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Sample records for intake cigarette smoking

  1. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Amirreza; Schwartz, Deborah H; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity. To examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. The Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. A total of 378 adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years; Tanner stage 4 and 5 of sexual maturation), half of whom were exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking (mean [SD], 11.1 [6.8] cigarettes/d). Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall (percentage of energy intake consumed as fat). Body adiposity was measured with anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. Volumes of key brain structures involved in reward processing, namely the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Exposed vs nonexposed subjects exhibited a higher total body fat (by approximately 1.7 kg; P = .009) and fat intake (by 2.7%; P = .001). They also exhibited a lower volume of the amygdala (by 95 mm3; P fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (r = -0.15; P = .006). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala.

  2. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

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    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  3. Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship. Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches. Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cigarette smoking, cadmium exposure, and zinc intake on obstructive lung disorder

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    Dowling Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective This study examined whether zinc intake was associated with lower risk of smoking-induced obstructive lung disorder through interplay with cadmium, one of major toxicants in cigarette smoke. Methods Data were obtained from a sample of 6,726 subjects aged 40+ from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC were measured using spirometry. Gender-, ethnicity-, and age-specific equations were used to calculate the lower limit of normal (LLN to define obstructive lung disorder as: observed FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 below respective LLN. Zinc intake was assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the associations of interest. Results The analyses showed that an increased prevalence of obstructive lung disorder was observed among individuals with low zinc intake regardless of smoking status. The adjusted odds of lung disorder are approximately 1.9 times greater for subjects in the lowest zinc-intake tertile than those in the highest tertile (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.22-2.93. The effect of smoking on lung function decreased considerably after adjusting for urinary cadmium. Protective association between the zinc-to-cadmium ratio (log-transformed and respiratory risk suggests that zinc may play a role in smoking-associated lung disorder by modifying the influence of cadmium. Conclusions While zinc intake is associated with lower risk of obstructive lung disorder, the role of smoking cession and/or prevention are likely to be more important given their far greater effect on respiratory risk. Future research is warranted to explore the mechanisms by which zinc could modify smoking-associated lung disease.

  5. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  6. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  7. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental fact

  8. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  9. Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd (light smoking; 6–16 cpd (average smoking; 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking; and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00 of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43 and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31, respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.

  10. Cigarette-by-cigarette satisfaction during ad libitum smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2009-05-01

    Smoking is thought to produce immediate reinforcement, and subjective satisfaction with smoking is thought to influence subsequent smoking. The authors used ecological momentary assessment (A. A. Stone & S. Shiffman, 1994) to assess cigarette-by-cigarette smoking satisfaction in 394 heavy smokers who subsequently attempted to quit. Across 14,882 cigarettes rated, satisfaction averaged 7.06 (0-10 scale), but with considerable variation across cigarettes and individuals. Women and African American smokers reported higher satisfaction. More satisfied smokers were more likely to lapse after quitting (HR = 1.1, p < .03), whereas less satisfied smokers derived greater benefit from patch treatment to help them achieve abstinence (HR = 1.23, p < .001). Cigarettes smoked in positive moods were more satisfying, correcting for mood at the time of rating. The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking.

  11. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

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    Lee, Ken W. K.; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases. PMID:23882278

  12. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

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    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  13. Arsenic Speciation in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke

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    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the metals found in cured tobacco and mainstream cigarette smoke. Levels of arsenic in modern filtered cigarette smoke range from sub-ppm to a few tens of ppms. To enable accurate smoke toxicity assessment on arsenic in cigarette smoke, it is desirable to establish its chemical forms in addition to total quantities because different arsenic compounds possess different toxicological potentials.

  14. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  15. Effect of cigarette smoke on seed germination.

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    Noble, R E

    2001-02-21

    The effect of cigarette smoke was studied on the germination of radish, kale, lettuce, amaranth, wheat, rice, barley and rye seeds. It was found that such smoke markedly retarded, in all cases, the rate of germination. Furthermore, cigarette smoke caused a retardation of the levels of certain enzymes (alpha-amylase or lysozyme) known to be significant in the germination of these seeds.

  16. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  17. Alcohol intake, smoking, and colorectal adenoma.

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    Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy were included (113 cases and 255 controls) in this study. Information on alcohol intake and cigarette smoking was collected from structured questionnaires. The odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the multivariate logistic regression models. Alcohol intake was associated with a higher prevalence of colorectal adenoma in men; compared to non-drinkers, ORs (95% CIs) were 11.49 (2.55-51.89) for 10-20 g/day of alcohol intake and 14.15 (3.31-60.59) for â 20 g/day of alcohol intake (P for trend = 0.003). There was a weaker association of alcohol intake for women than men; however, there was a suggestive increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in women. Cigarette smoking was not associated with colorectal adenoma, but we cannot rule out the possibility that this was due to low statistical power. Our study provides evidence to suggest that alcohol intake may contribute to colorectal adenoma in the Korean population. Our study results demonstrate that a larger epidemiologic study is needed.

  18. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  20. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  1. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  3. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    , chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  4. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  5. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  6. Pressor effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking.

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    James, J E; Richardson, M

    1991-09-01

    Pressor effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking were examined in 15 normotensive young men and women. A cross-over design was used in which all subjects participated in four separate conditions: placebo alone, caffeine alone, placebo plus smoking, and caffeine plus smoking. Caffeine and smoking produced independent increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and these effects were additive in the caffeine-plus-smoking condition. Heart rate was significantly increased by smoking but was essentially unaffected by caffeine.

  7. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    . Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  8. Cigarette smoking impairs sperm bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim R. Chohan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The growing consensus on the negative impact of cigarette smoking on fertility prompted us to compare the rate of sperm respiration in smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples from 20 smokers and 58 non-smokers consulting at the andrology laboratory for fertility evaluation were used. Smoking was defined as consumption of at least a half a pack per day. A phosphorescence analyzer that measures O2 concentration in sperm suspensions as function of time was used to determine the rate of respiration. In a sealed vial, the rate of sperm respiration (k was defined as -d[O2]/dt; where [O2] was obtained from the phosphorescence decay rate of a palladium phosphor. [O2] in solutions containing sperm and glucose declined linearly with time, showing the kinetics of O2 consumption was zero-order. Inhibition of O2 consumption by cyanide confirmed the oxidations that occurred in the sperm mitochondrial respiratory chain. RESULTS: There were no differences (p > 0.28 between smokers and non-smokers for ejaculate volume, motility, concentration, normal morphology, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling test. The rate (mean ± SD, in µM O2/min/108 sperm of sperm mitochondrial O2 consumption in the smokers was 0.96 ± 0.58 and in the non-smokers 1.39 ± 0.67 (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of sperm respiration was significantly lower in smokers. This negative impact of cigarette smoking on sperm aerobic metabolism may, in part, explain the lower rate of fertility in smokers.

  9. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  10. E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166899.html E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review But one public health expert ... likely as their non-vaping counterparts to begin smoking traditional cigarettes, a new review suggests. "E-cigarette ...

  11. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction.

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    Kovac, J R; Labbate, C; Ramasamy, R; Tang, D; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle-aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e. coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiologic mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality.

  12. Women, smoking, cigarette advertising and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer in women, accounting for about one-fourth of their estimated 219,000 cancer deaths per year. Cigarette smoking specifically increases a woman's risk of developing cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and possibly uterine cervix. During the past twenty years, concerted efforts have been made by the tobacco industry to increase sales to women. Strategies have included development of "feminine" brands such as Virginia Slims, slick media campaigns portraying smoking as elegant and glamorous, and sponsorship of fashion, women's sports events, and even medical programs. Reversal of these alarming trends requires that women as well as men recognize the role of cigarette smoking in cancer causation, and support programs which promote non-smoking as well as combat the influence of the tobacco industry on women's smoking behavior.

  13. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. Objectives...

  14. CSEO - the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younesi, Erfan; Ansari, Sam; Guendel, Michaela; Ahmadi, Shiva; Coggins, Chris; Hoeng, Julia; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-01-01

    ...) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity...

  15. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  17. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  18. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan S. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  19. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis ( MS). Methods: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox

  20. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox r

  1. Waterpipe smoking: not necessarily less hazardous than cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jukema, J. B.; Bagnasco, D. E.; Jukema, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Cigarette smoking has declined over the last years in modern countries. On the contrary, waterpipe smoking has increased, especially among young people visiting waterpipe bars. Unfortunately, most waterpipe smokers seem to know little about the possible cardiovascular and other health consequences of waterpipe smoking. Objective To describe by narrative literature review the known adverse consequences for the human body caused by smoking the waterpipe compared with the consequences of...

  2. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, Pcigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure during suckling on food intake, fat mass, hormones, and biochemical profile of young and adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Peixoto, Thamara Cherem; Carvalho, Janaine Cavalcanti; Calvino, Camila; Rodrigues, Vanessa Silva Tavares; Bernardino, Dayse Nascimento; Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; Manhães, Alex Christian; de Oliveira, Elaine; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar

    2017-07-01

    Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones. Since litters were culled to include only males and since sexual dimorphisms had already been identified in the nicotine exposure model, here we also evaluated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on females. Wistar rat dams and their pups were separated into two groups of 8 litters each: SMOKE (4 cigarettes per day, from postnatal day 3 to 21) and CONTROL (filtered air). Offspring of both sexes were euthanized at PN21 and PN180. Changes in male offspring corroborated previous data. At weaning, females showed lower body mass gain and serum triglycerides, but no alterations in visceral fat and hormones. At adulthood, females had higher body mass, hyperphagia, central obesity, hyperleptinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypercorticosteronemia, but no change in serum TSH and T3, and adrenal catecholamine CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dimorphisms were observed in several parameters, thus indicating that metabolic and hormonal changes due to smoke exposure during development are sex-dependent.

  4. Cigarette smoking and poverty in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Rao, Keqin; Hu, Teh-Wei; Sun, Qi; Mao, Zhenzhong

    2006-12-01

    Drawing on the 1998 China national health services survey data, this study estimated the poverty impact of two smoking-related expenses: excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and direct spending on cigarettes. The excessive medical spending attributable to smoking is estimated using a regression model of medical expenditure with smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoker) as part of the explanatory variables, controlling for people's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The poverty impact is measured by the changes in the poverty head count, after smoking-related expenses are subtracted from income. We found that the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking may have caused the poverty rate to increase by 1.5% for the urban population and by 0.7% for the rural population. To a greater magnitude, the poverty headcount in urban and rural areas increased by 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively, due to the direct household spending on cigarettes. Combined, the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and consumption spending on cigarettes are estimated to be responsible for impoverishing 30.5 million urban residents and 23.7 million rural residents in China. Smoking related expenses pushed a significant proportion of low-income families into poverty in China. Therefore, reducing the smoking rate appears to be not only a public health strategy, but also a poverty reduction strategy.

  5. Reduced nicotine cigarettes: smoking behavior and biomarkers of exposure among smokers not intending to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. FDA has the authority to limit the nicotine content of cigarettes; however, there are concerns that reduced nicotine cigarettes will be smoked more intensely and, therefore, will increase exposure to toxic chemicals in smoke. This study examined changes in consumer behavior and exposure in response to cigarettes with substantially reduced nicotine content. Seventy-two adult smokers completed an unblinded trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes. Participants completed a 7-day baseline period during which they smoked their usual cigarette brand, followed by consecutive 7-day periods smoking cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine levels (0.6, 0.3, and 0.05 mg emission Quest cigarettes). Nicotine dependence and withdrawal, smoking behavior, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed for each 7-day period. Significant reductions in nicotine intake were observed between usual brand smoking (∼1.2 mg nicotine) and the 0.3 and 0.05 mg nicotine emission cigarettes, but not the 0.6 mg cigarette. The findings provide little evidence of compensatory smoking of Quest cigarettes, with no increases in exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels, smoking intensity, or levels of 1-hydroxypyrene across study periods. No significant differences were observed for smoking urges or measures of nicotine dependence. The study adds to the evidence that cigarettes with markedly reduced nicotine content are not associated with increased smoking intensity or exposure to smoke toxicants. The findings add to the evidence base on reduced nicotine content cigarettes and have the potential to inform FDA policy on nicotine levels. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  7. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eChen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother’s metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  8. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  9. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  10. E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163191.html E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids Study ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's no evidence that e-cigarettes are driving down teen smoking -- and, in ...

  11. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive performance in adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kafouri, S; Leonard, G; Perron, M; Richer, L; Séguin, JR; Veillette, S; Pausova, Z; Paus, T

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains high. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioural sequelae in childhood and adolescence...

  12. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 252 RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY... service on other charter flights where smoking is not banned. Electronic cigarettes were introduced into... cigarettes the issue has been raised as to whether the statutory ban on smoking in section 41706 and existing...

  13. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  14. Menthol Cigarettes and the Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarettes and the uptake of smoking by youth: 1) Does menthol make it easier for young or new/inexperienced smokers to start smoking cigarettes? 2) Do menthol smokers start smoking earlier than non-menthol smokers? Is there a higher use among youth who have been smoking for less than one year? 3) Did current smokers start smoking menthol cigarettes before switching to ...

  15. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  18. Relationship between Smoking Cigarette and Alcohol Intake and Hypertension in Mongolian People%蒙古族居民吸烟、饮酒与高血压关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 赵玉泉; 佟卫军; 敖玉光; 张宏伟; 李军; 杨铁柱; 包金山

    2001-01-01

    Aim To study the relationship between smoking cigarett and alcohol intake and hypertension in Mongolian people. Methods In June to September 1997,3542 Mongolian people aged≥15 were investigated for smoking cigarette and alcohol intake, and their blood pressures measured with standardized methods. The data was analysed by means of stratification and standardization methods. Results The standardized prevalence rate of hypertension (26.2%) for smokers-alcohol drinkers was significantly higher than that (17.7%) for smokers-nondrinkers. The standardized prevalence rate (26.8%) for nonsmokers-drinkers was significantly higher than that (18.7%) for nonsmokers-nondrinkers. There was no significant differences in the standardized prevalence rate between smokers-drinkers and nonsmokers-drinkers, there was also no significant difference between smokers-nondrinkers and nonsmokers-nondrinkers. Conclusion Alcohol intake is a risk factor of hypertension, but smoking cigarette did not increase the prevance rate of hypertension in Mongolian people.%目的 研究农牧区蒙古族居民吸烟、饮酒与高血压的关系。方法 于1997年6~9月,采用标准化方法,对内蒙古通辽市部分农牧区3542名15岁及15岁以上蒙古族居民进行血压的测量和吸烟、饮酒等的调查,采用分层及标化方法进行统计分析。 结果 吸烟--饮酒组的高血压标化患病率(26.2%)显著高于吸烟-不饮酒组(17.7%)。不吸烟--饮酒组的标化患病率(26.8%)显著高于不吸烟-不饮酒组(18.7%)。吸烟--饮酒组与不吸烟--饮酒组间标化患病率无显著差异。吸烟--不饮酒组与不吸烟-不饮酒组标化患病率也无显著差异。结论 饮酒是蒙古族居民高血压危险因素,而吸烟不是危险因素。

  19. β-carotene protects rats against bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宝森; 王辰; 翁心植; 唐小奈; 张红玉; 牛淑洁; 毛燕玲; 辛平; 黄秀霞; 张海燕; 祝锦

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of β-carotene in rats against the development of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoking. Results Long-term cigarette smoking caused an obvious increase in the amount of IL-6, IL-8 and LPO and a sharp decrease in the levels of NO and SOD in smoking animals compared to controls. β-carotene intake reversed all the changes induced by smoking and alleviated the pathological changes caused by chronic bronchitis. Conclusions Quantitative oral intake of β-carotene had protective effects against chronic bronchitis induced by long-term cigarette smoking, which was associated with the increased production of NO, the clearance of some oxidative free radicals (OFR) and the alleviation of chronic inflammation.

  20. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  1. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  2. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Some clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various cessation treatments have suggested that menthol smokers have poorer outcomes, however two secondary data analysis studies (which used the same original dataset failed to find any difference in success rate associated with particular treatments. Although there is some suggestion that smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with worse cessation outcomes, differences are not always found. However, if there was a difference, it was always in the direction of worse outcomes for menthol smokers. Given that Black/African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes more than White smokers, possible interactions with race/ethnicity are discussed.

  3. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  4. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Joehanes (Roby); Just, A.C. (Allan C.); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); L.C. Pilling (Luke); L.M. Reynolds (Lindsay); Mandaviya, P.R. (Pooja R.); W. Guan (Weihua); Xu, T. (Tao); C.E. Elks (Cathy); Aslibekyan, S. (Stella); H. Moreno-Macías (Hortensia); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); Dhingra, R. (Radhika); P. Yousefi (Paul); J.S. Pankow (James); Kunze, S. (Sonja); Shah, S.H. (Sonia H.); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); K. Lohman (Kurt); Sha, J. (Jin); D. Absher (Devin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Zhao, W. (Wei); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); J. Bressler (Jan); M.L. Grove (Megan); T. Huan (Tianxiao); C. Liu (Chunyu); Mendelson, M.M. (Michael M.); C. Yao (Chen); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); A. Peters (Annette); R. Wang-Sattler (Rui); P.M. Visscher (Peter); N.R. Wray (Naomi); J.M. Starr (John); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); Rodriguez, C.J. (Carlos J.); N.J. Wareham (Nick); Irvin, M.R. (Marguerite R.); Zhi, D. (Degui); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); P. Vineis (Paolo); Ambatipudi, S. (Srikant); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); Schwartz, J. (Joel); Colicino, E. (Elena); Hou, L. (Lifang); Vokonas, P.S. (Pantel S.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); S.T. Turner (Stephen); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); Smith, A.K. (Alicia K.); T. Klengel (Torsten); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); S.A. Gharib (Sina); Swenson, B.R. (Brenton R.); Liang, L. (Liming); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); Ressler, K.J. (Kerry J.); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); Kardia, S.L.R. (Sharon L. R.); D. Melzer (David); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); I. Romieu (Isabelle); D.K. Arnett (Donna); Ong, K.K. (Ken K.); Y. Liu (Yongmei); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Fornage (Myriam); D. Levy (Daniel); S.J. London (Stephanie J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results-To comprehensively determine

  5. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... Community Health, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Corresponding ... significant relationship between smoking and self-reported academic performance (X2 = 5.002; p=0.025; OR = 0.47; ... of the common habits that young people develop ... twin social vice of alcohol abuse which altogether.

  6. The effects of cigarette smoking on anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, C.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 substances, some of which are harmful to the smoker. Some constituents cause cardiovascular problems, increasing the blood pressure, heart rate, and the systemic vascular resistance. Some cause respiratory problems, interfering with oxygen uptake, transport, and delivery. Further, some interfere with respiratory function both during and after anesthesia. Some also interfere with drug metabolism. Various effects on muscle relaxants have been reported. Risk of...

  7. The effects of cigarette smoking on anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, C.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 substances, some of which are harmful to the smoker. Some constituents cause cardiovascular problems, increasing the blood pressure, heart rate, and the systemic vascular resistance. Some cause respiratory problems, interfering with oxygen uptake, transport, and delivery. Further, some interfere with respiratory function both during and after anesthesia. Some also interfere with drug metabolism. Various effects on muscle relaxants have been reported. Risk of...

  8. The Implications of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke for Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshman, Larry G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Non-smokers exposed to emissions from a burning cigarette in ambient air demonstrate measureable physiological responses. The study showed that work capacity was reduced as a result of exposure to their sidestream cigarette smoke. (RE)

  9. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  10. Cigarette Smoke Alters the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Siggins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of tobacco smoke on hematologic derangements have received little attention. This study employed a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure to explore the effects on bone marrow niche function. While lung cancer is the most widely studied consequence of tobacco smoke exposure, other malignancies, including leukemia, are associated with tobacco smoke exposure. Animals received cigarette smoke exposure for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 9 months. Results reveal that the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC pool size is reduced by cigarette smoke exposure. We next examined the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on one supporting cell type of the niche, the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. Smoke exposure decreased the number of MSCs. Transplantation of naïve HSPCs into irradiated mice with cigarette smoke exposure yielded fewer numbers of engrafted HSPCs. This result suggests that smoke-exposed mice possess dysfunctional niches, resulting in abnormal hematopoiesis. Co-culture experiments using MSCs isolated from control or cigarette smoke-exposed mice with naïve HSPCs in vitro showed that MSCs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice generated marked expansion of naïve HSPCs. These data show that cigarette smoke exposure decreases in vivo MSC and HSC number and also increases pro-proliferative gene expression by cigarette smoke-exposed MSCs, which may stimulate HSPC expansion. These results of this investigation are clinically relevant to both bone marrow donors with a history of smoking and bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients with a history of smoking.

  11. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Mokdad, Ali H; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Flaxman, Abraham D; Hansen, Gillian M; Murray, Christopher Jl

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state...

  14. Determinants of First Puff and Daily Cigarette Smoking in Adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Karp, Igor; Koulis, Theodoro; Paradis, Gilles; DiFranza, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    ...), 877 Canadian students (mean age = 12.7 years) who had never smoked at baseline completed self-report questionnaires on cigarette smoking and 32 predictor variables in 20 survey cycles during secondary school...

  15. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... exposures and perceptions of cigarette smoking advertisement. Materials and Methods: ... exposure to both pro-and anti-smoking advertisement. The awareness of harmful ... Access this article online. Quick Response Code:.

  16. Cigarette smoke affects bonding to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Junio S; de Araujo, Edson Medeiro; Araujo, Elito

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) of composite resin bonded to dentin that had been contaminated by cigarette smoke. Ten extracted unerupted human third molars were used: Six molars were prepared for muTBS testing, while the other four molars were assigned to pre- and post-etching scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. The 20 specimens obtained from the 10 coronal portions were distributed into two experimental groups so that each tooth served as its own control. Group 1 underwent a daily toothbrushing simulation and exposure to a smoking simulation chamber, while Group 2 received only a daily simulated toothbrushing. Student's t-test demonstrated that Group 1 samples demonstrated significantly lower bond strength (49.58 MPa) than Group 2 samples (58.48 MPa). Pre and postetching SEM analysis revealed the presence of contaminants on the dentinal surfaces of the Group 1 specimens. It was concluded that contamination by cigarette smoke decreases the bond strength between dentin and composite resin.

  17. Cigarette access and pupil smoking rates: a circular relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katrina M; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Adolescents obtain cigarettes from both commercial and social sources. While the relationship between commercial access and adolescent smoking has been researched, no one has considered in detail whether rates of peer smoking affect cigarette availability. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools that differed in their pupil smoking rates, we assess pupil access to cigarettes. 896 13 and 15 year olds were surveyed, and 25 single-sex discussion groups held with a sub-sample of the 13 year olds. Smokers in both schools obtained cigarettes from shops, food vans and other pupils. However, pupils in the 'high' smoking school perceived greater access to both commercial and social sources, and had access to an active 'peer market'. These findings suggest that variations in cigarette access may contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates, and that the relationship between access and adolescent smoking is circular, with greater availability increasing rates, and higher rates enhancing access.

  18. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  19. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  20. Cigarette Smoking Impairs Pancreatic Duct Cell Bicarbonate Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S; Banks, Peter A; Suleiman, Shadeah; Paulo, Joao A; Wang, Wei; Rosenblum, Jessica; Sainani, Nisha I; Mortele, Koenraad; Conwell, Darwin L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pancreatic duct cell function in smokers (current and past) and never smokers by measurement of secretin-stimulated peak bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3−]) in endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid (PF). Methods This retrospective study was cross-sectional in design, recording demographic information (age, gender, etc.), smoking status (former, current, never), alcohol intake, clinical data (imaging, endoscopy), and laboratory results (peak PF [HCO3−]) from subjects evaluated for pancreatic disease at a tertiary pancreas center. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA) was performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid bicarbonate concentration. Results A total of 131 subjects underwent pancreatic fluid collection (endoscopic pancreatic function test, ePFT) for bicarbonate analysis: 25.2% (33 out of 131) past smokers, 31.3% (41 out of 131) current smokers, and 43.5% (57 out of 131) were never smokers. Measures of Association The mean peak PF [HCO3−] in never smokers (81.3±18.5 mEq/L) was statistically higher (indicating better duct cell function) when compared to past smokers (66.8±24.7 mEq/L, P=0.005) and current smokers (70.0±20.2 mEq/L, P=0.005). However, the mean peak [HCO3−] in past smokers was not statistically different from that in current smokers (P=0.575), and therefore, the two smoking groups were combined to form a single “smokers cohort”. When compared to the never smokers, the smokers cohort was older (P=0.037) and had a greater proportion of subjects with definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (P=0.010), alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (P=0.012), and abnormal peak PF [HCO3-] (P<0.001). Risk-Based Estimates Cigarette smoking (risk ratio, RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.5; P<0.001), diagnosis of definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6–3.2; P<0.001) and alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1

  1. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  2. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  3. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  4. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  5. Acute one-cigarette smoking decreases ghrelin hormone in saliva: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaabi, Yahia A; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers.

  6. Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia A. Kaabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P<0.0001. In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P=0.1362. Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r=0.4143 and P=0.0158; however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r=0.1147 and P=0.5461. Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers.

  7. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  8. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  9. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  10. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p'swaterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p'swaterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (pwaterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks.

