collected from New Zealand dairy farms. One litre of colostrum destined to be fed to newborn calves was collected from 55 New Zealand dairy farms in the spring of 2015. Six aliquots of 150 mL were obtained from each colostrum sample, with two aliquots left untreated, two treated with potassium sorbate and two with yoghurt, and one of each pair of aliquots stored at ambient temperature and the other at 4°C. All samples were tested for Brix, total bacterial counts and coliform counts before treatment (Day 0), and after 3 and 7 days of storage. The effect of preservation method and storage temperature on the change in Brix, bacterial and coliform counts after 3 or 7 days of storage was analysed using multivariable random effects models. For all outcome variables there was a temperature by preservation interaction. For aliquots preserved with potassium sorbate, changes in Brix and bacterial counts did not differ between aliquots stored at ambient temperature or 4°C, but for aliquots preserved with yoghurt or no preservative the decrease in Brix and increase in bacterial counts was greater for aliquots stored at ambient temperature than 4°C (p<0.001). For aliquots preserved with potassium sorbate, coliform counts decreased at both temperatures, but for aliquots preserved with yoghurt or no preservative coliform counts increased for aliquots stored at 4°C, but generally decreased at ambient temperatures (p<0.001). There was also an interaction between duration of storage and temperature for bacterial counts (p<0.001). The difference in the increase in bacterial counts between aliquots stored at 4°C and ambient temperature after 3 days was greater than between aliquots stored at 4°C and ambient temperature after 7

  2. Complete amino acid sequence of bovine colostrum low-Mr cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    Hirado, M; Tsunasawa, S; Sakiyama, F; Niinobe, M; Fujii, S

    1985-07-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of bovine colostrum cysteine proteinase inhibitor was determined by sequencing native inhibitor and peptides obtained by cyanogen bromide degradation, Achromobacter lysylendopeptidase digestion and partial acid hydrolysis of reduced and S-carboxymethylated protein. Achromobacter peptidase digestion was successfully used to isolate two disulfide-containing peptides. The inhibitor consists of 112 amino acids with an Mr of 12787. Two disulfide bonds were established between Cys 66 and Cys 77 and between Cys 90 and Cys 110. A high degree of homology in the sequence was found between the colostrum inhibitor and human gamma-trace, human salivary acidic protein and chicken egg-white cystatin.

  3. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  4. Associations between management practices and colostrum quality on New Zealand dairy farms.

    Denholm, K S; Hunnam, J C; Cuttance, E L; McDougall, S

    2017-09-01

    To describe colostrum quality in spring-calving dairy herds in New Zealand, in terms of Brix, pH and total and coliform bacterial counts and to investigate associations between farm management practices and these measures of colostrum quality. In June 2015, commercial dairy farms (n=105), located in North and South Islands of New Zealand, were visited shortly after the first cows had calved, and when approximately 50% and 80% of the herd had calved (early, middle and late visits). One litre of pooled colostrum that was being fed to newborn calves was collected at each visit and used to determine Brix, pH, total bacterial and coliform counts. A survey of calf management practices was conducted with the herd manager or calf rearer after the final visit. Of 298 pooled colostrum samples tested 29/298 (9.7%) had Brix >22%. Brix was higher on farms where calves were picked up twice daily compared with once daily (18.2 (95% CI=16.5-19.9)% vs. 15.9% (95% CI=15.2-16.6)%; p=0.012), and was lower where first milking colostrum was combined with colostrum obtained at later milkings (15.0 (95% CI=13.9-16.1)%) compared with where it was not (16.9 (95% CI=16.3-17.6)%; p=0.002). Vaccination of all cows against calf diarrhoeal pathogens was associated with increased Brix compared with no vaccination (18.1 (95% CI=16.6-19.6)% vs. 16.3 (95% CI=15.6-17.0)%; p=0.033). Mean pH of samples tested decreased from 5.97 (95% CI=5.84-6.09) to 5.58 (95% CI=5.45-5.71) for early and late-season visits, respectively (p<0.001). Of 268 samples tested, 23 (8.6%) had bacterial counts below the recommended threshold of 1.00×10 5 cfu/mL. Mean bacterial counts increased from 2.75 (95% CI=1.80-3.70)×10 8 to 4.99 (95% CI=3.95-6.03)×10 8 cfu/mL for early and late-season visits, respectively (p<0.001). Of 259 samples tested, 23 (8.9%) had coliform counts below the recommended threshold of 1.00×10 4 cfu/mL. On a large majority of dairy farms included in this study the pooled colostrum fed to newborn calves

  5. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements

  6. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  7. Factors associated with colostrum quality in individual cows from dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

    Denholm, K S; McDougall, S; Chambers, G; Clough, W

    2018-05-01

    To examine associations between various cow-level factors and quality of first-milking colostrum (measured as Brix), and to evaluate herd-level associations between vaccination against calf diarrhoea and colostrum quality, in cows from dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand. A single colostrum sample was collected, by complete udder evacuation, from each of 20 cows from 29 dairy herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand during the 2016 spring calving period. Vaccination pre-partum with a calf diarrhoea vaccine was used in 15 herds. Each colostrum sample was tested using a digital Brix refractometer. The body condition score of each cow was recorded at the time of sample collection and farmers provided records of clinical mastitis and facial eczema from the previous 12 months, as well as the age and breed of cows. Associations between cow-level variables in non-vaccinated herds and Brix were examined using a multivariable linear mixed model and estimated marginal means obtained for different categories. Mean Brix of 281 samples from cows in non-vaccinated herds was 18.7 (SD 0.26)%; 63/281 (22.4%) samples had Brix ≥22% and 152/281 (54.1%) had Brix ≥18%. Mean Brix of colostrum samples from cows aged ≥6 years (20.2 (95% CI=19.1-21.2)%) was higher than for samples from 2-year-old cows (18.6 (95% CI=17.3-19.9)%) (p=0.005). Colostrum that was collected at the first milking on the day of calving had higher Brix (20.0 (95% CI=19.1-20.9)%) than colostrum collected from cows that calved the previous day (17.5 (95% CI=16.5-18.4)%) (p<0.001). Mean Brix of colostrum samples from cows which produced ≥8 L (18.2 (95% CI=17.1-19.2)%) tended to be lower than from cows which produced <8 L first-milking colostrum (19.1 (95% CI=18.3-20.0)%) (p=0.08). Among vaccinating herds, 9/15 (60%) had ≥60% colostrum samples with Brix ≥18% compared with 4/14 (29%) of non-vaccinating herds (p=0.04). Colostrum quality, as measured by Brix, was associated with the total

  8. Protein-enriched 'regular products' and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial

    Stelten, S.; Dekker, I.M.; Ronday, E.M.; Thijs, A.; Boelsma, E.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies have

  9. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6-7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality.

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel

    2003-03-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (Pbakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, Pbakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt.

  10. The use of bovine colostrum as a source of immunoglobulin (Ig) for ...

    The mean serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations of both groups of lambs were determined at 6hr intervals during the first 48 hrs of life, using a pocket refractometer. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in Ig levels between the bovine colostrum-fed lambs (21.01 zst units) and the normally suckled lambs (18.26 ...

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterisation of an ELISA detecting immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine colostrum

    Zervens, Lisa Marie-Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    Although colostrum has been used to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in cattle, confounding, non-specific reactions can be a problem. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of non-specific ELISA reactions in samples...

  13. Maternal supplementation with natural or synthetic vitamin E and its levels in human colostrum.

    Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.

  14. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding. Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable. Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%. Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  15. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  16. Spray Dried, Pasteurised Bovine Colostrum Protects Against Gut Dysfunction and Inflammation in Preterm Pigs

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Sangild, Per T.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Feeding bovine colostrum (BC) improves gut maturation and function, and protects against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), relative to formula in newborn preterm pigs. Before BC can be used for preterm infants, it is important to test if the milk processing, required to reduce bacterial...

  17. Bovine Colostrum For Preterm Infants in the First Days of Life

    Juhl, Sandra Meinich; Ye, Xuqiang; Zhou, Ping

    2018-01-01

    colostrum (BC), the first milk from cows, as a supplement to MM, during the first weeks after preterm birth. METHODS: In an open-label, randomized, controlled pilot safety trial, supplementation of MM with BC was compared with DM supplementation (Danish unit) or IF supplementation (Chinese unit). If MM...

  18. Recovery and Identification of Bovine Colostrum Microflora Using Traditional and Molecular Approaches

    Erasmo Neviani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colostrum is the first milk produced by the mammary gland during the early postpartum period. In addition to nutrients, antimicrobial and growth factors, bovine colostrum contains valuable microflora, including members of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which have been used widely in probiotic food. The aim of this work is to identify and quantify the microflora of colostrum samples from two Holstein dairy cows on the first three postpartum days through culture-dependent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR techniques, using an adapted method to extract the total DNA. Twenty-nine strains isolated in synthetic media were identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealing two potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. Colostrum samples were subjected to LH-PCR analysis to obtain fingerprint profiles of the microflora. Lactobacillus casei was the main species present in the samples. The probiotic potential of these bacteria for use in fermented and functional foods remains to be evaluated.

  19. Bovine Colostrum for Preterm Infants in the First Days of Life: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Juhl, Sandra Meinich; Ye, Xuqiang; Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Iyore, Elisabeth Omolabake; Zhang, Lixia; Jiang, Pingping; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Greisen, Gorm; Sangild, Per Torp

    2018-01-01

    Mother's own milk (MM) is the best nutrition for newborn preterm infants, but is often limited in supply just after birth. Pasteurized human donor milk (DM), and especially preterm infant formula (IF) are less optimal diets than MM. We hypothesized that it is feasible to use bovine colostrum (BC),

  20. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry......, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival....

  1. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig......A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal...

  2. Bovine colostrum: changes in lipid constituents in the first 5 days after parturition.

    Contarini, G; Povolo, M; Pelizzola, V; Monti, L; Bruni, A; Passolungo, L; Abeni, F; Degano, L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great interest paid to protein components in colostrum, fat also plays an important role in the supply of essential nutrients to provide energy, increase metabolism, and protect the newborn calf against microbial infections. This work aimed to elucidate levels of different fat components in colostrum, in particular fatty acid (FA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and phospholipid contents. Colostrum samples from primiparous and multiparous (3-5 lactations) Holstein dams, fed the same ration indoors, were collected on the first 5d after parturition, analyzed, and compared with milk samples from the same cows collected at 5mo of lactation. Fat content during the first 5d of milking did not vary. However, the proportion of short-chain saturated FA increased and that of long-chain FA decreased. The concentration of n-3 FA was higher on the first day of calving than on the other days, with clear differences in the number and type of n-3 FA. Conjugated linoleic isomers and trans FA slowly increased from d 1 to 5, reaching a maximum at 5mo of lactation. Changes in the distribution profile of TG were observed as lactation progressed, with a shift from a prevalence of high-carbon-number TG (C48-50) on d 1 to a bimodal distribution (maxima at C38 and C50) on d 5, characteristic of mid-lactation milk. Cholesterol content was high in the first hours after calving and rapidly decreased within 48h. Colostrum sampled on d 1 also had a high content of phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin were, respectively, lower and higher in the first 5d than in mid-lactation milk. The influence of lactation number on colostrum fat composition was also considered and significant results were obtained for all FA groups (except for polyunsaturated and n-6 FA) and TG content. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intake port

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Rehmani Ghobadi Marya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  5. Effects of lactoferrin feeding on growth, feed intake and health of calves.

    Prenner, Maria L; Prgomet, Christian; Sauerwein, Helga; Pfaffl, Michael W; Broz, Jiri; Schwarz, Frieder J

    2007-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties and may have regulatory functions in the immune system. In the present study, 40 calves (20 males, 20 females) were used to examine the effects of supplemental bovine LF added to colostrum and milk replacer (at 0.16%) on health, weight development and feed intake during a 70-day experimental period. The calves were allocated to a treatment group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20); the groups were balanced in terms of sex, live weight and date of birth. Body weight and feed intake were measured at regular intervals. Blood and colostrum samples were collected to determine the content of IgG. In addition, colostrum and milk replacer samples were analysed for their LF concentrations. Significantly higher IgG values were observed in the LF treated than in the control group during the entire feeding experiment from week 2 to week 6. Calves receiving LF had less days of disease with less serious cases of diarrhoea than the control group. Body weight and feed intake were not significantly different between the treatments; in male calves LF-treated animals tended towards higher weight gains. This study indicates that LF is advantageous for health and may therefore be a beneficial supplement in the diets for neonatal calves.

  6. Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) in foods with added phytosterols and estimation of their daily intake: A literature review.

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-10-01

    1To evaluate the content of phytosterol oxidation products (POP) of foods with added phytosterols, in total 14 studies measuring POP contents of foods with added phytosterols were systematically reviewed. In non-heated or stored foods, POP contents were low, ranging from (medians) 0.03-3.6 mg/100 g with corresponding oxidation rates of phytosterols (ORP) of 0.03-0.06%. In fat-based foods with 8% of added free plant sterols (FPS), plant sterol esters (PSE) or plant stanol esters (PAE) pan-fried at 160-200°C for 5-10 min, median POP contents were 72.0, 38.1, and 4.9 mg/100 g, respectively, with a median ORP of 0.90, 0.48, and 0.06%. Hence resistance to thermal oxidation was in the order of PAE > PSE > FPS. POP formation was highest in enriched butter followed by margarine and rapeseed oil. In margarines with 7.5-10.5% added PSE oven-heated at 140-200°C for 5-30 min, median POP content was 0.3 mg/100 g. Further heating under same temperature conditions but for 60-120 min markedly increased POP formation to 384.3 mg/100 g. Estimated daily upper POP intake was 47.7 mg/d (equivalent to 0.69 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added PSE and 78.3 mg/d (equivalent to 1.12 mg/kg BW/d) for foods with added FPS as calculated by multiplying the advised upper daily phytosterol intake of 3 g/d with the 90% quantile values of ORP. In conclusion, heating temperature and time, chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix are determinants of POP formation in foods with added phytosterols, leading to an increase in POP contents. Practical applications: Phytosterol oxidation products (POP) are formed in foods containing phytosterols especially when exposed to heat treatment. This review summarising POP contents in foods with added phytosterols in their free and esterified forms reveals that heating temperature and time, the chemical form of phytosterols added and the food matrix itself are determinants of POP formation with heating

  7. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Prevents Septic Shock and Brain Barrier Disruption During Bloodstream Infection in Preterm Newborn Pigs

    Brunse, Anders; Worsøe, Päivi; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against...... = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11). SE-infected animals showed multiple signs of sepsis, including lethargy, hypotension, respiratory acidosis, internal organ...... hemorrhages, cellular responses (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation. At 24 h, colostrum supplementation reduced the SE abundance in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, both p colostrum feeding normalized arterial blood pressure (38.5 ± 1.20 vs 30...

  8. Peripartal progesterone and prolactin have little effect on the rapid transport of immunoglobulin G into colostrum of dairy cows

    Gross, J J; Kessler, E C; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum formation and lactogenesis in the mammary gland and the timing of parturition are regulated by endocrine signals. Changes in progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) are considered key events that inhibit colostrum formation, trigger parturition, and signal the onset of lactation. The goal...... of our study was to determine if colostrum yield and composition and immunoglobulin transfer are affected by prepartum milking relative to the decrease in P4, peak of PRL, or occurrence of parturition. Twenty-three multiparous cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) control with first milking...... at 4 h postcalving (CON, n = 11), and (2) treatment group with first milking approximately 1 d before calving and second milking at 4 h after parturition (APM, n = 12). Colostrum yields were recorded and proportional samples were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration. Blood plasma samples...

  9. the effect of dietary energy on the intake and production of breeding ...

    Theodore Olivier

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy level on the production of breeding ostriches. Six diets varying in ME content (7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0 MJ ME/kg feed) were provided to both males and females at an average rate of 3.4 kg/bird/day. Dietary protein and lysine levels were held ...

  10. The effect of colostrum period management on BW and immune system in lambs: from birth to weaning

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Suárez-Trujillo, A.; Martell-Jaizme, D.

    2015-01-01

    (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2...... frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs....

  11. Bovine colostrum is superior to enriched formulas in stimulating intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis resistance in preterm pigs

    Møller, Hanne Kristine; Thymann, Thomas; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Milk contains immunomodulatory compounds that may be important to protect the immature intestine in preterm neonates from harmful inflammatory reactions involved in disorders like necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesised that bovine colostrum and milk formulas enriched with sialic acids (SL......-enriched formula (n 13), while Expt 2 compared a control formula with bovine colostrum or formulas enriched with Gang or SL (n 4-6). OPN enrichment decreased NEC severity relative to control formula (P...

  12. Reduction of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in colostrum: Development and validation of 2 methods, one based on curdling and one based on centrifugation.

    Verhegghe, M; Rasschaert, G; Herman, L; Goossens, K; Vandaele, L; De Bleecker, K; Vlaemynck, G; Heyndrickx, M; De Block, J

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate 2 protocols (for use on-farm and at a central location) for the reduction of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in colostrum while preserving beneficial immunoglobulins (IgG). The on-farm protocol was based on curdling of the colostrum, where the IgG remain in the whey and the MAP bacteria are trapped in the curd. First, the colostrum was diluted with water (2 volumes colostrum to 1 volume water) and 2% rennet was added. After incubation (1 h at 32°C), the curd was cut and incubated again, after which whey and curd were separated using a cheesecloth. The curd was removed and milk powder was added to the whey. Approximately 1 log reduction in MAP counts was achieved. A reduction in total proteins and IgG was observed due to initial dilution of the colostrum. After curd formation, more than 95% of the immunoglobulins remained in the whey fraction. The semi-industrial protocol was based on centrifugation, which causes MAP to precipitate, while the IgG remain in the supernatant. This protocol was first developed in the laboratory. The colostrum was diluted with skimmed colostrum (2 volumes colostrum to 1 volume skimmed colostrum), then skimmed and centrifuged (at 15,600 × g for 30 min at room temperature). We observed on average 1.5 log reduction in the MAP counts and a limited reduction in proteins and IgG in the supernatant. To obtain a semi-industrial protocol, dairy pilot appliances were evaluated and the following changes were applied to the protocol: after 2:1 dilution as above, the colostrum was skimmed and subsequently clarified, after which the cream was heat treated and added to the supernatant. To investigate the effect of the colostrum treatment on the nutritional value and palatability of the colostrum and the IgG transfer, an animal experiment was conducted with 24 calves. Six received the dam's colostrum, 6 were given untreated purchased colostrum (control), and 2 groups of 6 calves

  13. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  14. Time-dependent depletion of nitrite in pork/beef and chicken meat products and its effect on nitrite intake estimation

    Merino, Leonardo; Darnerud, Per Ola; Toldrá, Fidel; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The food additive nitrite (E249, E250) is commonly used in meat curing as a food preservation method. Because of potential negative health effects of nitrite, its use is strictly regulated. In an earlier study we have shown that the calculated intake of nitrite in children can exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) when conversion from dietary nitrate to nitrite is included. This study examined time-dependent changes in nitrite levels in four Swedish meat products frequently eaten by children: pork/beef sausage, liver paté and two types of chicken sausage, and how the production process, storage and also boiling (e.g., simmering in salted water) and frying affect the initial added nitrite level. The results showed a steep decrease in nitrite level between the point of addition to the product and the first sampling of the product 24 h later. After this time, residual nitrite levels continued to decrease, but much more slowly, until the recommended use-by date. Interestingly, this continuing decrease in nitrite was much smaller in the chicken products than in the pork/beef products. In a pilot study on pork/beef sausage, we found no effects of boiling on residual nitrite levels, but frying decreased nitrite levels by 50%. In scenarios of time-dependent depletion of nitrite using the data obtained for sausages to represent all cured meat products and including conversion from dietary nitrate, calculated nitrite intake in 4-year-old children generally exceeded the ADI. Moreover, the actual intake of nitrite from cured meat is dependent on the type of meat source, with a higher residual nitrite levels in chicken products compared with pork/beef products. This may result in increased nitrite exposure among consumers shifting their consumption pattern of processed meats from red to white meat products. PMID:26743589

  15. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  16. Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and milk production of dairy cows offered Lolium perenne containing different levels of water-soluble carbohydrates

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass varieties that were morphologically and chemically similar, but differed in their water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration. Eight multiparous

  17. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production in mice

    Geerling, Janine J.; Wang, Yanan; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for

  18. Acute Central Neuropeptide Y Administration Increases Food Intake but Does Not Affect Hepatic Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (Vldl) Production in Mice

    Geerling, J.J.; Wang, Y.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY) administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for

  19. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  20. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  1. Validating a refractometer to evaluate immunoglobulin G concentration in Jersey colostrum and the effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on evaluating colostrum quality.

