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Sample records for intact human red

  1. Investigations on the role of hemoglobin in sulfide metabolism by intact human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Christopher L; Savitsky, Anton; Feelisch, Martin; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M

    2018-03-01

    In addition to their role as oxygen transporters, red blood cells (RBCs) contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis by regulating nitric oxide (NO) metabolism via interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with nitrite and NO itself. RBCs were proposed to also participate in sulfide metabolism. Although Hb is known to react with sulfide, sulfide metabolism by intact RBCs has not been characterized so far. Therefore we explored the role of Hb in sulfide metabolism in intact human RBCs. We find that upon exposure of washed RBCs to sulfide, no changes in oxy/deoxyhemoglobin (oxy/deoxyHb) are observed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. However, sulfide reacts with methemoglobin (metHb), forming a methemoglobin-sulfide (metHb-SH) complex. Moreover, while metHb-SH is stable in cell-free systems even in the presence of biologically relevant thiols, it gradually decomposes to produce oxyHb, inorganic polysulfides and thiosulfate in intact cells, as detected by EPR and mass spectrometry. Taken together, our results demonstrate that under physiological conditions RBCs are able to metabolize sulfide via intermediate formation of a metHb-SH complex, which subsequently decomposes to oxyHb. We speculate that decomposition of metHb-SH is preceded by an inner-sphere electron transfer, forming reduced Hb (which binds oxygen to form oxyHb) and thiyl radical (a process we here define as "reductive sulfhydration"), which upon release, gives rise to the oxidized products, thiosulfate and polysulfides. Thus, not only is metHb an efficient scavenger and regulator of sulfide in blood, intracellular sulfide itself may play a role in keeping Hb in the reduced oxygen-binding form and, therefore, be involved in RBC physiology and function. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  3. Does human leukocyte elastase degrade intact skin elastin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzer, Christian E H; Jung, Michael C; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of intact fibrillar human elastin to human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, and provides exceptional properties including elasticity and tensile strength to many tissues...... and organs, including the aorta, lung, cartilage, elastic ligaments and skin, and is thus critical for their long-term function. Mature elastin is an insoluble and extremely durable protein that undergoes very little turnover, but sustained exposure to proteases may lead to irreversible and severe damage......, and thus to functional loss of the elastic fiber network. Hence, it is a key issue to understand which enzymes actually initiate elastolysis under certain pathological conditions or during intrinsic aging. In this paper, we provide a complete workflow for isolation of pure and intact elastin from very...

  4. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  5. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  6. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  7. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  8. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from cov...

  9. Oxygen consumption in Plasmodium berghei-infected murine red cells: a direct spectrophotometric assay in intact erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, R; Moffatt, D J; Smith, I C

    1986-05-29

    A spectrophotometric assay has been devised to measure oxygen consumption non-invasively in intact murine red cells parasitized by Plasmodium berghei. The method uses oxyhemoglobin in the erythrocytes both as a source of oxygen and as an indicator of oxygen consumption. Spectra of intact cells show broad peaks and sloping baselines due to light-scattering. In order to ascertain the number of varying components in the 370-450 nm range, the resolution of the spectra was enhanced using Fourier transforms of the frequency domain spectra. Calculation of oxygen consumption was carried out for two-component systems (oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin) using absorbances at 415 and 431 nm. Samples prepared from highly parasitized mice (greater than 80% parasitemia, 5% hematocrit) showed oxygen consumption rates of (4-8) X 10(-8) microliter/cell per h. This rate was not attributable to the presence of white cells or reticulocytes. The rate of oxygen consumption in the erythrocytes is shown to be modulated by various agents: the respiratory inhibitors NaN3 and KCN (1 mM) reduced oxygen consumption 2-3-fold; salicylhydroxamic acid (2.5 mM) caused a 20% reduction in rate and 10 mM NaN3, completely blocked deoxygenation. Antimalarial drugs and metal-chelating agents were also tested. Chloroquine, EDTA and desferal (desferoxamine mesylate) did not decrease the deoxygenation rate of hemoglobin in parasitized cells. Quinacrine, quinine and primaquine reduced the rate of formation of deoxyhemoglobin but also produced substantial quantities of methemoglobin. The lipophilic chelator, 5-hydroxyquinoline, decreased the rate of deoxygenation one-third. The spectrophotometric assay provides a convenient means to monitor oxygen consumption in parasitized red cells, to test the effects of various agents thereon, and potentially to explore possible mechanisms for oxygen utilization.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Si; Brown, Joseph N.; Tolic, Nikola; Meng, Da; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Haizhen; Zhao, Rui; Moore, Ronald J.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Smith, Richard D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2014-05-31