  11. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  12. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Po-210 content in cigarette smoke using a smoking machine: A case study of Iranian cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Mária; Shahrokhi, Amin; Bátor, Péter; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-08-01

    The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed. A 5% HCl solution was found to be the best absorber of Po-210 from smoke. Seventeen different brands of cigarettes distributed in Iran were used to validate the new machine and sampling protocol. The Po-210 concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry; the cigarette smoke solution underwent combined acid treatment after adding a Po-209 tracer. The Po-210 activity concentration of cigarettes sold in Iran was between 9.7 ± 1.2 and 26.5 ± 4.6 mBq/cigarette and it was determined that there was no relationship between the Po-210 and nicotine contents of cigarette smoke. Additionally, it was found that 15 ± 10% of the cigarette Po-210 was transferred to the mainstream smoke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Good relationship between saliva cotinine kinetics and plasma cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Dai; Kikuchi, Akira; Miura, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Onozawa, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between plasma and saliva cotinine kinetics after smoking one cigarette and the relationship between cotinine kinetics and estimated nicotine intake, which was calculated as mouth level exposure (MLE) of nicotine, from smoking two test cigarettes with different nicotine yields. This study was conducted in 16 healthy adult Japanese smokers, who did not have null nor reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, with a quasi-randomized crossover design of smoking a low-tar cigarette or a high-tar cigarette. Saliva cotinine showed similar concentration profiles to plasma cotinine, and all of the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of cotinine showed the same values in plasma and saliva. The Cmax and AUC of cotinine showed almost the same dose-responsiveness to the estimated MLE of nicotine between plasma and saliva, but the tmax and t1/2 of cotinine were not affected by the estimated MLE of nicotine in either plasma or saliva. The results show that saliva cotinine kinetics reflects plasma cotinine kinetics, and measurement of saliva cotinine concentration gives the same information as plasma cotinine on the nicotine intake. Thus, saliva cotinine would be a good and less-invasive exposure marker of cigarette smoke, reflecting the plasma cotinine concentration and kinetics.

  15. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Karabi Nandy; Felicia Hodge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the env...

  16. A Wearable Sensor System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. Method: The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. Results: The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. Conclusions: With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions. PMID:24172124

  17. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  18. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  19. Cigarette smoking and genetic alterations in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Vrieling, A.; Kraats, van A.A.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been inconsistently associated with colon cancer risk. To evaluate the hypothesis that smoking is primarily linked to a specific colon tumor subgroup(s), we assessed associations between smoking and the occurrence of mutations in the APC, K-ras and p53 genes, p53 overexpression

  20. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  1. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  2. Metabonomic study of rats exposed to cigarette sidestream smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Wen-liu; SHI Xian-zhe; LUO Jia; REN Feng-lian

    2016-01-01

    A metabonomic approach was undertaken in order to detect urinary endogenous and exogenous metabolites and to evaluate the effects of passive exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke on rats. Urinary samples from three groups of rats were determined including control rats, rats treated with blended cigarettes (nonmenthol cigarettes) and rats treated with menthol cigarettes. The total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), total 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a] pyrene (3-HOBaP) were determined for assessing exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke toxins. Urinary endogenous metabolites in the three groups of rats were also analyzed and the data were processed by chemometrics. Eleven endogenous metabolites were found and identified. Their relative levels were compared among the three groups. The results show that cigarette sidestream smoke has complex effect on rats. Blended cigarette group makes difference to menthol cigarette group in the rats' urinary metabolic changes. Menthol adding to cigarettes has positive and negative effects on rats, respectively. The urinary metabolic profiling of menthol cigarette group is closer to that of control group.

  3. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  4. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  5. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objectives: Tobacco use in all its forms represents a very well-known preventable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

  6. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    function and select serum elements in female subjects using ... subjects using combined oral contraceptive, consuming alcohol and exposed to cigarette smoke may be .... -20°C until the time required for analysis. ..... Ardent Media, New York.

  7. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan, try

  8. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  9. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Lennart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS and sidestream (SS smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64 pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05 ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol and 10.02-20.13% (LPS of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol and 0.42-1.10% (LPS for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, S.

    1987-06-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (P/sub TR/), pulmonary artery pressure (P/sub PA/), systemic blood pressure (P/sub SYST/), and left atrium pressure (P/sub LA/); and decreasing cardiac output (Q/sub AORTA/) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (Q/sub LLL/). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV/sub 1.0/ in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. The authors demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. They also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated.

  11. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; WU, JIE; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indica...

  12. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-tao XIE; Qiang LIU; Jie WU; Makoto WAKUI

    2009-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indicating the impact of nicotine on type 2 diabetes development.

  13. Side-stream cigarette smoke accentuates immunomodulation during murine AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Du Ester, En-Jie; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2002-05-01

    Side-stream cigarette smoke has become a hotly debated social, political, and scientific health and safety issue for nonsmokers. The harmful influences of side-stream cigarette smoke on human health are its adverse effects on the immune system, especially when already compromised by other agents. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a clinical disorder caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To facilitate studies, murine AIDS was induced in C57BL/6 mice by LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus infection, which mimics human AIDS. After 2 weeks of retroviral infection, the mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoke for 30 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks using a side-stream cigarette smoke exposure system. Murine retrovirus infection reduced the in vitro proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A, increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increased the hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased the alpha-tocopherol levels in liver, lung and heart. Concomitant side-stream cigarette smoke exposure for 12 weeks further inhibited the proliferation of T cells, increased the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 cytokines and enhanced the hepatic lipid peroxidation from retrovirus infected mice. The loss of alpha-tocopherol was also further enhanced by side-stream cigarette smoke exposure during retrovirus infection. Our conclusions are that side-stream cigarette smoke induced increasing oxidative stress, reducing nutrient concentrations and suppressing immune function could make mice with murine AIDS more susceptible to opportunistic infections, potentially accelerating murine AIDS progression. Thus, the reduction of side-stream cigarette smoke exposure is an important health issue in AIDS patients to improve the quality and quantity of their lives.

  14. Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Stark, Michael J; Scheil, Wendy; Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Clifton, Vicki L

    2014-03-01

    Does cigarette smoking in pregnancy explain the increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes that occur with maternal asthma or does it compound the effect? Using population based birth records, a retrospective analysis was conducted of all singleton pregnancies in South Australia over 10 years (1999-2008; n=172 305), examining maternal asthma, cigarette smoking and quantity of smoking to estimate odds ratios. Compared with nonasthmatic females who did not smoke during pregnancy, both asthmatic females who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes, antepartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membranes, emergency Caesarean section, and the child being small for gestational age and having congenital abnormalities. These associations suggest that asthma, independently of maternal smoking, increases the risk of these adverse perinatal outcomes. Maternal smoking was itself associated with an increased risk of a number of poor neonatal outcomes, with a dose-response relationship observed. Notably, maternal asthma combined with cigarette smoking significantly increased the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections to a greater degree than with either exposure alone. Maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy are both independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and, combined, compound the risk of preterm birth and urinary tract infections.

  15. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  16. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  17. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  19. Waterpipe smoking in students: prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel; Aveyard, Paul

    2008-05-22

    Anecdotal reports suggest waterpipe smoking is becoming common in students in western countries. The aim was to examine prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. This was a cross-sectional survey of students with subsidiary survey of regular waterpipe user and survey of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) before and after waterpipe smoking in customers of a waterpipe café. 937 students of Birmingham University completed the initial survey with a follow up of 21 regular waterpipe smokers. 63 customers of a waterpipe café near the University completed the study of CO intake. 355 (37.9%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 34.8 to 41.1%) students had tried waterpipes, the prevalence of trying rising with duration at University. 75 (8.0%, 95%CI 6.4 to 10.0%) were regular smokers, similar to the prevalence of cigarette smoking (9.4%). Although cigarette smoking was the major risk factor for being a regular waterpipe smoker, odds ratio (95%CI) 2.77 (1.52 to 5.06), 65% of waterpipe smokers did not smoke cigarettes. Seven of 21 (33.3%) regular waterpipe smokers experienced cravings. Nearly all regular waterpipe users thought it less harmful than smoking cigarettes. The mean (standard deviation) rise in CO was 37.4 (25.8)ppm, nearly twice as high as a typical cigarette smoker seeking cessation treatment. Waterpipe smoking is a common part of student culture in one British university, as in the Middle East and in the United States. It poses a potential threat to public health, with evidence of dependence and high smoke intake.

  20. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Lacy A; Canlas, Lauren L; Potts, Jennifer; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a tripling in the consumption of small cigars and cigarillos, with further increases expected because cigar products are not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations. Acute toxin exposure from cigar smoking is difficult to assess because unlike cigarettes, cigars vary widely in size, design, composition, and in the smoking behavior of their consumers. For example, a recent practice among urban youth is to remove the paper liner (i.e., "freaking") of a small cigar in the belief that it is this paper liner that leads to addiction and cancer. We examined acute exposure (CO and nicotine boosts) and puffing behavior in 12 participants (10 men) who smoked (ad lib) their usual conventional cigarette, a Black & Mild cigar (B&M) and a B&M without the paper liner (i.e., "freaked" [B&Mf]). All products (cigarettes, B&M, and B&Mf) significantly increased heart rate and CO with a trend for plasma nicotine. Nicotine boost was significantly higher after cigarette smoking than both B&M and B&Mf, while CO boost was significantly greater after B&M and B&Mf than cigarettes. The CO boost after B&M was larger than after B&Mf. These findings suggest that small cigar smoking is associated with smoke inhalation that leads to significant exposure to nicotine, CO, and presumably other components of tobacco smoke and that removing the inner liner does not substantially reduce toxin exposure.

  1. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes.

  2. Toxic Chemicals in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke - Hazard and Hoopla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These are curious times. The Canadian government has passed legislation that requires cigarette manufacturers to routinely test and publish the amounts of 44 toxic substances in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS. Following in the footsteps of their northern neighbor, various US legislators and regulators are considering modifications to their cigarette testing and reporting programs that will also list toxicants in MSS. Across the Atlantic Ocean, the European Commission has passed a directive that may also follow the North American lead for public disclosure of MSS toxic chemicals for each brand of cigarette sold in the marketplace. United Kingdom authorities have also expressed their intention to follow this mandate.

  3. Effect of Sugar Content on Acetaldehyde Yield in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cigarette blend sugar and acetaldehyde formed in its smoke is a matter of current regulatory interest. This paper provides a re-analysis of data from 83 European commercial cigarettes studied in the 1970s and more modern data on sugar levels and acetaldehyde yields from a series of 97 European commercial cigarettes containing both inherent sugar and in other cases inherent and added sugar. It also provides data from 65 experimental cigarette products made from single curing grades of tobacco, having a wide range of inherent sugar levels but no added sugar.

  4. Waterpipe Use and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Never-Smoking Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Pbert, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders. Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender. Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful Nicotine Intake in Medical Assisted Use of E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona; Graziano, Silvia; Pellegrini, Manuela; Massaro, Giuseppina; Beatrice, Fabio

    2015-07-08

    The electronic cigarette (e-cig) has gained popularity as an aid in smoking cessation programs mainly because it maintains the gestures and rituals of tobacco smoking. However, it has been shown in inexperienced e-cig users that ineffective nicotine delivery can cause tobacco craving that could be responsible for unsuccessful smoking reduction/cessation. Moreover, the incorrect use of an e-cig could also led to potential nicotine overdosage and intoxication. Medically assisted training on the proper use of an e-cig plus behavioral support for tobacco dependence could be a pivotal step in avoiding both issues. We performed an eight-month pilot study of adult smokers who started e-cig use after receiving a multi-component medically assisted training program with monitoring of nicotine intake as a biomarker of correct e-cig use. Participants were tested during follow-up for breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and number of tobacco cigarettes smoked. At the end of the first, fourth, and eighth month of follow-up, 91.1, 73.5, and 76.5% of participants respectively were e-cig users ('only e-cig' and 'dual users'). They showed no significant variation in plasma cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine with respect to the start of the study when they smoked only tobacco cigarettes, but a significant reduction in breath CO. The proposed medically assisted training program of e-cig use led to a successful nicotine intake, lack of typical cigarette craving and overdosage symptoms and a significant decrease in the biomarker of cigarette combustion products.

  6. Successful Nicotine Intake in Medical Assisted Use of E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pacifici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electronic cigarette (e-cig has gained popularity as an aid in smoking cessation programs mainly because it maintains the gestures and rituals of tobacco smoking. However, it has been shown in inexperienced e-cig users that ineffective nicotine delivery can cause tobacco craving that could be responsible for unsuccessful smoking reduction/cessation. Moreover, the incorrect use of an e-cig could also led to potential nicotine overdosage and intoxication. Medically assisted training on the proper use of an e-cig plus behavioral support for tobacco dependence could be a pivotal step in avoiding both issues. We performed an eight-month pilot study of adult smokers who started e-cig use after receiving a multi-component medically assisted training program with monitoring of nicotine intake as a biomarker of correct e-cig use. Participants were tested during follow-up for breath carbon monoxide (CO, plasma cotinine and trans-3’-hydroxycotinine, and number of tobacco cigarettes smoked. At the end of the first, fourth, and eighth month of follow-up, 91.1, 73.5, and 76.5% of participants respectively were e-cig users (‘only e-cig’ and ‘dual users’. They showed no significant variation in plasma cotinine and trans-3’-hydroxycotinine with respect to the start of the study when they smoked only tobacco cigarettes, but a significant reduction in breath CO. The proposed medically assisted training program of e-cig use led to a successful nicotine intake, lack of typical cigarette craving and overdosage symptoms and a significant decrease in the biomarker of cigarette combustion products.

  7. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  10. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  11. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  12. The Association between Cigarette Smoking and Acne Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ramin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. Different factors have been suggested to influence acne including diet, menstruation and occupation. The role of some of these factors on acne intensity is confirmed. The affect of Cigarette smoking on acne intensity has been suggested. In this research, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the acne intensity.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 278 smoker and 277non smoker males referred to dermatology clinics of Semnan during 2006-2007. The dermatologists interviewing the patients completed questionnaires based on clinical diagnosis and intensity of acne. Data analysis was performed using t-test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Spearman coefficient tests. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Severe acne was observed in 16.6% of non-smokers and 22.7% of smokers. Distribution of acne intensity in both groups was significant (P=0.023. Association between duration of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was significant too (P<0.001. The association between dosage of cigarette smoking and acne intensity was also significant (P<0.001.Conclusion: Significant association between cigarette smoking and acne intensity showed that smoking withdrawal is helpful for reducing the acne intensity

  13. E-cigarettes: online survey of UK smoking cessation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; McEwen, Andy; Murray, Susan; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Use of e-cigarettes (inhalable vapour producing battery powered devices that aim to simulate tobacco cigarettes), is rising in a number of countries, but as yet none of these products are regulated as medicinal devices or available as smoking cessation treatments. Smokers seeking support from health professionals to stop smoking are interested in e-cigarettes and may be buying them to aid a quit attempt. Determining what smokers are asking, and what health professionals think about these products may have implications for smoking treatment services in a number of countries. Stop smoking service advisors, managers and commissioners in the United Kingdom were asked to take part in two surveys on e-cigarettes. Data was analysed from 587 practitioners who completed a survey in 2011 and 705 practitioners who completed a repeat survey in 2013. Responses to multiple choice questions and free text comments were analysed. Responding practitioners reported that interest in, and use of, e-cigarettes is growing among adults seeking help to stop smoking in the UK. In 2013 91% of respondents reported that interest in e-cigarettes had grown in the past year and whilst in 2011, 2% of respondents reported a 'quarter to a half' of their clients saying that they were regularly using e-cigarettes, by 2013 this had increased to 23.5% (p rising to 26% in 2013). However, they continued to have concerns about the products. In particular, analysis of free text responses suggested practitioners were unsure about safety or efficacy for smoking cessation, and were worried that smokers may become dependent on the products. Practitioners were also aware of the potential of e-cigarettes to undermine smokers' willingness to use evidence-based methods to stop, and to challenge policies aiming to denormalise tobacco smoking. Health professionals are asking for reliable and accurate information on e-cigarettes to convey to smokers who want to quit. Randomized controlled trials and ongoing

  14. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  15. [Assessment of cadmium and lead released from cigarette smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suna, S; Asakawa, F; Jitsunari, F; Manabe, Y; Gotou, A; Fukunaga, I; Nakajima, T

    1991-12-01

    Cigarette smoke, which contains many harmful compounds, affects not only the smoker's health but also indoor air quality. To evaluate indoor air contamination by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), we measured Cd and Pb contained in the mainstream and sidestream smoke exhaled by experimental smoking of Japanese cigarettes and also determined urinary and blood Cd and Pb levels in smokers and non-smokers and air Cd and Pb levels in smoky environments. 1. One cigarette of each of 7 Japanese brands contained about 1 microgram each of Cd and Pb, of which about 50 ng each was released to the mainstream and 250 ng of Cd and 50 ng of Pb to the sidestream by smoking. 2. The blood Cd level in the smokers was significantly higher than that in the non-smokers. The urinary Cd level in the smokers was slightly higher than that in the non-smokers. The blood Cd level was related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Blood and urinary Pb levels did not differ between the smokers and non-smokers, but the blood Pb level was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked daily. 3. The air Cd levels in smoky places such as the smoking car of the special express train, an office, and a pachinko parlor were markedly higher than that in outdoor air. The air Cd concentration was well correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration. On the other hand, the air Pb level was slightly higher in the above smoky places than outdoors. The mean air Pb concentration was not correlated with the environmental tobacco smoke concentration but was higher at higher environmental tobacco smoke concentration in each place.

  16. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  17. E-Cigarette Use Among Never-Smoking California Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Trinidad, Dennis R; McCarthy, William J

    2015-12-01

    We determined the extent to which adolescents who have never used tobacco try e-cigarettes. Data on the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among 482,179 California middle and high school students are from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey. Overall, 24.4% had ever used e-cigarettes (13.4% have never used tobacco and 11.0% have used tobacco), and 12.9% were current e-cigarette users (5.9% have never used tobacco). Among those who have never used tobacco, males and older students were more likely to use e-cigarettes than females and younger students. Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 1.67) and those of other races (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.19, 1.29) were more likely than Whites to have ever used e-cigarettes, but only among those who had never used smokeless tobacco and never smoked a whole cigarette. E-cigarette use is very prevalent among California students who have never smoked tobacco, especially among Hispanic and other race students, males, and older students.

  18. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, G; Anbarasi, K; Shyamaladevi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  19. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot ... to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence

  1. Is Smoking Shisha Safer than Cigarettes: Comparison of Health Effects of Shisha and Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Hamid; Al-Fadhli, Fahed; Al-Olaimi, Fatima; Al-Duraie, Alshouq; Qureshi, Ammar; Al-Kandari, Waleed; Mitra, Amal K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the health effects of shisha smoking with cigarette smoking among male college students in Kuwait. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 male students in Kuwait from September to October 2013. A pretested questionnaire was used for information on demographics and health complaints. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured using a portable peak flow meter. The outcome variables of health status were compared between smoking shisha, cigarettes, or both, and nonsmoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 243 of the 525 students (46%); of them, 52 (10%) were shisha smokers, 69 were (13%) cigarette smokers and 122 (23%) were both shisha and cigarette smokers. There were significantly fewer shisha smokers than cigarette smokers with symptoms of persistent cough (4 vs. 13% or 2/52 vs. 15/69; p = 0.007), chest pain (4 vs. 23% or 2/52 vs. 16/69; p = 0.004) and rapid heart rate (12 vs. 28% or 6/52 vs. 19/69; p = 0.04). Other complaints, including asthma, respiratory infections, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, increased blood sugar levels and sleep disturbances were similar in the 2 groups. Values of PEFR for shisha smokers and cigarette smokers were not significantly different. This study produced evidence suggesting that shisha smoking is not safer than cigarette smoking except with regard to complaints such as cough, chest pain and rapid heart rate, and that people who smoke both experience worse health effects in terms of frequent symptoms of respiratory infections, persistent cough, rapid heartbeat and sleep disturbances. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  3. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  4. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Nandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.

  5. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-30

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco.

  6. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  7. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive performance in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafouri, S; Leonard, G; Perron, M; Richer, L; Séguin, J R; Veillette, S; Pausova, Z; Paus, T

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains high. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioural sequelae in childhood and adolescence. We assessed the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive abilities in adolescent offspring (n = 503, 12- to 18-years old) using an extensive 6-h battery of tests. Non-exposed adolescents (controls) were matched to exposed adolescents (cases) by maternal education and school attended. Cognitive abilities were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery consisting of 33 tasks measuring verbal abilities, visuo-spatial skills, verbal and visual memory, processing speed, resistance to interference and motor dexterity. We found no differences between cases and controls in any of the cognitive domains whether potential confounders were included in the model or not. In addition to maternal smoking during pregnancy, we also evaluated the effect of sex and age on the various cognitive abilities in this large adolescent sample and found that most of the abilities continue to improve during adolescence to the same extent in girls and boys, with several age-independent sex differences. We found no effect of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy on cognitive abilities of the adolescent offspring when matching cases and controls by maternal education, the most common confounder of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  8. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  9. Opinions of Turkish University Students on Cigarette Smoking at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloglu-Isler, Esra; Erdogan, Irfan

    Cigarette smoking among college students is a critical public health problem with serious personal and social consequences. This study examined college student opinions about smoking in the student cafeteria, hallways and offices, considering smoking as freedom of choice, complying with the cigarette law and policy of universities on smoking. A sample of 1527 students (53.9% female, 46.1% male) attending to the six prestigious universities in Ankara, Turkey, completed a ten-item questionnaire. Results of the study showed that nonsmoking students reported the most favorable opinions toward the issues questioned, whereas occasional smokers and regular smokers reported the least favorable opinions. The highest level of disagreement by smokers and nonsmokers was provided for banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria. Students generally agreed on that teachers should not smoke in the classrooms and in their offices with doors open. Recommended actions include campus-wide no-smoking policies embracing indoors and outdoors and identification and use of new ways of providing smoking prevention and cessation programs and services.

  10. Prolonged cigarette smoke exposure alters mitochondrial structure and function in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Roland F.; Zarrintan, Sina; Brandenburg, Simone M.; Kol, Arjan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Jafari, Shabnam; Dijk, Freark; Kalicharan, Dharamdajal; Kelders, Marco; Gosker, Harry R.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van der Want, Johannes J.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Heijink, Irene H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD, leading to chronic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke induces structural and functional changes of airway epithelial mitochondria, with important implications for lung inflammation and COPD pathogenesis. Methods:

  11. Prolonged cigarette smoke exposure alters mitochondrial structure and function in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Roland F; Zarrintan, Sina; Brandenburg, Simone M; Kol, Arjan; de Bruin, Harold G; Jafari, Shabnam; Dijk, Freark; Kalicharan, Dharamdajal; Kelders, Marco; Gosker, Harry R; Ten Hacken, Nick Ht; van der Want, Johannes J; van Oosterhout, Antoon Jm; Heijink, Irene H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD, leading to chronic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke induces structural and functional changes of airway epithelial mitochondria, with important implications for lung inflammation and COPD pathogenesis. METHODS:

  12. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  13. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg’s Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality.

  14. Cigarette smoking, genetic polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nisa, Hoirun; Kono, Suminori; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Nagano, Jun; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-01-01

    .... We investigated the relation of cigarette smoking and related genetic polymorphisms to colorectal cancer risk, with special reference to the interaction between smoking and genetic polymorphism...

  15. Particulate matter in cigarette smoke alters iron homeostasis to produce a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Andrew J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline G; Dailey, Lisa A; Carter, Jacqueline D; Richards, Judy H; Crissman, Kay M; Foronjy, Robert F; Uyeminami, Dale L; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2008-12-01

    Lung injury after cigarette smoking is related to particle retention. Iron accumulates with the deposition of these particles. We tested the postulate that (1) injury after smoking correlates with exposure to the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, (2) these particles alter iron homeostasis, triggering metal accumulation, and (3) this alteration in iron homeostasis affects oxidative stress and inflammation. Rats and human respiratory epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke, filtered cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke condensate (the particulate fraction of smoke), and indices of iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory injury were determined. Comparable measures were also evaluated in nonsmokers and smokers. After exposure of rats to cigarette smoke, increased lavage concentrations of iron and ferritin, serum ferritin levels, and nonheme iron concentrations in the lung and liver tissue all increased. Lavage ascorbate concentrations were decreased, supporting an oxidative stress. After filtering of the cigarette smoke to remove particles, most of these changes were reversed. Exposure of cultured respiratory epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate caused a similar accumulation of iron, metal-dependent oxidative stress, and increased IL-8 release. Lavage samples in healthy smokers and smoking patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease revealed elevated concentrations of both iron and ferritin relative to healthy nonsmokers. Lavage ascorbate decreased with cigarette smoking. Serum iron and ferritin levels among smokers were increased, supporting systemic accumulation of this metal after cigarette smoke exposure. We conclude that cigarette smoke particles alter iron homeostasis, both in the lung and systemically.

  16. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Alcohol Intake, Smoking, and Colorectal Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yeong Mi; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Korea. Because colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer, primary prevention of colorectal adenomas may be important for reducing morbidity and mortality from the disease. The aim of this study is to examine the association of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in relation with colorectal adenoma in a cross-sectional study of Korean adults. Methods: A total of 366 participants who underwent colonoscopy...