    Morrill, K M; Robertson, K E; Spring, M M; Robinson, A L; Tyler, H D

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84

  2. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  3. Comparative exposure to DEHP from food contact materials: application of the product intake fraction

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment Food contact materials (FCM), e.g. bottles and food handling gloves, can contain potentially endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP, CAS: 117-81-7). To investigate the contribution of FCM to dietary DEHP exposure we apply...... thresholds. A hypothetical average PiF for the FCM sector was calculated via production volume and oral exposure doses estimated from NHANES data. In both cases the indication was gloves may contribute more to DEHP exposure when used with certain food items than bottled water. DEHP content in gloves greater...... than 5% would cause exceedance of US EPA threshold when used with certain food items,e.g. radishes based on PiF calculated here. The PiF used in thís context has applications for regulations related to FCM and exposure assessments on a per unit kilo basis....

  4. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption)

  5. Melatonin Nanoparticles Adsorbed to Polyethylene Glycol Microspheres as Activators of Human Colostrum Macrophages

    Cristiane de Castro Pernet Hara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hormones associated with polymeric matrices has amplified the possibility of obtaining new drugs to activate the immune system. Melatonin has been reported as an important immunomodulatory agent that can improve many cell activation processes. It is possible that the association of melatonin with polymers could influence its effects on cellular function. Thus, this study verified the adsorption of the hormone melatonin to polyethylene glycol (PEG microspheres and analyzed its ability to modulate the functional activity of human colostrum phagocytes. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses revealed that melatonin was able to adsorb to the PEG microspheres. This system increased the release of superoxide and intracellular calcium. There was an increase of phagocytic and microbicidal activity by colostrum phagocytes when in the presence of melatonin adsorbed to PEG microspheres. The modified delivery of melatonin adsorbed to PEG microspheres may be an additional mechanism for its microbicidal activity and represents an important potential treatment for gastrointestinal infections of newborns.

  6. Melatonin Nanoparticles Adsorbed to Polyethylene Glycol Microspheres as Activators of Human Colostrum Macrophages

    Hara, C.D.C.P.; Honorio-Frana, A.C.; Fagundes, D.L.G.; Guimares, P.C.L.; Franca, E.L.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of hormones associated with polymeric matrices has amplified the possibility of obtaining new drugs to activate the immune system. Melatonin has been reported as an important immunomodulatory agent that can improve many cell activation processes. It is possible that the association of melatonin with polymers could influence its effects on cellular function. Thus, this study verified the adsorption of the hormone melatonin to polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres and analyzed its ability to modulate the functional activity of human colostrum phagocytes. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses revealed that melatonin was able to adsorb to the PEG microspheres. This system increased the release of superoxide and intracellular calcium. There was an increase of phagocytic and microbicidal activity by colostrum phagocytes when in the presence of melatonin adsorbed to PEG microspheres. The modified delivery of melatonin adsorbed to PEG microspheres may be an additional mechanism for its microbicidal activity and represents an important potential treatment for gastrointestinal infections of newborns.

  7. Application of transmission infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression to predict immunoglobulin G concentration in dairy and beef cow colostrum.

    Elsohaby, Ibrahim; Windeyer, M Claire; Haines, Deborah M; Homerosky, Elizabeth R; Pearson, Jennifer M; McClure, J Trenton; Keefe, Greg P

    2018-03-06

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of transmission infrared (TIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR) for quantification of dairy and beef cow colostral immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and assessment of colostrum quality. A total of 430 colostrum samples were collected from dairy (n = 235) and beef (n = 195) cows and tested by a radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay and TIR spectroscopy. Colostral IgG concentrations obtained by the RID assay were linked to the preprocessed spectra and divided into combined and prediction data sets. Three PLSR calibration models were built: one for the dairy cow colostrum only, the second for beef cow colostrum only, and the third for the merged dairy and beef cow colostrum. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated separately using the independent prediction data set. The Pearson correlation coefficients between IgG concentrations as determined by the TIR-based assay and the RID assay were 0.84 for dairy cow colostrum, 0.88 for beef cow colostrum, and 0.92 for the merged set of dairy and beef cow colostrum. The average of the differences between colostral IgG concentrations obtained by the RID- and TIR-based assays were -3.5, 2.7, and 1.4 g/L for dairy, beef, and merged colostrum samples, respectively. Further, the average relative error of the colostral IgG predicted by the TIR spectroscopy from the RID assay was 5% for dairy cow, 1.2% for beef cow, and 0.8% for the merged data set. The average intra-assay CV% of the IgG concentration predicted by the TIR-based method were 3.2%, 2.5%, and 6.9% for dairy cow, beef cow, and merged data set, respectively.The utility of TIR method for assessment of colostrum quality was evaluated using the entire data set and showed that TIR spectroscopy accurately identified the quality status of 91% of dairy cow colostrum, 95% of beef cow colostrum, and 89% and 93% of the merged dairy and beef cow colostrum samples

  8. [Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry].

    Venner, Monica; Markus, R G; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Nogai, K; Beyerbach, M; Klug, E

    2008-01-01

    In 360 samples of colostrum and 36 samples of blood of warmblood mares, the concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was evaluated in the post partal period with an ELISA and the results were compared to values obtained with 2 field methods--refractometry and colostrometry. A significant correlation (p refractometry (r = +0.93). So both field-methods seem suitable for evaluation of the colostral IgG-concentration in mares. Further the kinetic of the IgG concentration in colostrum, the volume of colostrum and the total amount of IgG was measured in the 12 hours post partum (p.p.) in each half udder of 36 mares of different parity. Immediately p.p. primiparous mares have a greater mean concentration of IgG (68 mg/ml) than multiparous mares (51 mg/ml). However, multiparous mares have a mean colostral volume of 1020 ml whereas, in primiparous mares, a mean volume of 527 ml was determined within the first three hours p.p. As a result of this the total amount of IgG was lower in primiparous (31.5 g) than in multiparous mares (48.5 g). A significant decrease of IgG concentration was measured in multiparous mares in the 1.5 hours following partum versus 3 hours in primiparous mares. The mean IgG concentration in the blood serum of the 36 mares immediately p.p. was 13.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml. No significant correlation was observed between values of IgG concentration in the blood and in the colostrum of the mares.

  9. Short communication: Effect of the feed presentation form on the intake pattern, productive traits and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    Antonio Gimeno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional disorders like ruminal acidosis are common in Spanish beef production system, in which animals are fed diets with a high content in starch. This experiment studied the effect of feed presentation form (concentrate and straw offered separately, CD, or mixed in form of briquettes, BR on the pattern of intake, growth and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. The experiment was performed with 40 Holstein male calves, 32 of them for determining feed intake pattern and productive rates, and the remaining 8, which were previously provided with a ruminal cannula, to monitor rumen pH in two 21-day consecutive periods following a change-over design. Animals fed BR reduced feed intake rate during the first hour after feeding (18.6 vs. 24.0% of daily intake p<0.001, but this diet promoted a lower rumen pH at all sampling times compared with CD (daily average of 5.98 vs. 6.33; p<0.001 and tended to promote a lower total feed intake (7.08 vs. 9.77 kg DM/d; p<0.001 and daily weight gain (1.43 vs. 1.76 kg/d; p=0.056. Offering the concentrate and the straw mixed in form of briquettes is not useful to prevent ruminal acidosis and improve growth, probably due to both a reduced particle size of straw and avoided self-regulation of straw intake along the day.

  10. Flavor enhancement as a tool for increasing pleasantness and intake of a snack product among the elderly.

    Koskinen, S; Kälviäinen, N; Tuorila, H

    2003-08-01

    A yogurt-like fermented oat bran product, flavored with regular and heightened concentrations of red currant aroma, was tested in two tasting sessions (side-by-side) and, between these, in a six-day home-use (monadic testing daily, 3+3 packages of the snack) by the elderly (n=50, mean age 73.7, range 63-85 years) and the young (n=58, mean age 23.1, range 18-34 years). The subjects rated the odor and flavor intensity and pleasantness and also conducted an odor detection and identification test. In home-use, the subjects reported the quantity consumed, willingness to eat, buy or recommend the snack. The young outperformed the elderly in the olfactory test. The heightened aroma samples were initially rated as less pleasant by both age groups, but among the elderly, the ratings given to the two samples merged during exposure. For the young, the large difference in perceived odor and flavor intensities reflected marked differences in pleasantness, while the elderly were less responsive to intensity differences in their pleasantness ratings. Overall, both age groups ate less of the heightened aroma sample. Despite the impaired olfactory capabilities of the elderly, no clear indication of benefit of the enhanced flavor was found for either pleasantness or intake.

  11. Effect of Multi-Microbial Probiotic Formulation Bokashi on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Profile in the Serum, Colostrum and Milk of Sows, and in a Culture of Polymorphonuclear Cells Isolated from Colostrum.

    Laskowska, Ewa; Jarosz, Łukasz; Grądzki, Zbigniew

    2018-01-05

    The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum. The study was conducted on 60 sows aged 2-4 years. EM Bokashi were added to the sows' feed. The material for the study consisted of peripheral blood, colostrum, and milk. Blood samples were collected from the sows on days 60 and 114 of gestation. Colostrum and milk samples were collected from all sows at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after parturition. The results indicate that the use of Bokashi as feed additives resulted in increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which increase the protective capacity of the colostrum by stimulating cellular immune mechanisms protecting the sow and neonates against infection. At the same time, the increased concentrations of cytokines IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β, and of immunoglobulins in the colostrum and milk from sows in the experimental group demonstrate the immunoregulatory effect of Bokashi on Th2 cells and may lead to increased expression of regulatory T cells and polarization of the immune response from Th1 to Th2.

  12. COLOSTRUM-COLLAGEN-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITE, AN EXCELLENT CANDIDATE BIOMATERIAL FOR BONE REPAIR AND BONE INFECTION MANAGEMENT

    Dio Nurdin Setiawan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the case ofbone fracture or defect after surgery, which is common in patients with bone cancer (osteosarcoma, it takes a long time for closure and it may cause an infection problem. The use ofcollagen-hydroxyapatite composite with a blend ofcolostrum as a scaffold is aimed to accelerate the process of osteoblast growth, inhibite the emergence of infections, and act as bone tissue repair material. The method used was the hydrogel formation process and freeze dry process to remove the solvent and to form pores. The composition of scaffold composite manufactured was 15% collagen, 75% hydroxyapatite and 10% colostrum. Combination ofscaffold collagen-hydroxyapatite-colostrum has quite reliable properties because SEM test showed that scaffold could bind to both and could bind to both and could form sufficient pores to provide enough place for bone cells (osteoblats to grow. The results of MTT assay revealed percentage of above 60%, which indicates that the material is not toxic. In conclusion, collagen-hydroxyapatite-colostrum combination is an excellent biomaterial candidate for bone repair and bone infection management.

  13. Pyrethroids in chicken eggs from commercial farms and home production in Rio de Janeiro: Estimated daily intake and diastereomeric selectivity.

    Parente, Cláudio E T; Lestayo, Julliana; Guida, Yago S; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio E; Torres, João Paulo M; Meire, Rodrigo O; Malm, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    In this study, pyrethroids were determined in chicken eggs from commercial farm (n = 60) and home egg production (n = 30). These pyrethroids were investigated: bifenthrin, phenothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate, including most diastereomers. Quantification was done using GC-MS in a negative chemical ionization mode. Pyrethroids residues were found in 79% of the analyzed samples. Cypermethrin presented the highest occurrence, being quantified in 62 samples (69%) in concentrations (lipid weight - l w.) varying between 0.29 and 6408 ng g -1 , followed by phenothrin (24%), 21-3910 ng g -1 , permethrin (14%), 2.96-328 ng g -1 , and bifenthrin (11%), 3.77-16.7 ng g -1 . Cyfluthrin and fenvalerate were not detected. Home-produced eggs had a higher occurrence of pyrethroids (97%), with a greater predominance of phenothrin. In commercial production, 70% of the samples presented pyrethroid residues (predominantly cypermethrin). This is the first report about the presence of pyrethroids in home-produced eggs and the first description of a selectivity pattern with the predominance of cis diastereomers in chicken eggs. In general, estimated daily intake does not present a risk to human consumption, according to Brazilian and international standards (FAO/WHO). However, one third of the samples (30 eggs) had concentrations above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The maximum cypermethrin concentration was 66 times the MRL, while the maximum phenothrin concentration was 11 times the limit. Further studies about transfer dynamics, bioaccumulation and metabolic degradation of stereoisomers are required, as well as determining if this selectivity pattern in food can increase consumer's health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  15. Breastfeeding, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Colostrum and Child Intelligence Quotient at Age 5-6 Years.

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; Armand, Martine; Peyre, Hugo; Garcia, Cyrielle; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relationship of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in breast milk with children's IQ. In the French Etude des Déterminants pré- et postnatals précoces du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) mother-child cohort, colostrum samples were collected at the maternity unit. Colostrum omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were analyzed by gas chromatography. At age 5-6 years, the IQs of 1080 children were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. The relationships of breastfeeding duration and PUFA levels with children's IQs were examined by linear regression. Full scale IQ of ever breastfed children was 4.5 (95% CI: 2.7, 6.2) higher than never breastfed children in the unadjusted model, but this was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (1.3 points higher [-0.4, 3.0]). Any breastfeeding duration was associated with full scale (0.20 [0.00, 0.41] points/month) and verbal (0.31 [0.09, 0.52]) IQ. Colostrum linoleic acid (LA) levels were negatively associated with Verbal IQ (-0.6 [-1.1, 0.0] points per 1% level increase). Children exposed to colostrum high in LA and low in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had lower IQs than those exposed to colostrum high in DHA (3.0 [0.5, 5.5] points) and those exposed to colostrum low in LA and DHA (4.4 [1.6, 7.3] points). Finally, the association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ was stronger when LA levels were high. Duration of breastfeeding and colostrum PUFA levels were associated with children's IQs in the EDEN cohort. These data support breastfeeding and add evidence for the role of early PUFA exposure on childhood cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil.

  17. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  18. Circulating levels and dietary intake of the advanced glycation end-product marker carboxymethyl lysine in chronic kidney disease patients on conservative predialysis therapy: a pilot study.

    Piroddi, Marta; Palazzetti, Ingrid; Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Pilolli, Francesca; Montaldi, Massimiliano; Valentina, Viola; Libetta, Carmelo; Galli, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are proposed to influence inflammatory pathways and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary AGEs are believed to sustain circulating levels and toxicity in this condition. We investigated this aspect in a cross-sectional pilot study measuring levels of the AGE marker carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and fluorescent AGEs in the blood of pre-dialysis patients with CKD and hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 10 each), and in a group of matched healthy controls (Ctr). Plasma CML was measured by immuno-dot blot and fluorescent AGEs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis measuring the fluorescence of the cross-link pentosidine. The dietary intake of CML was assessed by dietary recall to trace total AGE intake in patients with CKD and the Ctr group. All the subjects included in the study were assessed for dietary intake while maintaining their usual diet. Main exclusion criteria for patients with CKD and HD were severe protein-caloric malnutrition and inflammation (measured by high sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels). Plasma CML, as well as free and protein-bound fluorescent AGEs, significantly increased in CKD and even more in HD patients than that of the Ctr group. In patients with CKD, the average dietary intake of CML was less than half than that of the Ctr group (6 vs. 13 MU/day) and the lowered protein intake adopted spontaneously by these patients appear to explain this finding. The results show that the intake of CML does not affect circulating levels of this as well as of other AGEs, in well nourished predialysis CKD patients. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  20. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  1. Effects of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans

    Grinder-Pedersen, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Salka E.; Bügel, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    selection of more resistant varieties is of central importance to organic farming, it cannot be excluded that the observed effects originate from these differences. The food production method affected the content of the major flavonoid, quercetin, in foods and also affected urinary flavonoids and markers......Different food production methods may result in differences in the content of secondary metabolites such as polyphenolic compounds. The present study compared conventionally (CPD) and organically produced (OPD) diets in a human crossover intervention study (n = 16) with respect to the intake...... both interventions. Most markers of antioxidative defense did not differ between the diets, but intake of OPD resulted in an increased protein oxidation and a decreased total plasma antioxidant capacity compared to baseline (P

  2. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  3. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  4. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran

    Marya, Rehmani; Rastegar, Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  5. Cell wall and yeast culture supplementation on prepartum dairy cows and its effects on colostrum quality and immune status of calves

    Carlos Campos-Granados

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at a private dairy farm located in Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Cartago Province. Thirty prepartum Jersey cows and their calves were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments of 15 repetitions each. Treatments were: first, unsupplemented control; and second, daily supplement from 21 days prepartum with 40 g of cell wall and yeast culture. The concentration of total immunoglobulins of colostrum was quantified, giving average values of 90.06±23.74 mg.ml-1 for the control group and 105.94±17.59 mg.ml-1 for the supplemented (p<0.05. The concentration of total serum protein in the blood serum of calves was quantified, giving average values of 8.57±1.27 g.dl-1 for the control group and 8.24±1.26 g.dl-1 for the supplemented (p>0.05. The daily weight gain, weekly growth expressed as height at the withers, solid diet daily intake and feed conversion of calves during the first 8 weeks were quantified, obtaining average values of solid diet intake of 985.17±8.51 g and 977.51±5.74 g (p>0.05, daily gain of 382.86±1.20 g and 410.94±51.22 g (p>0.05, weekly growth of 1.45±0.33 cm and 1.70±0.31 cm (p>0,05 and feed conversion of 2.57±0.11 and 2.38±0.09 (p>0.05, for the control group and supplemented, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation with cell wall and yeast culture had an enhancing effect on concentration of total immunoglobulins in colostrum and an improving effect on the health of calves, reflected in lower incidence of respiratory and digestive tract diseases.

  6. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from two dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitamin D3; 5) CR, vitamin E; 6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, ...

  7. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  8. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16–64 ml·kg-1·day-1) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  9. Colostrum and milk protein rankings and ratios of importance to neonatal calf health using a proteomics approach

    Nissen, Asger; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke

    2017-01-01

    Administration of colostrum to the newborn calf before gut closure is pivotal to its health, because of the transfer of passive immunity. Traditionally, passive immunity has been attributed to the transfer of immunoglobulins although it is increasingly clear that multiple other factors contribute......, including innate immune proteins, developmental factors, immunomodulatory factors, and the presence of cellular immunity. The objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive comparison of the bovine colostrum proteome and the milk proteome by applying 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... spectrometry. Further, the objectives were to rank proteins mutually and generate protein ratios from the spectral counts of the 2 proteomes and ELISA to gain insight into which proteins could be of most relevance to neonatal calf health. To obtain an in-depth picture of the bovine colostrum and milk proteome...

  10. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16–64 ml·kg−1·day−1) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...

  11. Antibody Profile of Colostrum and the Effect of Processing in Human Milk Banks: Implications in Immunoregulatory Properties.

    Rodríguez-Camejo, Claudio; Puyol, Arturo; Fazio, Laura; Rodríguez, Analía; Villamil, Emilia; Andina, Eliana; Cordobez, Vanira; Díaz, Hernán; Lemos, Mary; Siré, Gabriela; Carroscia, Lilián; Castro, Mara; Panizzolo, Luis; Hernández, Ana

    2018-02-01

    When feeding preterm infants, donor milk is preferred if the mother's own milk is unavailable. Pasteurization may have detrimental effects on bioactivity, but more information is needed about its effects on the immunological compounds. Research aim: This work has two main aims: evaluate the antibody profile of colostrum and study the quantitative variations in the antibodies' level and specific reactivity after undergoing Holder pasteurization. The authors focused on immunoregulatory components of colostrum (antidietary antibodies and TGF-β2) in the neonatal gut. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 67 donated colostrum samples at different days after delivery, both raw and pasteurized. Antibody profiles were analyzed at different times during breastfeeding, and total and specific antibodies (IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses) were compared with tetanus toxoid and ovalbumin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The processing effect on total and specific antibodies, as well as TGF-β2, was evaluated by paired analyses. No variations in immunological compounds were observed throughout the colostrum stage. The TGF-β2, antibodies' concentrations, and antibodies' specific reactivity after pasteurization did not vary significantly as days of lactation varied. Changes in antibody levels were dependent on isotype and IgG subclass, and IgG4 showed remarkable resistance to heating. Moreover, the effect of the pasteurization on specific reactivity was antigen dependent. The supply of relevant immunological components is stable throughout the colostrum stage. The effects of pasteurization on antibodies depend on isotype, subclass, and specificity. This information is relevant to improving the immunological quality of colostrum, especially for preterm newborns.