    There are several notable challenges inherent to fully characterizing the entirety of the human saliva proteome using bottom-up approaches, including polymorphic isoforms, post-translational modifications, unique splice variants, deletions, and truncations. To address these challenges, we have developed a top-down based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach, which cataloged 20 major human salivary proteins with a total of 83 proteoforms, containing a broad range of post-translational modifications. Among these proteins, several previously reported disease biomarker proteins were identified at the intact protein level, such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M). In addition, intact glycosylated proteoforms of several saliva proteins were also characterized, including intact N-glycosylated protein prolactin inducible protein (PIP) and O-glycosylated acidic protein rich protein (aPRP). These characterized proteoforms constitute an intact saliva proteoform database, which was used for quantitative comparison of intact salivary proteoforms among six healthy individuals. Human parotid (PS) and submandibular/sublingual gland (SMSL) secretion samples (2 μg of protein each) from six healthy individuals were compared using RPLC coupled with the 12T FTICR mass spectrometer. Significantly different protein and PTM patterns were resolved with high reproducibility between PS and SMSL glands. The results from this study provide further insight into the potential mechanisms of PTM pathways in oral glandular secretion, expanding our knowledge of this complex yet easily accessible fluid. Intact protein LC-MS approach presented herein can potentially be applied for rapid and accurate identification of biomarkers from only a few microliters of human glandular saliva.

  11. The action of cobra venom phospholipase A2 isoenzymes towards intact human erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, B.; Sibenius Trip, M.; Verheij, H.M.; Zevenbergen, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    1. 1. Cobra venom phospholipase A2 from three different sources has been fractionated into different isoenzymes by DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. 2. 2. Treatment of intact human erythrocytes with the various isoenzymes revealed significant differences in the degree of phosphatidylcholine

  12. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human...... skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm...... liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers...

  13. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  14. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca2+, KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K+ depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10−5 M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs′ SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS. PMID:22790596

  15. Palladium nanoparticles exposure: Evaluation of permeation through damaged and intact human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Baracchini, Elena; Bovenzi, Massimo; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Adami, Gianpiero

    2016-07-01

    The intensified use of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) in many chemical reactions, jewellery, electronic devices, in car catalytic converters and in biomedical applications lead to a significant increase in palladium exposure. Pd can cause allergic contact dermatitis when in contact with the skin. However, there is still a lack of toxicological data related to nano-structured palladium and information on human cutaneous absorption. In fact, PdNPs, can be absorbed through the skin in higher amounts than bulk Pd because NPs can release more ions. In our study, we evaluated the absorption of PdNPs, with a size of 10.7 ± 2.8 nm, using intact and damaged human skin in Franz cells. 0.60 mg cm(-2) of PdNPs were applied on skin surface for 24 h. Pd concentrations in the receiving solutions at the end of experiments were 0.098 ± 0.067 μg cm(-2) and 1.06 ± 0.44 μg cm(-2) in intact skin and damaged skin, respectively. Pd flux permeation after 24 h was 0.005 ± 0.003 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and 0.057 ± 0.030 μg cm(-2) h(-1) and lag time 4.8 ± 1.7 and 4.2 ± 3.6 h, for intact and damaged skin respectively. This study indicates that Pd can penetrate human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larese, Francesca Filon; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Renzi, Nadia; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest on nanoparticle safety for topical use. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. This study aims at evaluating in vitro skin penetration of silver nanoparticles. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with intact and damaged human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and 70 μg/cm 2 of silver nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone dispersed in synthetic sweat were applied as donor phase to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The receptor fluid measurements were performed by electro thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS). Human skin penetration was also determined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to verify the location of silver nanoparticles in exposed membranes. Median silver concentrations of 0.46 ng cm -2 (range -2 (range 0.43-11.6) were found in the receiving solutions of cells where the nanoparticles solution was applied on intact skin (eight cells) and on damaged skin (eight cells), respectively. Twenty-four hours silver flux permeation in damaged skin was 0.62 ± 0.2 ng cm -2 with a lag time <1 h. Our experimental data showed that silver nanoparticles absorption through intact and damaged skin was very low but detectable, and that in case of damaged skin it was possible an increasing permeation of silver applied as nanoparticles. Moreover, silver nanoparticles could be detected in the stratum corneum and the outermost surface of the epidermis by electron microscopy. We demonstrated for the first time that silver applied as nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpirrolidone is able to permeate the damaged skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system

  17. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Dreier

    Full Text Available In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers that transport their cargo directly through the skin barrier, but mainly burst and fuse with the outer lipid layers of the stratum corneum. It was also found that the flexible liposomes showed a greater delivery of the fluorophore into the stratum corneum, indicating that they functioned as chemical permeability enhancers.