  18. Waterpipe use and cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth: analysis of the 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirallah, Khalid A; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Ward, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as lack of a firm decision to not initiate smoking, predicts youth smoking initiation and experimentation and is a first step in the transition to regular smoking. This study investigated whether waterpipe (WP) smoking, an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use among Arab adolescents, was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Jordan Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted to assess the association between WP use and cigarette susceptibility, after adjusting for important confounders. A total of 1,476 youth aged 13-15 years old who had never smoked cigarettes were identified and represented 166,593 never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth. We found 40% of boys and 29% of girls were susceptible to cigarette smoking, and both boys (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.54) and girls (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.83-2.04) who had ever smoked WP were more susceptible to cigarette smoking than those who never smoked WP. This is the first study to report that WP use may increase youth's susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J E; Behm, F M; Westman, E C

    2001-02-01

    Separate and combined effects of nicotine and the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine were studied in 32 healthy volunteer smokers after overnight abstinence from smoking. Subjects participated in three sessions (3 h each), during which they wore skin patches delivering either 0 mg/24 h, 21 mg/24 h or 42 mg/24 h nicotine. Thirty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving oral mecamylamine hydrochloride (10 mg) vs. placebo capsules. Two and one-half hours after drug administration, subjects were allowed to smoke ad lib, rating the cigarettes for rewarding and aversive effects. Transdermal nicotine produced a dose-related reduction in the subjective rewarding qualities of smoking. Nicotine also reduced craving for cigarettes and this effect was attenuated, but not eliminated, by mecamylamine. Mecamylamine blocked the discriminability of high vs. low nicotine puffs of smoke, and increased nicotine intake substantially during the ad lib smoking period. Some of the psychophysiological effects of each drug (elevation in blood pressure from nicotine, sedation and decreased blood pressure from mecamylamine) were offset by the other drug. The results supported the hypothesis that nicotine replacement can alleviate tobacco withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of an antagonist such as mecamylamine. Mecamylamine did not precipitate withdrawal beyond the level associated with overnight cigarette deprivation, suggesting its effects were primarily due to offsetting the action of concurrently administered nicotine as opposed to blocking endogenous cholinergic transmission.

  20. Cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among young adults: a national record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors affect tooth loss in older age including cigarette smoking; however, evidence regarding the association between smoking and tooth loss during young adulthood is limited. The present study examined the association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss experience among adults aged 20–39 years using linked data from two national databases in Japan. Methods Two databases of the National Nutrition Survey (NNS and the Survey of Dental Diseases (SDD, which were conducted in 1999, were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare with permission for analytical use. In the NNS, participants received physical examinations and were interviewed regarding dietary intake and health practices including cigarette smoking, whereas in the SDD, participants were asked about their frequency of daily brushing, and received oral examinations by certified dentists. Among 6,805 records electronically linked via household identification code, 1314 records of individuals aged 20 to 39 years were analyzed. The prevalence of 1+ tooth loss was compared among non-, former, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed including confounders: frequency of tooth brushing, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and intake of vitamins C and E. Results Smoking rates differed greatly in men (53.3% and women (15.5%. The overall prevalence of tooth loss was 31.4% (31.8% men and 31.1% women. Tooth loss occurred more frequently among current smokers (40.6% than former (23.1% and non-smokers (27.9%. Current smoking showed a significant association with 1+ tooth loss in men (adjusted OR = 2.21 [1.40–3.50], P = 0.0007 and women (1.70 [1.13–2.55], P = 0.0111. A significant positive exposure-related relationship between cigarette smoking status and tooth loss was observed (P for trend Conclusion An association between cigarette smoking and tooth loss was evident among young adults throughout Japan. Due to

  1. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  2. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme's surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE's inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety.

  3. Lung deposition analyses of inhaled toxic aerosols in conventional and less harmful cigarette smoke: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-09-23

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions.

  4. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Gregory, G.: An epidemiological study of chronic periodontal disease . Arch Oral Biol 10:553-566, 1965. 52. Shuler, R.L.: Effect of cigarette smoking on the... studies . Researchers have attempted to correlate plaque accumulation, calculus deposition, gingivitis, periodontal disease , and oral hygiene practices...in the etiology of periodontal disease . 15 In 1970 Alexander studied the relationship between tobacco smoking and periodontal health in 200 dental

  5. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  6. Cigarette smoke detection from captured image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Hironori; Matsubara, Toru; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a detection of smoke from captured image sequences. We propose to address the following two problems in order to attain this goal. The first problem is to estimate candidate areas of smoke. The second problem is to judge if smoke exists in the scene. To solve the first problem, we apply the previously proposed framework where image sequences are divided into some small blocks and the smoke detection is done in each small block. In this framework, we propose to use color and edge information of the scene. To solve the second problem, we propose a method for judging if smoke exists in the scene by using the areas of smoke obtained in the last step part. We propose some feature values for judging if smoke exists in the scene. Then, by simulation we find the best combination of feature values. In addition, we study the effect of normalization, which provide better performance in recognition.

  7. Cigarette smoking and gestational diabetes mellitus in Hispanic woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Szegda, Kathleen L; Liao, Xun; Pekow, Penelope; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Hispanic women are at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as compared to non-Hispanic white women. While smoking has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, studies of smoking and GDM are sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and GDM in Hispanic women. We conducted a pooled analysis of two Hispanic datasets based in Massachusetts: the UMass Medical Health Care dataset and the Proyecto Buena Salud dataset. A total of 3029 Hispanic prenatal care patients with singleton gestations were included. Cigarette smoking prior to and during pregnancy was collected via self-report. Diagnosis of GDM was abstracted from medical records and confirmed by study obstetricians. One-fifth of participants (20.4%) reported smoking prior to pregnancy, and 11.0% reported smoking in pregnancy. A total of 143 women (4.7%) were diagnosed with GDM. We did not observe an association between pre-pregnancy cigarette smoking and odds of GDM (multivariable OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.47, 1.25). In contrast, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 54% reduction in odds of GDM (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.22, 0.95). However, this association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age, parity, and study site (OR=0.47, 95% CI 0.23, 1.00). In this population of Hispanic pregnant women, we did not observe statistically significant associations between pre-pregnancy smoking and odds of GDM. A reduction in odds of GDM among those who smoked during pregnancy was no longer apparent after adjustment for important diabetes risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  9. Evaluation method for the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke by in vitro whole smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Nie, Cong; Shang, Pingping; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro whole smoke (WS) exposure method was established to evaluate the toxicological effects of fresh cigarette smoke using the VITROCELL(®) system associated with the neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay. The VITROCELL(®) system is a newly representative culture and exposure system for in vitro studies of gases or complex mixtures. The impacts of two factors on cytotoxicity measurements of cigarette smoke were investigated using this WS exposure system. The factors include synthetic air exposure and optimal time to perform the NRU assay after smoke exposure. Results showed that synthetic air exposure used in the system did not significantly alter cell survival; 24h after smoke exposure appeared to be an optimal time-point to assess the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke. A clear dose-response relationship between smoke exposure and cell viability was demonstrated using this system, and the evaluation method was sensitive to distinguish the differences in smoke-induced cytotoxic effects from different cigarettes. In addition, we tried converting the values of EC50 from WS exposure testing into the values in unit used in total particulate matter (TPM) testing for a purpose of comparison, and the data indicate that the cytotoxicity of smoke measured by WS exposure is greater than that measured by TPM exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  11. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  12. The Relationship between College Class and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relation between college class and cigarette-smoking behavior in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) data were employed. Five binary and two cumulative logit equations are estimated to explore the impact of college class on: having ever…

  13. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, Marco van der

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS di

  14. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention by humans of 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from mainstream cigarette smoke was evaluated. The analysis was done by a new technique using solid phase extraction (SPE for the cleanup and the concenration of PAHs. The new technique has excellent sensitivity and accuracy, which were necessary for the analysis of the very low levels of PAHs present in the exhaled cigarette smoke. The study was done on a common commercial cigarette with 10.6 mg ‘tar’ by U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendation. The results were obtained from ten human subjects, each smoking three cigarettes. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling. The study showed that the PAHs with a molecular weight lower than about 170 Daltons are retained with high efficiency. The heavier molecules are less retained, but even compounds such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, and benzoperylene are retained with efficiencies around 50%. The dependence of retention efficiency for PAHs (in % on their octanol-water partition coefficient (LogPow was found to be nonlinear and showed considerable variability for several compounds that have very close LogPow values. Better correlation was obtained between the retention efficiency and PAHs vapor pressure (Log VP.

  15. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes i

  16. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes i

  17. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  18. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  20. Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke Effects on Human Airway Smooth Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Wylam

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke contributes to or exacerbates airway diseases such as asthma and COPD, where airway hyperresponsiveness and airway smooth muscle (ASM proliferation are key features. While factors such as inflammation contribute to asthma in part by enhancing agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+]i responses of ASM, the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke affect ASM are still under investigation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke enhances the expression and function of Ca(2+ regulatory proteins leading to increased store operated Ca(2+ entry (SOCE and cell proliferation. Using isolated human ASM (hASM cells, incubated in the presence and absence cigarette smoke extract (CSE we determined ([Ca(2+]i responses and expression of relevant proteins as well as ASM proliferation, reactive oxidant species (ROS and cytokine generation. CSE enhanced [Ca(2+]i responses to agonist and SOCE: effects mediated by increased expression of TRPC3, CD38, STIM1, and/or Orai1, evident by attenuation of CSE effects when siRNAs against these proteins were used, particularly Orai1. CSE also increased hASM ROS generation and cytokine secretion. In addition, we found in the airways of patients with long-term smoking history, TRPC3 and CD38 expression were significantly increased compared to life-long never-smokers, supporting the role of these proteins in smoking effects. Finally, CSE enhanced hASM proliferation, an effect confirmed by upregulation of PCNA and Cyclin E. These results support a critical role for Ca(2+ regulatory proteins and enhanced SOCE to alter airway structure and function in smoking-related airway disease.

  1. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Decreased Sperm Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between cigarette smoking and sperm densityin men of reproductive age. Methods We enrolled 224 male employees of a modern petrochemicalplant in Nanjing,China. These men had no prior history of infertility or other reproductive diseases.Epidemiologic data, including information on smoking and other occupational and lifestyle exposures wereobtained by a questionnaire interview. Semen specimens were collected from each participant and analyzedaccording to the WHO guidelines. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of smokingon sperm density. Results Approximately 67% of the subjects had ever smoked cigarettes. Differ-ent measurements of smoking behavior were each associated with decrensed sperm density. There was asignificant dose-response trend between the tertiles of total smoking amount in pack-years and sperm den-sity. As compared to men who never smoked, current smokers had a significant reduction in sperm densi-ty (-13.3×106/ml; 95% CI,-24. 1,-2.5) ,while ex-snokers had only a small decrement inspern density (-2.6× 106/al; 95 % CI,-18. 7 ,13. 5). Starting smoking at less than 20 yearsof age was associated with significant reduction in sperm density (-14.8×106/md; 95% CI ,- 27. 4, - 2.2). Starting smoking at 20 years or older was associated with a slightly snaller de-crease (-10.1×106/ml; 95% CI,-21.7,1.4). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is associ-ated with decreased sperm density ,showing an evident dose-response trend in this population.

  2. Non-smoking male adolescents' reactions to cigarette warnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. METHODS: A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11-17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2 × 2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. RESULTS: The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were "very much" discouraged, p<.001. Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.

  3. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

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    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  4. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53% completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7% as never-smokers, 244 (12.1% as current smokers, and 487 (24.2% as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80, alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64, illicit drug use (OR = 9.32, having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39, having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08, and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32. Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16, illicit drug use (OR = 3.61, and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

  5. Patterns of Water-Pipe and Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Schoolchildren: Irbid Longitudinal Smoking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Al Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use remains a major public health problem worldwide. Water-pipe smoking is spreading rapidly and threatening to undermine the successes achieved in tobacco control. Methods: A school-based longitudinal study in the city of Irbid, Jordan, was performed from 2008 to 2010. All seventh-grade students in 19 randomly selected schools, out of a total of 60 schools in the city, were enrolled at baseline and surveyed annually. Results: Of the 1781 students enrolled at baseline 1,701 (95.5%) were still in the study at the end of the second year of follow-up (869 boys, median age at baseline 13 years). Ever and current water-pipe smoking were higher than those of cigarette smoking at baseline (ever smoking: 25.9% vs. 17.6% and current smoking: 13.3% vs. 5.3% for water-pipe and cigarette smoking, respectively; p pipe–only smokers at baseline were twice as likely to become current cigarette smokers after 2 years compared with never smokers (relative risk (RR) = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4). A similar pattern was observed for cigarette-only smokers at baseline (RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.9, 4.8). Conclusions: Prevalence of water-pipe and cigarette smoking increased dramatically over the 2-year follow-up period with similar patterns in boys and girls, although girls had lower prevalence in all categories. Water-pipe smoking at baseline predicted the progress to cigarette smoking in the future and vice versa. PMID:22140149

  6. Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex, and age: effects of price, income, and health publicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, J.; Roderick, P; Cooper, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of price, income, and health publicity on cigarette smoking by age, sex, and socioeconomic group. DESIGN--Econometric multiple regression analysis of data on cigarette smoking from the British general household survey. SUBJECTS--Random sample of adult population in Britain interviewed for biennial general household surveys 1972-90. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in cigarette consumption and prevalence of smoking. RESULTS--Price elasticities of demand for cigarette...

  7. Glaucoma and cigarette smoking: a review of narrative reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Murro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy associated with visual field changes for which high intra-ocular pressure is a major risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors, among which the cigarette smoke, besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a review of narrative reviews to examine on the relationship between cigarette smoking and glaucoma. Methods: The results of all narrative reviews in the scientific literature about glaucoma and tobacco smoking were analyzed. A quality assessment was performed according to an easy and convenient tool for the quality assessment of narrative reviews for systematic reviews (International Narrative Systematic assessment the INSA tool. Literature searches were performed using PubMed. Results: 20 studies about relation between glaucoma and smoke were collected, no restriction language was applied. 15 of these studies have been excluded. We selected among them 5 reviews. With the INSA tool we measured the quality of the 5 selected narrative reviews. Studies that had a highest score with the INSA tool were two: A. Coleman et al. “Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention” and R. Salowe et al. “Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors”. Conclusion: The narrative reviews analyzed underline that there is no definitive association between cigarette smoking.

  8. Cigarette smoking among Chinese PLWHA: An exploration of changes in smoking after being tested HIV positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanhui; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Yan; Shan, Qiao; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and cessation of Tobacco use among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a significant challenge for HIV/AIDS patient care in China and across the globe. Awareness of HIV-positive status may alter the likelihood for PLWHA smokers to change their smoking habit. In this study, we tested the risk enhancement and risk reduction hypotheses by assessing changes in cigarette smoking behavior among PLWHA after they received the positive results of their HIV tests. Cross-sectional survey data collected from a random sample of 2973 PLWHA in care in Guangxi, China were analyzed. Changes in cigarette smoking after receiving the HIV-positive test results, as well as the current levels of cigarette smoking were measured. Among the total participants, 1529 (51.7%) were self-identified as cigarette smokers, of whom 436 (28.9%) reduced smoking and 286 (19.0%) quit after receiving their HIV-positive test results. Among the quitters, 210 (73.9%) remained abstinent for a median duration of two years. There were also 124 (8.2%) who increased cigarette smoking. Older age, female gender, more education, and receiving antiretroviral therapy were associated with quitting. In conclusion, our study findings support the risk reduction and risk enhancement hypotheses. A large proportion of smoking PLWHA reduced or quit smoking, while a small proportion increased smoking. Findings of this study suggest that the timing when a person receives his or her HIV-positive test result may be an ideal opportunity for care providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Longitudinal studies are indicated to verify the findings of this study and to support smoking cessation intervention among PLWHA in the future.

  9. Determination of Dibenzacridines in the Particulate Phase of Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to resolve a controversy related to the presence of dibenz[a,j]acridine and dibenz[a,h]acridine in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke. Smoking was performed using FTC conditions (35 mL puff volume, 2 sec. puff, 1 min. interval on a Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine. The particulate phase of forty cigarettes was collected on 92 mm Cambridge filter pads. Pads were combined to analyze the particulate phase of the mainstream smoke from between 120 and 320 cigarettes. In an initial scheme of analysis, the pads were extracted with an acidic aqueous solution. This aqueous solution was then washed with CH2Cl2 and the organic phase discarded. The aqueous solution was then changed to basic and extracted with CH2Cl2, which was concentrated and analyzed via GC/MS. The dibenzacridine could not be detected utilizing this scheme, even when the pads had been spiked with a few thousand nanograms of dibenzacridine. After using several other organic solvents (cyclohexane, CHCl3, and benzene to eliminate the possibility that the extraction efficiency of CH2Cl2 was poor, it was determined that dibenzacridine was being discarded with the first CH2Cl2 wash. A successful separation scheme was developed by extracting the smoked pad with an aqueous acidic solution, followed by extraction of the aqueous phase with CH2Cl2without pH change. The CH2Cl2 extract was concentrated under nitrogen and 1 µL injected for GC/MS analysis. Quantification was achieved by spiking the pads with dibenz[a,j]acridine-d13 as an internal standard at a level equal to 1.7-2.5 ng/cig. The limit of detection for this technique was approximately 0.5 ng/cig. The chromatographic separation was performed with a 30 m BPX-5 column (0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 µm film thickness. Mass spectral data were acquired in selected ion monitoring (SIM mode with m/z = 279 for the two dibenzacridine isomers and m/z = 292 for the deuterated internal standard. Three commercial cigarettes were

  10. The Influence of Cigarette Moisture to the Chemistry of Particulate Phase Smoke of a Common Commercial Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results on the influence of cigarette moisture content to the chemical composition of particulate phase smoke. Seventy-five selected compounds were monitored for the comparison of particulate phase smoke of a commercial full-flavored (FF cigarette with three different moisture contents at 7.8%, 14.5% and 20.4%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the smoke of a dry cigarette is richer in lower molecular mass compounds than a regular cigarette. On the other hand, the smoke of a moist cigarette is richer in higher molecular mass compounds than a regular cigarette. To maximize the influence of cigarette moisture to the chemical composition, a separate set of measurements were done using only the first three puffs of smoke. The accumulation of moisture in the tobacco column of a burning cigarette may influence the smoke composition, as generated during burning. The differences between dry, regular and moist cigarettes were more obvious for the first three puffs.

  11. Histological and biochemical effects of cigarette smoke on lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, E; Kükner, A; Canpolat, L; Oner, H; Gezen, M R; Yilmaz, S; Ozan, S

    2001-01-01

    In this study, rats were made to inhale cigarette smoke in a specifically prepared container for different periods. The lung tissue samples of the subjects were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Malonaldehyde, one of the free oxygen radicals was determined in lungs and plasma. The catalase activity level of erythrocyte and arginase levels were determined. Three groups were formed. The rats in the Ist and IInd groups were made to inhale cigarette smoke for 30 and 60 minutes a day for a total period of 3 months. Control group, the rats in the IIIrd group (controls) were made to inhale clean air during the same periods. An increase in the number of macrophages was observed in the pulmonary tissue of the exposed groups. Especially in the group that inhaled the smoke for long periods, the number of macrophages and the inclusion bodies contained in them increased. These differences could easily be observed in TEM studies. In the light microscopy and SEM observations, it arouse attention that the alveolar macrophages occurred as sets and their activation increased. Depending on the length of the exposure to cigarette smoke, an increase in the number of macrophages was observed. Statistically significant increases were determined in the malonaldehyde levels of pulmonary tissue and plasma when compared to the control group. Besides significant increases were found in the catalase activity levels of erythrocytes in the experimental groups.

  12. Effects of d-amphetamine and smoking abstinence on cue-induced cigarette craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsene, Karen M; Mahler, Stephen V; de Wit, Harriet

    2005-08-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effects of the indirect dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (AMPH) on cue-induced cigarette craving in smokers. Abstinent or nonabstinent cigarette smokers (N=21) rated their cravings for cigarettes and for food (control) after pretreatment with AMPH (15 mg) or placebo and before and after viewing blocks of smoking-related, food-related, and neutral pictures. Before the cues were presented, AMPH increased cigarette craving and decreased food craving. Smoking and food cues increased craving for cigarettes and for food, respectively. AMPH also further increased cigarette craving (and decreased food craving) after cue presentation, but it did so regardless of cue type (food or smoking). Smoking abstinence markedly increased craving regardless of cue presentation or drug condition. These results suggest that both AMPH and smoking abstinence can increase cigarette craving, but they do not appear to specifically affect responses to conditioned smoking-related cues. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Analysis of the effects of cigarette smoke on staphylococcal virulence phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Elisa K; Hwang, John H; Sladewski, Katherine M; Nicatia, Shari; Dewitz, Carola; Mathew, Denzil P; Nizet, Victor; Crotty Alexander, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability worldwide. It is well established that cigarette smoke provokes inflammatory activation and impairs antimicrobial functions of human immune cells. Here we explore whether cigarette smoke likewise affects the virulence properties of an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, and in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infections. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and is thus exposed to inhalants, including cigarette smoke. MRSA exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE-MRSA) was more resistant to macrophage killing (4-fold higher survival; P cigarette smoke-induced immune resistance phenotypes in MRSA may be an additional factor contributing to susceptibility to infectious disease in cigarette smokers. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  15. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  16. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  18. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less.

  19. Microscopical examination of particles on smoked cigarette filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette butts collected from crime scenes can play an important role in forensic investigations by providing a DNA link to a victim or suspect. Microscopic particles can frequently be seen on smoked cigarette filters with stereomicroscopy. The authors are not aware of previous published attempts to identify this material. These particles were examined with transmission and scanning electron microscopy and were found to consist of two types of superficial epithelial tissue, consistent with two areas of the lip surface. The particles were often composed of several layers of non-nucleated and nucleated epithelium with the former being the most common. It was further determined that both of these cell types are easily transferred from the lip. The results of this study indicate that the most visible source of DNA obtained from cigarette butts and other objects in contact with the lip may be lip epithelial tissue.

  20. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  2. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  3. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  4. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Seminal Fluid Parameters? A Comparative Study

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    Zakarya Bani Meri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal fluid parameters, namely; volume, sperm concentration, and motility, as well as morphology, leukocyte infiltration, among males complaining of infertility.Methods: Between August 2010 and July 2011, seminal fluid analysis was done for 1438 males who are partners of couples who visited the infertility clinic at Prince Rashid Ben Al Hassan Hospital (PRH for infertility. The men who fit the inclusion criteria (n=960 were classified into two groups: group a (non-smokers; n=564 and group B (smokers; n=396, which represents 41.25% of the study group. Seminal fluid was collected using masturbation after 3-5 days of abstinence then analyzed for volume, sperm count, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. In order to analyze whether the number of cigarettes smoked per day has an effect on the spermatogram; the smoking men were divided into two subgroups: the heavy smokers (n=266 and non-heavy smokers (n=130.Results: A total of 960 adult males were enrolled. Their age ranged between 21 and 76 years, 564 were non-smokers with mean age of 36. 45±6.27 (Mean±SD. Three-hundred-and-ninety-six were smokers with a mean age of 34.35±4.25 (Mean±SD. There was a significant effect of smoking on the motility of sperms and the ratios of abnormality (p<0.005. Concentration appeared not to be affected by smoking. Furthermore, the group of heavy smokers were found to have lower sperm concentrations and a higher percentage of abnormal sperms compared to the non-heavy smokers.Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has a deleterious effect on some of the seminal fluid parameters (motility, morphology and leukocyte count which in turn may result in male subfertility.

  5. The social dynamics of cigarette smoking: a family systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, W J; Whitehead, D A

    1986-09-01

    This paper uses family systems concepts and the Family FIRO model to show how cigarette smoking occurs in the context of the important relationships in a smoker's life. Specifically, smoking is viewed as a way a person is included in relationships, is in control in relationships, and perhaps is intimate in relationships. When smoking is well-established in the relationship, predictable interaction patterns surround it. When a person tries to quit or succeeds in quitting, these patterns change and may need to be replaced by nonsmoking alternatives. Partners may respond with support and willingness to create alternative patterns, or with undermining behavior stemming from a perceived threat to the established patterns. The model is offered for its heuristic value in guiding research and clinical experimentation. The paper also describes implications for family therapists as consultants to smoking-cessation programs.

  6. Validation of Methods for Determining Consumer Smoked Cigarette Yields from Cigarette Filter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepperd CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods based on the analyses of cigarette filters have been used to estimate ‘tar’ and nicotine yields to smokers. These methods rely on the measurement of filtration efficiencies (FEs. However FEs may be influenced by both cigarette design features e.g., type of filter and levels of filter ventilation, and human smoking behaviour factors such as puff flow-rates and cigarette butt lengths. Two filter analysis methods are considered in our study. One is based on the analysis of whole filters using average values of FEs obtained from a range of machine smoking regimes. The other, a ‘part filter’ method, analyses a 10 mm section from the mouth end of the filter where the FE remains relatively constant irrespective of puff flow rates and butt lengths. Human puffing behaviour records were obtained from 10 smokers, each smoking six commercial cigarettes ranging from 1 mg to 12 mg ‘tar’ yields [International Standard (ISO values]. These records were used to drive a human smoke duplicator and the resulting ‘tar’ and nicotine yields obtained from duplication were compared with the estimates obtained from ‘whole’ and ‘part filter’ analysis. The results indicated that whilst both filter methods gave good correlations with nicotine and ‘tar’ yields obtained from smoke duplication, the ‘part filter’ method was less susceptible to the effect of nicotine condensation and changes in FEs and hence gave a more accurate assessment of yields than the ‘whole filter’ method.