  12. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.

    Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2013-06-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P

  14. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  15. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  16. Bovine colostrum modulates immune activation cascades in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro

    Jenny, Marcel; Pedersen, Ninfa R; Hidayat, Budi J

    2010-01-01

    factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In an approach to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on the T-cell/macrophage interplay, we investigated and compared the capacity of BC containing low and high amounts of lactose and lactoferrin to modulate tryptophan degradation...... of lactose present in BC seems to diminish the activity of BC in our test system, since BC with higher amounts of lactose attenuated the stimulatory as well as the suppressive activity of BC....

  17. A full belly and colostrum: two major determinants of filial love.

    Val-Laillet, David; Simon, Maud; Nowak, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    The establishment of filial bonding in sheep relies on the success of the first suckling bouts. Previous work has shown that colostrum ingestion facilitates the development of a preference for the mother. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the influence of quantitative and qualitative factors linked to fluid ingestion. The first experiment demonstrated that the procedure was not detrimental to the mother-young interaction and did not cause any harm to the lamb. In a second experiment, lambs could interact with their dam, but were deprived of suckling during the first 12 hr after birth (The udder was covered.) and fed via a nasogastric tube in the presence of their mother on seven occasions. When tested in a two-choice test at 12 hr of age, lambs that received either colostrum or saline (total amount = 10% birth weight) spent more time near their own dam than near an alien ewe. When smaller volumes of fluids were used (5% birth weight), lambs that received colostrum showed a preference for their mother while those ingesting saline did not. The differences persisted at 24 hr even though all the lambs had access to the maternal udder from 12 hr onward, and these differences were not related to weight variations or body temperature. In the choice test, the motor skills and vocal activity of the lambs were not affected by the treatment nor were the behaviors of the ewes. The third experiment showed that colostrum, and saline to a lesser extent, reduces the number of vocalizations emitted by lambs compared to sham-intubated lambs, but did not otherwise influence mother-young interactions. This suggests that post-ingestive factors may facilitate the development of mother preference through a satiated or comforted state. This is the first evidence that depending on the amount of liquids ingested, a preferential relationship with the mother can be established via nutritional and nonnutritional signals originating from the gastrointestinal region, pointing

  18. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  19. The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.

  20. Phthalate Intakes

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  1. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  2. IMPACT OF IMPROVED FAT-MEAT PRODUCTS CONSUMPTION ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MARKERS AND NUTRIENT INTAKES OF MALE VOLUNTEERS AT INCREASED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Celada, Paloma; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruperto, Mar; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-08-01

    meat products have been recognized to be adequate matrix for incorporating functional ingredients. The impact of meat products formulated by replacing animal fat with a combination of olive, linseed and fish oils on energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometric measurements were tested in a non-randomized-controlled- sequential study. eighteen male volunteers at high-CVD risk consumed weekly 200 g frankfurters and 250 g pâtés during three 4-wk periods (reduced fat (RF); n3-enriched- RF (n-3RF), and normal fat (NF)), separated by 4-wk washout. Energy and nutrient intakes, healthy eating index (HEI), and anthropometric changes were evaluated. body fat mass rate-of-change and the waist/ hip ratio significantly differs (p = 0.018 and p = 0.031, respectively) between periods, decreasing body fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in RF period and increasing body fat mass in NF one (all p = 0.05). Significant inverse correlations were observed between rate- of-change of BMI and ideal body weight with dietary carbohydrate/SFA ratio in n-3RF period (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). Initial diets presented low HEIs (means Product consumption improved dietary Zn, Ca, retinol equivalent, folate and vitamin B12 contents in all periods, and ameliorated n-3 PUFA contents and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio over the n-3RF period. improved-fat meat products appear as functional foods for overweight/obeses since their consumption improved selected body-fat markers, without affecting HEI, macronutrient and energy but their n-3 PUFA and n6/n3 ratio intakes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  4. Inhibition of Snake Venom Metalloproteinase by β-Lactoglobulin Peptide from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Colostrum.

    Arpitha, Ashok; Sebastin Santhosh, M; Rohit, A C; Girish, K S; Vinod, D; Aparna, H S

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive peptide research has experienced considerable therapeutic interest owing to varied physiological functions, efficacy in excretion, and tolerability of peptides. Colostrum is a rich natural source of bioactive peptides with many properties elucidated such as anti-thrombotic, anti-hypertensive, opioid, immunomodulatory, etc. In this study, a variant peptide derived from β-lactoglobulin from buffalo colostrum was evaluated for the anti-ophidian property by targeting snake venom metalloproteinases. These are responsible for rapid local tissue damages that develop after snakebite such as edema, hemorrhage, myonecrosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The peptide identified by LC-MS/MS effectively neutralized hemorrhagic activity of the Echis carinatus venom in a dose-dependent manner. Histological examinations revealed that the peptide mitigated basement membrane degradation and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the venom-injected site. Inhibition of proteolytic activity was evidenced in both casein and gelatin zymograms. Also, inhibition of fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities was seen. The UV-visible spectral study implicated Zn 2+ chelation, which was further confirmed by molecular docking and dynamic studies by assessing molecular interactions, thus implicating the probable mechanism for inhibition of venom-induced proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities. The present investigation establishes newer vista for the BLG-col peptide with anti-ophidian efficacy as a promising candidate for therapeutic interventions.

  5. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates.

  6. Changes in amino acids composition of cows colostrum (during first 72 hours after parturition

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid spectrum of colostrum within the period of 2 to 72 hours post partum were studied in dairy cows of the Czech Red Pied cattle with a genetic admixture of Black Pied Lowland breed (n = 10. Five of them were on the 1st lactation and 5 on the 2nd and/or higher lactations. Within the study period, the contents of non-essential amino acids (NEAA and essential amino acids (EAA decreased by 22.8–63.2% and 27.3–65.2%, resp., in dairy cows on the 1st lactation while in those on the 2nd and following lactations the corresponding values were 22.0–63.7% and 24.9–71.7%, respectively. The dependence of the course of changes in the AA spectrum of cow’s colostrum on the time interval elapsing after the parturition could be characterised by a regression equation y = b0 + b1/x + b2/x2.

  7. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  8. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  9. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  10. Similar efficacy of human banked milk and bovine colostrum to decrease incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    Jensen, Michael L.; Sangild, Per Torp; Lykke, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants. As mother's milk is often absent following preterm delivery, infant formula (IF) and human donor milk (HM) are frequently used as alternatives. We have previously shown that porcine and bovine colostrum (BC...

  11. Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and natural and specific antibody titers in calves

    Mayasari, N.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Remmelink, G.J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry

  12. The microbial community of the gut differs between piglets fed sow milk, milk replacer or bovine colostrum

    Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; de Jonge, Nadieh; Sugiharto, Sugiharto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the gut microbiota composition of piglets fed bovine colostrum (BC), milk replacer (MR) or sow milk (SM) in the post-weaning period. Piglets (n 36), 23-d old, were randomly allocated to the three diets. Faecal samples were collected at 23, 25, 27 and 30 d...

  13. Nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers fed with different sources of protein - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18749

    Andressa Fereirra Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different protein sources (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal and sunflower meal on dry matter and nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers, Holstein x Zebu, recreated in confinement. The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design made up by 6 replications and 4 treatments. The mean values of ingestion of ether extract (EEI, kg day-1 were statistically different (p -1 to the diet with sunflower meal (0.82 kg day-1, and considering the final body weight, the diet with soybean meal was superior to the other treatments (p  

  14. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Shu, Ping Soon; Chan, Yoke Mun; Huang, Soo Lee

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI), poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  15. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Ping Soon Shu

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI, poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  16. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  17. Anti-infective bovine colostrum oligosaccharides: Campylobacter jejuni as a case study.

    Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Naughton, Julie; Kavanaugh, Devon; Clyne, Marguerite; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2012-07-02

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in humans. Unlike in humans, C. jejuni is a commensal within the avian host. Heavily colonized chickens often fail to display intestinal disease, and no cellular attachment or invasion has been demonstrated in-vivo. Recently, researchers have shown that the reason for the attenuation of C. jejuni virulence may be attributed to the presence of chicken intestinal mucus and more specifically chicken mucin. Since mucins are heavily glycosylated molecules this observation would suggest that glycan-based compounds may act as anti-infectives against C. jejuni. Considering this, we have investigated naturally sourced foods for potential anti-infective glycans. Bovine colostrum rich in neutral and acidic oligosaccharides has been identified as a potential source of anti-infective glycans. In this study, we tested oligosaccharides isolated and purified from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows for anti-infective activity against a highly invasive strain of C. jejuni. During our initial studies we structurally defined 37 bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) by HILIC-HPLC coupled with exoglycosidase digests and off-line mass spectroscopy, and demonstrated the ability of C. jejuni to bind to some of these structures, in-vitro. We also examined the effect of BCO on C. jejuni adhesion to, invasion of and translocation of HT-29 cells. BCO dramatically reduced the cellular invasion and translocation of C. jejuni, in a concentration dependent manner. Periodate treatment of the BCO prior to inhibition studies resulted in a loss of the anti-infective activity of the glycans suggesting a direct oligosaccharide-bacterial interaction. This was confirmed when the BCO completely prevented C. jejuni binding to chicken intestinal mucin, in-vitro. This study builds a strong case for the inclusion of oligosaccharides sourced from cow's milk in functional foods. However, it is only through further

  18. Influence of the method of production of eggs on the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants: an independent study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Rodríguez-Hernández, Angel; Quesada-Tacoronte, Yohana; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on eggs from three different production types (conventional, free-run and organic) collected from the markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). Unlike other studies we did not found differences in the content of PCBs or OCPs of eggs in relation to its production type. Median ∑OCPs content was 3.87 ng g⁻¹ fat, being dieldrin, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT the most frequently detected. Median ∑PCBs value was 3.93 ng g⁻¹ fat, with 79.9% of this amount coming from the marker PCBs. Two samples, one free-run and one organic, greatly exceeded the current European Commission (EC) limit of 2.5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F) g⁻¹ lipid, but the rest were well below of this limit. The concentrations of PAHs in conventionally produced eggs were almost 4 times higher than in free-run or organic eggs. Mean dietary intake estimates of the organochlorine contaminants based on consumption of eggs, regardless of the type chosen, is negligible for the Canary Islands' population. However, the median dietary intake estimates of PAHs greatly depend on the type of eggs chosen, being much lower when free-run and organic eggs are consumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  20. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  1. VITAMIN-E, LIPID FRACTIONS, AND FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM, TRANSITIONAL MILK, AND MATURE MILK - AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    BOERSMA, ER; OFFRINGA, PJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; CHASE, WM; SIMMONS, IJ

    Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage longchain

  2. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment of moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp.

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R; Bostwick, E F

    1999-01-01

    Therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (HBC) was applied to 12 moribund Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) infected with Cryptosporidium sp. The geckos were lethargic and moderately to severely emaciated, weighing on average 36% of the baseline body weight value. Seven gastric HBC treatments at 1-week intervals each decreased the relative output of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and the prevalence of oocyst-positive fecal specimens. Histologically, after 8 weeks of therapy, seven out of 12 geckos had only single developmental stages of Cryptosporidium sp. in the intestinal epithelium, and three, one and one geckos had low, moderate and high numbers, respectively, of the pathogen developmental stages. The HBC therapy was efficacious in decreasing the parasite load in moribund geckos. Morphometric and immunologic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyst isolates originating from Leopard geckos (E. macularius) demonstrated differences between gecko-derived oocyst isolates and isolates of C. serpentis recovered from snakes.

  3. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  4. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development.

    Guxens, Mònica; Mendez, Michelle A; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Julvez, Jordi; García-Esteban, Raquel; Forns, Joan; Ferrer, Muriel; Vrijheid, Martine; López-Sabater, M Carmen; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-10-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with improved neurodevelopment in children. However, it remains unknown to what extent nutritional advantages of breast milk may explain this relationship. We assessed the role of parental psychosocial factors and colostrum long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in the relationship between breastfeeding and children's neurodevelopment. A population-based birth cohort was established in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain) as part of the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project. A total of 657 women were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained by using a questionnaire, and trained psychologists assessed mental and psychomotor development by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 504 children at 14 months of age. A high percentage of breastfeeds among all milk feeds accumulated during the first 14 months was positively related with child mental development (0.37 points per month of full breastfeeding [95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.67]). Maternal education, social class, and intelligence quotient only partly explained this association. Children with a longer duration of breastfeeding also exposed to higher ratios between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in colostrum had significantly higher mental scores than children with low breastfeeding duration exposed to low levels. Greater levels of accumulated breastfeeding during the first year of life were related to higher mental development at 14 months, largely independently from a wide range of parental psychosocial factors. LC-PUFA levels seem to play a beneficial role in children's mental development when breastfeeding levels are high.

  5. Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.

    Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (pbacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of treatment of colostrum-deprived kittens with equine IgG.

    Crawford, P Cynda; Hanel, Rita M; Levy, Julie K

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate equine IgG as a treatment for kittens with failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT). 13 specific pathogen-free queens and their 77 kittens. Kittens were randomized at birth into 9 treatment groups. One group contained colostrum-fed (nursing) kittens; the other groups contained colostrum-deprived kittens that were administered supplemental feline or equine IgG PO or SC during the first 12 hours after birth. Blood samples were collected at serial time points from birth to 56 days of age for determination of serum IgG concentrations. The capacity of equine IgG to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis by feline neutrophils was determined via flow cytometry. Kittens that received feline or equine IgG SC had significantly higher serum IgG concentrations than those of kittens that received the supplements PO. In kittens that were administered supplemental IgG SC, serum IgG concentrations were considered adequate for protection against infection. The half-life of IgG in kittens treated with equine IgG was shorter than that in kittens treated with feline IgG. Feline IgG significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of bacteria by feline neutrophils, but equine IgG did not. Serum concentrations of equine IgG that are considered protective against infection are easily attained in kittens, but the failure of these antibodies to promote bacterial phagocytosis in vitro suggests that equine IgG may be an inappropriate treatment for FPT in kittens.

  7. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Har rød solhatt (Echinacea purpurea), råmelk fra ku (Bovine colostrum) eller c-vitamin effekt på forkjølelse?

    Vassbotn, Liv Jorunn

    2009-01-01

    This literature review examines if Echinacea purpurea, Bovine colostrum or Vitamin C has an effect on common cold infections. Effect is defined in this article as prevention, reduction of symptoms or decrease in duration of disease. The 9 clinical studies and 2 meta- analysis included in this literature review has not found statistically significant result by use of Echinacea purpurea, Bovine colostrums or Vitamin C versus placebo during common cold infection. Therefore I cannot recommend the...

  9. Relation Between Interleukin-1-β And Interleukin-8 Levels In Breast Milk (Colostrum) And Neonatal Physiological Jaundice

    Mohamed, A.A.; Moawad, A.T.; Marei, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system of neonates is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. Breast-fed neonates have higher incidence of neonatal jaundice and higher level of total serum bilirubin than formula-fed infants. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between neonatal physiological jaundice and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the colostrum of nursing mothers. Breast milk (colostrum) was collected from 45 nursing mothers of healthy full term neonates. The sharing mothers and their neonates were divided into two groups according to the presence of neonatal jaundice and the level of total serum bilirubin. All jaundiced neonates had total serum bilirubin level more than 12 mg/dl which appeared on the third postpartum day, all of them were breast-fed only. They were subjected to full history through clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of colostral levels of IL-1-β and IL-8, by ELISA, and determination of neonatal total serum bilirubin levels. This study revealed that mothers of neonates with physiological jaundice had higher concentrations of IL-1-β and IL-8 in their colostrums as compared with control group. Moreover, it displayed that total serum bilirubin level of jaundiced neonates was higher than its level in non-jaundiced neonates. There were significant correlations between IL- 1-β and IL-8 with mother's age in all groups, while there were inverse correlations between IL-1-β, IL-8 and gestational age of non- jaundiced neonates. Additionally, there was significant correlation between IL-1-β and IL-8 in the colostrum of all mothers enrolled in this study. On the other hand, no correlation was determined between cytokines IL-1-β, IL-8 and total serum bilirubin in all neonates sharing in this study. This study clearly demonstrated that the levels of immunomodulating agents such as cytokines IL-1-β and IL-8 were elevated in the colostrum of mothers with jaundiced neonates

  10. Evaluation of the secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the colostrum and milk of mothers of term and pre-trerm newborns

    Edílson D. Araújo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine and to compare the levels of secretory immunoglobulin A in samples of colostrum and milk of mothers of term and preterm neonates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The levels of secretory immunoglobulin A of 10 mothers of term neonates and 10 mothers of preterm neonates were determined from 5mL of colostrum or milk collected on the 1st, 4th, 10th and 15th days of the puerperal period, using the radial immunodifusion technique. We employed anamnesis, as well as physical and gynecological exams in women in the puerperal period. All the patients were attended at the Januário Cicco Maternity College. RESULTS: The secretory immunoglobulin A levels were significantly higher in the colostrum and milk of mothers of preterm neonates when compared with the levels found in colostrum and milk of mothers of term neonates (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.0001. There was a significant decline in the secretory immunoglobulin A levels of the colostrum and milk of the mothers of term and preterm neonates during the four periods (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<00001. CONCLUSIONS: The secretory immunoglobulin A levels in colostrum and milk of mothers of preterm neonates were significantly higher than in the mothers of term neonates, demonstrating immunological adaptation in preterm neonate breast-feeding.

  11. Bovine colostrum increases pore-forming claudin-2 protein expression but paradoxically not ion permeability possibly by a change of the intestinal cytokine milieu.

    Peggy Bodammer

    Full Text Available An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15 remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro.

  12. The Impact of System Level Factors on Treatment Timeliness: Utilizing the Toyota Production System to Implement Direct Intake Scheduling in a Semi-Rural Community Mental Health Clinic

    Weaver, A.; Greeno, C.G.; Goughler, D.H.; Yarzebinski, K.; Zimmerman, T.; Anderson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and one hundred randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160)=4.9; p=.03) from an average of 11 days to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160)=4.2; p=.04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children’s treatment timeliness. PMID:23576137

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA......). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up...... to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2...

  14. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B.; Donkersgoed, van Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, van M.E.M.; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that

  15. Maize kernel size and texture: production parameters, quality of eggs of the laying hens and electricity intake

    Javer Alves Vieira Filho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maize corn size and texture on the performance parameters of laying hens and power consumption required for grinding maize corn were evaluated. The experiment was carried out on 384 Isa Brown hens, 36 weeks old, penned in a conventional aviary with 562.5 cm2 bird-1 stocking rate. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design (maize textures: flint and dent; and milling degree: fine, medium and coarse with eight replicates of eight birds per plot. Data were evaluated with SISVAR and means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Difference was reported for the variable texture and flint increased the variables feed intake and egg weight. Significant difference in the characteristics of egg quality occurred only for the colorof the yolk. Larger corn sizes consumed less electricity during grinding. The maize flint cultivar had a lower 31.7% power consumption when compared to that of the dent cultivar.

  16. Effects of chocolate-based products intake on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels and on satiety in young people: a cross-over experimental study.

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Long, Wei-Qing; Ye, Yan-Bin; Lu, Min-Shan; Zhang, Nai-Qi; Xu, Ming; Huang, Jing; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2018-02-19

    This cross-over experimental study aimed to examine the effects of filled chocolate consumption on blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels in 20 volunteers. After a one-week run-in period, study participants consumed two chocolate-based products, the tested biscuit or water for 21 days as a morning snack. After a two-week wash-out period, participants consumed another tested food for another 21 days. Each participant consumed all four test foods within an 18-week period. The participants' blood insulin increased slowly after two chocolate-based products intakes on the first day and satiety levels after eating chocolate-based products and the tested biscuit were the same. Chocolate consumption for three weeks had no adverse effects on blood glucose, insulin or ghrelin levels. In conclusion, compared to eating the tested biscuit, 21-day consumption of the tested chocolate-based products had no adverse effects on the blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin levels. This trial is registered with chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-IOR-16009525.

  17. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    Jusko, Todd A.; Oktapodas, Marina; Murinová, L’ubica Palkovičová; Babinská, Katarina; Babjaková, Jana; Verner, Marc-André; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Čonka, Kamil; Drobná, Beata; Chovancová, Jana; Thurston, Sally W.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Dozier, Ann M.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Patayová, Henrieta; Trnovec, Tomáš; Legler, Juliette; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lamoree, Marja H.

    2017-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184 colostrum samples collected from women participating in a cohort study in eastern Slovakia between 2002 and 2004. During their hospital delivery stay, mothers completed a food frequency questionnaire, and demographic and reproductive data were also collected. PFOS and PFOA predictors were identified by optimizing multiple linear regression models using Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). The geometric mean concentration in colostrum was 35.3 pg/ml for PFOS and 32.8 pg/ml for PFOA., In multivariable models, parous women had 40% lower PFOS (95% CI: −56 to −17%) and 40% lower PFOA (95% CI: −54 to −23%) concentrations compared with nulliparous women. Moreover, fresh/frozen fish consumption, longer birth intervals, and Slovak ethnicity were associated with higher PFOS and PFOA concentrations in colostrum. These results will help guide the design of future epidemiologic studies examining milk PFAS concentrations in relation to health endpoints in children. PMID:27244128

  19. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  20. Effect of timing and type of supplementary grain on herbage intake, nitrogen utilization and milk production in dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture from evening to morning.

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effect of timing and type of supplementary grain in grazing dairy cows on herbage dry matter intake (HDMI), nitrogen utilization and milk production. Eight lactating cows were allowed to graze from evening to morning during three seasonal periods (spring, summer, autumn). They were randomly allocated to four treatments (timing: pre- (Pre) or post-grazing (Post), for large grain allotments consisting of 75% of daily grain offered; grain type: barley or corn) in 4 × 4 Latin square designs in each period. In the spring period, HDMI was greater for cows fed corn than those fed barley (P = 0.005), whereas cows in the Pre treatment had a similar HDMI, higher (P = 0.049) urinary purine derivative concentration and greater (P = 0.004) milk yield compared with cows in the Post treatment. In the summer and autumn periods, timing treatments did not affect HDMI, nitrogen utilization or milk production, but cows supplemented with barley had higher urinary purine derivatives concentration (P production without reducing HDMI regardless of grain type. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study

    Egeberg, R; Olsen, A; Loft, S; Christensen, J; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of wholegrain (WG) products may protect against colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations between total and individual WG product consumption and colon and rectal cancer risk were prospectively examined using data on 461 incident cases of colon cancer and 283 incident cases of rectal cancer that developed during 10.6 years (median) of follow-up among 26 630 men and 29 189 women taking part in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of ...

  2. Recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Arráez-Román, David; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid

  3. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  4. Effect of colostrum on gravity separation of milk somatic cells in skim milk.

    Geer, S R; Barbano, D M

    2014-02-01

    Our objective was to determine if immunoglobulins play a role in the gravity separation (rising to the top) of somatic cells (SC) in skim milk. Other researchers have shown that gravity separation of milk fat globules is enhanced by IgM. Our recent research found that bacteria and SC gravity separate in both raw whole and skim milk and that heating milk to >76.9 °C for 25s stopped gravity separation of milk fat, SC, and bacteria. Bovine colostrum is a good natural source of immunoglobulins. An experiment was designed where skim milk was heated at high temperatures (76 °C for 7 min) to stop the gravity separation of SC and then colostrum was added back to try to restore the gravity separation of SC in increments to achieve 0, 0.4, 0.8, 2.0, and 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. The milk was allowed to gravity separate for 22 h at 4 °C. The heat treatment of skim milk was sufficient to stop the gravity separation of SC. The treatment of 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins was successful in restoring the gravity separation of SC as compared with raw skim milk. Preliminary spore data on the third replicate suggested that bacterial spores gravity separate the same way as the SC in heated skim milk and heated skim milk with 4.0 g/L of added immunoglobulins. Strong evidence exists that immunoglobulins are at least one of the factors necessary for the gravity separation of SC and bacterial spores. It is uncertain at this time whether SC are a necessary component for gravity separation of fat, bacteria, and spores to occur. Further research is needed to determine separately the role of immunoglobulins and SC in gravity separation of bacteria and spores. Understanding the mechanism of gravity separation may allow the development of a continuous flow technology to remove SC, bacteria, and spores from milk. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Brix refractometer to estimate immunoglobulin G concentration in bovine colostrum.

    Quigley, J D; Lago, A; Chapman, C; Erickson, P; Polo, J

    2013-02-01

    Refractometry using a Brix refractometer has been proposed as a means to estimate IgG concentration in bovine maternal colostrum (MC). The refractometer has advantages over other methods of estimating IgG concentration in that the Brix refractometer is inexpensive, readily available, less fragile, and less sensitive to variation in colostral temperature, season of the year and other factors. Samples of first-milking MC were collected from 7 dairy farms in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut (n=84) and 1 dairy farm in California (n=99). The MC was milked from the cow at 6.1 ± 5.6h postparturition and a sample was evaluated for Brix percentage by using an optical refractometer. Two additional samples (30 mL) were collected from the milk bucket, placed in vials, and frozen before analysis of total IgG by radial immunodiffusion (RID) using commercially available plates and by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA). The second sample was analyzed for total bacterial counts and coliform counts at laboratories in New York (Northeast samples) and California (California samples). The Brix percentage (mean ± SD) was 23.8 ± 3.5, IgG concentration measured by RID was 73.4 ± 26.2g/L, and IgG concentration measured by TIA was 67.5 ± 25.0 g/L. The Brix percentage was highly correlated (r=0.75) with IgG analyzed by RID. The Brix percentage cut point to define high- or low-quality colostrum (50 g of IgG/L measured by RID) that classified more samples correctly given the proportion of high- (86%) and low-quality (14%) samples in this study was 21%, which is slightly lower than other recent estimates of Brix measurements. At this cut point, the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 92.9, 65.5, 93.5, 63.3, and 88.5%, respectively. Measurement of IgG by TIA correlated with Brix (r=0.63) and RID (r=0.87); however, TIA and RID methods of IgG measurement were not consistent throughout the range of samples tested. We conclude

  6. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  7. The quality of colostrum and vitality of calves, born from cows with different reaction to stress experiences

    O. M. Chernenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying cortisol concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity in the blood serum of 40 half-sib Ukrainian black and white dairy cows an hour after planned blood extraction, which was a stress experience. We divided the cows into three groups according to the distribution of cortisol concentration in the animals: I – high, II – average and III – low stress resistance. During the research, the cows from these groups were in their fourth month of lactation after their first calving. They were kept untethered in their summer quarters, natural pastures. The aim of the research was to identify the differences in the quality of colostrum, the vitality of the calves up to the age of 6 months, the vitality of the mother-cows, and also the influence of their different adaptation potentials in cases of abortion and stillborn calves among the cows from different groups. At the dairy complex where the research was conducted, the quality of the cows’ colostrum is not monitored. This is typical for most dairy plants of Ukraine. We found that the classes of A and M immunoglobulins did not depend upon which particular groups the animals belonged to, whereas the content of immunoglobulins of class G is 6.7 g/l higher, and the content of total protein is 8.9 g/l higher in the yield of colostrum of the cows from group 1. The influence of cows’ different levels of resistance to stress experiences on their incidence of abortions and stillborn calves was not determined. Gastroenteritis occurred among calves of cows from group 3 three times more often than with those of group 1. Vitality of calves from cows of groups 1 and 2 was significantly higher. Therefore, technological stress experiences of mother-cows have a negative effect upon the quality of colostrum and upon the vitality of calves. This factor ought to be taken into consideration in the exploitation of animals, especially during pregnancy in order to

  8. Influência de variáveis socioeconômicas e de saúde materno-infantil sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro humano Retinol levels in human colostrum: influence of child, maternal and socioeconomic variables

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2003-11-01

    evaluated 48 hours after delivery. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, and dietary data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Body mass index was used to determine nutritional status. The Virtual Nutri software was used to analyze data on daily intake of vitamin A collected by a dietetic history. Retinol levels were determined in 2 ml of colostrum using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Most women were of low socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. Vitamin A intake was adequate in 55% of the women (mean intake = 1,398.8 µg RE/day. The mean amount of retinol in colostrum was 93.1+51.1 µgRE/100 ml. No significant differences were found in terms of milk retinol levels for the variables income (p = 0.503, educational level (p = 0.708 and birth weight (p = 0. 499. However, a statistically significant difference was observed for nutritional status during pregnancy (0.016. CONCLUSION:The lack of influence of socioeconomic factors on colostrum retinol levels suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism of the mammary gland to maintain adequate retinol levels that meet the infant's daily needs.

  9. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    Omomo, Yoichiro

    1974-01-01

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  10. Coffee intake.

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  12. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  13. "Omics" in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk: Looking to Old Data with New Eyes.

    Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Fanos, Vassilios; Reali, Alessandra

    2017-08-07

    Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition. Our aim was to provide new evidence in terms of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, also in relation to maternal metabolic diseases and/or fetal anomalies and to underline the functions of GF. Since HC results are so precious, particularly for the vulnerable pre-terms category, we also discuss the importance of HM pasteurization to ensure donated HC even to neonates whose mothers are unable to provide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing in detail the molecular pattern, microbiota, bioactive factors, and dynamic profile of HC, finding clinical correlations of such mediators with their possible in vivo effects and with the consequent impact on neonatal outcomes.

  14. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    production (NEL+M+gain) per kg DM intake was highest in the SI-TMR, lowest in the HS-TMR and intermediate in the HL-TMR (1.52, 1.40 and 1.45, respectively). Animal welfare, as expressed in daily recumbence time and BW gain was similar in the SI and HS groups and higher than the HL cows.

  15. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  16. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  17. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  18. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  19. Prevalence and presentation of lactose intolerance and effects on dairy product intake in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Yang, Jianfeng; Deng, Yanyong; Chu, Hua; Cong, Yanqun; Zhao, Jianmin; Pohl, Daniel; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The effects of lactase deficiency on digestive symptoms and diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been well defined. We assessed lactose absorption and tolerance and the intake of dairy products in healthy volunteers (controls) and patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Sixty patients diagnosed with D-IBS at the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Hangzhou, China and 60 controls were given hydrogen breath tests to detect malabsorption and intolerance after administration of 10, 20, and 40 g lactose in random order 7-14 days apart; participants and researchers were blinded to the dose. We assessed associations between the results and self-reported lactose intolerance (LI). Malabsorption of 40 g lactose was observed in 93% of controls and 92% of patients with D-IBS. Fewer controls than patients with D-IBS were intolerant to 10 g lactose (3% vs 18%; odds ratio [OR], 6.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-30.8; P = .008), 20 g lactose (22% vs 47%; OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.43-7.02; P = .004), and 40 g lactose (68% vs 85%; OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.08-6.42; P = .03). H(2) excretion was associated with symptom score (P = .001). Patients with D-IBS self-reported LI more frequently than controls (63% vs 22%; OR, 6.25; 95% CI, 2.78-14.0; P lactose ingested and intestinal gas production and is increased in patients with D-IBS. Self-reported LI, but not objective results from hydrogen breath tests, was associated with avoidance of dairy products. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effectiveness of A School-Based Nutrition Intervention on Children's Fruit, Vegetables, and Dairy Product Intake.

    Drapeau, Vicky; Savard, Mathieu; Gallant, Annette; Nadeau, Luc; Gagnon, Jocelyn

    2016-05-01

    Most Canadian children do not meet daily recommendations for consumption of vegetables and fruits (V/F) and dairy products (DP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and DP consumption of children. Participants were 404 children from grades 5 and 6 (intervention group [IG] N = 242, control group [CG] N = 162). Teams of children were guided to increase their consumption and variety of V/F and DP over an 8-week period. Daily servings of V/F and DP were compared between groups at 4 time points: baseline (week 0), during (week 6), immediately after (week 9 or 10), and a follow-up 10 weeks after (week 20) the intervention. During and after the program and at follow-up, children in the IG consumed more servings of V/F and DP compared to the CG (group × time, p .05). Team Nutriathlon is an innovative school-based nutrition program that can help to increase the V/F and DP consumption of children. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Effects of Satureja khuzistanica essential oils in drinking water on mortality, production performance, water intake, and organ weights in broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition.

    Khosravinia, H

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects on mortality, production performance, water intake (WI), and organ weight of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SkEO) using 720 1-day-old Arian broiler chicks in a 42-day trial. Experimental treatments were addition of 0 (control(-)), 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO or 500 mg/L polysorbate 80 (control(+)) into drinking water. The birds were kept under natural ambient temperatures 4 to 6 °C above standard recommendation from days 22 to 42 of age. Addition of SkEO into drinking water at 200 and 500 mg/L decreased weight gain (P  0.05). Supplementation of drinking water with 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/L SkEO resulted in a 0.47, 4.40, 8.60, and 12.93% decrease in WI, respectively, from days 1 to 42 of age. The calculated European broiler index was greater for the birds received 400 mg/L of SkEO in their drinking water compared with that of the other birds (P water for heat-stressed broiler chickens improves economic efficiency possibly by promoting digestion process, creating miniscule improvement in FCR and lowered mortality rate.

  2. Study on the estimation of probabilistic effective dose. Committed effective dose from intake of marine products using Oceanic General Circulation Model

    Nakano, Masanao

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide environmental protection is required by the public. A long-term environmental assessment from nuclear fuel cycle facilities to the aquatic environment also becomes more important to utilize nuclear energy more efficiently. Evaluation of long-term risk including not only in Japan but also in neighboring countries is considered to be necessary in order to develop nuclear power industry. The author successfully simulated the distribution of radionuclides in seawater and seabed sediment produced by atmospheric nuclear tests using LAMER (Long-term Assessment ModEl for Radioactivity in the oceans). A part of the LAMER calculated the advection- diffusion-scavenging processes for radionuclides in the oceans and the Japan Sea in cooperate with Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) and was validated. The author is challenging to calculate probabilistic effective dose suggested by ICRP from intake of marine products due to atmospheric nuclear tests using the Monte Carlo method in the other part of LAMER. Depending on the deviation of each parameter, the 95th percentile of the probabilistic effective dose was calculated about half of the 95th percentile of the deterministic effective dose in proforma calculation. The probabilistic assessment gives realistic value for the dose assessment of a nuclear fuel cycle facility. (author)

  3. Deletion of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the mouse increases arterial blood pressure with no impairment in renal NO production in response to chronic high salt intake

    Staehr, Mette; Hansen, Pernille B L; Madsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that COX-2 activity attenuates the blood pressure increase during high NaCl intake by stimulation of eNOS-mediated NO synthesis in the kidney medulla. COX-2(-/-) (C57BL6) and (+/+) mice were fed a diet with 0.004% (LS) or 4% (HS) NaCl for 18 days. ...... pressure during high salt intake and COX-2 activity is not necessary for increased renal NO formation during elevated NaCl intake....... pressure on salt intake and genotype: COX-2(-/-) exhibited higher blood pressure than COX-2(+/+) both on HS and LS intake. COX-2(+/+) littermates displayed an increase in blood pressure on HS vs. LS (102.3±1.1 mmHg vs. 91.9±0.9 mmHg) day and night. The mice exhibited significant blood pressure increases...... during the awake phase (night) that were larger in COX-2(-/-) on HS diet compared to COX-2(+/+). Water intake, diuresis, Na(+) and osmolyte excretions and NOx and cGMP excretions were significantly and similarly elevated with HS in COX-2(-/-) and COX-2(+/+). In summary, C57BL6 mice exhibit a salt intake...

  4. The Relationship between Intake of Dairy Products and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Who Referred to Isfahan University of Medical Science Clinics in 2013.

    Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS.

  5. Pre-foaling period in Trotter mares – 2: variations of protein fractions in pre-colostrum secretion

    A. Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mare has a diffuse epitheliochorial placenta that does not allow the transplacental passage of maternal antibodies to the foetus. As a consequence, newly-born foals are immunologically dependent on the absorption of colostral maternal immunoglobulins (Ig. Therefore, the newborn foal should immediately suckle an adequate quantity of colostrum to reach an haematological IgG concentration of 400 mg/dl which prevent the occurrence of Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT, disease which can be fatal to the foal (Jeffcott, 1972; Curadi and Orlandi, 1998.

  6. Colostro fermentado, associado ao óleo de soja e promotor de crescimento, em substituição ao leite, na alimentação de bezerros mestiços leiteiros Effects of replacing milk with fermented colostrum, with or without soy oil and growth promoter for crossbred dairy calves

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de 40 bezerros F1 Holandês x Gir com peso médio de 36 kg, provenientes de rebanhos leiteiros alimentados com leite integral ou colostro fermentado, associado ou não com óleo de soja, com ou sem promotor de crescimento (Zeranol. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, a circunferência torácica, altura de cernelha dos animais, o consumo de leite ou de colostro fermentado e o consumo de ração concentrada, entre o 15º e 60º dia de idade. A utilização de Zeranol não promoveu diferença no consumo de ração concentrada quando se utilizou leite integral. Os animais que receberam colostro fermentado mais promotor de crescimento apresentaram consumo de ração concentrada 44,23% maior que aqueles sem promotor de crescimento e 132% superior ao dos animais alimentados com leite integral e Zeranol. Para ganho de peso, não houve efeito entre as associações de óleo de soja e Zeranol. Os bezerros do tratamento com leite e Zeranol apresentaram maior altura de cernelha (-85,70 cm. A utilização de óleo de soja ou de Zeranol não influenciou a circunferência torácica (média de 88,19 cm. Os bezerros submetidos aos dois tipos de dieta líquida apresentaram taxa de crescimento constante e semelhante, demonstrando que o colostro fermentado é capaz de promover ganhos de peso da mesma magnitude que o leite integral.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of replacing milk with whole milk or fermented colostrum, supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without growth promoter (Zeranol on performance of 40 F1 Holstein x Gir calves averaging 36 kg. Weight gain, thoracic circumference, withers height and milk or fermented colostrums intake, and concentrated ration intake were the variables investigated from age 15 to 60 days. No significant difference on feed intake was observed when whole milk and Zeranol were fed. Feed intake of animals fed fermented colostrum with Zeranol increased by 44.23% than those

  7. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  8. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  9. Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on newly received growing cattle: antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid animals.

    Spore, Tyler J; Montgomery, Sean P; Titgemeyer, Evan C; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Vahl, Chris I; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cavalli, Kevin T; Hollenbeck, William R; Wahl, Ross A; Blasi, Dale A

    2018-04-14

    Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product-based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design. In addition, two animals were randomly and independently selected from each pen (16/dietary treatment) and used to measure fecal cortisol metabolite. Additionally, animals removed from the pen one (M1), two (M2), or three (M3) times and classified as morbid were bled in conjunction with a healthy control (H) removed at the same time and the serum analyzed for the same parameters. A quadratic response to time (P bovine viral diarrhea type 1 (BVD-I) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR; P levels by day 27. Titer levels for BVD-I and IBR were lowest on arrival, higher on day 14, and significantly higher on day 27. Titers for bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVD-II) responded linearly (P levels on arrival and highest levels on day 27. Haptoglobin was elevated in morbid animals compared to healthy pen mates (P levels for BVD-I and IBR were also higher in healthy animals compared to animals pulled for morbidity (P energy receiving diets based on fermentable fiber from by-products can be fed to newly received growing cattle without negative effects on antibody production toward vaccines, inflammation, or overall stress. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations and titer levels for BVD-I and IBR viruses are higher in healthy animals compared to sick animals.

  10. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  11. Content changes of selected mineral nutrients in mare’s colostrums in the first 72 hours after foaling

    Branislav Gálik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor levels of minerals in mare’s colostrum in the first 3 days after foaling. Colostrum samples from four warm-blood mares (in three repetitions were analysed 2, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours postpartum. The samples were obtained by hand milking. Calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn contents were analysed in each sample. Non-significant decrease of postpartum Ca and Na contents was found in the analysed samples. Significant differences (P < 0.05 in P content were detected between 2 and 36 hours postpartum. Content of Mg showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 during the period after foaling (2, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours post foaling. Mg concentration reached its maximum (21.8 g.kg−1 of dry matter 2 hours postpartum and it dropped to its lowest level (5.27 g.kg−1 of dry matter 48 hours after foaling. Similarly, the highest K content (significant in relation to values obtained 36, 48 and 72 hours postpartum was detected 2 hours after foaling while the lowest K level (37.96 g.kg−1 of dry matter was found 48 hours postpartum. As regards the microelements, Cu showed insignificant differences in its postpartum levels (P > 0.05. Besides growth of Fe levels, decrease of Zn and Mn (P > 0.05 was also observed.