  7. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  8. EL CIGARRILLO: IMPLICACIONES PARA LA SALUD CIGARETTE SMOKE HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Ballén

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El consumo de cigarrillo, según cálculos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, es la causa de por lo menos cuatro millones de muertes al año. Las consecuencias de fumar cigarrillo van desde cambios fisiopatológicos en los sistemas respiratorio, cardiovascular y digestivo, hasta trastornos mentales asociados a la dependencia a la nicotina. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura médica mostrando los efectos del consumo de cigarrillo sobre la salud física y mental en los fumadores activos y pasivos. Material y métodos. El artículo se basa en la revisión de artículos a través de la base de datos del MEDLINE y de la biblioteca Virtual de la OMS. Se emplearon en la búsqueda las palabras clave “Cigarette Smoke”, “Cancer AND smoke”, “COPD AND smoke”, “Nicotine Dependence”. Se escogieron artículos y libros publicados en idioma inglés entre los años 1994 y 2006, realizando una lectura crítica (análisis de posibles conflictos de interés y errores de diseño. Conclusión. El humo del cigarrillo contiene partículas potencialmente peligrosas para la salud de quien está expuesto a ellas. De este modo, fumar cigarrillo se convierte en un factor etiológico común a muchos tipos de cáncer. Además los componentes del cigarrillo están relacionados con el desarrollo de otros estados patológicos (enfermedad cardiovascular y enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. La nicotina, uno de sus componentes, es un potente agente adictivo. Todo esto en su conjunto hace del cigarrillo un importante problema de salud pública.Background. According to World Health Organization (WHO, cigarette smoke causes four million deaths each year. The consequences of cigarette smoke are phatophysiological changes in pulmonary cardiovascular and digestive systems, and mental dysfunctions associated to nicotine dependence. Objective. To show the effects of cigarette smoke in active and passive smokers

  9. Digital image analysis of cigarette filter staining to estimate smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Kozlowski, Lynn T; Hammond, David; Vance, Tammy T; Stitt, Joseph P; Cummings, K Michael

    2007-08-01

    Sufficient variation exists in how people smoke each cigarette that the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the years of smoking represent only crude measures of exposure to the toxins in tobacco smoke. Previous research has shown that spent cigarette filters can provide information about how individuals smoke cigarettes. Digital image analysis has been used to identify filter vent blocking and may also provide an inexpensive, unobtrusive index of overall smoke exposure. A total of 1,124 cigarette butts smoked by 53 participants in a smoking topography study were imaged and analyzed. Imaging showed test-retest reliability of more than 95% among those smoking their own brand. Mean color scores (CIELAB system) showed acceptable stability (>.60) across days, paralleling the basic stability of smoking topography measures across waves. A principal components scoring showed that center tar staining, edge tar staining, and their interaction were significantly related to total smoke volume, accounting for 73% of the variation. Estimated smoke volume was a significant predictor of salivary cotinine when accounting for cigarettes smoked per day. These data suggest that digital image analysis of spent cigarette butts can serve as a reliable proxy measure of total smoke volume.

  10. Nanoparticles in cigarette smoke; real-time undiluted measurements by a scanning mobility particle sizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Gopal, S.R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of smoke constituents, often characterised by size-resolved particle distributions. Since descriptions of ultrafine particles <50 nm are absent, our aim was to explore the existence of these nanoparticles in fresh and undiluted cigarette smoke. We measured und

  11. Nanoparticles in cigarette smoke; real-time undiluted measurements by a scanning mobility particle sizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Gopal, S.R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of smoke constituents, often characterised by size-resolved particle distributions. Since descriptions of ultrafine particles <50 nm are absent, our aim was to explore the existence of these nanoparticles in fresh and undiluted cigarette smoke. We measured und

  12. Nanoparticles in cigarette smoke; real-time undiluted measurements by a scanning mobility particle sizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Gopal, S.R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of smoke constituents, often characterised by size-resolved particle distributions. Since descriptions of ultrafine particles <50 nm are absent, our aim was to explore the existence of these nanoparticles in fresh and undiluted cigarette smoke. We measured

  13. Smoking, epidemiology and e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “The true face of smoking is disease, death and horror - not the glamour and sophistication the pushers in the tobacco industry try to portray.” - David Byrne In our fellows’ conference we recently reviewed the evolution of the science of clinical epidemiology as it relates to the association of smoking and lung cancer and the concurrent history of tobacco marketing in the United States. This story begins in 1950, when Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill published their landmark case control study demonstrating the association between smoking and lung cancer (1. This study was performed with methodological standards that have rarely been matched in the 63 years since. Exhaustive analysis of possible confounders, a multi-stage evaluation of study blinding, determination of dose-effect, and the use of multiple analyses to establish consistency are among many examples of superb attention to detail exercised by Doll and Hill in this study. The …

  14. Mood influences on acute smoking responses are independent of nicotine intake and dose expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Ciccocioppo, Melinda; Conklin, Cynthia A; Milanak, Melissa E; Grottenthaler, Amy; Sayette, Michael A

    2008-02-01

    Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.

  15. Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu C Morissette

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases.

  16. Effect of Cigarette and Cigar Smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Medabala, Tambi; B.N., Rao; Mohesh M.I., Glad; Kumar M., Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking in India has been increasing alarmingly. Smoking is a known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, especially, the lung cancer. The percentage prevalence of cigarette smoking (18.5%) and cigar smoking (4%) in males is high in Andhra Pradesh compared to other southern states. There is not enough scientific literature to correlate about intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking and their impact on lun...

  17. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  18. Smoke and mirrors: magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A; McKee, Sherry A; O'malley, Stephanie S

    2007-10-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to suppress body weight. Participants were 385 individuals undergoing treatment for smoking cessation. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A), the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale, and the Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PBRQ). Results indicated that heightened beliefs in the effectiveness of smoking to control weight were related to eating and weight concerns; specifically, strong associations were observed between SCQ-A Weight Control scores and fear of weight gain, loss of control over eating, and body dissatisfaction. Although SCQ-A Weight Control scores were related to (self-reported) weight gain during a previous quit attempt, scores did not predict actual weight gain over the course of the cessation trial. Reported weight gain at previous attempts was also unrelated to actual weight gain over the current trial. These findings indicate that eating and weight-concerned smokers may benefit from psychoeducation concerning the relatively modest and temporary ability of nicotine to suppress weight.

  19. The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John J.D.; Hasna, Surrayyah; Soar, Kirstie

    2012-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold...

  20. Association of cigarette smoking with drug use and risk taking behaviour in Irish teenagers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Cathail, S M

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking has been shown to act as a \\'gateway\\' to cannabis use and further risk taking behaviours. This study aims to (1) establish the prevalence of cigarette smoking and cannabis use in Irish teenagers, (2) to quantify the strength and significance of the association of cigarette smoking and cannabis use and other high risk behaviours and (3) examine whether the above associations are independent of the extent of social networking.

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Staphylococcal Virulence Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    McEachern, Elisa K.; Hwang, John H.; Sladewski, Katherine M.; Nicatia, Shari; Dewitz, Carola; Mathew, Denzil P.; Nizet, Victor; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability worldwide. It is well established that cigarette smoke provokes inflammatory activation and impairs antimicrobial functions of human immune cells. Here we explore whether cigarette smoke likewise affects the virulence properties of an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, and in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infections. MRSA colon...

  2. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  3. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  4. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  5. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  6. Chitosan Removes Toxic Heavy Metal Ions from Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wen; XU Ying; WANG Dongfeng; ZHOU Shilu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan.Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages.The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad,digested by a microwave digestor,and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions,including As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ).Of these,the percent removal of Ni(Ⅱ) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan.Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),though with poor efficiency for Pb(Ⅱ).Except As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Nonetheless,the percent removal of Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa,followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Generally,chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions,and the percent removal of Cd(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ) was approximately 55%,45%,50%,and 16%,respectively.In a word,chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke,improve cigarette safety,and reduce the harm to smokers.

  7. Identification of possible cigarette smoke constituents responsible for muscle catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2012-08-01

    The age-related loss of muscle mass and strength also known as sarcopenia is significantly influenced by life style factors such as physical inactivity and impaired nutrition. Cigarette smoking is another life style habit that has been shown to be associated with sarcopenia and to affect skeletal muscle. Even today, smoking is still prevalent worldwide and is probably the most significant source of toxic chemicals exposure to humans. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a complex aerosol consisting of thousands of various constituents including reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, toxic aldehydes and more. Previous epidemiological studies have identified tobacco smoking as a risk factor for sarcopenia. Clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed CS-induced skeletal muscle damage due to impaired muscle metabolism, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, over-expression of atrophy related genes and activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This review aims to discuss and identify the components of CS that may promote catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  8. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking

  9. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  10. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  11. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  12. E-Cigarettes: The Science Behind the Smoke and Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Sonti, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarettes are a diverse set of devices that are designed for pulmonary delivery of nicotine through an aerosol, usually consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavorings. The devices heat the nicotine solution using a battery-powered circuit and deliver the resulting vapor into the proximal airways and lung. Although the current devices on the market appear to be safer than smoking combusted tobacco, they have their own inherent risks, which remain poorly characterized due to widespread product variability. Despite rising use throughout the United States, predominantly by smokers, limited evidence exists for their efficacy in smoking cessation. Pending regulation by the FDA will enforce limited disclosures on the industry but will not directly impact safety or efficacy. Meanwhile, respiratory health practitioners will need to tailor their discussions with patients, taking into account the broad range of existing effective smoking cessation techniques, including pharmaceutical nicotine replacement therapy.

  13. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  14. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette.

  15. Association between cigarette smoking and suicide in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single largest preventable cause of death and disability in the industrialized world and it causes at least 85% of lung cancers, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In addition smokers are at a higher risk from psychiatric co-morbid illness such as depression and completed suicide. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in which we targeted all patients with serious mental illness (SMI who were admitted in Razi mental health Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 984 participants, who were receiving services from Razi mental health Hospital and hospitalized for at least two days between 21 July to 21 September, 2010. Nine hundred and fifty patients out of this figure were able to participate in our study. Results The final study sample (n = 950 consisted of 73.2% males and 26.8% females. The mean age was 45.31 (SD=13.7. A majority of participants (70% was smoker. A history of never smoking was present for 25.2% of the study sample; while 4.8% qualified as former smokers and 70.0% as occasional or current smokers. Two hundred and nineteen participants had attempted suicide amongst them 102 (46.6% once, 37 (16.9% twice, and 80 (36.5% attempted more than two times in their life time. In regression model, gender, age, and cigarette consumption were associated with previous suicide attempts and entered the model in this order as significant predictors. Conclusion There is an association of cigarette smoking and suicide attempt in psychiatric inpatients. Current smoking, a simple clinical assessment, should trigger greater attention by clinicians to potential suicidality and become part of a comprehensive assessment of suicide risk.

  16. Waterpipe smoking: not necessarily less hazardous than cigarette smoking : Possible consequences for (cardiovascular) disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, J B; Bagnasco, D E; Jukema, R A

    2014-03-01

    Cigarette smoking has declined over the last years in modern countries. On the contrary, waterpipe smoking has increased, especially among young people visiting waterpipe bars. Unfortunately, most waterpipe smokers seem to know little about the possible cardiovascular and other health consequences of waterpipe smoking. To describe by narrative literature review the known adverse consequences for the human body caused by smoking the waterpipe compared with the consequences of smoking normal cigarettes. Also, to get a picture of public awareness of these consequences as deducted from the literature and a small new survey in the Netherlands. Tobacco smoking is associated with serious adverse (cardiovascular) health effects, and there is no evidence that these effects are less serious if a waterpipe is used. The increasing use together with the limited amount of awareness and attention for the possible health consequences of smoking the waterpipe is worrisome. Especially considering the increasing acceptance and use of the waterpipe among the youth. Therefore we recommend more systematic research into the possible health hazards of waterpipe smoking. In the meantime education campaigns and materials are needed to raise public awareness on the possible health risks of waterpipe use.

  17. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  18. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'sfalse beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'sfalse beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations between initial water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use and subsequent cigarette smoking: results from a longitudinal study of US adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne E; Primack, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non-cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non-cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. Among baseline non-cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current

  20. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  1. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to obtain data on the smoking behaviour of 315,353 adolescents from 17 LMIC. Two-part model of cigarette demand with country fixed effects. The first part estimates the impact of prices on smoking participation while the second part estimates the impact of prices on the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Besides controlling for individual characteristics such as Age, Gender, Parental Smoking and availability of Pocket Money, the authors control for confounding environmental factors such as anti-smoking sentiment, the prevalence of cigarette advertising and anti-tobacco media messAges, and ease of purchasing cigarettes. All countries in this study are represented with at least two observations over time, which allows us to control for unobserved country characteristics and/or policies that may influence smoking patterns within countries. Cigarette price is an important determinant of smoking. The estimated price elasticity of smoking participation is -0.74, and the estimated price elasticity of conditional cigarette demand is approximately -1.37. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand is -2.11, implying that an increase in price of 10% would reduce youth cigarette consumption by 21.1% at the mean.

  2. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  3. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  4. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  5. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveles Karen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed.

  6. [Cigarette as "companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Márcia Terezinha Trotta; Simões-Barbosa, Regina Helena

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the main results of a study that examined the symbolic and material meanings of women's smoking, adopting a critical and qualitative gender approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 women smokers in different stages of the smoking cessation process. The research locus was a tobacco treatment program located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The findings showed how deeply smoking is interwoven in these women's social and gender trajectories, playing a decisive support role when they have to deal with various difficulties in life. The cigarette as a "companion" emerged as the main empirical category, as something always available to quell anxiety and loneliness, as well as a source of pleasure and relaxation. The critical gender approach evidenced how women's reproductive and productive work overload reinforces their tobacco dependency. In health care, in order to attain women smokers' adherence to the arduous cessation process, it is crucial to consider the complex relations between social and gender dimensions when cigarettes are viewed as a "companion".

  7. Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Daniel L; Drayna, Dennis T; McMahon, William M; Villegas, G Martin; Caton, Trace C; Coon, Hilary; Leppert, Mark F

    2005-12-01

    Phenotypic evidence indicates that the ability to taste the bitter compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may protect against cigarette smoking. In this study, PTC gene haplotypes were found to be associated with both the odds of being a smoker and the importance of cigarette taste as a smoking motive. Smokers (n = 384) and nonsmokers (n = 183) were genotyped for polymorphisms that affect taste sensitivity to PTC and PROP. The "taster" PAV haplotype, relative to the "nontaster" AVI haplotype, was predicted to be associated with reduced odds of being a smoker and lower taste motivation as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 taste/sensory processes scale. The results did not support the predicted association between the PAV and AVI haplotypes and smoker odds, but the AAV haplotype, which confers intermediate PTC/PROP taste sensitivity, was associated with reduced smoker prevalence (49% vs. 70%), chi(2)(1, N = 567) = 10.392, p = .001. The predicted relationship between PAV and AVI and taste motivation was found, F(2, 348) = 3.303, p = .038. The results encourage further exploration of the role of taste/sensory processes in tobacco dependence.

  8. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  9. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  10. Effect of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness re-interpreted using a structurally-based model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Humphrey, Jay D.; Lönn, Lars

    Cigarette smoking constitutes a major risk factor for diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Many physiological and pathophysiological parameters affect arterial stiffness. While underlying mechanisms remain unclear, smoking increases arterial stiffness, which contributes to many disease processes...... parameters. The primary finding was that cigarette smoking induces significant increases in the material parameters describing the micromechanical properties of all four families of collagen fibers with increased duration of smoking. Additionally, there was a moderate increase in the material parameter...

  11. Pyrazine derivatives in cigarette smoke inhibit hamster oviductal functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arey Janet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our past studies have shown that cigarette smoke inhibits oviductal functioning in vivo and in vitro. The goals in this study were to identify pyrazine derivatives in cigarette smoke solutions that inhibit ciliary beat frequency, oocyte pickup rate, and infundibular smooth muscle contraction in the hamster oviduct and to determine their lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs using in vitro bioassays. Methods MS smoke solutions were fractionated using solid phase extraction cartridges and the fractions were both tested on the hamster oviduct in vitro and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify individual pyrazine derivatives. Commercial pyrazine standards were purchased, assayed for purity, and tested in dose-response studies on hamster oviducts. The LOAEL and efficacy were determined for each compound in the in vitro bioassays. Statistical significance was determined using the Student's t-Test where p Results The LOAELs for the most inhibitory pyrazine derivatives in the ciliary beat frequency, oocyte pickup rate, and infundibular smooth muscle contraction assays were as follows: for pyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 1 nanomolar; for 2-methylpyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 10 picomolar; and for 2-ethylpyrazine (1 picomolar, 10 picomolar, and 1 picomolar. Six of the seven pyrazine derivatives tested (pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-methoxy-3-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine were inhibitory in picomolar or nanomolar doses in all three bioassays, while the seventh derivative, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, had LOAELs in the nanomolar to micromolar range. Conclusion This work shows that very low doses of pyrazines significantly inhibit proper oviductal functioning, raising questions regarding the safety of these compounds in cigarettes and other consumer products.

  12. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Violi, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Marullo, Antonino G M; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Valenti, Valentina; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The vascular safety of electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) must still be clarified. We compared the impact of e-Cigarettes vs traditional tobacco cigarettes on oxidative stress and endothelial function in healthy smokers and nonsmoker adults. A crossover, single-blind study was performed in 40 healthy subjects (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers, matched for age and sex). First, all subjects smoked traditional tobacco cigarettes. One week later, the same subjects smoked an e-Cigarette with the same nominal nicotine content. Blood samples were drawn just before and after smoking, and markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, and vitamin E levels were measured. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also measured. Smoking both e-Cigarettes and traditional cigarettes led to a significant increase in the levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and a significant decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, vitamin E levels, and FMD. Generalized estimating equation analysis confirmed that all markers of oxidative stress and FMD were significantly affected by smoking and showed that the biologic effects of e-Cigarettes vstraditional cigarettes on vitamin E levels (P = .413) and FMD (P = .311) were not statistically different. However, e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact than traditional cigarettes on levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (P = .001), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (P = .046), and nitric oxide bioavailability (P = .001). Our study showed that both cigarettes have unfavorable effects on markers of oxidative stress and FMD after single use, although e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact. Future studies are warranted to clarify the chronic vascular effects of e-Cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-08

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake.

  14. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  15. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  16. Cigarette continuity programs and social support for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, W; Dunaway, M; Dillman, D G

    1998-01-01

    To describe smokers' participation in cigarette continuity programs and the prevalence and structure of cooperative teams of smokers. Cross-sectional survey of smoking histories and continuity-program participation by individuals and their family members in a convenience sample of 176 current smokers at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington. Fisher exact test or chi2 tests were used to compare proportions. One of 3 smokers collected coupons for a continuity program. Three quarters of the collectors redeemed their own coupons, and one quarter gave coupons to another collector. Coupon collectors reported an average team size of more than 2 members. One fifth of collectors were teammates with another generation of family members, and one quarter of collectors aged 24 to 35 years were teammates with their children. Smokers were often aware of their relatives' coupon-collecting habits. Continuity programs have been a popular means of reinforcing smoking, especially within families and groups of friends. Continuity programs are novel in encouraging smoking and brand loyalty between generations. Continuity-program participants need to be aware of the risk of promoting smoking initiation by their children. Health advocates could use similar strategies to promote smoking cessation and prevention within families and other social groups.

  17. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation in Cigarette Smoke and in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.; Shafer, M. M.; Adams, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium is a documented carcinogen, linked to several human cancers, including breast cancer, where its estrogenic properties are the suspected mode of action. An improved understanding of exposure pathways is critical to reducing the public health impacts of Cd exposure. Cigarette smoking is likely the major exposure vector for smokers, with dietary contributions also a major factor, however the specific apportionment of these sources, as well as possible occupational components has been difficult to characterize. We are exploring the use of cadmium stable isotope fractionation as a tool to help improve source attribution for this toxic environmental contaminant. The general lack of fractionation in the bulk silicate earth allows for Cd isotopes to act as an excellent tool for tracking anthropogenic sources of Cd as well as potential biochemical fractionation during incorporation into plant and animal food sources. Tobacco leaves are naturally enriched in Cd and cigarettes are a very efficient delivery mechanism for Cd to the body. Importantly, the combustion process provides a mechanism for further fractionation of Cd stable isotopes. Particulates in main stream and side stream cigarette smoke were collected onto quartz filters. The necessary mass of Cd (>50 ng) was collected by optimization of the mechanical smoking instrument to collect smoke aerosols from up to three cigarettes onto one filter, and thus also minimizing filter matrix biases. We modified existing geochemical methods for the isolation of the Cd fraction: the particulates were acid digested and the Cd fraction separated by passing through an anion exchange resin. The Cd fractions were analyzed by multicollector ICP-MS (Neptune Plus), and it was demonstrated that the main stream particulates are isotopically heavy and side stream particulates are light relative to NIST 3108, mass-difference-normalized: average δ112Cd/110Cd, δ112Cd/111Cd, δ114Cd/111Cd, and δ116Cd/112Cd values of 0.801, 1.58, 1

  18. CT findings of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Siro; Osima, K.; Kim, S. [Chiba Tokusyukai Hospital, Funabashi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    CT scans were performed in 11 cases of respiratory bronchiolitis caused by cigarette smoking. Characteristics of CT findings were as follows: Remarkable visualization of the branching in peripheral bronchi within secondary lobules, multiple ground-glass opacities of centrilobular or lobular size adjacent to the above mentioned bronchial branching, thickening of the bronchial wall without dilatation, and no or minimal centrilobular emphysema. These characteristic CT findings were observed in all of 11 cases, who are current smokers, and never observed in non-smokers, ex-smokers and patients with apparent centrilobular emphysema. (author)

  19. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, p smoking treatment, mmHg, p smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  20. Ghrelin ameliorates catabolic conditions and respiratory dysfunction in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model of chronic cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiide, Yoshiyuki; Inomata, Norio; Furuya, Mayumi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-05-15

    Cigarette smoking, which is a well-known major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), causes both pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities. Ghrelin is a gastric peptide that regulates energy homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on the catabolic changes, respiratory function and emphysema in an animal model of COPD induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke, and they were administered human ghrelin (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, subcutaneous, twice daily) for 12 weeks. Compared with air-exposed rats, body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, tidal volume, peak expiratory flow rate, and forced expiratory volume at 100 ms were significantly lower, while functional residual capacity, lung capacity, and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly higher in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. These indicated that the systemic abnormalities associated with COPD developed after the exposure to cigarette smoke. Ghrelin significantly and dose-dependently increased the body weight gain and food efficiency in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. In ghrelin-treated rats, skeletal muscle strength, which tended to be lowered by cigarette smoke exposure, was improved. Ghrelin ameliorated respiratory function and emphysema in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit the increase in neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The respiratory functional parameters and lung capacity were significantly correlated with body weight gain. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibited the development of the catabolic changes, respiratory dysfunction, and emphysema that were induced by cigarette smoke exposure in rats, at least in part, through the amelioration of nutritional status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Byron, M Justin; Baig, Sabeeh A; Stepanov, Irina; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-02-21

    Laws and treaties compel countries to inform the public about harmful chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke. To encourage relevant research by behavioral scientists, we provide a primer on cigarette smoke toxicology and summarize research on how the public thinks about cigarette smoke chemicals. We systematically searched PubMed in July 2016 and reviewed citations from included articles. Four central findings emerged across 46 articles that met inclusion criteria. First, people were familiar with very few chemicals in cigarette smoke. Second, people knew little about cigarette additives, assumed harmful chemicals are added during manufacturing, and perceived cigarettes without additives to be less harmful. Third, people wanted more information about constituents. Finally, well-presented chemical information increased knowledge and awareness and may change behavior. This research area is in urgent need of behavioral science. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about these chemicals increases risk perceptions and quitting.

  2. Influence of heavy cigarette smoking on heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagirci, Goksel; Cay, Serkan; Karakurt, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular events related with several mechanisms. The most suggested mechanism is increased activity of sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been shown to be independent and powerful...... predictors of mortality in a specific group of cardiac patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of heavy cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function using HRV and HRT analyses. METHODS: Heavy cigarette smoking was defined as more than 20 cigarettes smoked per day. Heavy cigarette smokers......, 69 subjects and nonsmokers 74 subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. HRV and HRT analyses [turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS)] were assessed from 24-hour Holter recordings. RESULTS: The values of TO were significantly higher in heavy cigarette smokers than control group...

  3. Differential Effects between Cigarette Total Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract on Blood and Blood Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Jin-Yong; Satoh, Masahiko; Song, Seong-Yu; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The generation and collection of cigarette smoke (CS) is a prerequisite for any toxicology study on smoking, especially an in vitro CS exposure study. In this study, the effects on blood and vascular function were tested with two widely used CS preparations to compare the biological effects of CS with respect to the CS preparation used. CS was prepared in the form of total particulate matter (TPM), which is CS trapped in a Cambridge filter pad, and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), which is CS trapped in phosphate-buffered saline. TPM potentiated platelet reactivity to thrombin and thus increased aggregation at a concentration of 25~100 μg/mL, whereas 2.5~10% CSE decreased platelet aggregation by thrombin. Both TPM and CSE inhibited vascular contraction by phenylephrine at 50~100 μg/mL and 10%, respectively. TPM inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation at 10~100 μg/mL, but CSE exhibited a minimal effect on relaxation at the concentration that affects vasoconstriction. Neither TPM nor CSE induced hemolysis of erythrocytes or influenced plasma coagulation, as assessed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Taken together, CS affects platelet activity and deteriorates vasomotor functions in vitro. However, the effect on blood and blood vessels may vary depending on the CS preparation. Therefore, the results of experiments conducted with CS preparations should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Cigarette smoke induces endoplasmic reticulum stress response and proteasomal dysfunction in human alveolar epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somborac-Bacura, Anita; van der Toorn, Marco; Franciosi, Lorenza; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Zanic-Grubisic, Tihana; Bischoff, Rainer; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cigarette smoke (CS) causes oxidative stress and severe damage to proteins in the lungs. One of the main systems to protect cells from the accumulation of damaged proteins is the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In th

  5. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  6. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  7. Examining Demographic Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking among Undergraduate Students at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Erkan; Çelik, Ali Kemal; Akbaba, Ahmet Ilker

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading global preventable health risk, and it is associated with well-known health risks such as morbidity, mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and nicotine addiction. When analyzed by age group, cigarette smoking in Turkey is the most prevalent among younger adult populations. The college years appear to be a time…

  8. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  9. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  10. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. All 1085 incident coronary heart di...