  12. Effects of newborn characteristics and length of colostrum feeding period on passive immune transfer in goat kids.

    Castro, N; Capote, J; Morales-Delanuez, A; Rodríguez, C; Argüello, A

    2009-04-01

    Majorera goat kids (n = 200) were used to evaluate the effects of litter size, birth body weight, sex, and suckling duration on serum IgG concentrations. Kids were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: litter size and sex were equally distributed in each group. In the first group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 24 h; in the second group, kids (n = 66) stayed with their dams for 48 h; and in the third group, kids (n = 67) stayed with their dams for 120 h. Blood samples were obtained every 24 h for 5 d, and serum IgG concentration was measured using radial immunodiffusion. In litter sizes of 1 to 2 kids, IgG blood serum concentration was significantly higher (18.30 +/- 5.40 mg/mL) than in litters of 3 kids (9.85 +/- 4.23 mg/mL). Kid sex did not affect IgG blood serum concentrations. Suckling duration did not affect kid serum IgG concentrations. In conclusion, kids with low birth body weight (kids are allowed to suckle colostrum for at least 24 h from their dams, this seems to be sufficient time to ingest enough IgG from colostrum to achieve an adequate serum IgG concentration and passive immune protection to avoid failure of passive immune transfer.

  13. Differential expression of insulin like growth factor I and other fibroblast mitogens in porcine colostrum and milk

    Tan, T.J.; Simmen, R.C.M.; Simmen, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sow mammary secretions contain at least 3 distinct growth factor activities, distinguished by their size and relative abundance in colostrum or later milk. Gel filtration of colostrum in Sephadex G-200 columns, followed by acid-ethanol extraction and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) revealed high levels of this factor in the 150K and 50K MW regions, characteristic of IGF-I: binding protein complexes. Acid treatment of these fractions yielded free IGF-I peptide (7.5K). Parallel mitogen assays with a fibroblast cell line (AKR-2B) demonstrated a predominant peak of high MW activity (sow colostral growth factor-I, SCGF-I) eluting near the column void volume (MW > 150K). Treatment of SCGF-I with 1M acetic acid resulted in a size reduction of the mitogenic activity (MW < 10K), suggesting association of SCGF-I with a binding protein. The SCGF-I peptide was noncompetitive in IGF-I RIA, was distinct in MW from free IGF-I, and was not mitogenic for chick embryo fibroblasts. Sow milk contains less IGF-I and SCGF-I but does display a predominant peak of small MW (∼ 3K) AKR-2B activity. The changes in expression of these growth factors during lactation may reflect differing roles in lactogenesis and/or neonatal growth and development

  14. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  15. A comparison of the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine colostrum and animal plasma on growth and intestinal histology in weaner pigs

    King, M.R.; Morel, P.C.H.; Pluske, J.R.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary spray-dried bovine and porcine plasma and spray-dried bovine colostrum on growth performance and intestinal histology in weaner pigs. Thirty-two 21-day-old piglets (6.65 ± 0.14 kg) were allocated to receive one of four dietary

  16. Passive administration of purified secretory IgA from human colostrum induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a murine model of progressive pulmonary infection

    Alvarez Nadine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunoglobulin A is the most abundant isotype in secretions from mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and genitourinary tracts and in external secretions such as colostrum, breast milk, tears and saliva. The high concentration of human secretory IgA (hsIgA in human colostrum strongly suggests that it should play an important role in the passive immune protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Materials and methods Human secretory IgA was purified from colostrum. The reactivity of hsIgA against mycobacterial antigens and its protective capacity against mycobacterial infection was evaluated. Results The passive administration of hsIgA reduces the pneumonic area before challenge with M. tuberculosis. The intratracheal administration of M. tuberculosis preincubated with hsIgA to mice greatly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and diminished lung tissue injury. Conclusions HsIgA purified from colostrum protects against M. tuberculosis infection in an experimental mouse model.

  17. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation’s Lack of Effect on Immune Variables During Short-Term Intense Exercise in Well-Trained Athletes

    Carol, A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function. The authors evaluated the time course of a number of immune variables after short-term intense exercise in 9 male athletes after 10 d of supplementation with either

  18. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  19. Benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium intake by replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in industrial food products in Norway.

    Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Frølich, Wenche; Dahl, Knut Helkås; Iversen, Per Ole; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand; Alexander, Jan

    2018-01-01

    High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K + : weight % Na + ) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Heat-treatment on Accuracy of Infrared Spectroscopy and Digital and Optical Brix Refractometers for Measuring Immunoglobulin G Concentration in Bovine Colostrum.

    Elsohaby, I; McClure, J T; Dow, N; Keefe, G P

    2018-01-01

    Heat-treatment of colostrum is a method developed to reduce calf exposure to pathogens. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Brix refractometers can be used for measuring colostral IgG concentration and assessing colostrum quality. To determine the impact of heat-treatment on accuracy of IR spectroscopy and Brix refractometers for measuring colostral IgG concentration and assessing colostrum quality before and after heat-treatment. A total of 60 Holstein dairy cows on 8 commercial dairy farms. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the effect of heat-treatment at 60°C and 63°C each for 30 and 60 minutes duration on colostral IgG concentration measured by the reference radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, IR spectroscopy, and digital and optical refractometers. Colostrum IgG concentration significantly decreased after heat-treatment at 63°C for 30 or 60 minutes as measured by RID, but the IgG values remained unchanged when measured by IR spectroscopy and refractometers. The lowest correlation coefficient found between IR spectroscopy (r = 0.70) and RID results was in colostrum heat-treated at 63°C for 60 minutes. For digital (r = 0.48) and optical (r = 0.50) refractometers, the lowest correlation coefficient was at 63°C for 30 minutes when compared to RID. The accuracy of the IR spectroscopy, digital and optical Brix refractometers was decreased from 91.7 to 80%, 81.7 to 45%, and 80 to 45%, respectively, when colostrum heat-treated at 63°C for 60 minutes. Radial immunodiffusion, IR spectroscopy, and Brix refractometers exhibit utility for measuring IgG concentration when colostrum heat-treated at 60°C but does not detect decrease IgG concentrations when heat-treated at 63°C. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Impulsivity, "advergames," and food intake.

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Westerik, Henk; Buijzen, Moniek

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effect of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children. However, the role of individual susceptibility in this effect is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of impulsivity in the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. First, impulsivity scores were assessed with a computer task. Then a randomized between-subject design was conducted with 261 children aged 7 to 10 years who played an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. As an extra manipulation, half of the children in each condition were rewarded for refraining from eating, the other half were not. Children could eat freely while playing the game. Food intake was measured. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and were weighed and measured. Overall, playing an advergame containing food cues increased general caloric intake. Furthermore, rewarding children to refrain from eating decreased their caloric intake. Finally, rewarding impulsive children to refrain from eating had no influence when they were playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks, whereas it did lead to reduced intake among low impulsive children and children who played nonfood advergames. Playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks contributes to increased caloric intake in children. The advergame promoting energy-dense snacks overruled the inhibition task to refrain from eating among impulsive children, making it more difficult for them to refrain from eating. The findings suggest that impulsivity plays an important role in susceptibility to food advertisements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  3. Relationship between growth of nursing pigs and composition of sow colostrum and milk from anterior and posterior mammary glands

    Šamanc H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets that nurse anterior mammary glands grow faster than those suckling posterior mammary glands. The underlying mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in composition in colostrum and milk secreted by anterior and posterior mammary glands. Seven healthy sows were used. The first three pairs of mammary glands were defined as anterior mammary glands (AMG and the rest as posterior mammary glands (PMG. Additionally, the total of 87 born piglets from 7 litters derived from the sows involved in the experiment was analyzed. Piglets from each litter that nursed AMG were defined as AMG group while the rest of piglets from the litter were defined as PMG group. Colostrum and milk were collected at days 1, 2, 3 and 7 after parturition. Samples taken from anterior and posterior mammary glands were pooled, respectively. Results showed that total protein, IGF-I and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the colostrum of anterior than posterior glands and IGF-I concentration remained significantly higher in milk of anterior compared to posterior glands. There were no significant differences in fat, dry matter and lactose among anterior and posterior glands during all examined periods. Additionally, blood samples from nursing sows were obtained at days 1 and 7 after parturition. Results showed that concentrations of Ca, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin and insulin significantly increased from day 1 to day 7 of parturition while concentrations of P, BUN, CK and IGF-I did not significantly change during this period. Initial body weight of pigs nursing the anterior gland was higher but not significantly that those suckling posterior glands. Pigs that nursed anterior glands gained weight faster then those which suckled posterior glands resulting with significantly higher body weigh of piglets nursing anterior compared to posterior glands at day 8 of neonatal life (p

  4. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  5. Analysis of Alphalactalbumin and Betalactoglobulin from the Rehydration of Bovine Colostrum Powder Using Cloud Point Extraction and Mass Spectrometry

    Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alphalactalbumin (α-La and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg in the rehydration of bovine colostrum powder were successfully separated by cloud point extraction using a nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The effects of different factors, including the surfactant concentration, sample volume, electrolyte, and pH were discussed. The optimized conditions for cloud point extraction of alphalactalbumin (α-La and betalactoglobulin (β-Lg can be concluded that the best surfactant is 1% (w/v Triton X-114, 200 μL of sample volume, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 6% (w/v sucrose. After cloud point extraction, the capillary electrophoresis is used to check the efficiency of the extraction procedure. The results had been effectively confirmed by the characterization with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS.

  6. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  7. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  8. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2015. Scientific Opinion on an alternative method for the hygienic treatment of bovine colostrum through a series of filtration steps

    Hald, Tine

    An alternative method to the HTST treatment (High Temperature Short Time pasteurisation at 72 °C for at least 15 seconds or equivalent pasteurisation effect achieving a negative reaction to a phosphatase test), approved for the treatment of bovine colostrum (Category 3 material), was assessed...... process reduces the relevant viral contaminants to a level at least equivalent to a single HTST treatment as required by the legislation....

  9. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-08

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  12. Effect of two bakery products on short-term food intake and gut-hormones in young adults: a pilot study.

    Santaliestra-Pasías, A M; Garcia-Lacarte, M; Rico, M C; Aguilera, C M; Moreno, L A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of conventional bread and a whole grain bread on appetite and energy intake, satiety and satiety gut-hormones. A randomized controlled crossover pilot study was carried out in 11 university students (age: 18.7 ± 0.9 years; body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)). Participants consumed two different mid-morning cereal-based snacks, including a conventional or whole grain bread. Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires, blood sampling and consumption of standardized breakfast, mid-morning test-snacks and ad libitum lunch. Several gut-hormones were analysed and satiation was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores. The consumption of whole grain bread increased satiety perception, decreased the remained energy intake during the testing day, and decreased the postprandial response of peptide YY, compared with conventional bread (p < 0.005). These data suggest that the consumption of whole grain bread might be a useful strategy to improve satiety.

  13. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  14. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  15. Fatty acid compositions of preterm and term colostrum, transitional and mature milks in a sub-Saharan population with high fish intakes

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are no data on the fatty acid (FA) compositions of preterm and term milks for sub-Saharan African populations with advancing lactation. However, it is generally acknowledged that our ancestors evolved in sub-Saharan East-Africa, where they inhabited the land-water ecosystems.

  16. FED INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN-ZEBU CROSSBREED COWS HOLD IN DIFFERENT TROPICAL PASTURES CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE VACAS MESTIÇAS MANTIDAS EM DIFERENTES PASTAGENS TROPICAIS

    Ana Luiza Costa Cruz Borges

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Fed intake and milk production of Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows, grazing Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA and Guinea grass (Pannicum maximum (COL and supplemented with four kg of concentrate, were evaluated in a double Latin square (3x3. Fecal production and feed intake were calculated using Cr2O3 and in vitro digestibility. Dry mater intake (DMI was similar among forages (18kg/cow which represented 2.72%; 2.84% and 2.96% of the live weight for NAP, BRACH and COL respectively. The intake per unit of metabolic size (g DM/kg0.75 was 130 for NAP, 135 for BRACH and 145 for COL. The intake of BRACH resulted in lower milk production (14,4kg than NAP (15,5kg and COL (16,1Kg. Grasses did not affected the milk composition which showed 4,03% of fat, 2,46% of protein and 12,42% of total solids. It was concluded that NAP, BRACH and COL are good alternatives for milk production in grazing systems.

    KEY WORDS: Brachiaria decumbens, Guinea grass, Panicum maximum, Napier, Pennisetum purpureum.

    Realizou-se a avaliação do consumo de alimentos e da produção de leite de vacas mestiças pastejando piquetes de capim Napier (Pennisetum purpureum (NAP, Brachiaria decumbens (BRA e Colonião (Pannicum maximum (COL e suplementadas com quatro kg de concentrado em um esquema de quadrado latino (3x3 duplo. Calcularam-se a produção fecal e o consumo de alimentos com o auxílio do Cr2O3 e da digestibilidade in vitro. O consumo diário de MS foi semelhante entre as forragens (18kg/vaca, as quais representaram 2,72%; 2,84% e 2,96% do p.v. para o NAP, BRACH e COL, respectivamente. O consumo por unidade de tamanho metabólico (g MS/kg0,75 foi de 130 para o NAP, 135 para a BRACH e 145 para

  17. Impacto da suplementação com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato sobre os níveis de retinol do colostro Impact on colostrum retinol levels of immediate postpartum supplementation with retinyl palmitate

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com retinil palmitato sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro, investigando a influência de variáveis maternas (idade, tipo de parto e estado nutricional bioquímico sobre esses níveis. MÉTODO:Participaram do estudo 33 nutrizes atendidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram coletadas, nas primeiras horas após o parto, uma amostra de sangue e uma de colostro. Uma nova amostra de colostro foi coletada 6 horas após suplementação materna com 200 000 UI de retinil palmitato. O retinol no sangue e colostro foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os níveis médios de retinol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 110,8 ± 82,3 µg/dL, tendo atingido 164,4 ± 106,5 µg/dL após a suplementação (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on colostrum retinol levels, investigating the influence of maternal variables (age, type of delivery, and biochemical nutritional status on these levels. METHOD: The study included 33 mothers receiving care at the Januário Cicco Maternity School, in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In the first hours after delivery, blood and colostrum samples were collected. Another colostrum sample was collected six hours after maternal supplementation with 200 000 IU of retinyl palmitate. Serum and colostrum retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean retinol level in colostrum before the supplementation was 110.8 ± 82.3 µg/dL, and after supplementation it was 164.4 ± 106.5 µg/dL (P < 0.025. Of the 33 mothers, 12 of them either did not respond to supplementation or had an increase of less than 10% in colostrum retinol levels; serum retinol in these women was significantly lower as compared to the responders (P = 0.024. In comparison to women with a normal delivery, the mothers who underwent

  18. Enterocin C, a class IIb bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum.

    Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Jiménez, Esther; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Ruiz-Barba, José L; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2009-07-31

    Enterocin C (EntC), a class IIb bacteriocin was purified from culture supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis C901, a strain isolated from human colostrum. Enterocin C consists of two distinct peptides, named EntC1 and EntC2, whose complementary action is required for full antimicrobial activity. The structural genes entC1 and entC2 encoding enterocins EntC1 and EntC2, respectively, and that encoding the putative immunity protein (EntCI) are located in the 9-kb plasmid pEntC, harboured by E. faecalis C901. The N-terminal sequence of both antimicrobial peptides revealed that EntC1 (4284 Da) is identical to Ent1071A, one of the two peptides that form enterocin 1071 (Ent1071), a bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis BFE 1071. In contrast, EntC2 (3867 Da) presents the non-polar alanine residue at position 17 (Ala(17)) instead of the polar threonine residue (Thr(17)) in Ent1071B, the second peptide constituting Ent1071. In spite of peptide similarities, EntC differs from Ent1071 in major aspects, including the complementary activity among its constitutive peptides and its wider inhibitory spectrum of activity. Different amphiphilic alpha-helical conformations between EntC2 and Ent1071B could explain both, acquired complementary activity and increased antimicrobial spectrum.

  19. Empirical and bioinformatic characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum whey peptides & their angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition.

    Ashok, N R; Aparna, H S

    2017-08-01

    Whey based peptides are well known for their nutritional and multifunctional properties. In this context, whey proteins from buffalo colostrum & milk were digested by in vitro simulation digestion and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. Functional protein association networks, gene annotations and localization of identified proteins were carried out. An ACE inhibitory peptide sorted from the library was custom synthesized and an in vitro ACE assay was performed. The study led to the identification of 74 small peptides which were clustered into 5 gene functional groups and majority of them were secretory proteins. Among the identified peptides, majority of them were found identical to angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and opioidal peptides. An octapeptide (m/z - 902.51, IQKVAGTW) synthesized was found to inhibit ACE with an IC 50 of 300±2µM. The present investigation thus establishes newer vista for food derived peptides having ACE inhibitory potential for nutraceutical or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic status and intake of energy and sodium are associated with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, Iran.

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Mun, Chan Yoke; Tajik, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Calcium intake in developing countries is lower than that in developed countries. In Iran, inadequate calcium intake in the general population, especially among women, is a public health concern. This cross-sectional study examined the correlation between sociodemographic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, southeast Iran. A sample of 308 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years from seven urban health-care centers participated in the study. All women were measured for height and weight and interviewed for demographic and socioeconomic, obstetrical, lifestyle and dietary intake information while pre-pregnancy weight was obtained from prenatal record. Stepwise multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with calcium intake. The mean daily calcium intake of women was 968.51±363.05mg/day and only 46.4% of the pregnant women met the dietary reference intakes of 1000 mg for calcium. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to calcium intake (75.11%). Energy-adjusted calcium intake was positively associated with years of schooling (Psodium (P<0.01) intakes. This information would be useful in planning and developing appropriate strategies to improve calcium intake in pregnant women. Efforts to increase calcium intake in pregnant women should focus on promoting nutrient-dense food and making these foods available and accessible, particularly to socioeconomically deprived women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  2. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  3. Iodine intake in Denmark

    Pedersen, K.M.; Noehr, S.B.; Laurberg, P.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine deficiency with a high frequency of goitre and, in severely affected areas, cretinism is common in some areas of the world. In Denmark the iodine intake as evaluated by urinary iodine excretion has been at a stable low level for many years, except for the part of the population now taking iodine supplementation as part of vitamin/mineral preparations. The iodine intake is lowest in the western part to the country where an epidemiological study of elderly subjects has demonstrated a high frequency of goitre and hyperthyroidism in women. This supports the suggestion of a controlled moderate increase in iodine intake via an iodine supplementation program. (au) 40 refs

  4. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  5. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    of 34.5 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized design with five treatments (byproducts and four replications. Dry matter intakes (DMI of byproducts of guava, passion fruit and melon by the animals were similar but higher than WIC byproduct. The highest crude protein intake (CPI (g/animal/day, g/BW0.75 was observed in passion fruit and melon byproducts, while WIC byproduct the lowest CPI. Guava byproduct showed the higher intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF and passion fruit byproduct showed the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM coefficient. Guava and WIC byproducts showed ADMS lower than the others. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP of passion fruit and melon byproducts were higher than the others byproducts. As for, the coefficients of apparent digestibility of NDF (ADNDF and ADF (ADADF, WIC and guava byproducts were lower while passion fruit byproduct showed ADNDF and ADADF higher than the others. No difference among evaluates byproducts for nitrogen balance was observed. Results showed that; pineapple, passion fruit and melon byproducts could be used in ruminant diets. However, WIC and guava byproducts showed low nutrient digestibility coefficients, restricting their use in ruminant diets.

  6. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção microbiana em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementação Intake, digestibility and microbial production in steers fed with different forages, supplemented or not

    S.P. Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, e estimou-se a produção microbiana (PMic de dietas para novilhos. Avaliou-se, também, a degradabilidade in situ dos alimentos. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos, fistulados no rúmen, com peso vivo (PV médio de 185,4kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, alimentados com: 1- capim-elefante picado (CE; 2- pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 (PS; 3- feno de capim-braquiária (FB; 4- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 0,5% PV (FB:C1; e 5- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 1% PV (FB:C2. O PS proporcionou maior ingestão de MS (6kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (4,2kg/novilho/dia em relação aos demais volumosos utilizados, mostrando ser boa alternativa na nutrição de bovinos. A adição de concentrado ao feno de capim-braquiária aumentou o consumo de MS do volumoso, que passou de 2,7kg/novilho/dia para 3,9kg/novilho/dia, constituindo estratégia para a utilização de volumosos de baixa qualidade. O maior consumo do concentrado C2 (1%PV resultou em aumento no consumo de MS (0,9kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (1kg/novilho/dia na dieta FB:C2, em relação à dieta FB:C1.The intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC; the total digestible nutrients (TDN intake and the microbial protein production (MicP in diets of steers were determined. The in situ degradability of feeds was also evaluated. Five steers averaging 185.4kg live weight (LW and fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were randomly, assigned in a completely randomized experimental design. They were fed on: 1- chopped elephantgrass (CE; 2

  7. Consumo e digestibilidade em ovinos alimentados com grãos e subprodutos da canola Intake and digestibility of sheep fed grains and by-products of canola

    Priscila Silva Neubern de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta nas dietas sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade. Seis ovinos machos não-castrados da raça Santa Inês (210 e 240 dias de idade e peso corporal de 44,8 + 4,2kg receberam dietas contendo 40% de feno de capim Tifton e 60% de concentrado composto por milho em grão, farelo de soja, mistura mineral, além de canola em grão integral, farelo de canola e torta de canola, que constituíram os três tratamentos. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 para o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, energia bruta (EB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF entre as dietas experimentais, no ensaio de digestibilidade. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 de tratamento para a digestibilidade de MS, MO, EE, PB, EB, FDN, CT e CNF. Recomenda-se incluir até 8% de grãos e subprodutos da canola (farelo ou torta na dieta de ovinos.The effect of feeding 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola on intake and digestibility was evaluated. Six non castrated Santa Ines sheep (from 210 to 240 days old and body weight of 44.8 + 4.2kg were fed diets composed by 40% of Tifton hay and 60% of concentrate based on corn grain, soybean meal, whole grain canola, canola meal, canola cake and mineral mixture. No differences on the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non fiber carbohydrate (NFC were observed among treatments, in the digestibility trial. No treatment effect on the digestibilities of DM, OM, EE, CP, GE, NDF, TC and NFC was observed. It is recommended to include up to 8% of grains and byproducts (meal or cake of canola in the sheep diet.

  8. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  9. Casca de café em dietas para novilhas leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho Coffee hulls in dairy heifers diet: intake, digestibility, and production

    Alexandre Lima de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e o desempenho de novilhas recebendo dietas contendo diferentes teores de casca de café (0; 8,75; 17,5 e 26,25% da MS da ração concentrada em substituição ao milho. Foram utilizadas 24 novilhas Holandês-Zebu, distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. As dietas foram isonitrogenadas, com 15,5% de PB, constituídas de 60% de pré-secado de tifton 85 e 40% de ração concentrada na MS. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, CT e FDN não foram alterados, registrando-se valores médios de 6,75; 6,23; 1,04; 5,01 e 3,11 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os consumos de CNF e NDT observados reduziram linearmente com a adição de casca de café. As digestibilidades da MS, MO, PB, CT, FDN e CNF e a concentração de NDT das dietas diminuíram linearmente com a adição de casca de café. O ganho de peso decresceu linearmente com a inclusão de casca de café na dieta, estimando-se queda de 6,94 g de PV/unidade porcentual de casca de café adicionada ao concentrado. Todavia, a inclusão deste resíduo em até 17,5% de substituição ao milho da ração concentrada (7,0% na MS da dieta pode ser considerada benéfica, pois os ganhos médios diários observados foram próximos aos obtidos com a inclusão de 0,0 e 8,75% de casca de café na ração concentrada.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of partially replacing ground corn with coffee hulls (0.0, 8.75, 17.5 and 26.25% of concentrate DM on nutrient intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and daily weight gain of dairy heifers. Twenty-four Holstein x Zebu heifers were assigned to a randomized complete block design with four treatments and six replicates. Diets were isonitrogenous (15.5% CP and contained 60% of Tifton-85 haylage and 40% of concentrate. Intakes of dry matter (6.75 kg/day, organic matter (6.23 kg/day, CP (1.04 kg/day, total carbohydrates (5.01 kg/day, and neutral detergent fiber (3.11 kg/day were not changed

  10. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  11. The effects of feeding rations that differ in fiber and fermentable starch within a day on milk production and the daily rhythm of feed intake and plasma hormones and metabolites in dairy cows.

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2017-01-01

    A daily pattern of feed intake, milk synthesis, and plasma metabolites and hormones occurs in dairy cows fed a total mixed ration once or twice a day. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations within a day, complementing these rhythms, would improve milk production. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were housed in tie stalls with feed tubs, and feed weight was recorded every 10 s for observation of feeding behavior. Rations were a low fiber and high fermentable starch ration [LFHS; 27.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 31.7% starch based on 55.7% corn silage and 14.1% steam-flaked corn], a high fiber and low fermentable starch ration (HFLS; 31.7% NDF and 22.3% starch based on 44% corn silage, 26.3% alfalfa haylage, and no steam-flaked corn), and a total mixed ration that was a 1:3 ratio of LFHS and HFLS (30.7% NDF, 24.5% starch). The control treatment (CON) cows were fed the total mixed ration at 0700h, the high/low treatment (HL) fed HFLS ration at 0700h and LFHS ration at 2200h, and the low/high (LH) treatment fed LFHS ration at 0700h and HFLS ration at 1100h (LFHS and HFLS rations fed at a 1:3 ratio). No effect was found of treatment on daily milk, but LH decreased milk fat concentration and yield compared with HL (0.2 percentage units and 0.24kg, respectively). Daily dry matter and NDF intake and total-tract digestibility did not differ between treatments. The HL treatment reduced intake at the morning-conditioned meal after feeding and reduced intake before the evening feeding. A treatment by time of day interaction was found for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF concentration, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma insulin, and fatty acid concentration, and body temperature. The CON and LH treatments increased the daily amplitude of fecal NDF by 1.0 and 1.1 percentage units compared with HL. Plasma insulin was higher in HL than CON at 0100 and 0400h, but lower at 1300 and

  12. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average......This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...

  13. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  14. Modeling lactose hydrolysis for efficiency and selectivity: Toward the preservation of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum whey permeate.

    de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Aquino, Leticia F M C; Liu, Yan; Cohen, Joshua L; Lee, Hyeyoung; de Melo Silva, Vitor L; Rodrigues, Maria I; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose has been shown to improve the efficiency and selectivity of membrane-based separations toward the recovery of bioactive oligosaccharides. Achieving maximum lactose hydrolysis requires intrinsic process optimization for each specific substrate, but the effects of those processing conditions on the target oligosaccharides are not well understood. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of pH (3.25-8.25), temperature (35-55°C), reaction time (6 to 58 min), and amount of enzyme (0.05-0.25%) on the efficiency of lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase and on the preservation of biologically important sialyloligosaccharides (3'-siallylactose, 6'-siallylactose, and 6'-sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine) naturally present in bovine colostrum whey permeate. A central composite rotatable design was used. In general, β-galactosidase activity was favored at pH values ranging from 3.25 to 5.75, with other operational parameters having a less pronounced effect. A pH of 4.5 allowed for the use of a shorter reaction time (19 min), lower temperature (40°C), and reduced amount of enzyme (0.1%), but complete hydrolysis at a higher pH (5.75) required greater values for these operational parameters. The total amount of sialyloligosaccharides was not significantly altered by the reaction parameters evaluated, suggesting specificity of β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae toward lactose as well as the stability of the oligosaccharides at pH, temperature, and reaction time evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  16. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  17. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  18. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...

  19. Capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum., sob duas doses de nitrogênio. Consumo e produção de leite Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. fertilized with two levels of nitrogen, under grazing, voluntary intake and milk production

    João Paulo Guimarães Soares

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de leite, o consumo voluntário de matéria seca e a taxa de passagem da FDN no trato gastrintestinal em quatro épocas do ano (julho, outubro, janeiro e março, de vacas mestiças, sob pastejo de capim-elefante, submetido a dois níveis de nitrogênio (300 e 700 kg de N/ha•ano, foram estimados. Foi usado pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação e 30 de descanso, empregando-se 36 vacas lactantes mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em uma lotação de 6 vacas/ha. A estimativa de consumo e a taxa de passagem foram determinadas em apenas 24 animais. Para a coleta de extrusas, foram usadas duas vacas esôfago-fistuladas. O consumo foi estimado usando-se a relação produção fecal:indigestibilidade dos alimentos. A produção fecal foi estimada usando-se a FDN da extrusa marcada com dicromato de sódio fornecida em dose única. O consumo de MS total não foi influenciado pelas doses de N e por épocas do ano, com valores médios diários de 10,9 e 10,5 kg /MS•vaca para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente. Entretanto, o consumo de MS do capim-elefante foi influenciado por doses de N e épocas, com valores de 6,5 e 5,6 kg/vaca•dia para as doses de N supracitadas, respectivamente. O capim-elefante contribuiu com 26,0% da MS total ingerida, durante a época seca (julho/outubro e sua contribuição aumentou para 84,0% na época das águas (janeiro/março. A produção diária de leite não foi influenciada por doses de N, com produções médias de 11,6 e 12,3 kg de leite/vaca•dia, para as doses de 300 e 700 kg N/ha•ano, respectivamente.The milk production, the dry matter intake (DMI and the NDF passage rate in the gastrointestinal tract in four seasons (July, October, January and March, of crossbred cows, under grazing of elephant grass, submitted to two levels of nitrogen (300 and 700 kg N/ha•year were estimated. The rotation grazing with three days of occupation and 30 days of resting, using 36 crossbred

  20. Management system in the dose assessment due to the intake of "1"3"1I in occupationally exposed workers (OEW) in a radioisotope production plant

    Koga, Roberto; Jara, Raul; Defilippi, Luis; Osores, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation and management processes due to the incorporation of "1"3"1I in occupationally exposed workers (OEW) of a Radioisotope Production Plant by in vivo measurement of the retained activity of this radionuclide in thyroid. The procedures for the occupational control of the OWE were established, including intermediate checks and calibration of the equipment according to the NTP ISO/IEC 17025:2006 standard. (author)

  1. Realistic intake of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product increases HDL-cholesterol without inducing anthropometric changes in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Martínez-López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other cardio-protective effects attributed to cocoa are achieved when regularly consuming moderate amounts of a flavanol-rich soluble cocoa product, a non-randomized, controlled, crossover, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n = 24; 25.9 ± 5.6 years) and moderately hypercholesterolemic (200-240 mg dL(-1); n = 20; 30.0 ± 10.3 years) volunteers. Participants consumed two servings per day (7.5 g per serving) of a soluble cocoa product (providing 45.3 mg flavanols per day) in milk, which was compared with consuming only milk during a 4 week period. The effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined, as well as on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles, interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups (CG), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS). During the study, the volunteers' diets and physical activity were also evaluated, as well as any changes in weight, skin folds, circumferences and related anthropometric parameters. Cocoa and certain polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables and their derivatives were restricted. After consuming the cocoa product positive effects were observed such as an increase in serum HDL-C (p related biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were unaffected. We have therefore concluded that regular consumption of this cocoa product in a Spanish-Mediterranean diet may protect against cardiovascular disease in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects without producing any weight gain or other anthropometric changes.

  2. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  3. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  4. Effect of feeding a by-product feed-based silage on nutrients intake, apparent digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep.

    Seok, J S; Kim, Y I; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2016-01-01

    Literature is lacking on the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on rumen fermentation parameters, nutrient digestion and nitrogen (N) retention in sheep. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing rye straw with BF-based silage as a roughage source on ruminal parameters, total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility, and N balance in sheep. The by-product feed silage was composed of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) (45 %), recycled poultry bedding (RPB) (21 %), rye straw (11 %), rice bran (10.8 %), corn taffy residue (10 %), protected fat (1.0 %), bentonite (0.6 %), and mixed microbial additive (0.6 %). Six sheep were assigned randomly to either the control (concentrate mix + rye straw) or a treatment diet (concentrate mix + BF-based silage). Compared with the control diet, feeding a BF-based silage diet resulted in similar ruminal characteristics (pH, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, and acetate: propionate ratio), higher (p < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N, higher (p < 0.05) ether extract digestibility, similar crude protein digestibility, lower (p < 0.05) dry matter, fiber, and crude ash digestibilities, and higher (p < 0.05) N retention (g/d). The BF-based silage showed similar energy value, higher protein metabolism and utilization, and lower fiber digestion in sheep compared to the control diet containing rye straw.

  5. gamma-Aminobutyric acid production in small and large intestine of normal and germ-free Wistar rats. Influence of food intake and intestinal flora.

    van Berlo, C L; de Jonge, H R; van den Bogaard, A E; van Eijk, H M; Janssen, M A; Soeters, P B

    1987-09-01

    In recent hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is claimed to be produced by the colonic flora, although enzymes necessary to generate GABA have been reported to be present in intestinal mucosa. In this study, using normal and germ-free Wistar rats, we determined GABA levels and amino-grams of arterial blood and of venous effluent from small and large bowel. The data indicate that large and small intestinal mucosa significantly contribute to GABA production. In the fasted state GABA concentrations are greater in the venous effluent of the small bowel than in the venous effluent of the large bowel. Feeding increases the arterioportal differences, and uptake in the small bowel is still significantly higher than in the large bowel. This process is not, or can only be to a minor degree, bacterially mediated, because GABA production in the gut both in the fed and fasted state is of similar magnitude in germ-free and normal animals. gamma-Aminobutyric acid release correlates significantly with glutamine uptake in the small bowel of fasted rats. Only a small fraction of the glutamine taken up is needed to account for GABA release, so that conclusions concerning which amino acids may serve as precursors of GABA cannot be drawn. Further studies are needed to delineate the metabolic pathways leading to GABA synthesis.

  6. Food production and wastage in relation to nutritional intake in a general district hospital - wastage is not reduced by training the staff

    Almdal, T.; Viggers, L.; Beck, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: To assess the amount of food produced in a hospital kitchen and the amount wasted. To assess the amount of food eaten by patients in relation to their energy needs. To assess whether the food production and wastage could be reduced by training members of the staff. Methods...... was determined. Following training of the hospital staff the first part was repeated. Results: On average, 11.1 MJ and 112 g of protein were ordered per patient per day. From these amounts on average 31 MJ and 33 g protein were wasted per patient per day. The total average energy expenditure was calculated....... Following training of the hospital staff, a new investigation showed no significant changes in the amount of food ordered and wasted. Conclusion: Despite a supply of food, which was much higher than the patients' needs, the patients have only approx. 60% of their energy need covered. We suggest...

  7. Structural variability of the neutral carbohydrate moiety of cow colostrum kappa-casein as a function of time after parturition. Identification of a tetrasaccharide with blood group I specificity

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Fiat, A.-M.; Chevan, J.; Jollès, P.; Waard, P. de; Piller, F.; Cartron, J.-P.

    1988-01-01

    New neutral oligosaccharides from cow colostrum -casein were identified and characterized by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Their structures are Galbeta(1->3)GalNAc-ol, Galbeta(1->3)[GlcNAcbeta(1->6)]GalNAc-ol, Galbeta(1->3)[Galbeta(1->4)GlcNAc(beta1->6)]GalNAc-ol,

  8. Evaluation of Toxic and Essential Metals in Some Selected Chewing Food Products and their Daily Intake by the Population of Karachi, Pakistan

    Shahid Bhutto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on different brands of chewing food products which containing some toxic metals (TMs and essential metals and these samples were analyzed to determine the levels of some toxic metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr and Mn and essential metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn. The samples of gutka (100, sweet supari (63, sweet paan (16 and paan masala (21 were randomly collected from different shops of Karachi, Pakistan. The validity of conventional wet acid digestion method (CAD was assessed by analyzing two certified reference materials (CRM Virgina tobacco leaf (CTA-VTL-2 and Bovine liver (1577b and standard addition recovery test. The limit of detections (LODs, n=10 of the method were found to be 0.144, 14.4, 8.89, 2.76, 4.06, 15.3 and 2.99, 22.9, 9.97, 4.54, 1.89, 1.76 µg L-1 for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The CAD method was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of toxic and essential metals. 

  9. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  10. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  11. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  12. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  13. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  14. First derivative spectrofluorimetric determination of zopiclone and its degradation product, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine, in pharmaceutical formulations with preliminary tool in biological fluids for clinical evidence of zopiclone intake

    Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan; Shalan, Shereen; Belal, Fathalla

    2017-06-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and stability-indicating derivative spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the assay of zopiclone (ZOP), a drug with hypnotic effect, and its main degradation product and major contaminant, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP). The method is based on measuring the inherent fluorescence intensity of both drugs at λex = 300 nm in methanol, then differentiation using D1 (first derivative technique). The developed method was found to be rectilinear over a range of 0.2-4 μg/mL of ZOP and 4-100 ng/mL of ACP. The limits of detection were 0.05 μg/mL of ZOP and 0.2 ng/mL of ACP with the limit of quantitation of 0.17 μg/mL of ZOP and 0.7 ng/mL of ACP. The outcoming results of the proposed method were compared to those obtained by a reference method showing no significant statistical difference between them concerning precision and accuracy. Additionally, the developed method was applied for detecting ACP in spiked human urine and plasma specimens as a tool of clinical evidence of zopiclone intake that can be easily implemented in forensic laboratories. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

  15. Mixing zone and drinking water intake dilution factor and wastewater generation distributions to enable probabilistic assessment of down-the-drain consumer product chemicals in the U.S.

    Kapo, Katherine E; McDonough, Kathleen; Federle, Thomas; Dyer, Scott; Vamshi, Raghu

    2015-06-15

    Environmental exposure and associated ecological risk related to down-the-drain chemicals discharged by municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are strongly influenced by in-stream dilution of receiving waters which varies by geography, flow conditions and upstream wastewater inputs. The iSTREEM® model (American Cleaning Institute, Washington D.C.) was utilized to determine probabilistic distributions for no decay and decay-based dilution factors in mean annual and low (7Q10) flow conditions. The dilution factors derived in this study are "combined" dilution factors which account for both hydrologic dilution and cumulative upstream effluent contributions that will differ depending on the rate of in-stream decay due to biodegradation, volatilization, sorption, etc. for the chemical being evaluated. The median dilution factors estimated in this study (based on various in-stream decay rates from zero decay to a 1h half-life) for WWTP mixing zones dominated by domestic wastewater flow ranged from 132 to 609 at mean flow and 5 to 25 at low flow, while median dilution factors at drinking water intakes (mean flow) ranged from 146 to 2×10(7) depending on the in-stream decay rate. WWTPs within the iSTREEM® model were used to generate a distribution of per capita wastewater generated in the U.S. The dilution factor and per capita wastewater generation distributions developed by this work can be used to conduct probabilistic exposure assessments for down-the-drain chemicals in influent wastewater, wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and at drinking water intakes in the conterminous U.S. In addition, evaluation of types and abundance of U.S. wastewater treatment processes provided insight into treatment trends and the flow volume treated by each type of process. Moreover, removal efficiencies of chemicals can differ by treatment type. Hence, the availability of distributions for per capita wastewater production, treatment type, and dilution factors at a national

  16. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  17. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to either 1 or 2 feedings of colostrum replacer: effect on uptake and rate of absorption of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Cabral, R G; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2012-06-01

    Forty Holstein dairy calves were blocked by birth date and sex, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within each block to elucidate the effect of feeding regimen and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) supplementation on absorption of IgG from colostrum replacer (CR). Calves received CR containing 191.4 g of IgG fed either in 1 feeding at 0 h (within 45 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO₃, or in 2 feedings (127.6 g of IgG at 0 h, with or without 20 g of NaHCO₃, and 63.8 g of IgG at 6 h, with or without 10 g of NaHCO₃). The treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; (2) 1 feeding of CR+30 g of NaHCO₃; (3) 2 feedings of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; and (4) 2 feedings of CR+30 g total of NaHCO₃. Only calves born with no dystocia were used on this study. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h postpartum and were analyzed for IgG using a radial immunoassay. Results indicated that, individually, feeding regimen and NaHCO₃ treatments had no effect. However, the interaction was significant for 24-h IgG and area under the curve, and showed a trend for apparent efficiency of absorption. Absorption rate data indicated that, for calves fed within 45 min of birth, most IgG absorption occurred in the first 6 h after birth. From 6 to 12 h postpartum, IgG absorption started to decrease; however, IgG absorption remained higher for calves fed in a single feeding than in 2 feedings. These data indicated that NaHCO₃ may increase IgG absorption when calves are fed colostrum in a single feeding but is not beneficial when colostrum is fed in 2 feedings. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolizable energy and oil intake in brown commercial layers

    Amadeu Benedito Piozzi da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to establish the best metabolizable energy (ME intake for layers, and the best dietary vegetable oil addition level to optimize egg production, an experiment was carried out with 432 30-week-old Hisex Brown layers. Birds were distributed into nine treatments with six replicates of eight birds each according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three daily metabolizable energy intake (280, 300 or 320 kcal/bird/day and three oil levels (0.00; 0.75 and 1.50 g/bird/day. Daily feed intake was limited to 115, 110 and 105 g/bird in order to obtain the desired energy and oil intake in each treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: initial weight, final weight, body weight change, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and per egg mass and energy conversion. There was no influence of the treatments on egg production (% or egg mass (g/bird/day. Final weight and body weight change were significantly affected by increasing energy intake. Feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and energy conversion significantly worsened as a function of the increase in daily energy intake. An energy intake of 280 kcal/bird/day with no addition of dietary oil does not affect layer performance.