  11. Cigarette smoke impairs airway epithelial barrier function and cell-cell contact recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Brandenburg, S M; Postma, D S; van Oosterhout, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), induces aberrant airway epithelial structure and function. The underlying mechanisms are unresolved so far. We studied effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on epithelial barrier function and wound regeneration in

  12. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  13. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains diffi

  14. Evaluation of Nationwide Health Costs of Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Justus, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate cigarette smoking causes more respiratory diseases than does air pollution. The 1970 nationwide health cost of respiratory diseases is estimated at $6.22 billion. The effect of air pollution accounts for between 1 and 5 percent of this total cost while cigarette smoking represents 68 percent. (MLB)

  15. Application of Cigarette Smoke Characterisation Based on Optical Aerosol Spectrometry. Dynamics and Comparisons with Tar Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Cremers, R.; Klerx, W.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking causes devastating disease worldwide. Current cigarette classification is based on standardised tar mass values obtained from smoking-machines. However, their ability to predict disease is poor, and these mass values are primarily determined by larger particles. The a

  16. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains diffi

  17. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains

  18. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and surviva...

  19. Triple Quad-ICP-MS Measurement of Toxic Metals in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke from Spectrum Research Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R Steven; Gray, Naudia; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Fresquez, Mark; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported toxic metal concentrations in the mainstream smoke from 50 varieties of commercial cigarettes available in the USA using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, efforts to continue producing high quality data on select mainstream cigarette smoke constituents demand continued improvements in instrumentation and methodology and application of the methodology to cigarettes that differ in design or construction. Here we report a new application of 'triple quad'-ICP-MS instrumentation to analyze seven toxic metals in mainstream cigarette smoke from the Spectrum variable nicotine research cigarettes. The Spectrum cigarettes are available for research purposes in different configurations of low or conventional levels of nicotine, mentholated or nonmentholated, and tar delivery ranges described as 'low tar' or 'high tar'. Detailed characterizations of specific harmful or potentially harmful constituents delivered by these research cigarettes will help inform researchers using these cigarettes in exposure studies, cessation studies and studies related to nicotine addiction or compensation. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotenberg, K.S.; Adir, J.

    1983-06-15

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its major metabolites was evaluated in male rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure. A smoke-exposure apparatus was used to deliver cigarette smoke to the exposure chamber. The rats were exposed to smoke from a single cigarette every 8 hr for 14 days and to the smoke of a cigarette spiked with radiolabeled nicotine on the 15th day. Blood and urine samples were collected at timed intervals during the 10-min smoke-exposure period of the last cigarette and up to 48 hr thereafter. Nicotine, cotinine, and other polar metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. The data were analyzed by computer fitting, and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those observed after a single iv injection of nicotine and after a single-cigarette smoke exposure. The results indicated that the amount of nicotine absorbed from multiple-cigarette smoke was approximately 10-fold greater than that absorbed from a single cigarette. Also, unlike the single-cigarette smoke exposure experiment, nicotine plasma levels did not decay monotonically but increased after the 5th hr, and high plasma concentrations persisted for 30 hr. The rate and extent of the formation of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, were decreased as compared with their values following a single-cigarette smoke exposure. It was concluded that nicotine or a constituent of tobacco smoke inhibits the formation of cotinine and may affect the biotransformation of other metabolites. Urinary excretion tended to support the conclusions that the pharmacokinetic parameters of nicotine and its metabolites were altered upon multiple as compared to single dose exposure.

  1. Pulmonary cytokine composition differs in the setting of alcohol use disorders and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Ellen L; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Davis, Christopher S

    2013-06-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol abuse and dependence, and cigarette smoking are widely acknowledged and common risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia. Reasons for these associations are likely complex but may involve an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines within the lung. Delineating the specific effects of alcohol, smoking, and their combination on pulmonary cytokines may help unravel mechanisms that predispose these individuals to pneumococcal pneumonia. We hypothesized that the combination of AUD and cigarette smoking would be associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and diminished anti-inflammatory cytokines, compared with either AUDs or cigarette smoking alone. Acellular BAL fluid was obtained from 20 subjects with AUDs, who were identified using a validated questionnaire, and 19 control subjects, matched on the basis of age, sex, and smoking history. Half were current cigarette smokers; baseline pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs were normal. A positive relationship between regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) with increasing severity of alcohol dependence was observed, independent of cigarette smoking (P = 0.0001). Cigarette smoking duration was associated with higher IL-1β (P = 0.0009) but lower VEGF (P = 0.0007); cigarette smoking intensity was characterized by higher IL-1β and lower VEGF and diminished IL-12 (P = 0.0004). No synergistic effects of AUDs and cigarette smoking were observed. Collectively, our work suggests that AUDs and cigarette smoking each contribute to a proinflammatory pulmonary milieu in human subjects through independent effects on BAL RANTES and IL-1β. Furthermore, cigarette smoking additionally influences BAL IL-12 and VEGF that may be relevant to the pulmonary immune response.

  2. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a "probably human carcinogen" monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland. The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg. The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 - 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day. Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  3. Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen Signaling in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cigarette smoke (CS in active smokers and second-hand smoke exposure exacerbate respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. While women are known to experience a more asthmatic response to CS than emphysema in men, there is limited information on the mechanisms of CS-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesize that CS interferes with a normal (protective bronchodilatory role of estrogens, thus worsening airway contractility. Methods: We tested effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on 17β-estradiol (E2 signaling in enzymatically-dissociated bronchial airway smooth muscle (ASM obtained from lung samples of non-smoking female patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Results: In fura-2 loaded ASM cells, CSE increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i responses to 10µM histamine. Acute exposure to physiological concentrations of E2 decreased [Ca2+]i responses. However, in 24h exposed CSE cells, although expression of estrogen receptors was increased, the effect of E2 on [Ca2+]i was blunted. Acute E2 exposure also decreased store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibited stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 phosphorylation: effects blunted by CSE. Acute exposure to E2 increased cAMP, but less so in 24h CSE-exposed cells. 24h CSE exposure increased S-nitrosylation of ERα. Furthermore, 24h CSE-exposed bronchial rings showed increased bronchoconstrictor agonist responses that were not reduced as effectively by E2 compared to non-CSE controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that CS induces dysregulation of estrogen signaling in ASM, which could contribute to increased airway contractility in women exposed to CS.

  4. Vertical Equity Consequences of Very High Cigarette Tax Increases: If the Poor Are the Ones Smoking, How Could Cigarette Tax Increases Be Progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory J.; Remler, Dahlia K.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is concentrated among low-income groups. Consequently, cigarette taxes are considered regressive. However, if poorer individuals are much more price sensitive than richer individuals, then tax increases would reduce smoking much more among the poor and their cigarette tax expenditures as a share of income would rise by much less…

  5. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Faisal Sumit

    Full Text Available Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94 were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB, respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002. In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI. In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  6. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  7. Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Ota, Shotaro; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a paradox that cigarette smoking reduces stress psychologically; however, it increases the arousal level physiologically. To examine this issue, our study aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking relieves stress by measuring the late positive potential (LPP), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). In Experiment 1, participants first watched emotionally neutral images; second, they received a break; and finally, they watched emotionally neutral images again. In the break, they smoked a cigarette (smoking condition) or simply rested without smoking (non-smoking condition). The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as that of Experiment 1, except that the participants watched unpleasant images as stress stimuli before the break. In Experiment 1, the LPP decreased from before to after the break in the smoking condition, but not in the non-smoking condition, suggesting that smoking cigarettes in the neutral state reduces the arousal level. In Experiment 2, the LPP for 400-600 ms decreased from before to after the break, both in the smoking and non-smoking conditions; however, the LPP for 200-400 ms decreased from before to after the break only in the smoking condition. This suggests the possibility that cigarette smoking in the unpleasant state may facilitate a decrease in the arousal level faster than with non-smoking. In both Experiments 1 and 2, the subjective rating results also suggested that cigarette smoking decreased anxiety. Taken together, both the physiological (LPP) and the psychological responses from our study suggest that cigarette smoking perhaps relieves stress.

  8. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  9. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    between smoking and MD was strongest in women who initiated smoking before age of 16 years (0.79, 0.64-0.96), smoked ≥15 cigarettes/day (0.83, 0.71-0.98), smoked ≥5 pack-years (0.62, 0.43-0.89), smoked >30 years (0.86, 0.75-0.99), and smoked ≥11 years before first childbirth (0.70, 0.51-0.96). Association...

  10. Beta-cryptoxanthin protection against cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in the lung is due to the action of its own molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher intake of the dietary xanthophyll, beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX), has been associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death in smokers. We have previously shown that BCX feeding was effective in reducing both cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation in ferrets and carcinogen-induced lung tu...

  11. Influence of filter ventilation on the chemical composition of cigarette mainstream smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Thomas, E-mail: dr-thomas-adam@gmx.net [Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); McAughey, John [British American Tobacco, Group R and D, Southampton SO15 8TL (United Kingdom); Mocker, Christoph [Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); McGrath, Conor [British American Tobacco, Group R and D, Southampton SO15 8TL (United Kingdom); Zimmermann, Ralf [Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); BIfA-Umweltinstitut - Bavarian Institute of Applied Environmental Research and Technology GmbH, Environmental Chemistry, 86167 Augsburg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2010-01-04

    Total yields of cigarette smoke constituents are greatly influenced by smoking behaviour, the tobacco blend as well as a variety of cigarette design parameters. Thereby, filter ventilation, i.e. diluting the smoke by providing a zone of microscopic holes around the circumference of the filter is one method to reduce the yield of 'tar' and other smoke compounds. However, little is known how these design variations influence the combustion conditions, and therefore, the overall chemical pattern of the smoke. In this paper single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) is used to characterize and compare cigarettes on a puff-by-puff basis, which differ only in filter ventilation magnitude. The research cigarettes investigated were made from Virginia tobacco and featured filter ventilations of 0% (no ventilation), 35%, and 70%. The cigarettes were smoked under two different puffing regimes, one using the puffing parameters of the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) smoking regime and a more intense smoking condition. Results show that every variation entails a change of the chemical pattern, whereby, in general, cigarettes with 0% filter ventilation as well as the intense smoking regime lead to a more complete combustion compared to the ISO smoking conditions and the high ventilated cigarettes. Changes in the overall patterns can also be observed during the smoking for individual puffs. Some substances dominate the first puff, some species are more pronounced in the middle puffs, whereas others are preferably formed in the last puffs. This demonstrates the high complexity of the occurring processes. Results might help to understand the formation and decomposition reactions taking place when a cigarette is smoked and offer scope for targeted reduction strategies for specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in the smoke.

  12. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses. PMID:27902485

  13. Creatine kinase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: protective effect of Bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is implicated as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Creatine kinase (CK) and its isoforms (CK-MM, MB, BB) have been advocated as sensitive markers in the assessment of cardiac and cerebral damage. Therefore, in the present study, we report the isoenzyme patterns of CK in rats upon exposure to cigarette smoke and the protective effect of Bacoside A against chronic smoking induced toxicity. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with Bacoside A, the active constituent from the plant Bacopa monniera, for a period of 12 weeks. The activity of CK was assayed in serum, heart and brain, and its isoenzymes in serum were separated electrophoretically. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke showed significant increase in serum CK activity with concomitant decrease in heart and brain. Also cigarette smoke exposure resulted in a marked increase in all the three isoforms in serum. Administration of Bacoside A prevented these alterations induced by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is known to cause free radical mediated lipid peroxidation leading to increased membrane permeability and cellular damage in the heart and brain resulting in the release of CK into the circulation. The protective effect of Bacoside A on the structural and functional integrity of the membrane prevented the leakage of CK from the respective tissues, which could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  14. Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke.

  15. Effect of Cigarette and Cigar Smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medabala, Tambi; B.N., Rao; Mohesh M.I., Glad; Kumar M., Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking in India has been increasing alarmingly. Smoking is a known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, especially, the lung cancer. The percentage prevalence of cigarette smoking (18.5%) and cigar smoking (4%) in males is high in Andhra Pradesh compared to other southern states. There is not enough scientific literature to correlate about intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking and their impact on lung function though high prevalence is reported in Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether PEFR differs between cigarette and cigar smokers compared to non-smokers and also to estimate the intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking on PEFR. Methods: PEFR was recorded in cigarette smokers (n=49) and cigar smokers (n=10) as well as in non-smokers (n=64) using Wright’s mini Peak Flow Meter. Results: PEFR is decreased in both cigarette as well in cigar smokers compared to non-smokers and the magnitude of decline was higher in cigar smoking elderly individuals. Conclusion: The intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking (pack-years) emerged as the main variable to influence airway obstruction in smokers that caused greater reduction in PEFR. PMID:24179889

  16. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subjective Reactivity to the First Cigarette of the Day as a Predictor of Smoking Relapse: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Schepis, Ty S.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; McKee, Sherry A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2007-01-01

    We examined subjective responses to smoking the first cigarette of the day and investigated how these responses related to smoking cessation treatment outcome. Data from participants (N = 207) in a clinical trial of message framing for smoking cessation with bupropion, obtained prior to the targeted quit day, were used to examine indices of craving, withdrawal, and affect before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. After smoking the initial cigarette, craving, withdrawal symptoms...

  18. Subjective Reactivity to the First Cigarette of the Day as a Predictor of Smoking Relapse: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Schepis, Ty S.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; McKee, Sherry A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2007-01-01

    We examined subjective responses to smoking the first cigarette of the day and investigated how these responses related to smoking cessation treatment outcome. Data from participants (N = 207) in a clinical trial of message framing for smoking cessation with bupropion, obtained prior to the targeted quit day, were used to examine indices of craving, withdrawal, and affect before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day. After smoking the initial cigarette, craving, withdrawal symptoms...

  19. The Effects of a Minimum Cigarette Purchase Age of 21 on Prenatal Smoking and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of US public health policies is to reduce costly adverse birth outcomes to which prenatal smoking is a crucial contributor. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of a minimum cigarette purchase age of 21 implemented in the state of Pennsylvania on prenatal smoking and infant health. Using a regression discontinuity method, it shows this smoking age of 21 reduces the prenatal daily cigarette consumption by 15 percent and lowers the incidence of low birth weight infants by ...

  20. Earlier age of smoking initiation may not predict heavier cigarette consumption in later adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E R; Song, Anna V; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that earlier cigarette smoking initiation in adolescence predicts greater cigarette consumption later in adolescence or adulthood. Results from these studies have been used to inform interventions for adolescent smoking. However, previous studies suffer from several important methodological limitations. The objective of the present study was to address these limitations by longitudinally and prospectively examining whether and how age of initiation of smoking among adolescents predicts cigarette consumption by age 16 or 17. Participants completed an in-class survey every 6 months for 2-3 school years. Participants included 395 adolescents (Mean age=14 years at baseline; 53.2% female) from two public high schools in Northern California (Schools A and B) who completed self-report measures of smoking initiation, number of friends who smoke, and number of whole cigarettes smoked by the final survey time point. Adolescents who were older when they first smoked one whole cigarette were 5.3 to 14.6 times more likely in School A and 2.9 to 4.3 times more likely in School B to have smoked a greater number of cigarettes by age 16 or 17. Results suggested that earlier smoking initiation may not lead to heavier cigarette consumption later in time, as has been previously shown. There may be a period of heightened vulnerability in mid- or late adolescence where smoking experimentation is more likely to lead to greater cigarette consumption. Targeting prevention efforts to adolescents aged 14 to 17 years may further reduce smoking initiation among youth, thus limiting subsequent smoking-related morbidity and mortality in adulthood.

  1. Mainstream Smoke Chemical Analyses for 2R4F Kentucky Reference Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen PX

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new reference cigarette, 2R4F, has been designed to replace the 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarette. This new cigarette has virtually the same blend composition as the 1R4F cigarette. However, the 1R4F cigarette was made in 1983 and the variation in the tobacco from crop year to crop year as well as the difference in the age of the two cigarettes were expected to generate differences in the smoke chemistry. A study done for the quantitation of more than 44 analytes in smoke, including most compounds considered as biologically active, is presented in this report. The analyses were performed by six independent laboratories using a variety of analytical techniques. The smoking was performed using International Standard (ISO recommendations. The results showed only small differences between the two cigarettes regarding ‘tar', nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO, as well as for aminonaphthalenes, resorcinol, and some aldehydes. Although the two reference cigarettes were made as close as possible, the concentrations of a significant number of analytes in the smoke differed between 10% to 30%. Specific trace compounds in the blend such as metals and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA, which may influence the smoke composition, were also different between the two cigarettes. The level of lead, in particular, was very different in tobacco between 1983 and 2002.

  2. Cigarette smoking contributes to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis associated with emphysema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Qiao; Huang Kewu; Ding Yi; Lou Baohui; Hou Ziliang; Dai Huaping; Wang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis,including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF),is a distinct disorder described with upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis on chest computed tomography.Smoking appears to be the predominant risk factor for this disorder.We aimed to compare clinical features,smoking history,physiological and radiological findings between IPF with and without emphysema.Methods A sample of 125 IPF patients over a period of 48 months were evaluated.High resolution CT scans were reviewed blinded to clinical data.The IPF patients with or without emphysema were classified accordingly.Results The prevalence of emphysema in this IPF sample was 70/125.IPF with emphysema was significantly associated with smoking status (OR 63; 95% CI 4.4 to 915; P=0.002) and smoking pack year (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13; P=-0.000).The patients with IPF and emphysema had a higher decrease in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity adjusted for alveolar volume ((58±19)% pred vs.(66:±:21)% pred; P=-0.021) and a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (24/70 vs.7/55; P=0.006).The two groups of patients had similar forced and residual volumes.No significant differences were found in cell differentials of bronchoalveolar lavage or the scores of fibrosis on chest CT.Survival of the patients with emphysema was significantly less than that of patients with IPF alone.Conclusions Cigarette smoking induces IPF combined with emphysema.Emphysema further impairs physiological function and increases the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension that leads to poor prognosis.The inclusion of the patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in IPF clinical trials may lead to under evaluation of the effect of treatment in patients.

  3. Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

  4. Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S; Houghton, A McGarry; Shapiro, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots.

  5. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martins-Green

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered - Thirdhand smoke (THS - the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS. In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.

  6. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  7. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  8. The human laryngeal microbiome: effects of cigarette smoke and reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, Marie E.; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A.; Hanshew, Alissa S.; Suen, Garret; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged diffuse laryngeal inflammation from smoking and/or reflux is commonly diagnosed as chronic laryngitis and treated empirically with expensive drugs that have not proven effective. Shifts in microbiota have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, though little is known about how resident microbes may contribute to chronic laryngitis. We sought to characterize the core microbiota of disease-free human laryngeal tissue and to investigate shifts in microbial community membership associated with exposure to cigarette smoke and reflux. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we compared bacterial communities of laryngeal tissue biopsies collected from 97 non-treatment-seeking volunteers based on reflux and smoking status. The core community was characterized by a highly abundant OTU within the family Comamonadaceae found in all laryngeal tissues. Smokers demonstrated less microbial diversity than nonsmokers, with differences in relative abundances of OTUs classified as Streptococcus, unclassified Comamonadaceae, Cloacibacterium, and Helicobacter. Reflux status did not affect microbial diversity nor community structure nor composition. Comparison of healthy laryngeal microbial communities to benign vocal fold disease samples revealed greater abundance of Streptococcus in benign vocal fold disease suggesting that mucosal dominance by Streptococcus may be a factor in disease etiology. PMID:27775059

  9. [Methane Concentration Detection System for Cigarette Smoke Based on TDLAS Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Long; Wu, Xiao-song; Li, Zhi-gang; Wang, An; Liu, Yong; Ji, Min

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and real-time analysis of cigarette smoke is of great significance to study the puff-by-puff transfer rules in the suction process and to explore the relationship between smoking and health. By combining with the modified commercial smoking machine herein, cigarette smoke online analysis system was established based on the TDLAS technology. The puff-by-puff stability of this system was verified by simulated cigarette composed of a pocket containing CH₄ (volume fraction of 0.4), of which the second harmonic peaks are near 1.39. Using this system, the concentration of CH₄ in four different kinds of cigarettes was analyzed puff-by-puff by a semiconductor laser, of which center wavelength was at 1 653.72 nm. The results showed that the CH₄ concentration of cigarette smoke increased puff-by-puff. CH₄ concentration in the flue-cured cigarette is obviously higher than that of blended cigarette by comparing the content of all and puff-by-puff concentration. The puff-by-puff concentration of flue-cured cigarette increased from 400 to 900 ppm, however, the puff-by-puff concentration of blended cigarette increased from 200 to 600 ppm. Simultaneously, there was significant difference between different kinds of the flue-cured. Comparing to tradi- tional analysis methods, this system can effectively avoid the interference of other gases in the smoke cigarette as a result of its strong anti-interference. At the same time, it can finish analysis between suction interval without sample pretreatment. The technology has a good prospect in the online puff-by-puff analysis of cigarette smoke.

  10. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  11. Do Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Cigarette Smoking Extend to Smokeless Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Bunn, Janice Y; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Less research has been conducted characterizing the relationship between SES and risk of using of other tobacco products. The present study examined SES as a risk factor for smokeless tobacco (ST) use in a US nationally representative sample, utilizing data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Odds were generated for current cigarette smoking and ST use among adults (≥18 years) based on SES markers (educational attainment, income, blue-collar employment, and unemployment) after controlling for the influence of demographics and other substance dependence. Odds of current cigarette smoking increased as a graded, inverse function of educational attainment as well as lower income and being unemployed. Odds of current ST use also increased as a function of lower educational attainment, although not in the linear manner seen with cigarette smoking. Odds of ST use but not cigarette smoking also increased with blue-collar employment. In contrast to patterns seen with cigarette smoking, ST use did not change in relation to income or unemployment. Markers of SES are significantly associated with odds of cigarette smoking and ST use, but which indicators are predictive and the shape of their relationship to use differs across the two tobacco products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Vam3, a derivative of resveratrol, attenuates cigarette smoke-induced autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji SHI; Ning YIN; Ling-ling XUAN; Chun-suo YAO; Ai-min MENG; Qi HOU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To appraise the efficacy of Vam3 (Amurensis H),a dimeric derivative of resveratrol,at inhibiting cigarette smoke-induced autophagy.Methods:Human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensates,and a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was established by exposing male BALB/c mice to cigarette smoke.The protein levels of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3),Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1),and foxhead box O 3a (FoxO3a) were examined using Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry.LC3 punctae were detected by immunofluorescence.The levels of FoxO3a acetylation were examined by immunoprecipitation.The level of intracellular oxidation was assessed by detecting ROS and GSH-Px.Results:Vam3 attenuated cigarette smoke condensate-induced autophagy in human bronchial epithelial cells,and restored the expression levels of Sift1 and FoxO3a that had been reduced by cigarette smoke condensates.Similar protective effects of Vam3,reducing autophagy and restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a,were observed in the COPD animal model.Additionally,Vam3 also diminished the oxidative stress that was induced by the cigarette smoke condensates.Conclusion:Vam3 decreases cigarette smoke-induced autophagy via up-regulating/restoring the levels of Sirt1 and FoxO3a and inhibiting the induced oxidative stress.

  13. Acrolein Yields in Mainstream Smoke From Commercial Cigarette and Little Cigar Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Todd L; Brewer, Tim M; Young, Mimy; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature. This study uses standard cigarette testing protocols to determine the acrolein yields from sheet-wrapped cigars. Sheet-wrapped cigar and cigarette products were tested by derivatizing the mainstream smoke with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution and then quantifying the derivatives using conventional analytical systems. The results demonstrate that sheet-wrapped cigars can be tested for acrolein yields in mainstream smoke using the same methods used for the evaluation of cigarettes. The variability in the sheet-wrapped cigars and cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization smoking regimen is statistically similar at the 95% confidence interval; however, increased variability is observed for sheet-wrapped cigar products under the Health Canada Intense (CI) smoking regimen. The amount of acrolein released by smoking sheet-wrapped cigars can be measured using standard smoking regimen currently used for cigarettes. The sheet-wrapped cigars were determined to yield similar quantity of acrolein from commercial cigarette products using two standard smoking regimens. This article reports on the measured quantity of acrolein from 15 commercial sheet-wrapped cigars using a validated standard smoking test method that derivatizes acrolein in the mainstream smoke with DNPH solution, and uses Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Detection (LC/UV) for separation and detection. These acrolein yields were similar to the levels found in

  14. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Jin Joung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014. Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking.

  15. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-11-25

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents' parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking.

  16. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  17. Passive cigarette smoking induces inflammatory injury in human arterial walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ni; HONG Jiang; DAI Qiu-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that both active and passive cigarette smoking increase the risk of atherosclerosis. But very little is known about the biological processes induced by passive cigarette smoking that contribute to atheresclerosis. We observe the expression of a few of biological and inflammatory markers in human arterial walls in vitro which were treated with the second-hand smoke solution (sidestream whole, SSW), and discuss the possible mechanism of inflammatory injury induced by second-hand smoke.Methods The biological markers (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, PECAM-1; α-smooth muscle actin, α-SMA; collagen Ⅳ, Col Ⅳ) and inflammatory markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1; interleukin-8, IL-8) of human aortal wall were tested by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA expression were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results No distinct difference was observed between SSW and the control group on the expression of biological markers as assessed by the light microscope. But the inflammatory markers VCAM-1, MCP-1 and IL-8 on the subendothelial layer and smooth muscle cell layers, which are near the endothelium of arterial wall, were strongly stained in the SSW group compared with the control group. Their fluorescence intensities in the 1:40 SSW group (VCAM-1: 0.35±0.04, MCP-1: 0.34±0.05, IL-8: 0.37±0.05) and the 1:20 SSW group (VCAM-1: 0.40±0.04, MCP-1: 0.52±0.09, IL-8: 0.51±0.07) were significantly stronger than the control group (VCAM-1: 0.12±0.04, MCP-1: 0.06±0.02, IL-8: 0.24±0.03) by semi-quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence (P <0.001 vs control). MCP-1 mRNA expression in the 1:40 SSW (0.15±0.04) and the 1:20 SSW (0.19±0.06) group was significantly higher than in the control group (0.09±0.03) (P <0.05, P <0.01 vs control); IL-8 mRNA expression in the 1:40 SSW (0.64±0.12) and 1

  18. Acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli K; Rossi, Joseph S; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Scalf, Carissa D

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a random-effects model meta-analysis of 26 studies published between 1990 and 2010 (k = 32; n = 39,777) that (a) examined the association between acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women and (b) evaluated age, national origin, and measure and dimensionality (unidimensional vs. bidimensional) of acculturation as moderating variables. Results indicate a strong positive relationship and suggest larger effects of acculturation on cigarette smoking in women of Mexican descent as compared with women originating from other Latin American countries for current and lifetime smoking, as well as smoking overall. The effect of acculturation on cigarette smoking was larger in adults as compared with adolescents for current smoking and smoking overall. Few differences in effect size by measure or dimensionality of acculturation emerged. Results are discussed with regard to implications for future research and the measurement of acculturation.

  19. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  20. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  1. Smoking among construction workers: the nonlinear influence of the economy, cigarette prices, and antismoking sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bacic, Janine; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Catalano, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on the influence of macroeconomic environments on smoking among blue-collar workers, a group with high smoking prevalence and that is especially vulnerable to the effects of changing economic circumstances. Using data from 52,418 construction workers in the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey, we examined the association of labor market shock, cigarette prices, and state antismoking sentiments with smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Data analysis included the use of multiple linear and logistic regressions, which employed the sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design. Unemployed, American-Indian, lower-educated and lower-income workers had higher smoking rates. Labor market shock had a quadratic association, which was non-significant for smoking status and significant for number of cigarettes. The association of cigarette prices with smoking status became non-significant after adjusting for state-level antismoking sentiment. State-level antismoking sentiment had significant quadratic association with smoking status among employed workers and significant quadratic association with number of cigarettes for all smokers. The study highlights how both workplace-based smoking cessation interventions and antismoking sentiments could further contribute to disparities in smoking by employment status.

  2. Cigarette smoke exposure-associated alterations to noncoding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Alan Maccani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures vary by timing, severity, and frequency and may have a number of deleterious effects throughout the life course. The period of in utero development, for example, is one of the most crucial stages of development during which adverse environmental exposures can both alter the growth and development of the fetus as well as lead to aberrant fetal programming, increasing disease risk. During fetal development and beyond, the plethora of exposures, including nutrients, drugs, stress, and trauma, influence health, development, and survival. Recent research in environmental epigenetics has investigated the roles of environmental exposures in influencing epigenetic modes of gene regulation during pregnancy and at various stages of life. Many relatively common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use, may have consequences for the expression and function of noncoding RNA (ncRNA, important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. A number of ncRNA have been discovered, including microRNA (miRNA, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA, and long noncoding RNA (long ncRNA. The best-characterized species of ncRNA are miRNA, the mature forms of which are ~22 nucleotides in length and capable of post-transcriptionally regulating target mRNA utilizing mechanisms based largely on the degree of complementarity between miRNA and target mRNA. Because miRNA can still negatively regulate gene expression when imperfectly base-paired with a target mRNA, a single miRNA can have a large number of potential mRNA targets and can regulate many different biological processes critical for health and development. The following review analyzes the current literature detailing links between cigarette smoke exposure and aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNA, assesses how such alterations may have consequences throughout the life course, and proposes future directions for this intriguing field of

  3. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  4. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  5. Cigarette Smoking and Erectile Dysfunction: Focus on NO Bioavailability and ROS Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Rita C.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Lee, Anthony J.; Giachini, Fernanda R.C.; Leite, Romulo; Osawa, Yoichi; Webb, R. Clinton

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Thirty million men in the United States suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) and this number is expected to double by 2025. Considered a major public health problem, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients and their partners, ED becomes increasingly prevalent with age and chronic smoking is a major risk factor in the development of ED. Aim To review available evidence concerning the effects of cigarette smoking on vascular changes associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methods We examined epidemiological and clinical data linking cigarette smoking and ED, and the effects of smoking on vascular NO bioavailability and ROS generation. Main Outcome Measures There are strong parallels between smoking and ED and considerable evidence supporting the concept that smoking-related ED is associated with reduced bioavailability of NO because of increased ROS. Results Cigarette smoking-induced ED in human and animal models is associated with impaired arterial flow to the penis or acute vasospasm of the penile arteries. Long-term smoking produces detrimental effects on the vascular endothelium and peripheral nerves and also causes ultrastructural damage to the corporal tissue, all considered to play a role in chronic smoking-induced ED. Clinical and basic science studies provide strong indirect evidence that smoking may affect penile erection by the impairment of endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation or more specifically by affecting NO production via increased ROS generation. Whether nicotine or other products of cigarette smoke mediate all effects related to vascular damage is still unknown. Conclusions Smoking prevention represents an important approach for reducing the risk of ED. The characterization of the components of cigarette smoke leading to ED and the mechanisms by which these components alter signaling pathways activated in erectile responses are

  6. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 2: Smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicological evaluation using smoking regimens reflecting human puffing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzen, Volker; Diekmann, Joerg; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Weber, Susanne; Wittke, Sandra; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    Chemical analysis of up to 49 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in mainstream smoke, in vitro cytotoxicity of the particulate and gas/vapor phase of mainstream smoke determined in the Neutral Red Uptake assay, and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase determined in the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay are reported for three Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K cigarettes, the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, and a number of comparator commercial conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) under ISO machine-smoking conditions and a total of 25 additional smoking regimens reflecting 'human puffing behavior' (HPB). The smoking machines were set to deliver nicotine yields for the EHCSS and comparator CC derived from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile of nicotine uptake distributions in smokers determined in two clinical studies. Duplication of the smoking intensity 'per cigarette' on a smoking machine may provide an insight into product performance that is directly relevant to obtaining scientific evidence for reduced exposure substantiation based on mainstream cigarette smoke HPHC-to-nicotine regressions. The reported data support an overall evaluation of reduced exposure to HPHC and biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  8. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  9. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the “smoke pH.” An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  10. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vaughan Watson

    Full Text Available Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions.

  11. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions.

  12. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    2004-01-01

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human, anim

  13. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Naif H; Lee, Jerry W; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe and cigarette smoking have been found to be associated with each other as cigarette smokers were more likely to be waterpipe users than non-cigarette smokers. Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior. Four hundred six current waterpipe smokers who initially had started tobacco use with the waterpipe were recruited from 15 waterpipe lounges in 2015. From a total of 70 waterpipe lounges in Riyadh, the 15 waterpipe lounges were selected randomly and participants were also selected randomly inside each waterpipe lounge based on the table or section number. The survey was developed using the Qualtrics Online Survey Software and participants completed a survey using iPad tablets. Cigarette smoking and intention to smoke cigarettes were predicted by attitude and perceived behavioral control. There was no direct effect of subjective norm on the cigarette use behavior, yet subjective norm had a statistically significant indirect effect on intentions through attitude and perceived behavioral control. The findings of this study could be useful in prevention/intervention programs aimed at reducing tobacco smoking behaviors among waterpipe users. Intervention programs might be directed at the attitude and perceived behavioral control by targeting underlying behavioral and control beliefs. The theory of planned behavior provided solid explanations of intention to use cigarettes among waterpipe smokers.

  14. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among Lebanese adolescents, a cross-sectional study, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Roueiheb, Zana; Tamim, Hala; Kanj, Mayada; Jabbour, Samer; Alayan, Iman; Musharrafieh, Umayya

    2008-02-01

    Waterpipe or "argileh" is a form of smoking other than cigarettes that is currently spreading among people of all ages. The objective of the present study was to assess tobacco smoking practices (waterpipe and/or cigarette) among public and private adolescent school students in Beirut, Lebanon. A sample of 2,443 students selected from 10 private and 3 public schools with intermediate/secondary classes filled out a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographic characteristics, and behavior about tobacco smoking. Binary analysis was performed as well as three regression models for the relationship between exclusive cigarettes smoking, exclusive waterpipe smoking and both cigarettes and waterpipe as the dependent variables and gender, type of school, and class as the independent variables. The current prevalence of cigarettes smoking was 11.4%, and that of waterpipe smoking was 29.6%. Gender was significantly associated with cigarettes (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.6) but not waterpipe smoking. Public school students were, respectively, 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.6) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) times more likely to be exclusive cigarettes smokers, and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Class was not significantly associated with exclusive cigarette smoking; however, students attending secondary classes were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6) times more likely to be exclusive waterpipe smokers. The reasons behind the high prevalence of both types of smoking are presented and discussed. The present study calls for school-based prevention programs and other types of interventions such as tax increases, and age-restrictions on tobacco sales. More aggressive interventions to disseminate education and awareness among parents and students altogether are warranted.

  15. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neekkan Dey; Archita Das; Arunava Ghosh; Indu B Chatterjee

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 g/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  16. A Simple and Rapid Method for Standard Preparation of Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Noya, Yoichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Hoshi, Akimasa; Nepal, Prabha; Harada, Takuya; Horiguchi, Mika; Hatate, Chizuru; Kuge, Yuji; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations ≤15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar ≥20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are ≤15 mg/ml. PMID:25229830

  17. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  18. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 3. In vitro toxicity of whole smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombick, D W; Ayres, P H; Putnam, K; Bombick, B R; Doolittle, D J

    1998-03-01

    Mainstream smoke from Kentucky reference low "tar" (1R4F) and ultra-low "tar" (1R5F) cigarettes and a test cigarette (TOB-HT), that primarily heats tobacco, was compared for cytotoxic and genotoxic potential using cellular smoke exposure technology (CSET). CSET includes a computer controlled 30-port AMESA/Battelle-Geneva smoke generator which exposes cultured mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) to whole smoke. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the neutral red assay and genotoxicity was assessed using the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. Compared on a per cigarette basis, mainstream smoke from 1R5F and the TOB-HT cigarette was significantly less cytotoxic and genotoxic than the smoke from the 1R4F cigarette. The cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of smoke from the TOB-HT cigarettes was slightly greater than the smoke from the ultra-low "tar" Kentucky 1R5F reference cigarettes. In conclusion, in these assays mainstream whole smoke of the TOB-HT cigarette had slightly greater cytotoxic and genotoxic potential compared with an ultra-low "tar" 1R5F Kentucky reference cigarette and significantly less activity compared with the whole mainstream smoke from a low "tar" 1R4F Kentucky reference cigarette, representative of the US market average cigarette for FTC yields of "tar", CO and nicotine.

  19. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: Protective effect of bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Sabitha, Kuruvimalai Ekambaram; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-09-01

    Despite a strong association between cigarette smoking and alarming increase in mortality rate from smoking-related diseases, around 35-40% of the world's population continues to smoke and many more are being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Since the role of free radicals and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases has been suggested, bacoside A, a potent antioxidant was tested for its ability to protect against cigarette smoking-induced toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A, for a period of 12 weeks. Total LDH activity was assayed in serum, lung, heart, brain, liver and kidney, and serum LDH isoforms were separated electrophoretically. Cigarette smoke exposure resulted in significant increase in serum LDH and its isoenzymes with a concomitant decrease in these organs. These alterations were prevented by administration of bacoside A. Excessive oxidants from cigarette smoke is known to cause peroxidation of membrane lipids leading to cellular damage, thereby resulting in the leakage of LDH into the circulation. Bacoside A could have rendered protection to the organs by stabilizing their cell membranes and prevented the release of LDH, probably through its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  1. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  2. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  3. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  4. A Simple Technique for Determining the pH of Whole Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique has been developed to determine the pH of whole cigarette smoke. In this technique, whole smoke from ten cigarettes was trapped in 300 mL water containing 1% (w/v sodium chloride and the pH was determined on the resulting aqueous suspension of cigarette smoke. Two impingers with an extra coarse porosity fritted disc were used to dispense the smoke in the aqueous trapping medium. Cigarettes were smoked on a 20-port Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine using modified FTC (Federal Trade Commission conditions. The puff volume was adjusted to take a 35 mL puff as measured through the cigarette and the collection traps. This new technique accounts for the contributions to smoke pH from both the vapor phase and the particulate phase of smoke. The repeatability of this new technique was determined on eighteen replicates of a commercially available non-menthol, filter cigarette. Each measurement was done on a different day to check for a possible drift in pH with time. The mean pH value for the chosen sample was found to be 4.97 with a standard deviation of 0.07 pH units. The smoke pH values for over 150 commercially available cigarette brands with a variety of “tar” levels were determined. The smoke pH values had a range from 4.6 to 5.5, with an average of 4.79 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.10 pH units. An experimental flue cured cigarette had a smoke pH of around 5.0, while an experimental Burley cigarette had a smoke pH of 5.4. No correlation between smoke pH and “tar” or total particulate matter (TPM and between pH and nicotine levels was found. The purpose of the present study was to develop a practical, relatively simple laboratory method to measure the pH of a water solution of whole smoke, and was not intended to reflect, or have direct relevance for any biochemical or biological phenomena such as inhalability of smoke, flavor perception, nicotine ab-sorption, etc.”

  5. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. © 2013.

  6. Biological responses in rats exposed to mainstream smoke from a heated cigarette compared to a conventional reference cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Okubo, Chigusa; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Renne, Roger; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The heated cigarette (HC) generates mainstream smoke by vaporizing the components of the tobacco rod using a carbon heat source at the cigarette tip. Mainstream smoke of HC contains markedly less chemical constituents compared to combusted cigarettes. Mainstream smoke from HC was generated under Health Canada Intense regimen and its biological effects were compared to those of Reference (3R4F) cigarettes, using nose-only 5-week and 13-week inhalation studies. In the 13-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke from each cigarette at 200, 600 or 1000 µg wet total particulate matter/L for 1 h/day, 7 days/week or following a 13-week recovery period. Histopathological changes in the respiratory tract were significantly lesser in HC groups; e.g. respiratory epithelial hyperplasia in the nasal cavity and accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli. After a 13-week recovery, the lesions were completely or partially regressed, except for accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli, in both HC and 3R4F groups. In the 5-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke of either cigarette at 600 or 1000 µg/L for 1 h, two times/day (with 30 min interval), 7 days/week or following a 4-week recovery period. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis of neutrophil percentages and enzyme levels like γ-GT, ALP and LDH indicated that pulmonary inflammation was significantly less in HC groups compared to 3R4F groups. In conclusion, HC demonstrated significantly lower biological effects compared to 3R4F, based on the BALF parameters and histopathology.

  7. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or decrease smoking and other tobacco use among young people. Smoking causes many other health problems. Smoking is ... weight . Being exposed to secondhand smoke increases the risk of cancer and other diseases. Smoking can also ...

  8. Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Bailey, Steffani R; Crew, Erin; Varady, Ann; Lembke, Anna; McFall, Danielle; Jeon, Anna; Killen, Diana; Killen, Joel D; David, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. Community clinic in the United States. A total of 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18). All participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half the participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) to week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions). The primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, 7-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52- and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. PP abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 1.78]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up (OR = 0.79; 95% CI= 0.44, 1.40). Prolonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  10. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  11. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...... changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester...

  12. Mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced COPD: insights from animal models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew Churg; Manuel Cosio; Joanne L. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease support the protease-antiprotease hypothesis of emphysema, although which cells and proteases are the crucial actors remains controversial...

  13. Synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Bretthauer, E.W.

    1975-06-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to test the possible synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Appropriate techniques were developed to expose the rats to cigarette smoke through mouth-breathing and to add known amounts of polonium-210 to the cigarette smoke. The findings from this experiment included: (1) lung deposition of polonium-210 was 31 plus or minus 2%, (2) early retention of polonium was two-phased with half-times of 4 and 84 hours, and (3) bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were observed in the experimental animals. Though the spontaneous occurrence of two lung tumors in the number of animals at risk was highly improbable, any conclusion that this resulted from the exposure to cigarette smoke must be highly qualified. (GRA)

  14. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dauphinee, Amanda L; Doxey, Juliana R; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    ... in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents' recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake...

  15. Cigarette smoke mediates epigenetic repression of miR-487b during pulmonary carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Sichuan; Xu, Hong; Shan, Jigui; Tao, Yongguang; Hong, Julie A; Inchauste, Suzanne; Zhang, Mary; Kunst, Tricia F; Mercedes, Leandro; Schrump, David S

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, array techniques were used to evaluate microRNA expression in normal human respiratory epithelia and lung cancer cells cultured in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC...

  16. The Effect of Cigarette Design on the Content of Phenols in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cigarette design on the content of phenols in mainstream tobacco smoke was studied. The most abundant phenols - catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, o-, m-, and p-cresol, and resorcinol - were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Hydroquinone and catechol made the most significant contribution to the total content of phenols with maximum values of 135.0 µg/cig and 95.7 µg/cig, respectively. The highest total content of phenols (330.9 µg/cig was measured in the smoke of a Virginia tobacco cigarette. The total content of phenols (µg/cig in cigarette mainstream smoke decreased linearly with increased filter ventilation, R2 = 0.9536. The results obtained indicate that filtration and ventilation can strongly influence the mainstream tobacco smoke content of phenol and its less polar derivatives, o-, m-, and p-cresol, which were reduced by up to 85%. Hydroquinone and catechol are less affected and only cigarettes with the special “recessed charcoal filter system” and cigarettes with filter ventilation over 50% showed significant reductions. On a per mg ‘tar’ basis the largest contributor to phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke was the selection of the tobacco type. The use of any standard commercial filter on an unfiltered cigarette can substantially reduce the yield of phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke. The use of special filters (e.g., the “recessed charcoal filter system” or high levels of cigarette ventilation does not reduce the amount of phenols in tobacco smoke considerably when normalized on a per mg ‘tar’ basis.

  17. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  18. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  19. Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saules, Karen K; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Brouwer, Rebecca Namenek; Rosenberg, Erin E M

    2004-11-01

    Although there is empirical support for the association between smoking, disordered eating, and subsequent weight gain upon smoking cessation, there have been no prospective studies to track changes in eating patterns during smoking abstinence and explore underlying biobehavioral processes. To help fill these gaps, we recruited four groups of women (N=48, 12/group) based on presence vs. absence of obesity and on low vs. high risk of severe dieting and/or binge-eating to participate in a laboratory study of eating in the context of ad libitum smoking and smoking abstinence. Participants [mean age 31.3 years; Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) 4.3; smoking rate 18.7 cigarettes/day] completed two sessions: one after ad libitum smoking, the other after 2 days' smoking abstinence, in counterbalanced order. After a half-day's restricted eating, participants watched a video, with measured amounts of preselected preferred food available throughout. Cigarettes were available during the ad libitum smoking session. High-risk women weighed more after 2 days' abstinence than during the ad libitum smoking condition, whereas low-risk women did not differ across conditions. Nicotine craving changed significantly more in anticipation of nicotine deprivation for high-BMI women than their low-BMI counterparts. Caloric intake was marginally attenuated during abstinence for low-BMI compared with high-BMI participants (Pintake (Pfood deprivation may contribute to difficulty quitting in these women.

  20. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or electronic cigarettes (EC. Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31, as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001. The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption.

  1. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shirley A; Meier, Ellen M; Wagener, Theodore L; Smith, Katherine M; Neas, Barbara R; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-03-04

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption.

  2. Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents on the island of Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigwanto, Mouhamad; Mongkolcharti, Aroonsri; Peltzer, Karl; Laosee, Orapin

    2017-04-01

    The Integrated Model of Change has successfully explained the behavior change process. Cigarette smoking is a social phenomenon, which needs to be understood for devising effective preventive strategies. The study aims to apply the Integrated Model of Change to determine predictive factors of cigarette smoking behavior among school adolescents in Indonesia. A school-based cross-sectional study was designed to collect data in Banten, Indonesia. A total of 698 students from eight high schools were recruited by multi-stage cluster sampling. The association between cigarette smoking and the independent variables was examined by multiple logistic regressions. The majority of respondents (86.4%) were between the ages of 15 and 17 years (Mean=16.4 years; SD=1.01). Approximately half (48.8%) of the students ever tried a cigarette while 29.6% were current smokers. Curiosity was reported as the main reason for experimenting with cigarettes (32%). The significant factors regarding current cigarette smoking were attitude [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.68], social norms (AOR=12.80), self-efficacy (AOR=15.85), and accessibility (AOR=4.39). The study revealed social influence and self-efficacy that were strongly associated with cigarette smoking can help authorities in guiding possible intervention programs for school adolescents.

  3. Cigarette advertising and female smoking prevalence in Spain, 1982-1997: case studies in International Tobacco Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, Omar; Fernández, Esteve; Thun, Michael; Schiaffino, Anna; Dolwick, Suzanne; Cokkinides, Vilma

    2004-04-15

    Compared with northern Europe and the U.S., the widespread initiation of cigarette smoking began 20-40 years later among young women in Spain because of strong cultural prohibitions against female smoking. In this study, the authors examined the correlation between the rapid increase in female smoking prevalence and tobacco industry cigarette marketing practices in Spain during a period of rapid social liberalization. The authors examined age-specific, period-specific, and birth cohort-specific increases in cigarette smoking among young women in Spain in relation to internal documents from Philip Morris beginning in 1971, cigarette advertising from 1982 to 1997, and the increase in the market share of blond tobacco and "light" cigarettes preferred by women. Some increase in cigarette smoking occurred among Spanish women before 1970, but the increase was substantially smaller and occurred later than in many Western countries. However, after 1970, the prevalence of cigarette smoking increased rapidly in Spanish women of all ages market share of blond tobacco, "light cigarettes," and international tobacco brands. The increase in cigarette smoking among young Spanish women illustrates how aggressive marketing can exploit periods of social liberalization and rapidly increase cigarette smoking among women, even in countries in which female smoking traditionally has been unacceptable. Strategies are needed to prevent similar increases in smoking by women elsewhere. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.

  4. New interpretation of arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking using a structurally motivated constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading self-inflicted risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; it causes arterial stiffening with serious sequelea including atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. This work presents a new interpretation of arterial stiffening caused by smoking based on data...... caused by smoking was reflected by consistent increase in an elastin-associated parameter and moreover by marked increase in the collagen-associated parameters. That is, we suggest that arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking appears to be isotropic, which may allow simpler phenomenological models...

  5. New interpretation of arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking using a structurally motivated constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Majken; Henneberg, K-A; Jensen, J A

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading self-inflicted risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; it causes arterial stiffening with serious sequelea including atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. This work presents a new interpretation of arterial stiffening caused by smoking based on data...... by smoking was reflected by consistent increase in an elastin-associated parameter and moreover by marked increase in the collagen-associated parameters. That is, we suggest that arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking appears to be isotropic, which may allow simpler phenomenological models to capture...

  6. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Estonia: HBSC survey results, 1994–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pärna Kersti

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major single cause of preventable morbidity and premature mortality. Tobacco use among adolescents is a significant public health problem as smoking behaviour is undeniably established in adolescence. While cigarette smoking among adolescents has been a significant public health problem for years, waterpipe smoking is considered to be a new global public health threat. The objectives of this study were to describe trends of cigarette smoking and the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and to study the association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking among adolescents in Estonia. Methods This study was based on a four-yearly HBSC survey of health behaviour among school-aged children conducted in 1994–2006 in Estonia. It was a school-based survey of a nationally representative sample using standardized methodology. The target group of the survey were 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old schoolchildren (N = 13826, 6656 boys and 7170 girls. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking was determined on a 4-stage scale: every day, at least once a week, less than once a week, not smoking. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine gender- and age-specific smoking trends and to study the association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking. Results Prevalence of smoking was higher among boys than girls in all age groups during the whole study period. The prevalence of cigarette smoking increased in 1994–2002 and then slightly decreased in both genders. The increase in smoking was larger among girls. Among girls, daily smoking increased during the whole study period. Among 15-year-old schoolchildren one-third of the boys and one quarter of the girls were cigarette smokers, 21% of the boys and 12% of the girls were daily smokers in 2006. One fourth of the boys and one sixth of the girls were waterpipe smokers. A logistic regression analysis revealed a strong association between cigarette and waterpipe smoking among schoolchildren

  7. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneatsu Osaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry’s actions—increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  8. The impact of menthol cigarettes on smoking initiation among non-smoking young females in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Behm, Ilan; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Wayne, Geoffrey F

    2011-01-01

    Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry's actions-increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  9. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  10. Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Piadé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397 ng/g respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8 ng/cig. under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7 ng/cig. under Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regime respectively. In the case of cigarettes with activated carbon, a selective retention of cadmium but not lead or arsenic was observed. This effect was more pronounced under ISO than under HCI smoking regimes. Cadmium selective retention by activated carbon was confirmed by testing specially designed prototype cigarettes and the causes for this selective filtration were investigated. The differences between cadmium, arsenic and lead in terms of their speciation in tobaccos and in cigarette smoke could be related to their distribution in the ash, butt, mainstream (in gas-phase and particulate-phase and sidestream smoke of a smoked cigarette. The possible formation of organometallic cadmium derivatives in the smoke gas-phase is discussed, the presence of which could adequately explain the observed cadmium selective filtration.