  19. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  20. Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Bailey, Lynn B; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed ≥ 200 μg folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.

  1. Contribution of Dairy to Nutrient Intake in the Western Diet

    Hettinga, Kasper; Valenberg, van Hein

    2017-01-01

    Milk and dairy products play an important role in providing nutrients in both Western and developing countries. Most research in this area focuses on the intake of individual nutrients from food products, like dairy products. However, nutrients are not consumed, and do not function, in isolation.

  2. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  3. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose only source of caffeine was coffee (>300 mg/d) had a reduced fecundability odds-ratio (FR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12-0.98). An interaction between...

  4. Imunidade passiva, morbidade neonatal e desempenho de cabritos em diferentes manejos de colostro Passive immunity, neonatal morbidity and performance of kids in different colostrum management

    Sara Vilar Dantas Simões

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando determinar o manejo de colostro que permitisse a melhor aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos e avaliar possíveis relações entre imunidade, morbidade e desempenho, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de 58 cabritos da raça Saanen antes e 30 horas após a primeira ingestão de colostro. Os cabritos foram distribuídos em cinco grupos experimentais. No Tratamento 1 (T1 o colostro foi ingerido ad libitum durante 24 horas. Nos demais tratamentos o colostro foi fornecido em mamadeira; os cabritos do T2 ingeriram 200mL de colostro após o parto; do T3, ingeriram 400mL de colostro sendo 200mL após o parto e 200mL após 8 horas; do T4, ingeriram também 400mL de colostro, sendo 200mL após o parto, 200mL após 14 horas; e os do T5 ingeriram 600mL de colostro, 200mL após o parto, 200mL as 12 e 200mL as 24 horas. Os valores séricos de gamaglobulinas foram avaliados por eletroforese. O ganho de peso diário foi utilizado para avaliação do desempenho no período de aleitamento. A ocorrência de doenças foi registrada do nascimento até 28 dias. A menor concentração de gamaglobulinas foi encontrada nos animais do Grupo 2 (1,65g/dL e a maior concentração foi observada no Grupo 3 (2,60g/dL. Foi observado no Grupo 3 mais animais com diarréia, porém não foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas significativas ao nível de 5%. Os diferentes manejos de colostro não estiveram associados com o desempenho dos cabritos até o final do período neonatal.The experiment was performed to determine the kid management that ensures the best passive immunity, and to evaluate the relationship between passive immunity, neonatal morbidity and performance. Blood samples were obtained from 58 Saanen kids before colostrum ingestion and 30h after. The kids were submitted to five treatments: (T1 kids were allowed to nurse the dam for 24 hours ingesting colostrum ad libitum; (T2 kids were bottle-fed with 200mL colostrum in the first hour of life; (T

  5. Consumo e digestibilidade de silagens de capim-elefante com diferentes níveis de subproduto da agroindústria da acerola Intake and digestibilit of elefhant grass silages with the diferent levels of acerola industry by-product

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o consumo e digestibilidade da MS e nutrientes. de silagens de capim-elefante (CE contendo subproduto do processamento da acerola desidratada (SACD. Utilizaram-se 20 ovinos machos nãocastrados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco níveis de SACD na silagem (0; 3,5; 7; 10,5 e 14% da matéria seca e quatro repetições. Estimaram-se os consumos de matéria seca (MS, celulose, hemicelulose, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, bem como os consumos de matéria seca (MSD, proteína bruta (PBD, fibra em detergente neutro (FDND e energia digestível (ED. Foram avaliados também as digestibilidades da MS, PB, FDN, FDA, celulose, hemicelulose e EB, e o balanço de nitrogênio (BN. A adição de SACD, não influenciou o consumo de MS, FDN e FDA em g animal-1 dia-1 e g UTM-1 (unidade de tamanho metabólico = PV0,75, MSD, FDND em g animal-1 dia-1 e ED (0,86 Mcal dia-1. Contudo, a adição de 1% do SACD na ensilagem do capim-elefante resultou em aumento de 1,91 e 0,04 g nos consumos diários de PB e PBD, respectivamente. Com a adição do SACD, não houve alterações na digestibilidade da MS (43%, PB (36,4%, FDN (44,8% e BN (0,22 g dia-1 das silagens. Entretanto, o BN atingiu valores positivos quando foram adicionados 10,5 e 14% do SACD à dieta. O subproduto da acerola desidratado pode ser adicionado em níveis de até 14% da matéria natural na ensilagem de capim-elefante, pois não compromete nem o consumo nem a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em ovinos.The present study aimed to determine de nutritional value of mixed elephant grass silages and increasing levels of dehydrated acerola industry by-product (PAC. Five PAC levels (0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14% were evaluated in a digestibility trial with 20 male non-castrated sheep in a randomized experimental design of five treatments (PAC levels and four replications per treatment (sheep. Intake

  6. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Uréia para vacas em lactação: 1. Consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite Urea for dairy cows: 1. Intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Rosângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2001-10-01

    (Holstein x Gyr full fed isoproteic diets with 60% silage and 40% concentrate in the dry matter (DM basis and 0, 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1% urea, correspondent to 2.08, 4.01, 5.76, and 8.07% of crude protein levels in the form of non protein nitrogen compounds (NNP, with the objectives to evaluate the intakes and the apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the total digestible nutrients (TDN intakes. Possible changes on the milk production and composition were also evaluated. Cows averaging initial live weight of 511.8 kg were randomized allotted to the treatments. The experimental period last 90 days for each cow, starting immediately after calving. The indigestible acid detergent fiber (IADF was used as marker to determine the nutrients apparent digestibility. The results were interpreted by variance and regression analyses. The addition of increasing NNP to the diet showed decreasing linear effect on the intakes of DM, OM, NDF, CP, EE, CHO and TDN. NNP levels did not affect the apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, CHO and NDF. There was quadratic effect for EE, and the maximum digestibility of 89.12% was obtained with the estimated NNP content of 4.73% in DM. The maximum milk production, of 20.10 kg/day, was obtained with the estimated NNP content of 4.79%, or 0.7% urea in dietary total DM. Linear reduction of fat content was observed as the dietary NNP contents increased, while there was a quadratic behavior for protein, with the maximum content of 3.4% estimated with 3.88% NNP.

  8. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  9. Influência do tipo de parto sobre a concentração de imunoglobulinas A, G e M no colostro materno Influence of type of delivery on A, G and M immunoglobulin concentration in maternal colostrum

    Gabriel A. J. Striker

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência do tipo de parto sobre a concentração das imunoglobulinas (Ig A, G e M no colostro materno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 82 puérperas com idade cronológica entre 21 e 41 anos, idade gestacional de 37 ou mais semanas, paridade até IV gesta, bom estado nutricional e sem patologias associadas durante a gestação e o puerpério. Foram também critérios de inclusão para os recém-nascidos: peso > 2.500 g, escore de Apgar > 7 no primeiro minuto e aleitamento materno exclusivo durante o período da internação. As puérperas foram divididas em três grupos: A - parto vaginal; B - cesárea precedida de trabalho de parto; e C - cesárea eletiva. O colostro foi colhido manualmente entre 48 e 72 horas pós-parto. IgA, IgG e IgM foram dosadas pela técnica de ELISA RESULTADOS: Não se observou diferença significativa entre os tempos de coleta do colostro nos três grupos maternos estudados. Quanto menor o tempo de coleta, maior foi a concentração de IgA no colostro materno; quanto menor a paridade, maior foi a concentração de IgA e IgM no colostro materno. O grupo de puérperas submetidas a cesárea precedida de trabalho de parto apresentou concentração mais elevada de IgA no colostro do que o grupo de puérperas que havia dado à luz por parto normal. A concentração de IgM e IgG no colostro materno não foi influenciada pelo tipo de parto. CONCLUSÃO: A ocorrência do trabalho de parto, somada ao estresse cirúrgico, induz a uma concentração mais elevada de IgA no colostro materno na puérpera submetida a cesárea precedida de trabalho de parto.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between type of delivery and immunoglobulin concentration in maternal colostrum. METHODS: We studied 82 women who were giving birth. Age was between 21 and 41 years, gestational age was 37 or more weeks and parity up to IV pregnancies. The women were in good nutritional condition and did not have any pregnancy or

  10. Intake and excretion

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  11. Pre-pregnancy BMI and intake of energy and calcium are associated with the vitamin D intake of pregnant Malaysian women

    Heng Yaw Yong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Adequate vitamin D intake during pregnancy is important for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives . The present study aims to determine the intake and sources of vitamin D, as well as factors associated with vitamin D intake among pregnant Malaysian women. Material and methods . This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Seremban Maternal and Child Health (MCH clinic, Negeri Sembilan. Women (n = 314 were measured for height and weight and interviewed for socio-demographics, obstetrics, dietary intake, source of vitamin D, intake of vitamin D supplements and physical activity. Results . One-third of pregnant women were overweight (21% or obese (13% with a mean pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI of 23.65 ± 5.29 kg/m². The mean vitamin D intake of pregnant women was 11.54 ± 0.45 μg/day (diet = 6.55 ± 4.43 μg/day; supplements = 4.99 ± 5.95 μg/day with approx. 74.5% of intake being above recommendation levels. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to vitamin D intake (56.8%. While women with higher energy (adjusted OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01–0.87 and calcium (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11–0.67 intake were more likely to have adequate vitamin D intake, obese women were less likely to have adequate vitamin D intake (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.72–3.79. Conclusions . Adequate intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with higher energy and calcium intake, but obese women tend to have inadequate intake. Further studies need to confirm these finding and the contribution of vitamin D intake to vitamin D status in pregnant Malaysian women.

  12. Lake Mead Intake No. 3

    Jon Hurt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a sustained drought in the Southwestern United States, and in order to maintain existing water capacity in the Las Vegas Valley, the Southern Nevada Water Authority constructed a new deep-water intake (Intake No. 3 located in Lake Mead. The project included a 185 m deep shaft, 4.7 km tunnel under very difficult geological conditions, and marine works for a submerged intake. This paper presents the experience that was gained during the design and construction and the innovative solutions that were developed to handle the difficult conditions that were encountered during tunneling with a dual-mode slurry tunnel-boring machine (TBM in up to 15 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa pressure. Specific attention is given to the main challenges that were overcome during the TBM excavation, which included the mode of operation, face support pressures, pre-excavation grouting, and maintenance; to the construction of the intake, which involved deep underwater shaft excavation with blasting using shaped charges; to the construction of the innovative over 1200 t concrete-and-steel intake structure; to the placement of the intake structure in the underwater shaft; and to the docking and connection to an intake tunnel excavated by hybrid TBM. Keywords: Sub-aqueous tunneling, Tunnel-boring machine excavation, Water intakes

  13. CFD simulations for engine intake manifolds

    Witry, A.; Zhao, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain a procedure for using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for product development of engine intake manifolds. The paper uses the development of an intake manifold as an example of such a process. Using the commercial FLUENT solver, its standard wall functions and k-ε model, a four runner intake manifold with an average mesh size of 300, 000 hexa elements created in ICEM-CFD with a maximum skewness of 0.85 produces rapid results for quick product turn-around times. The setup used allows for compressibility and viscous heating effects to be modeled whilst ignoring wall heat transfer due to the high speeds of the air/foil mixture and low residence times. Eight consecutive models were modeled here whilst carrying out continuous enhancements. For every iteration, four different so called 'static' runs with only one runner open at any one time using a steady state assumption were calculated further assuming that only one intake valve is open at any one time. Even flow distributions between the runner are deemed to be 'dynamically' obtained once the pressure drops between the manifold's inlet and runner outlets are equalized. Furthermore, different modifications were attempted to ensure that the fluid's particle tracks show very little particle return tendencies along with excellent nonuniformity indexes at the runners outlets. Confirmation of these results were obtained from test data showing CFD pressure drop predictions to be within 4% error with 67% of any runner's pressure losses being caused in the runner itself due to the small cross sectional area(s). (author)

  14. Food choices, health and environment: Effects of cutting Europe's meat and dairy intake

    Westhoek, H.; Lesschen, J.P.; Rood, T.; Wagner, S.; Marco, de A.; Murphy, D.; Leip, A.; Grinsven, van H.; Sutton, M.A.; Oenema, O.

    2014-01-01

    Western diets are characterised by a high intake of meat, dairy products and eggs, causing an intake of saturated fat and red meat in quantities that exceed dietary recommendations. The associated livestock production requires large areas of land and lead to high nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission

  15. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... Animal productivity and efficiency of production are functions of the level of nutrition, ... among the different parts of a plant, choice of parts can markedly affect a .... is a decline in DM intake per bite and a tendency to increase the time spent grazing.

  16. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth.

    Burger, Kyle S; Stice, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions vs. Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. nonfood control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. nonconsumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to nonconsumers. Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  18. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007-2010 analysis.

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300 mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake.

  19. Sweetener Intake by Rats Selectively Bred for Differential Saccharin Intake: Sucralose, Stevia, and Acesulfame Potassium.

    Dess, Nancy K; Dobson, Kiana; Roberts, Brandon T; Chapman, Clinton D

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear. The present study extends prior work by examining intake of custom mixtures of sucralose, maltodextrin, and sugars and Splenda by LoS and HiS rats (Experiment 1A-1D), stevia and a constituent compound (rebaudioside A; Experiment 2A-2E), and acesulfame potassium tested at several concentrations or with 4 other sweeteners at one concentration each (Experiment 3A-3B). Results indicate that aversive side tastes limit intake of Splenda, stevia, and acesulfame potassium, more so among LoS rats than among HiS rats. In addition, regression analyses involving 5 sweeteners support the idea that both sweetness and bitterness are needed to account for intake of nonnutritive sweeteners, more so among LoS rats. These findings contribute to well developed and emerging literatures on sweetness and domain-general processes related to gustation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Valor nutritivo do resíduo da indústria processadora de abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. em dietas para ovinos. 1. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente e balanços energético e nitrogenado Nutritive value of pineapple by-product (Ananas comosus L. in diets for sheep. 1. Intake, apparent digestibility, energetic and nitrogenous balance

    M.C.P. Rogério

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a influência da inclusão do resíduo do processamento de abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. nas dietas sobre os consumos (por unidade de tamanho metabólico - UTM e coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra detergente neutro (FDN, fibra detergente ácido (FDA, hemiceluloses (HCEL, celulose (CEL e energia de dietas experimentais isofibrosas e isoprotéicas. Avaliaram-se também os balanços nitrogenados e de energia dos animais. Vinte ovinos machos, inteiros receberam rações com quatro níveis de inclusão do resíduo (0; 11%; 16%; 27% em base de matéria seca, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições por tratamento. Maiores consumos de matéria seca foram evidenciados quando as rações continham 11% do resíduo. Maiores consumos de proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutro, fibra detergente ácido e celulose (g/UTM e energia metabolizável (kcal/UTM foram apresentados por animais alimentados com dietas contendo 11% de resíduo em relação ao das dietas com 27% de inclusão (PThe influence of increasing levels of pineapple by-product (Ananas comosus L. on intake (unit metabolic size - UMS and apparent digestibility (% of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicelluloses (HCEL and cellulose (CEL and energy of isofibrous and isoproteic experimental diets of sheep were evaluated. Energetic and nitrogenous balance were also measured. Twenty rams were randomly allotted to four treatments in a completely randomized design with five replications. The treatments were formulated to contain zero; 11, 16 and 27% of pineapple by-product on DM basis. Higher dry matter intake was observed on 11% pineapple by-product diet. CP, NDF, ADF, CEL intake (g/UMS and metabolizable energy intake (kcal/UMS of 11% pineapple by-product

  1. Association between Dairy Intake and Caries among Children and Adolescents. Results from the Danish EYHS Follow-Up Study

    Lempert, Susanne; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Froberg, Karsten 

    2015-01-01

    below the mean (72.8 vs. 65.8% at age 9 and 41.1 vs. 30.7% at age 15). The results from the generalized estimation equation showed that dairy and milk intake, as well as intakes of components of dairy such as dairy calcium, whey and casein, was generally inversely associated with childhood...... incidence. This study found that previous dairy intake, as well as milk intake or intake of dairy components, may be a predictor of future risk of caries measured by the DMFS count level. This relationship was inverse, meaning that a high intake of dairy products was associated with less future caries...

  2. Intake acoustics of naturally aspirated racing engines

    Dolinar, A

    2006-01-01

    The intake system is one of the components on the internal combustion engine most linked with the achievement of the high volumetric efficiency required of naturally aspirated engines. High performance racing engine intake systems have unusual geometry with separate intake pipes (often known as intake trumpets) housed in a common airbox. These intake trumpets are short pipes that are sometimes cylindrical but often conical. The flow within the intake system is ve...

  3. Main Sources, Socio-Demographic and Anthropometric Correlates of Salt Intake in Austria

    Verena Hasenegger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is known to increase blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, salt intake exceeds the recommendations in most countries. To face this problem, it is important to identify high consumers as well as the main contributors of salt intake. Overall, data of 2018 adults between 18 and 64 years were analysed to determine the main sources, socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates of salt intake. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h-recalls, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a questionnaire and anthropometric data were measured. Salt intake was significantly higher in males than in females. There was a significant positive association between salt intake and body mass index. No significant differences in salt intake were observed for other variables including affluence, educational level, smoking status and physical activity. The main contributor to salt intake were condiments including table salt (32.6%, followed by cereals and cereal products (27.0%, meat and meat products (16.1% and dairy products (14.0%. These results highlight that specific population groups need to be targeted by public health initiatives and that a reduction in salt intake can only be achieved in tandem with the food producers by the reduction of salt in processed foods.

  4. Isolation of coagulase-positive staphylococci from bitches' colostrum and milk and genetic typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains.

    Rota, Ada; Corrò, Michela; Drigo, Ilenia; Bortolami, Alessio; Börjesson, Stefan

    2015-07-23

    Among the coagulase-positive, potentially pathogenic staphylococci, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has been frequently isolated from bitches' milk. This organism colonizes the mammary gland or causes infection, while S. aureus has been only occasionally reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and persistence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in the colostrum and milk of postpartum bitches, either treated or untreated with antimicrobials, and to assess the incidence, antibiotic resistance profile and genetic type of the methicillin-resistant strains. On postpartum D1, D7 and D15, drops of secretion were collected from the mammary glands of 27 postpartum bitches, nine of which were treated with antimicrobials. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of mecA were tested and the genetic profile of methicillin-resistant strains was assessed. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the only coagulase-positive staphylococcus isolated, and its presence was detected in 21 out of 27 bitches and in 66 out of 145 swabs. In a single bitch, it caused puerperal mastitis. In untreated bitches, the frequency of isolation was lower in colostrum than in milk. All of the isolates except one were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, while 14 out of 66 S. pseudintermedius strains were methicillin-resistant mecA positive (MRSP) and were isolated from eight bitches housed in the same breeding kennel. A significant association was found between antimicrobial treatment and the presence of MRSP. Six of the 12 typed isolates belonged to spa-type t02 carrying SCCmec II/III, and another six were non-typeable with spa carrying SCCmec IV. The t02-SCCmec II/III isolates were sequence type (ST) 71; four NT-SCCmec IV isolates were ST258 and two were ST369. PFGE showed that isolates from the same dog had identical band patterns, while isolates from different dogs had unique band patterns. MRSP strains

  5. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  6. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    of fresh fruit (pineapple, guava, papaya, mango and passion fruit used in the diet for bovines partly replacing corn silage on intake and total nutrient digestibility, on the production of microbial protein and the nitrogen balance and on prediction of digestible fractions and total digestible nutrients (TDN of these by-products. All animals received corn silage and the urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1 mixture so diets would remain isonitrogenous. The intakes of dry matter (DM (kg/day, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and TDN, and the digestibility of CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and ether extract (EE were affected by the source of the by-product. There was an effect for the level of inclusion of products in the digestibility of CP and EE. The by-products of papaya, mango and pineapple showed energy values of 23.1, 18.0 and 7.1% respectively, higher than corn silage. The source of the by-product influenced urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and production of microbial protein, in addition to the intake (g/day, the excretion in feces and urine (g/day of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen balance (g/day. The level of inclusion of the by-product in the diet affect the urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and microbial protein production. The by-products of pineapple, papaya and mango have energy value higher than corn silage and they can partly replace energy concentrates in diets for ruminants. The by-product of passion fruit has the potential to partly replace roughage in the diets of ruminants. The by-product of guava has use limitations in diets of ruminants.