  11. Taking a first puff: cigarette smoking experiences among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C S; Allen, P; Crawford, M A; McCormick, L K

    1999-11-01

    To study the social contexts and physiological consequences of an initial cigarette smoking experience among adolescents from four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Hispanic, Native American) who vary by gender and locale (e.g. urban vs rural). A qualitative study using individual interviews and focus groups. Results both amplify and reinforce conclusions about peer and family influences on adolescent smoking initiation reported in quantitative studies of teen smoking. Within the broader themes of peers and family, several important sub-themes emerged. The study findings suggest that peer influence can be characterized as social conformity or social acceptance. Males were more likely than females to describe experiences involving peers exerting strong messages to conform to smoking behaviors. Roles played by family members in the initiation process were complex and included those of initiator, prompter, accomplice, and inadvertent source of cigarettes. European American and Hispanic girls provided descriptions of parents/family members as instigators of their first smoking experience. Hispanic adolescents descripted instances in which family members prompted cigarette use at a young age by encouraging the young person to light the adult's cigarette. Finally, ethnic differences in the physiological responses to initial smoking suggest the need to further explore the role of brand preference and variations in inhaling among ethnically diverse adolescents. In order to design effective cigarette smoking prevention programs for adolescents, it is important to understand the meaning of smoking behaviors for adolescents from different ethnic and social backgrounds.

  12. Transient and persistent metabolomic changes in plasma following chronic cigarette smoke exposure in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I; Mahaffey, Spencer; Justice, Matthew J; Hughes, Grant; Armstrong, Michael; Bowler, Russell P; Reisdorph, Richard; Petrache, Irina; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05) and fold change ≥1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease.

  13. Transient and persistent metabolomic changes in plasma following chronic cigarette smoke exposure in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmion I Cruickshank-Quinn

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05 and fold change ≥1.5. Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease.

  14. Mouse protocadherin-1 gene expression is regulated by cigarette smoke exposure in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Koning

    Full Text Available Protocadherin-1 (PCDH1 is a novel susceptibility gene for airway hyperresponsiveness, first identified in families exposed to cigarette smoke and is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells. Here, we asked how mouse Pcdh1 expression is regulated in lung structural cells in vivo under physiological conditions, and in both short-term cigarette smoke exposure models characterized by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and chronic cigarette smoke exposure models. Pcdh1 gene-structure was investigated by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Pcdh1 mRNA and protein expression was investigated by qRT-PCR, western blotting using isoform-specific antibodies. We observed 87% conservation of the Pcdh1 nucleotide sequence, and 96% conservation of the Pcdh1 protein sequence between men and mice. We identified a novel Pcdh1 isoform encoding only the intracellular signalling motifs. Cigarette smoke exposure for 4 consecutive days markedly reduced Pcdh1 mRNA expression in lung tissue (3 to 4-fold, while neutrophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness was induced. Moreover, Pcdh1 mRNA expression in lung tissue was reduced already 6 hours after an acute cigarette-smoke exposure in mice. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced loss of Pcdh1 protein in lung tissue after 2 months, while Pcdh1 protein levels were no longer reduced after 9 months of cigarette smoke exposure. We conclude that Pcdh1 is highly homologous to human PCDH1, encodes two transmembrane proteins and one intracellular protein, and is regulated by cigarette smoke exposure in vivo.

  15. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883 and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801. SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as “a good thing”. Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency.

  16. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Ross, Louise; McEwen, Andy

    2015-12-21

    The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883) and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801). SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as "a good thing". Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries) were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency.

  17. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Surface Roughness of Different Denture Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Mohamed, Mahmoud Darwish; Hassan, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness is an important property of denture bases since denture bases are in contact with oral tissues and a rough surface may affect tissues health due to microorganism accumulation. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the surface roughness of two commercially available denture base materials was evaluated to emphasize which type has superior properties for clinical use. Materials and Methods A total numbers of 40 specimens were constructed from two commercially available denture base materials; heat-cured PMMA and visible light cured UDMA resins (20 for each). The specimens for each type were randomly divided into: Group I: Heat cured resin control group; Group II: Heat cured acrylic resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking; Group III: Light cured resin control group; Group IV: Light cured resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking. The control groups used for immersion in distilled water and the smoke test groups used for exposure to cigarette smoking. The smoke test groups specimens were exposed to smoking in a custom made smoking chamber by using 20 cigarettes for each specimen. The surface roughness was measured by using Pocket SurfPS1 profilometer and the measurements considered as the difference between the initial and final roughness measured before and after smoking. Results The t-test for paired observation of test specimens after exposure to smoking was indicated significant change in surface roughness for Group II (pdentures constructed from heat cured acrylic resin had been increased after exposure to cigarette smoke but had no impact on the dentures constructed from visible light cured resin. PMID:26501010

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Cigarette Smoke Induced Changes in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merl-Pham, Juliane; Gruhn, Fabian; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition usually affecting older adults and resulting in a loss of vision in the macula, the center of the visual field. The dry form of this disease presents with atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in the detachment of the retina and loss of photoreceptors. Cigarette smoke is one main risk factor for dry AMD and increases the risk of developing the disease by three times. In order to understand the influence of cigarette smoke on retinal pigment epithelial cells, cultured human ARPE-19 cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract for 24 h. Using quantitative mass spectrometry more than 3000 proteins were identified and their respective abundances were compared between cigarette smoke-treated and untreated cells. Altogether 1932 proteins were quantified with at least two unique peptides, with 686 proteins found to be significantly differentially abundant with p > 0.05. Of these proteins the abundance of 64 proteins was at least 2-fold down-regulated after cigarette smoke treatment while 120 proteins were 2-fold up-regulated. The analysis of associated biological processes revealed an alteration of proteins involved in RNA processing and transport as well as extracellular matrix remodelling in response to cigarette smoke treatment.

  19. "I Need a Cigarette"--The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Depression and Anxiety of Youth with Early Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Ling; Rittner, Barbara; Maguin, Eugene; Dziadaszek, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine effects of cigarette smoking on depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (youth) with early onset schizophrenia and/or psychosis. Data were obtained from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program (CMHS Program). Cubic…

  20. Predisposing effects of cigarette advertising on children's intentions to smoke when older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R; Hastings, G B; Haywood, A J

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred and forty Glasgow children, initially aged between 11 and 14 years, were interviewed twice, with approximately one year between interviews. Children whose intentions to smoke when older became more positive between the two interviews tended to be more aware of cigarette advertising at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were negative at both interviews). Children whose intentions to smoke became more negative between the interviews tended to be less appreciative of cigarette advertisements at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were positive at both interviews). Since both groups differed from their respective contrast groups before their declared intentions changed, these findings support the view that cigarette advertising has predisposing as well as reinforcing effects on children's attitudes and behaviour with respect to smoking.

  1. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R(2) = 0.61-0.98, p smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  2. Lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles induce expression of inflammatory and extracellular-matrix-related genes in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, Petter; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that smoke leads to the pathogenesis of stroke are incompletely understood. METHODS: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-soluble (lipid-soluble) cigarette smoking particles (DSP) were extra...

  3. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Vu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK, and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization is required to alter the nasal microbiota in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-07-31

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Utilizing an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter nasal microbiota composition. Microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 hours following low dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports in human smokers, we observed an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium, Gemella, and Neisseria Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota, and microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K

    2016-04-11

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking.

  6. The relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking: an analysis of PRAMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Margaret S; Cheng, Diana; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking from a large national sample of women in the United States, the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The study sample consisted of 49,510 female smokers. Smoking rates and quantities were captured prior to pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, and postpartum. Changes in smoking were compared between pregnancies classified as intended, mistimed, and unwanted. Regardless of pregnancy intention status, most behavior change happened before the final 3 months of pregnancy. Overall, most women were able to quit or reduce smoking. However women with unwanted pregnancies had 0.86 times the adjusted odds of quitting/reducing cigarette smoking compared to women with intended or mistimed pregnancies (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95). Findings suggest early smoking cessation interventions lead to greater change in smoking, regardless of pregnancy intention, although change is more difficult for women with unwanted pregnancies.

  7. Effect of Permeability of Tipping Paper on Cigarette Burning Temperature and the Property of Mainstream Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Yan; Huang, Hai-Qun; Xu, Ji-Cang

    2016-05-01

    Cigarette smoke analysis of tipping paper with different permeability was carried out. The infrared thermal imager was used to measure burning temperature of cigarette with different permeability tipping paper. The results indicated that with the increase of tipping paper permeability, Tar, CO and nicotine in cigarette mainstream were significantly linear decreased, puff count was increased. Tipping paper permeability had a great influence on cigarette burning temperature. With the increase of tipping paper permeability, the third puff burning temperature and the average peak temperature values were dropped obviously, but the changes of smoldering temperature were not obvious. In addition, smoldering average temperature was significantly lower than the third puff burning temperature and peak temperature.

  8. Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

  9. sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. Richard Zulu1 ... potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic .... your family discussed the harmful effects of smoking with you?

  10. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  11. Cognitive regulation of smoking behavior within a cigarette: Automatic and nonautomatic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Salidroside alleviates cigarette smoke-induced COPD in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fen; Liu, Jingyan; Yan, Tianhua; Miao, Mingxing

    2017-02-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of salidroside (Sal) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 50 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, CS group, CS+dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, CS+salidroside (20mg/kg) group and CS+salidroside (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by CS exposure for 8 weeks. The results of H&E staining demonstrated that Sal alleviated CS-induced pathological injury in lungs. Besides, Sal increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Sal also inhibited the generations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum and lungs. Furthermore, the administration of Sal significantly inhibited the protein levels of MAPK/NF-κB pathway in CS-induced mice. Our findings showed that Sal might effectively ameliorate the progression of COPD via MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cigarette smoking and hypertension. Factors independently associated with blood hyperviscosity and arterial rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, J; Simon, A C; Cambien, F A; Beretti, C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoking and hypertension on hemorheological variables (blood viscosity over a wide range of shear rates, plasma viscosity, microhematocrit, and plasma protein concentration) and on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) were investigated in 33 normotensive men and 81 mild to moderately hypertensive men. Of these, 22 normotensive and 24 hypertensive subjects were cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking and hypertension were independently associated with higher blood viscosity at all studied shear rates (from 0.2 to 241 sec-1) as well as with higher plasma viscosity, hematocrit, and pulse wave velocity. At constant hematocrit levels, hypertension remained associated with a higher blood viscosity, while the association with cigarette smoking disappeared. Normotensive smokers had the same increase of blood and plasma viscosity and pulse wave velocity as hypertensive nonsmokers. No interactive effects of hypertension or cigarette smoking on blood or arterial variables were observed, suggesting that the effect of these two factors on blood and vascular rheology are cumulative. Smoking and hypertension may change the flow properties of the blood and the behavior of the arterial wall and this may explain the arterial damage observed in cigarette smokers and hypertensive patients.

  14. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  15. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Pilot Study to Assess Solanesol Levels in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained during the measurement of the level of solanesol in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The study was performed with three different cigarettes with U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC ‘tar’ values of 5.0 mg, 10.6 mg, and 16.2 mg. The number of human subjects was ten smokers for each of the evaluated products, each subject smoking three cigarettes within one hour. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling, and the solanesol was analyzed using an original high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and also analyzed for solanesol. The results obtained for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of solanesol delivered to the smoker, based on calibration curves. These curves were generated separately by analyzing the solanesol in smoke and in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. Knowing the levels of solanesol delivered to the smoker and the exhaled levels it was possible to calculate the retention and retention % of this compound from mainstream smoke for different cigarettes types. The amount of retained solanesol is the lowest for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, and the highest for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, although there is not much difference between the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ product and the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product. For the 10.6 mg ‘tar’ cigarettes the retention % was between 60% and 72%, for the 5.0 mg product the retention % was slightly lower ranging between 53% and 70%, while for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’ product, the retention % was slightly higher ranging between 62% and 82%.

  17. Monitoring low benzene exposure: comparative evaluation of urinary biomarkers, influence of cigarette smoking, and genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Consonni, Dario; Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Colombi, Antonio; Pesatori, Angela C; Bonzini, Matteo; Bertazzi, Pier A; Foà, Vito; Garte, Seymour; Farmer, Peter B; Levy, Leonard S; Pala, Mauro; Valerio, Federico; Fontana, Vincenzo; Desideri, Arianna; Merlo, Domenico F

    2005-09-01

    Benzene is a human carcinogen and an ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Identification of specific and sensitive biological markers is critical for the definition of exposure to low benzene level and the evaluation of the health risk posed by this exposure. This investigation compared urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid, and benzene (U-benzene) as biomarkers to assess benzene exposure and evaluated the influence of smoking and the genetic polymorphisms CYP2E1 (RsaI and DraI) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 on these indices. Gas station attendants, urban policemen, bus drivers, and two groups of controls were studied (415 subjects). Median benzene exposure was 61, 22, 21, 9 and 6 microg/m(3), respectively, with higher levels in workers than in controls. U-benzene, but not t,t-MA and S-phenylmercapturic acid, showed an exposure-related increase. All the biomarkers were strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, with values up to 8-fold higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Significant correlations of the biomarkers with each other and with urinary cotinine were found. A possible influence of genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 (RsaI and/or DraI) on t,t-MA and U-benzene in subjects with a variant allele was found. Multiple linear regression analysis correlated the urinary markers with exposure, smoking status, and CYP2E1 (RsaI; R(2) up to 0.55 for U-benzene). In conclusion, in the range of investigated benzene levels (<478 micro/m(3) or <0.15 ppm), smoking may be regarded as the major source of benzene intake; among the study indices, U-benzene is the marker of choice for biomonitoring low-level occupational and environmental benzene exposure.

  18. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  19. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa.

  20. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  1. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  2. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  3. Cigarette Smoking, Friendship Factors, and Social Norm Perceptions among Central and Eastern European High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating smoking behavior among adolescents living in post-communistic Central-European countries are sparse. This study focused on the relationship between cigarette smoking, certain friendship factors, and social norm perceptions among 1,886 Central-Eastern European adolescents from high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic,…

  4. Acute effects of cigarette smoking in habitual smokers, a focus on endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Taha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Many acute changes occur following one cigarette smoking even in habitual smokers. Persistence of endothelial dysfunction parameters after smoking indicates the failure of circulation adaptation in response to such offense that might contribute to the precipitation of acute events in vulnerable patients.

  5. Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, R.A.R.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Laat, K.F. de; Oudheusden, L.J. van; Uden, I.W.M. van; Zwiers, M.P.; Norris, D.G.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Various pathophysiological pathways have been proposed to cause such a cognitive decline, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Smoking may affect the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Diffusion tensor imagi

  6. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  7. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  8. In Situ Derivatization and Quantification of Seven Carbonyls in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan S; Yan, Xizheng; Wong, Joshua; Chan, Michele; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-19

    Carbonyls, especially aldehydes, are a group of harmful volatile organic compounds that are found in tobacco smoke. Seven carbonyls are listed on the FDA's harmful and potential harmful constituents list for tobacco or tobacco smoke. Carbonyls have reactive functional groups and thus are challenging to quantitatively measure in cigarette smoke. The traditional method of measuring carbonyls in smoke involves solvent-filled impinger trapping and derivatization. This procedure is labor-intensive and generates significant volumes of hazardous waste. We have developed a new method to efficiently derivatize and trap carbonyls from mainstream smoke in situ on Cambridge filter pads. The derivatized carbonyls are extracted from the pads and subsequently quantified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method has been validated and applied to research and commercial cigarettes. Carbonyl yields from research cigarettes are comparable to those from other published literature data. With a convenient smoke collection apparatus, a 4 min sample analysis time, and a low- or submicrogram detection limit, this new method not only simplifies and speeds the detection of an important class of chemical constituents in mainstream smoke but also reduces reactive losses and provides a more accurate assessment of carbonyl levels in smoke. Excellent accuracy (average 98%) and precision (14% average relative standard deviation in research cigarettes) ensure this new method's sufficient fidelity to characterize conventional combusted tobacco products, with potential application toward new or emerging products.

  9. The Use of Paramecium to Observe the Toxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, David

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which Paramecium caudatum was used to demonstrate the toxic effect of cigarette smoke on the cilia of epithelium cells lining the trachea and bronchi of smokers. Provides background information and explains the procedure, including how to make a simple mechanical smoking device. (TW)

  10. Determination of Selected Volatiles in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke. The CORESTA 2009 Collaborative Study and Recommended Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intorp M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A recommended method has been developed and published by CORESTA, applicable to the quantification of selected volatiles (1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile, benzene, and toluene in the gas phase of cigarette mainstream smoke. The method involved smoke collection in impinger traps and detection and measurement using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques.

  11. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko (Nagoya City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  12. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  13. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Shan Ho

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD. To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  14. Lipid-soluble cigarette smoking particles induce expression of inflammatory and extracellular-matrix-related genes in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikman, Petter; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Cigarette smoking is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that smoke leads to the pathogenesis of stroke are incompletely understood. METHODS: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-soluble (lipid-soluble) cigarette smoking particles (DSP) were...... extracted from cigarette smoke (0.8 mg nicotine per cigarette; Marlboro). Rat cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in the presence of DSP (0.2 microl/ml, equivalent to the plasma level in smokers) for 24 h. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and 13 (MMP9 and MMP13), angiotensin...

  15. Cigarette smoke induces an unfolded protein response in the human lung: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G; Duan, Xunbao; Ji, Rong; Perez, Oscar; Liu, Chunli; Merali, Salim

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, which exposes the lung to high concentrations of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies indicate that ROS interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and elicit a compensatory response termed the "unfolded protein response" (UPR). The importance of the UPR lies in its ability to alter expression of a variety of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. The present study used comparative proteomic technology to test the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking induces a UPR in the human lung. Studies were performed on lung tissue samples obtained from three groups of human subjects: nonsmokers, chronic cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Proteomes of lung samples from chronic cigarette smokers demonstrated 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, GRP78 and the UPR-regulated basic leucine zipper, transcription factors, ATF4 and Nrf2, which enhance expression of important anti-oxidant genes, increased rapidly (< 24 h) with cigarette smoke extract. These data indicate that cigarette smoke induces a UPR response in the human lung that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and at least partially reversible with smoking cessation. We speculate that activation of a UPR by cigarette smoke may protect the lung from oxidant injury and the development of COPD.

  16. A Standardized Method for the Preparation of a Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Mazaki, Yuichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    The gas phase of cigarette smoke is important from the viewpoint of human health, because it can pass through alveolar epithelium and enter the circulation. There is no standard method for the preparation of a gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE), although CSE is widely used for research instead of whole cigarette smoke. We have established a standard method for the preparation of CSE. One cigarette per trial is continuously combusted under a reduced pressure generated by an aspiration pump with a velocity of 1.050 L/min: the main stream of the smoke is passed through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, and subsequently, bubbled through a glass ball filter (pore size, 20-30 µm) into 15 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To express the concentration of CSE, a virtual tar concentration is introduced, which is calculated assuming that tar trapped on the Cambridge filter is dissolved in the PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original virtual tar concentration≤15 mg/mL) show similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations. CSEs prepared from various brands of cigarettes and by different smoking regimes (continuous and puff smoking) show similar cytotoxic potency if the virtual tar concentrations are the same. In conclusion, using the standardized method for CSE preparation in combination with the virtual tar concentration, it becomes possible to simply and rapidly prepare standard CSEs with defined concentrations from any brand of cigarettes, which are toxicologically equivalent to CSE prepared by puff smoking.

  17. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  18. Childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for cigarette smoking during adolescence: School adjustment as a potential mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Kate; Malone, Patrick S; Lamis, Dorian A

    2011-06-01

    Although a large body of research suggests that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking during adolescence compared with their non-ADHD peers, much less research has examined why. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining middle school adjustment, broadly defined, as a possible mediator of the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and cigarette smoking during middle adolescence (10th grade). Longitudinal data were collected from a community sample of 754 youth using self-report and parent report along with school records, and a novel statistical technique was used in the process of testing for mediation. Consistent with hypotheses, school adjustment was found to mediate the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and later cigarette smoking, even after controlling for early externalizing problems. Results have implications for etiological theories of adolescent deviant behavior and suggest that successful smoking prevention programs targeting youth with ADHD should include a school adjustment component.

  19. Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ramadan A; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K; Nelson, David R; Thomas, Anthony J

    2002-09-01

    To investigate levels of seminal oxidative stress (OS) and sperm quality in a group of infertile men with a history of cigarette smoking. A prospective clinical study. Male infertility clinic, Urological Institute, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio. Infertile men who smoked cigarettes (n = 20), infertile men who were nonsmokers (n = 32), and healthy nonsmoking donors (n = 13). Genital examination, standard semen analysis, sperm DNA damage. Levels of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) measured by a chemiluminescence assay and seminal OS assessed by calculating a ROS-TAC score. Sperm DNA damage was measured by sperm chromatin structure assay. Smoking was associated with a 48% increase in seminal leukocyte concentrations (Peffects of seminal OS on fertility, physicians should advise infertile men who smoke cigarettes to quit.

  20. A cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kris; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium contamination of tobacco may contribute to the health hazards of cigarette smoking. The 2005-2012 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking. Among a sample of 6761 participants, we evaluated mean differences and correlations between cadmium biomarkers in the blood and urine and characteristics of never, former and current smokers. We found statistically significant differences in mean cadmium biomarker levels between never and former smokers as well as between never and current smokers. In current smokers, duration in years had a higher correlation coefficient with urinary than blood cadmium levels. In contrast, number of cigarettes smoked per day had a higher correlation coefficient with blood than urinary cadmium levels. These data suggest that blood and urine cadmium biomarker levels differ by duration and dose. These findings should be considered in evaluating any association between cadmium and smoking related diseases, especially cardiovascular disease.

  1. The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Cardiopulmonary Function and Exercise Tolerance in Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Louie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers who smoke are frequently warned that cigarette smoking will have detrimental effects on the function of their cardiopulmonary system and on their ability to perform exercise. However, there is little published evidence to support this statement. Therefore, in the present study, peak expiratory flow was measured as an indicator of lung function, expired carbon monoxide level was measured as an indicator of current smoking and the associated reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured as indicators of cardiovascular hemodynamics before and after a one-mile run in 27 teenagers. The results show that, even at a young age, cigarette smoking is associated with significant detrimental effects on cardiopulmonary function and exercise tolerance. Objective evidence of an effect of smoking on cardiopulmonary function and exercise tolerance in this age group may assist educators and health care professionals in convincing teenagers to quit smoking.

  2. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of Bladder Cancer in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk Jeffrey T

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although cigarette smoking is a principal risk factor for bladder cancer in both men and women, few studies have statistically evaluated whether gender modifies the effect of smoking on bladder cancer risk. We initiated the present case-control study at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, U.S., to provide further data on this important issue. We observed similar risk estimates for men and women with comparable smoking exposures, but did not observe a statistically significant interaction between gender and lifetime smoking exposure. We conclude that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer in both sexes, but that gender does not modify the effect of smoking on bladder cancer risk.

  3. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group: nondiabetic (ND and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D, diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP. At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development.

  4. Laboratory Validation of Inertial Body Sensors to Detect Cigarette Smoking Arm Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Raiff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Traditional in-clinic cessation interventions may fail to intervene and interrupt the rapid progression to relapse that typically occurs following a quit attempt. The ability to detect actual smoking behavior in real-time is a measurement challenge for health behavior research and intervention. The successful detection of real-time smoking through mobile health (mHealth methodology has substantial implications for developing highly efficacious treatment interventions. The current study was aimed at further developing and testing the ability of inertial sensors to detect cigarette smoking arm movements among smokers. The current study involved four smokers who smoked six cigarettes each in a laboratory-based assessment. Participants were outfitted with four inertial body movement sensors on the arms, which were used to detect smoking events at two levels: the puff level and the cigarette level. Two different algorithms (Support Vector Machines (SVM and Edge-Detection based learning were trained to detect the features of arm movement sequences transmitted by the sensors that corresponded with each level. The results showed that performance of the SVM algorithm at the cigarette level exceeded detection at the individual puff level, with low rates of false positive puff detection. The current study is the second in a line of programmatic research demonstrating the proof-of-concept for sensor-based tracking of smoking, based on movements of the arm and wrist. This study demonstrates efficacy in a real-world clinical inpatient setting and is the first to provide a detection rate against direct observation, enabling calculation of true and false positive rates. The study results indicate that the approach performs very well with some participants, whereas some challenges remain with participants who generate more frequent non-smoking movements near the face. Future

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine metabolite ratio on leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Zoraida; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Chicharro, Luis; Garatachea, Nuria; Resano, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Ignacio; Rodríguez González-Moro, Jose Miguel; Bandrés, Fernando; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2015-07-01

    Studies of the effects of smoking on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using cigarettes smoked per day or pack years smoked (PYS) present limitations. Reported high levels of smoking may not increase toxin exposure levels proportionally. Nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) predicts total cigarette puff volume and overall exposure based on total N-nitrosamines, is highly reproducible and independent of time since the last cigarette. We hypothesized that smokers with higher NMRs will exhibit increased total puff volume, reflecting efforts to extract more nicotine from their cigarettes and increasing toxin exposure. In addition, higher levels of smoking could cause a gross damage in LTL. The urinary cotinine, 3-OH cotinine and nicotine levels of 147 smokers were analyzed using a LC/MS system Triple-Q6410. LTL and CYP2A6 genotype was determined by PCR in blood samples. We found a significant association between NMR and CYP2A6 genotype. Reduction in LTL was seen in relation to accumulated tobacco consumption and years smoking when we adjusted for age and gender. However, there were no significant differences between NMR values and LTL. In our study the higher exposure was associated with lower number of PYS. Smokers with reduced cigarette consumption may exhibit compensatory smoking behavior that results in no reduced tobacco toxin exposure. Our results suggest that lifetime accumulated smoking exposure could cause a gross damage in LTL rather than NMR or PYS. Nevertheless, a combination of smoking topography (NMR) and consumption (PYS) measures may provide useful information about smoking effects on health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  7. CIGARETTE SMOKING IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS THAT ARE CURRENTLY TREATED IN A MEXICAN HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral; Julio César Flores-Lázaro; Nuria Lanzagorta; Fernando Corona-Hernández; Humberto Nicolini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: tobacco smoking is the most commonly substance abused in psychiatric patients; among them, patients with schizophrenia are the highest abusers. Smoking is related to a decrease in the quality life and life expectancy, as well as interacting with psychotropic drugs. In Mexico, there is not basic descriptive knowledge about the main variables related to cigarette smoking in psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to know the relation among variables (beginning and course of...