  7. Ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados Nutrient intake and nutritional status of children following a diet free from cow's milk and cow's milk by-products

    Lilian C. S. Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 26 crianças, na primeira consulta realizada em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica, que vinham recebendo dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados (média de idade = 19,1 meses e 30 crianças com dieta normal, isto é, sem nenhum tipo de restrição alimentar (média de idade = 16,8 meses. Empregou-se o método do dia alimentar habitual para a obtenção dos dados sobre consumo alimentar. A ingestão alimentar foi comparada entre os grupos e em relação às Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura. RESULTADOS: O grupo em dieta isenta de leite de vaca apresentou menor ingestão de energia (p = 0,005, proteínas (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake and the nutritional status of children on a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet. METHODS: Twenty-six children receiving a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet were assessed during their first visit to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic (mean age = 19.1 months. Thirty children with no food restriction (mean age = 16.8 months were also assessed. The usual daily food intake method was used to make the dietary assessment. The food intake was compared between the groups and in relation to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. The z-scores for weight/age, height/age and weight/height were used to evaluate the nutritional status. RESULTS: The cow's milk free diet group presented lower energy (p = 0.005, protein (p < 0.001, lipid (p < 0.001, calcium (p < 0.001 and phosphorous (p < 0.001 intake when compared to the control group. The number of children who had energy, calcium and phosphorous intake below the DRIs was higher in the cow's milk free diet group than in the control group. The z-score means for the cow's milk free diet and

  8. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  9. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  10. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  11. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  12. Food intake of university students

    Greyce Luci BERNARDO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This narrative literature review aimed to analyze the results of studies on the food intake of university students. A literature search was conducted in July 2014 and updated in July 2016 in the Scopus, MedLine/PubMed, and SciELO databases, using descriptors related to university students and food intake in English and Portuguese. Overall, 37 studies that analyzed university students’ food intake were included in this review, eight of which were conducted in Brazil. The results demonstrated that most university students have unhealthy eating behaviors, such as high intake of fast foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, and alcoholic beverages, and low intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, whole grains, and legumes. Undergraduate students of health sciences, such as nursing, nutrition, and medicine, did not have healthier diets. University students’ food intake was characterized as unhealthy, regardless of undergraduate program or sex, especially among students who left the parents’ home and became responsible for their own food. Therefore, there is a need of developing public policies that promote healthy eating habits among students, such as interventions to change their eating habits and increase their access to healthy foods at the university environment.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and the presence of virulence factors and bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus faecium CM33 isolated from ewe colostrum

    YOUSEF eNAMI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractScreening of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ewe colostrum led to the identification and isolation of Enterococcus faecium CM33 with interesting features, such as high-survival rates under acidic or bile salt conditions, high tolerance to the simulated gastrointestinal condition, and high adhesive potential to Caco-2 cells. According to the inhibition of pathogen adhesion test results, this strain could reduce more than 50% adhesion capacity of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus to Caco-2 cells. Based on the antibiotic sensitivity test findings, E. faecium CM33 was susceptible to gentamycin, vancomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and kanamycin. Upon the assessment of the virulence determinants for E. faecium CM33, this strain was negative for all tested virulence genes. Furthermore, the genome of this strain was evaluated for the incidence of the known enterocin genes by specific PCR amplification, and the genes encoding enterocins A, 31, X, and Q were discovered. The findings of this study showed that the strain E. faecium CM33 could be considered a valuable nutraceutical, and it can be introduced as a new potential probiotic.

  14. Changeover from signalling to energy-provisioning lipids during transition from colostrum to mature milk in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Zhang, Rong; Hou, Rong; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2016-11-03

    Among the large placental mammals, ursids give birth to the most altricial neonates with the lowest neonatal:maternal body mass ratios. This is particularly exemplified by giant pandas. To examine whether there is compensation for the provision of developmentally important nutrients that other species groups may provide in utero, we examined changes in the lipids of colostrum and milk with time after birth in giant pandas. Lipids that are developmental signals or signal precursors, and those that are fundamental to nervous system construction, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and phosphatidylserines, appear early and then fall dramatically in concentration to a baseline at 20-30 days. The dynamics of lysophosphatidic acid and eicosanoids display similar patterns, but with progressive differences between mothers. Triglycerides occur at relatively low levels initially and increase in concentration until a plateau is reached at about 30 days. These patterns indicate an early provision of signalling lipids and their precursors, particularly lipids crucial to brain, retinal and central nervous system development, followed by a changeover to lipids for energy metabolism. Thus, in giant pandas, and possibly in all bears, lactation is adapted to provisioning a highly altricial neonate to a degree that suggests equivalence to an extension of gestation.

  15. Influence of stage of lactation and year season on composition of mares' colostrum and milk and method and time of storage on vitamin C content in mares' milk.

    Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wójtowski, Jacek; Jóźwik, Artur; Pankiewicz, Radosław; Łęska, Bogusława; Krzyżewski, Józef; Strzałkowska, Nina; Marchewka, Joanna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-08-30

    Mares' milk is becoming increasingly popular in Western Europe. This study was thus aimed at investigating the impact of stage of lactation and season on chemical composition, somatic cell count and some physicochemical parameters of mares' colostrum and milk, and at developing a method for the determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in mares' milk and to determine its content in fresh and stored milk. The analysis conducted showed an effect of the stage of lactation on contents of selected chemical components and physicochemical parameters of mares' milk. In successive lactation periods levels of fat, cholesterol, energy value, citric acid and titratable acidity decreased, whereas levels of lactose and vitamin C, as well as the freezing point, increased. Analysis showed that milk produced in autumn (September, October, November) had a higher freezing point and lower concentrations of total solids, protein, fat, cholesterol, citric acid and energy value in comparison to milk produced in summer (June, July, August). Mares' milk was characterised by low somatic cell count throughout lactation. In terms of vitamin C stability the most advantageous method of milk storage was 6-month storage of lyophilised milk. In general, the results confirmed that mares' milk is a raw material with a unique chemical composition different from that produced by other farm animals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [The nutritional and dietary intake among community-dwelling elderly female users of mobile vendor vehicles].

    Yoshimura, Yukio; Ito, Hideki; Yoshimura, Hidenori; Kamada, Chiemi; Okumura, Ryota; Shinno, Yuki; Suzuki, Taro; Horie, Kazumi; Takaya, Koji; Omi, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    We compared the nutritional and dietary intakes of users of mobile vendor vehicles and users of stores to clarify the problems in the nutritional intake of users of mobile vendor vehicles. We conducted a questionnaire about the food accessibility among 257 elderly women (age: ≥65 years) who used mobile vendor vehicles and/or stores to shop. The nutritional intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall method. We used an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to calculate the age-adjusted mean values for the total nutritional intake. The nutritional intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles included significantly lower intakes of energy (168 kcal), green vegetables, other vegetables, and meats. Furthermore, those who only shopped at mobile vendor vehicles consumed less energy and fewer nutrients than those who shopped at places other than mobile vendor vehicles. The comparison of the shopping frequency and nutritional intake of the subjects who used mobile vendor vehicles alone revealed that the energy and protein intakes of those who shopped once per week was significantly lower in comparison to those who shopped twice per week. Users of mobile vendor vehicles had lower intakes of macronutrients and various minerals and vitamins. Among the food groups, intakes of vegetables, meat, and dairy products were low. These findings suggest that the lack of means of shopping other than mobile vendor vehicles and shopping once per week may be associated with an inadequate dietary intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles. It would be desirable to develop the shopping environment is desirable.

  17. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Laura E. Monnat; Angela M. Rose; Julie A. Kennel; Christopher H. Holloman; Gail L. Kaye; Carolyn W. Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  18. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individu...

  19. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  20. Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A Review of Global Intakes

    Danika Martyn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses.

  1. The measurement of milk intake in the neonatal guinea pig

    Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging

  2. Productivity

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  3. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  4. Dietary intake of cadmium from Bangladeshi foods.

    Al-Rmalli, S W; Jenkins, R O; Haris, P I

    2012-01-01

    Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is associated with various diseases and high levels of Cd have been detected in Bangladeshi population warranting further research to identify the source of this exposure. In this study, Cd levels in 327 and 94 samples of Bangladeshi food and non-food samples, respectively, were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This is the largest number of Bangladeshi food and nonfood samples investigated for their Cd content. High Cd levels were detected in leafy vegetables (mean 31 [SD 29]μg/kg). Of these vegetables, lal shak (Amaranthus tricolor) contained the highest Cd level (303 μg/kg [wet weight]; mean 100.5 [SD 95]μg/kg). Bangladeshi rice also showed significant concentration of Cd (mean 37.2 [SD 30]μg/kg). Of particular concern is the very high level of Cd detected in some puffed rice, which we attribute to the illegal practice of using urea for whitening the puffed rice. Tobacco leaves, which are commonly consumed during betel quid chewing by Bangladeshis, contain significant levels of Cd (mean 95 [SD 87]μg/kg). The total daily intake (TDI) of Cd from foods for Bangladeshis was estimated to be 34.55 μg/d. This is rather high when compared to the TDI of Cd for other populations. Our analysis reveals that this is mainly due to the very high intake of rice and vegetables, and lower consumption of animal products (which are low in Cd), by the Bangladeshis. We also determined the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake and target hazard quotients values for Cd. Clearly a more balanced diet is necessary to reduce the Cd intake in the Bangladeshi population, especially by reducing the very high intake of rice and certain leafy vegetables. Food manufacturing and agricultural practices needs to be altered to reduce the entry of Cd into the food chain. Exposure to high levels of Cd can be harmful to human health and this study provides a comprehensive analysis of Cd levels in a variety of food items from

  5. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  6. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  7. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    Stanstrup, Jan

    syndrome are complex disorders and are not caused by a high-calorie diet and low exercise level alone. The specific nature of the nutrients, independent of their caloric value, also play a role. The question is which. In the quest to answer this question the qualitative intake of protein is of special...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... Therefore this thesis will also present and discuss state-of-the-art tools for computer-assisted compound identification, including: annotation of adducts and fragments, determination of the molecular ion, in silico fragmentation, retention time mapping between analytical systems and de novo retention time...

  8. Intake of whole grains is associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction

    Helnæs, Anne; Kyrø, Cecilie; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    of whole-grain products was available from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire, and intakes of total whole grain and whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated. The association between intake of whole grains and risk of myocardial infarction was examined with the use of a Cox...

  9. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-01-01

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and

  10. Correlation of serum IgG concentration in foals and refractometry index of the dam's pre- and post-parturient colostrums: an assessment for failure of passive transfer in foals.

    Korosue, Kenji; Murase, Harutaka; Sato, Fumio; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Kotoyori, Yasumitsu; Nambo, Yasuo

    2012-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the differences in the values of the serum total protein (DVSTP) concentration of foals and the refractometry index (DVRI) of the milk of dams before and after nursing of the colostrum for assessing failure of passive transfer (FPT) in foals. Serum samples from 31 foals were collected before the first nursing and other 1 to 6 times between 4 and 24 hr after birth. Paired colostrum and milk samples were collected from 14 of their dams at the same time. Serum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration using a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) test (98 samples) and total protein concentration using a temperature-compensating refractometer (98 samples). Colostrum and milk samples were analyzed for refractometry index (RI) using a Brix refractometer (71 samples). DVSTP concentration and DVRI were significantly correlated with serum IgG concentration. The negative predictive values (NPVs) of DVSTP concentration for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 98.2% and 91.3% when the cutoff value is set to 0.4 mg/dl and 0.8 mg/dl, respectively. Furthermore, the NPVs of DVRI for detecting serum IgG concentrations<400 mg/dl and<800 mg/dl were 97.3% and 96.3% when the cutoff value is set to 6% and 10%, respectively. The results suggest that measurement of DVRI is useful in assessing FPT as an initial "stall-side" screening test, because it is easy, inexpensive to perform and allows for rapid interpretation.

  11. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation.

  12. Intake and sources of added sugars among Australian children and adolescents.

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Rangan, Anna M; Flood, Victoria M; Gill, Timothy P

    2016-12-01

    To examine the intake and sources of added sugars (AS) of Australian children and adolescents, and compare their intake of free sugars (FS) to the recommended limit set by the World Health Organization (foods was estimated based on a published method. Intakes of AS and FS, as well as food sources of AS, were calculated. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between age groups and gender. The mean (SD) AS intake was 58.9 (35.1) g/day, representing 11.9 (5.6) % of daily energy intake and 46.9 (17.5) % of daily total sugars intake. More than 80 % of the subjects had % energy from FS > 10 %. Significant increasing trends for AS intake, % energy from AS, % energy from FS across age groups were observed. Sugar-sweetened beverages (19.6 %), cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (14.3 %), and sugar and sweet spreads (10.5 %) were the top three contributors of AS intake in the whole sample. Higher contribution of AS from sugar-sweetened beverages was observed in adolescents (p trend  foods, interventions which target the reduction in these foods would reduce energy and AS intake with minimal impact to core nutrient intake.

  13. Differences in dietary intake during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared to women without cancer.

    de Vries, Y C; van den Berg, M M G A; de Vries, J H M; Boesveldt, S; de Kruif, J Th C M; Buist, N; Haringhuizen, A; Los, M; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, J H N; van Laarhoven, H W M; Visser, M; Kampman, E; Winkels, R M

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy often experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite that potentially affect dietary habits. This study assessed the intake of energy, macronutrients and food groups before and during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer, and determined the association between symptoms and energy and macronutrient intake. This study included 117 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients scheduled for chemotherapy and 88 women without cancer. Habitual intake before chemotherapy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-h dietary recalls were completed on random days for each participant during the whole chemotherapy treatment for patients and within 6 months after recruitment for women without cancer. Shortly, after the dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires on symptoms. Before chemotherapy, habitual energy and macronutrient intake was similar for breast cancer patients and women without cancer. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported a significantly lower total energy, fat, protein and alcohol intake than women without cancer, as shown by a lower intake of pastry and biscuits, cheese, legumes and meat products. A decline in subjective taste perception, appetite and hunger and experiencing a dry mouth, difficulty chewing, lack of energy and nausea were associated with a lower energy intake. Symptoms induced by chemotherapy are associated with lower dietary intake and manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. To ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  14. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  15. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    Subramanian, S.; Schrama, J.W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the

  16. Genomic dissection and prediction of feed intake and residual feed intake traits using a longitudinal model in F2 chickens

    Begli, Hakimeh Emamgholi; Torshizi, Rasoul vaez; Masoudi, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency trait s (FETs) ar e import ant economic indicators in poultry production. Because feed intake (FI) is a time -dependent variable, longitudinal models can provide insights into the genetic basis of FET variation over time. It is expected that the application of longitudinal models a...

  17. Association of Meat Intake with Overweight and Obesity among School-aged Children and Adolescents

    Sun Mi Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with red and white meat intake among children and adolescents using secondary survey data (n=16,261 from in-school Student Health Examination conducted in 2006 and 2007. Methods : Descriptive statistics was conducted to investigate the frequency of meat intake per week. The body mass index (BMI grades for obesity in boys and girls were classified using the standards from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. The association of meat intake with overweight and obesity was analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results : The proportion of subjects with no intake/week vs. daily meat intake/week was 5.9% and 5.5%, respectively. No intake of meat was more frequent in those who were female and in middle school, whereas daily meat intake was more frequent in those who were male and in high school. The proportions of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group and daily meat intake/week group were 12.3% and 11.1% vs. 8.1% and 9.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, including age; consumption of instant noodles, soft drinks and fast foods, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables; and skipping breakfast, the odds ratios of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group were 1.41 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.85 than those in the daily meat intake/week group. Conclusion : It is important to consider correcting the perception about meat intake and obesity and avoid restricting meat intake to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.

  18. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  19. Vortex Whistle in Radial Intake

    Tse, Man-Chun

    2004-01-01

    In a radial-to-axial intake with inlet guide vanes (IGV) at the entry, a strong flow circulation Gamma can be generated from the tangential flow components created by the IGVs when their setting exceed about halfclosing (approx. 45 deg...

  20. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  1. Job strain and alcohol intake

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...

  2. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  3. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  4. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  5. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

  6. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67 or neutral products (i.e. car insurance (n = 58. The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.

  7. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2011-01-28

    Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n=67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n=58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.

  8. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  9. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Quesnel, H

    2014-01-01

    is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different...

  10. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  11. Effect of a nutrient-enriched drink on dietary intake and nutritional status in institutionalised elderly

    Manders, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Blauw, Y.H.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Hoeckel-Prüst, van L.; Bindels, J.G.; Siebelink, E.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: (1) To determine whether nutritional supplementation (energy and micronutrients) in institutionalised elderly has a positive effect on dietary intake and nutritional status. (2) To investigate whether individuals tend to compensate for the energy content of the intervention product by

  12. Efeito da suplementação com vitamina E sobre a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano Effect of vitamin E supplementation on alpha-tocopherol levels in human colostrum

    Roberto Dimenstein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de alfa-tocoferol no colostro humano em condições de suplementação com cápsulas de vitamina A acrescidas de vitamina E sintética. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutadas para o estudo 30 parturientes saudáveis atendidas em uma maternidade pública. Após jejum noturno, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e de colostro (2 mL das parturientes. Após a primeira coleta, as mesmas receberam suplemento na forma de uma cápsula de palmitato de retinila (200000 UI ou 60 mg acrescido de vitamina E sintética (49,4 mg de dl-alfa-tocoferol. Após 24 horas da suplementação, foi realizada nova coleta de 2 mL de colostro, também em jejum. RESULTADOS: A concentração sérica de alfa-tocoferol foi de 1 042,9 ± 319,0 μg/dL. Os teores de alfa-tocoferol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 1155,4 ± 811,0 μg/dL, vs. 1396,3 ± 862,2 μg/dL 24 horas depois da suplementação (P > 0,05. Foi encontrada correlação entre o alfa-tocoferol do colostro na condição de jejum antes da suplementação e 24 horas após a suplementação (P = 0,001; r = 0,58, mas não entre soro e o colostro em nenhuma das condições acima citadas. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve aumento na concentração de alfa-tocoferol do colostro 24 horas após a suplementação. Isso indica que não é vantajoso suplementar a mãe com vitamina E sintética. Entretanto, os resultados também sugerem que, se o estado nutricional prévio à suplementação estiver adequado, mais tocoferol será encontrado no colostro após a suplementação. Novos estudos devem ser realizados para investigar o efeito da suplementação com a forma natural do alfa-tocoferol.OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of alpha-tocopherol in human colostrum following supplementation with capsules containing vitamin A plus synthetic vitamin E. METHODS: Thirty healthy women about to give birth were recruited from a public maternity hospital. After overnight fasting, blood samples as well as colostrum

  13. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe.

    Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B₁, B₂, B₆, B₁₂, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.

  15. Intake Procedures in College Counseling Centers.

    Pappas, James P.; And Others

    Intake procedures is the common subject of four papers presented in this booklet. James P. Pappas discusses trends, a decision theory model, information and issues in his article "Intake Procedures in Counseling Centers--Trends and Theory." In the second article "The Utilization of Standardized Tests in Intake Procedures or 'Where's the Post…

  16. Fish intake in pregnancy and child growth

    Stratakis, N.; Roumeliotaki, T.; Oken, E.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweig...

  17. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  18. Vitamin D nutrient intake for all life stages.

    McKenna, M

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin D, unlike other nutrients, is a conditionally required nutrient being obtained from two sources – predominantly by skin production upon exposure to natural ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation, and to a lesser extent by oral intake. Being a fat soluble vitamin it has a long half-life of about two weeks and is stored in fat tissues.1 For nearly six months of the year from October to March in Ireland, skin production is absent and the population is dependent on oral intake from natural foodstuffs, (which are consumed in small quantities only), fortified foodstuffs (most notably some milk products for the past 25 years) and vitamin D supplements, either in multivitamin tablets or in combination with calcium tablets.

  19. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery123

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. Objective: We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Design: This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks). Analyses were adjusted for the covariates of parity, maternal educational level, and physical activity. Results: Pregnancies that resulted in spontaneous preterm delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Conclusion: Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. PMID:20980489

  20. Nutrient intake and blood iron status of male collegiate soccer players.

    Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.