  8. Carbonyl compounds in gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair C

    2011-11-01

    Carbonyl compounds (carbonyls) are important constituents of cigarette smoke and some are toxic and may be carcinogenic or mutagenic to humans. In this study carbonyl emissions in the gas and particle phases of mainstream cigarette smoke were assessed by GC-MS with pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) derivatization. Seven brands of cigarettes and one brand of cigar common in the UK market and having differing nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide yields were investigated. Sixteen carbonyl components were identified in gaseous emissions and twenty in the particle phase. In the gaseous emissions, acetaldehyde presented as the predominant species, followed by formaldehyde, 2-propenal, and pentanal. In the particulate emissions, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone was the most abundant followed by formaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde. Significant differences were found in carbonyl emissions among the brands of cigarettes. The gaseous carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 216-405 μg cigarette(-1) (μg cig(-1)) and the particulate carbonyl emissions varied in the range of 23-127 μg cig(-1). Positive correlations were found between the total emission of carbonyls, tar yield and carbon monoxide yield. Similar gas/particle (G/P) partitioning ratios of carbonyls were found among all cigarettes, which implies that G/P partitions of carbonyls in smoke mainly depend on the physical properties of the carbonyls. The gaseous carbonyl emissions were enhanced by 40% to 130% when some of the water, accounting for 8-12% of cigarettes in mass, was removed from the tobacco. Non-filtered cigarettes showed significantly higher carbonyl emissions compared to their filtered equivalents. Carbonyl particulate accounted for 11-19% by mass of total particulate matter from tobacco smoke. The cigar generated 806 μg cig(-1) gaseous and 141 μg cig(-1) particulate carbonyls, which is 2-4 times greater than the cigarettes.

  9. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  10. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  11. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI.

  12. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in two regions:cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcel Leppe; Josip Culig; Mirela Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in pregnancy, and the rate of congenital malformations in children at in utero exposure.Methods:The trial was designed as a cross-sectional study to measure exposure of pregnant women to adverse influence of smoking and their health status.The study consists of two arms: one was conducted at fourZagreb maternity hospitals(Croatia) and the other at the same hospitals inNoviSad(Serbia).Results:Data analysis revealed the habit of cigarette smoking during pregnancy in829(11.9%) of6992(6099+893) women.Malformations were found in105(1.5%) fetuses and newborns.Major congenital malformations were present in4(0.6%), minor malformations in73(10.5%) and low birth weight in12(1.7%) newborns.In all these pregnant women smoked until becoming aware of pregnancy or during pregnancy.Tobacco smoking and congenital abnormalities that define the contingency table were not significantly related inZagreb(P=0.385), as well as inNoviSad(P=0.345). Conclusions:The proportion of pregnant women reporting cigarette smoking was quite similar in Zagreb andNoviSad.There is no statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and congenitalmalformations.

  13. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Suppresses the Unfolded Protein Response upon Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Geraghty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress provokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD subjects. The antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, counters oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we investigate whether GPx-1 expression deters the UPR following exposure to cigarette smoke. Expression of ER stress markers was investigated in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells isolated from nonsmoking, smoking, and COPD donors and redifferentiated at the air liquid interface. NHBE cells from COPD donors expressed heightened ATF4, XBP1, GRP78, GRP94, EDEM1, and CHOP compared to cells from nonsmoking donors. These changes coincided with reduced GPx-1 expression. Reintroduction of GPx-1 into NHBE cells isolated from COPD donors reduced the UPR. To determine whether the loss of GPx-1 expression has a direct impact on these ER stress markers during smoke exposure, Gpx-1−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 year. Loss of Gpx-1 expression enhanced cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Equally, induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced antioxidant expression in mouse precision-cut lung slices. Smoke inhalation also exacerbated the UPR response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Therefore, ER stress may be an antioxidant-related pathophysiological event in COPD.

  14. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Erectile Tumescence: The Mediating Role of Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking deleteriously affects erectile function, and conversely, quitting smoking improves erectile hemodynamics. Underlying mechanisms by which smoking (or reduction of smoking frequency) may affect erectile physiology are not well understood. This study examined the mediating role of heart rate variability (HRV; a marker of sympathovagal balance) among a sample of male chronic smokers from the United States. Sixty-two healthy men (Mage = 38.27 years; SD = 10.62) were assessed at baseline (while smoking regularly), at mid-treatment (while using a nicotine patch), and at follow-up, four weeks after patch discontinuation. Cigarette use, frequency-domain parameters of HRV (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], LF/HF ratio), and physiological sexual arousal responses (via penile plethysmography) were assessed at each visit. Results were consistent with mediation, in that greater reductions in cigarette use from baseline to follow-up were associated with longitudinal increases in LF, which in turn showed positive relations with across-time changes in erectile tumescence. Neither HF or LF/HF ratio mediated the relationship between smoking and erection. In conclusion, HRV mediated the inverse relationship between reductions in smoking and enhancements in erectile tumescence. Results underscore the possibility that cigarette use may deleteriously affect erectile function peripherally, in part, by disrupting cardiac autonomic function. PMID:23303335

  15. Influenza virus-induced lung inflammation was modulated by cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    Full Text Available Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1 virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed

  16. Emotional, behavioural problems and cigarette smoking in adolescence: findings of a Greek cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotsika Vasiliki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have reported findings concerning the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems, little research has investigated this association after controlling for confounding factors which have been found to be significantly correlated with both cigarette smoking and emotional/behavioural problems and may have a strong effect on the relationship between adolescents' mental health and smoking. The present study attempted to assess the association between adolescents' smoking status and their emotional/behavioural problems after controlling for a number of possible confounders (i.e. age, gender, parental smoking status, exposure to family smoking, family socioeconomic status, adolescents' leisure time in a Greek nation-wide school-based sample. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire which retrieved information about age, gender, family socioeconomic status, smoking status, parental smoking, adolescents' leisure time and emotional/behavioural problems. Data were modelled using multiple logistic regression analysis with adolescents' smoking status as the dependent variable. Results A total of 1194 (i.e. 63% response rate of self-reported questionnaires (40.1% boys, 59.9% girls; 12-18 years old were returned. Data from 1030 participants with full data were analyzed. Cigarette smoking was strongly associated with higher levels of emotional/behavioural problems (p Conclusions This study supports the association between smoking and emotional/behavioural problems among adolescents. Addressing adolescents' needs regarding their emotional/behavioural health could be helpful in the development of effective anti-smoking strategies in school environment and elsewhere.

  17. Oxidative DNA damage is involved in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Jie; An, Yan; Nie, Jihua; Tong, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by exogenous toxicants are suggested to be involved in carcinogenesis by oxidative modification of DNA. 8-Hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been considered as a reliable biomarker for oxidative DNA damage both in vivo and in vitro studies. But the effect of smoking on oxidative damage has not yet been fully elucidated. Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke at concentrations of 20 and 60 % for 30 min, twice/day for 45 weeks. Then the histopathology of lung tissues, levels of ROS, 8-OHdG, and total antioxidant (T-AOC), expression of DNA repair enzymes, e.g. 8-oxyguaine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and MutThomolog 1 (Oxidized Purine Nucleoside Triphosphatase, MTH1) were determined in urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and lung tissue. The results showed that long-term cigarette smoke exposure can cause obvious damages of lung tissue in rats. In addition, a significant and cigarette smoke concentration-dependent increase in ROS and 8-OHdG were observed compared with the non-exposed control rats. In contrast, the expression of OGG1 and MTH1, and T-AOC levels were obviously decreased after long-term exposure to cigarette smoke. These findings indicate that long-term exposure to cigarette smoker increases ROS levels, decreases total antioxidant capacity, and interferes DNA repair capacity that eventually induces oxidative DNA damage, which appears to play an important role in cigarette smoke-induced lung injury in rats, and determination of 8-OHdG levels might be a useful method for monitoring oxidative damage in cigarette smokers.

  18. A comparison of the inflammatory and proteolytic effects of dung biomass and cigarette smoke exposure in the lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehra, Divya; Geraghty, Patrick M; Hardigan, Andrew A; Foronjy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    .... We exposed human small airway epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice to dung biomass smoke or cigarette smoke to compare how these exposures impacted lung signaling and inflammatory and proteolytic...

  19. Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond G; D'silva, Joanne; Stanton, Cassandra A; Carusi, Charles; Tang, Zhiqun

    2017-06-17

    Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment. Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels. Controlling for age and gender, a decreased rate of smoking among high and middle education groups was offset by an increase in the low education group. Dependence (time to first cigarette) was twice as high in the lowest education group compared to highest, yet dependence did not decline over time for any group. There was a decline in cigarettes per day in all education groups, but an increase in OTP use in the lowest and middle education groups. Given existing smoking disparities, novel efforts are urgently needed. Complementing known population-level strategies with community and individual-level approaches will be necessary to eliminate the widening gap in smoking disparities and to end the burden of tobacco-related disease.

  20. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease course is modulated by nicotine and other cigarette smoke components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS and accelerates its progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unsettled. We have investigated here the effects of the nicotine and the non-nicotine components in cigarette smoke on MS using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, and have explored their underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that nicotine ameliorates the severity of EAE, as shown by reduced demyelination, increased body weight, and attenuated microglial activation. Nicotine administration after the development of EAE symptoms prevented further disease exacerbation, suggesting that it might be useful as an EAE/MS therapeutic. In contrast, the remaining components of cigarette smoke, delivered as cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, accelerated and increased adverse clinical symptoms during the early stages of EAE, and we identify a particular cigarette smoke compound, acrolein, as one of the potential mediators. We also show that the mechanisms underlying the opposing effects of nicotine and CSC on EAE are likely due to distinct effects on microglial viability, activation, and function.

  1. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B; Kendler, Kenneth S; Maes, Hermine H M

    2016-09-01

    Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Using data from White (n=2665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but not African American young adults and adults. Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  3. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  4. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Clara cells in rats with cigarette smoke exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ji-ping; CHI Chun-hua; LI Hai-chao; TANG Xiu-ying

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of Clare cells and the Clara cell 16-kDa protein (CC16) levels of the lung decrease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a powerful antioxidant and can reduce the frequency of acute exacerbations of COPD. But the exact mechanism is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NAC on Clara cells in rats with cigarette smoke exposure.Methods Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, 12 exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) thrice a day, 10 cigarettes for 30 minutes each time for 1 week, without (CS group) or with (CS+NAC group) oral intake of NAC 80 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1), and another 6 rats exposed to fresh air (control group). Clara cells were observed by an electron microscope. The Mrna expression of CC16 and CC16 protein in lungs were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. The glutathion (GSH) level in plasma and lung tissue were tested by fluorimetry assay.Results Compared with the controls, the pathologic score of small airways significantly increased in the CS exposed rats (20.3±14.7 vs. 53.7±11.5, P 0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of CC16 Mrna among the three groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the percentage of CC16-positive cells in bronchioles negatively correlated with the pathologic score of small airways (r=-0.592, P<0.05), but not with GSH level.Conclusions One-week CS exposure decreased the number of Clara cells and the expression of CC16 in bronchioles in rats. NAC might provide protection of the Clara cells from oxidative damage and possibly through the elevation of the synthesis and secretion of CC16. These data indicate that NAC decreases airway inflammation induced by CS via induction of CC16.

  5. In vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol comprising particulate phase and gaseous vapour phase. The air-liquid interface exposure provides a possible technical means to implement whole smoke exposure for the assessment of tobacco products. In this review, the research progress in the in vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure is summarized. The contents presented involve mainly cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, systems toxicology, 3D culture and cigarette smoke dosimetry related to cigarette smoke, as well as the assessment of electronic cigarette aerosol. Prospect of the application of the air-liquid interface exposure method in assessing the biological effects of tobacco smoke is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  7. Family-based case-control study of cigarette smoking and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W K; Zhang, F; Stajich, J M; Scott, B L; Stacy, M A; Vance, J M

    2005-02-08

    To determine whether people with Parkinson disease (PD) are less likely to report a history of cigarette smoking than their unaffected siblings. Previous studies reported that individuals with PD are half as likely to have smoked as those unaffected by PD. Other studies reported that smoking modified the risk of PD due to polymorphisms in the MAO-B and nNOS genes. Thus, genetic studies of PD should consider confounding or interaction with smoking history as well. The authors have collected detailed smoking histories on a family-based case-control sample ascertained for genetic studies of PD. In a matched case-control study of 140 sibships, individuals with PD (n = 143) were compared to sibling controls (n = 168). Cigarette smoking history was collected by a structured telephone interview. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between smoking and PD while controlling for confounding by age and sex. Ever smoking, current smoking, and increasing duration (in years), dose (in packs/day), and intensity (in pack-years) of smoking were significantly inversely associated with PD (p Parkinson disease are significantly less likely to have smoked regularly than their unaffected siblings. This association was detected even though discordant sibling pairs are more likely to be overmatched for environmental exposures than unmatched case and control groups.

  8. Association of school social networks' influence and mass media factors with cigarette smoking among asthmatic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students' cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  9. The epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and effects on child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Maccani, Matthew A; Francazio, Sarah; McGeary, John E

    2012-11-01

    The period of in utero development is one of the most critical windows during which adverse intrauterine conditions and exposures can influence the growth and development of the fetus as well as the child's future postnatal health and behavior. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains a relatively common but nonetheless hazardous in utero exposure. Previous studies have associated prenatal smoke exposure with reduced birth weight, poor developmental and psychological outcomes, and increased risk for diseases and behavioral disorders later in life. Researchers are now learning that many of the mechanisms whereby maternal smoke exposure may affect key pathways crucial for proper fetal growth and development are epigenetic in nature. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy has been associated with altered DNA methylation and dysregulated expression of microRNA, but a deeper understanding of the epigenetics of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy as well as how these epigenetic changes may affect later health and behavior remain to be elucidated. This article seeks to explore many of the previously described epigenetic alterations associated with maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and assess how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development, as well as later child health, behavior, and well-being. We also outline future directions for this new and exciting field of research.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on cortical thickness in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorlu, Nabi; Cropley, Vanessa Louise; Zorlu, Pelin Kurtgoz; Delibas, Dursun Hakan; Adibelli, Zehra Hilal; Baskin, Emel Pasa; Esen, Özgür Sipahi; Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Findings of surface-based morphometry studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) are still inconsistent. Given that cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in MDD and has documented negative effects on the brain, it is possible that some of the inconsistencies may be partly explained by cigarette use. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of cigarette smoking on brain structure in MDD. 50 MDD patients (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) and 22 age, education, gender and BMI matched non-smoker healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Thickness and area of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry implemented with Freesurfer (v5.3.0). The non-smoker MDD patients had significantly increased cortical thickness, including in the left temporal cortex (p smoked compared to non-smoking patients in regions that overlapped with the regions found to be increased in non-smoking patients in comparison to controls. Non-smoker MDD patients had increased surface area in the right lateral occipital cortex (p = 0.009). We did not find any region where cortical thickness or surface area significantly differed between controls and either smoker MDD patients or all MDD patients. The findings of the current study suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with cortical thinning in regions found to be increased in patients with MDD. However, these results should be considered preliminary due to methodological limitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking and electronic cigarette use: Implications for oral healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, C P; Eissenberg, T; Sahingur, S E

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally. In recent years, tobacco smoking using a waterpipe ("hookah," "shisha") and use of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has increased significantly. Thus, dental clinicians likely will treat more patients who are waterpipe and/or ECIG users. Yet, the literature on the health effects of waterpipe and ECIGs use is sparse. Both waterpipe and ECIGs deliver the dependence-producing drug nicotine. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been associated with periodontitis, dry socket, premalignant lesions, and oral and esophageal cancer. The health effects of long-term ECIG use are unknown. The purpose of this review is to inform healthcare professionals about waterpipes and ECIGs, highlight emerging evidence on the biological effects of these increasingly popular tobacco products, and introduce perspectives for dental patient management and future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Trans-resveratrol reduces cardiac oxidative stress in rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Hauck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Differences between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense system unbalance the redox status. The exposure to cigarette smoke can increase this imbalance. Trans-resveratrol is a polyphenol with great antioxidant action that reduces the oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of the trans-resveratrol supplementation on the cardiac oxidative stress in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: Control Group (CG, Exposure to Smoke Group (ESG, Antioxidant Group (AG and Exposure to Smoke plus Antioxidant Group (ESAG. Animals were exposed to cigarette smoke and supplemented with trans-resveratrol (6.0 mg kg-1 for two months. The lipid peroxidation (TBARS and the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT were measured in the cardiac muscle. The ESG presented the highest lipid peroxidation level compared with CG (p < 0.001, AG (p < 0.001 and ESAG (p < 0.006. The CAT activity was higher in the AG (p < 0.001 and ESAG (p < 0.001 compared with CG. The ESG presented lower CAT activity compared with the ESAG (p < 0.001. The supplementation of Trans-resveratrol attenuated the cardiac oxidative stress and increased the activity of catalase. Our findings evidenced the cardioprotective effect of trans-resveratrol in rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

  13. The Functional Effects of Cigarette Smoking in Women on the Lower Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Chendrimada; Enki, Doyo; Drake, Marcus J; Hashim, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the urodynamic findings in women who smoke cigarettes, with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms, to help develop an understanding of potential impact of smoking on the lower urinary tract function. A database of 11,678 women who underwent urodynamic testing in a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom, from January 1991 to December 2009 was retrospectively analysed. All women reporting cigarette smoking were included in the study group. Urodynamic testing and interpretation of results were done in accordance with the recommendations of the International Continence Society. Overall, 2,476 (21.2%) women reported smoking cigarettes. Overactive bladder symptoms (OAB) were more common in smokers (OR 1.14, p = 0.006). Female smokers significantly complained of secondary nocturnal enuresis (OR 2.26, p < 0.001) and coital incontinence (CI; OR 1.14, p < 0.001). Detrusor overactivity (DO; OR 1.42, p < 0.001) and detrusor overactivity incontinence (DOI; OR 1.42, p < 0.001) were the most significant urodynamic findings. Smoking was not shown to be significantly associated with SUI (OR 1.08, p = 0.213) or urodynamic stress incontinence (OR 0.86, p = 0.001). Cigarette smoking is associated with OAB, secondary nocturnal enuresis and CI. DO and DOI are the most significant urodynamic findings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  15. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns exposed to maternal cigarette smoke (CS in utero have an increased risk of developing chronic diseases, cancer, and acquiring decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Although the literature reports many deleterious effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the fetus, the molecular alterations and mechanisms of action are not yet clear. Smoking may act directly on nuclear DNA by inducing mutations or epigenetic modifications. Recent studies also indicate that smoking may act on mitochondrial DNA by inducing a change in the number of copies to make up for the damage caused by smoking on the respiratory chain and lack of energy. In addition, individual genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in determining the effects of smoking during development. Furthermore, prior exposure of paternal and maternal gametes to cigarette smoke may affect the health of the developing individual, not only the in utero exposure. This review examines the genetic and epigenetic alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA associated with smoke exposure during the most sensitive periods of development (prior to conception, prenatal and early postnatal and assesses how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development.

  16. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  17. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaan Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker, the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others, and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  18. Childhood asthma prevalence and parents’ daily cigarette smoking: a case - control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Asthma prevalence has increased in developed and developing countries in several last decades. Although cigarette smoking is an identified risk factor for many diseases such as coronary Heart disease and chronic obstructive lung disease, its effect on asthma is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the odds ratio and its confidence interval for asthma morbidity among children referred to the Immunology and Allergy department of children medical center according to their parents' smoking and daily cigarette consumption."n"nMethods: A case-control study was conducted during two years period on the asthmatic patients who referred to Immunology and Allergy department of children medical center. Demographic information and parents' smoking and daily cigarette consumption assessed by a questionnaire. Healthy children with same age and sex were entered to the study as the control group. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate odds ratio."n"nResults: Among 215 patients who entered the study 63 patients were exposed the cigarette smoke. Odds ratio for asthma morbidity among children whose parents smoke more than five cigarettes per day in comparison with whose smoke less than five

  19. Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Mohrej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Young Adults with Asthma

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    Elizabeth Burgess Dowdell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common, serious chronic diseases in pediatric and young adult populations. Health-risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking and alcohol use, may exacerbate chronic diseases and complicate their management. The aim of this study was to longitudinally analyze rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in adolescents and young adults who have asthma and those who do not have asthma. A secondary analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was undertaken. Individuals with asthma were found to exhibit increasing rates of cigarette smoking and alcohol use as they aged. When an adolescent with a chronic health issue begins health-risk-taking behaviors, behavior change interventions must be planned. Pediatric nurses, practitioners, and clinicians are uniquely positioned to assess for health-risk behaviors in youth with asthma and to intervene with plans of care that are tailored for the needs of this vulnerable population.

  1. E-cigarette advertisements, and associations with the use of e-cigarettes and disapproval or quitting of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Heijndijk, Suzanne M; Cummings, K Michael; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviours of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between toxic metals exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) has increased among people who smoke tobacco. In the present study, the association between toxic metals exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis incidence in the population living in Dublin, Ireland, is investigated. The different brands of cigarettes (filler tobacco, filter and ash) consumed by the population studied were analysed for Cd, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of toxic elements in biological samples and different components of cigarettes were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contain Cd, Ni, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 1.73-2.02, 0.715-1.52, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of cadmium nickel, and lead were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients when related to healthy controls, while the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p toxic metals were 2- to 3-fold higher in scalp hair and blood samples of non arthritis smoker subjects as compared to nonsmoker controls. The high exposure of toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Status of lipids and the frequency diseases of cardiovascular origin in smokers according to the length period of smoking and a number of cigarettes smoked daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bišanović, Senaida; Mehić, Bakir; Sivić, Suad

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking affects all phases of atherosclerosis from endothelial dysfunction to acute occlusive clinical events. The problem is, whether the length of the period of cigarette smoking has a more reflection to the status of lipids and illnesses of cardiovascular system or the bigger number of smoked cigarettes in a shorter time-period? The observed sample has constituted of two groups of smokers, both gender, age 25-64 years old. The first group consisted of 210 examinees divided in 7 subgroups according to a number of years they have been smoking. The second group consisted of 150 examinees, which was divided in 5 subgroups, according to average number of cigarettes smoked daily. The average values of serum cholesterol (6.98 vs. 6.13 mmol/L), triglycerides (3.15 vs. 3.13 mmol/L) and LDL-cholesterol (3.80 vs. 3.64 mmol/L) were always higher in a group of smokers according to a number of daily smoked cigarettes. Average value of smoking consumption period was higher in a group of smokers according to the length of smoking consumption period than in a group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked daily (20.34 y vs. 13.55 y.). Hypertension (72% vs. 30.9%), angina pectoris (44.6% vs. 20.4%), CHD (30.6% vs. 22.8%) and myocardial infarction (16% vs. 11.4%) appeared much more in the group of smokers according to a number of cigarettes smoked daily. More reflection to the status of lipids and illnesses of cardiovascular system has the bigger number of smoked cigarettes daily than the length of the period of cigarette smoking. PMID:21342142

  4. A Cancer That Went Up in Smoke: Pulmonary Reaction to e-Cigarettes Imitating Metastatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Margrethe Ring; Vinther Krarup, Niels Henrik; Bergmann, Troels Korshøj;

    2016-01-01

    e-Cigarettes have gained worldwide popularity as a substitute for smoking, but concern has been raised regarding the long-term effects associated with their use. We report a case of a 45-year-old female consumer of e-cigarettes who presented with 4 months of abdominal pain and fever. Initial....... Upon cessation of e-cigarette use (known as vaping), the lung nodules disappeared, and the liver lesions regressed. Our case report suggests that vaping can induce an inflammatory reaction mimicking metastatic cancer....

  5. Branched-chain amino acid-rich diet improves skeletal muscle wasting caused by cigarette smoke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Koichi; Kubo, Kaoru; Hino, Kazuo; Kondoh, Yasunori; Nishii, Yasue; Koyama, Noriko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Cigarette smoke induces skeletal muscle wasting by a mechanism not yet fully elucidated. Branc