  18. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  19. Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero Maria; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spigler, Giacomo; Petrini, Francesco; Giambattistelli, Federica; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni; Camboni, Domenico; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Faraguna, Ugo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-03-08

    Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee. Both approaches allowed the subjects to reliably discriminate spatial coarseness of surfaces as confirmed also by a hybrid neural model of the median nerve. Moreover, MNT-evoked EEG activity showed physiologically plausible responses that were superimposable in time and topography to the ones elicited by a natural mechanical tactile stimulation. These findings can open up novel opportunities for sensory restoration in the next generation of neuro-prosthetic hands.

  20. In vitro permeation of palladium powders through intact and damaged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Mauro, Marcella; Bovenzi, Massimo; Adami, Gianpiero; Baracchini, Elena; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    The use of palladium (Pd) has grown in the last decades, commonly used in automotive catalytic converters, jewellery and dental restorations sectors. Both general and working population can be exposed to this metal, which may act as skin sensitizer. This study investigated in vitro palladium powders permeation through excised intact and damaged human skin using the Franz diffusion cell method and the effect of rapid skin decontamination using sodium laureth-sulphate. 1 mL of a 10 min sonicated suspension made of 2.5 g of Pd powder in 50 mL synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and room temperature was applied to the outer surface of the skin membranes for 24 h. Pd permeation, assessed by ICP-MS, was higher when damaged skin was used (p = 0.03). Final flux permeation values and lag times were 0.02 ± 0.01 μg cm -2  h -1 and 6.00 ± 3.95 h for intact, and 0.10 ± 0.02 μg cm -2  h -1 and 2.05 ± 1.49 h for damaged skin samples, respectively. Damaged skin protocol enhances Pd skin penetration inside dermal layer (p = 0.04), thus making the metal available for systemic uptake. Pd penetration (p = 0.02) and permeation (p = 0.012) through intact skin decreased significantly when a cleaning procedure was applied. This study demonstrates that after skin exposure to Pd powders a small permeation of the metal happen both through intact and damaged skin and that an early decontamination with a common cleanser can significantly decrease the final amount of metal available forsystemic uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro comparison of human fibroblasts from intact and ruptured ACL for use in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Brune

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares fibroblasts extracted from intact and ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL for creation of a tissue engineered ACL-construct, made of porcine small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM seeded with these ACL cells. The comparison is based on histological, immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses. Differences were observed between cells in a ruptured ACL (rACL and cells in an intact ACL (iACL, particularly with regard to the expression of integrin subunits and smooth muscle actin (SMA. Despite these differences in the cell source, both cell populations behaved similarly when seeded on an SIS-ECM scaffold, with similar cell morphology, connective tissue organization and composition, SMA and integrin expression. This study shows the usefulness of naturally occurring scaffolds such as SIS-ECM for the study of cell behaviour in vitro, and illustrates the possibility to use autologous cells extracted from ruptured ACL biopsies as a source for tissue engineered ACL constructs.

  2. Radioassays for quantitation of intact complement proteins C2 and B in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, T J; Ueda, A; Volanakis, J E

    1988-05-25

    Availability of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies recognizing determinants on the major cleavage fragments of complement proteins C2 and B enabled development of sensitive radioassays which can be used to quantitate the intact proteins in human sera. Changes in C2 and B concentrations indicative of classical or alternative pathway activation, or both, were seen in normal serum after incubation with complement activators. The authors determined the normal range of C2 concentration to be 11-35 ..mu..g/ml in 32 healthy individuals, and that of protein B to be 74-286 ..mu..g/ml. Sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), septic shock, infections, and following orthopedic surgery were then assayed. Mean protein B concentration was significantly higher in SLE sera and in the infected and post-operative sera, and the mean C2 concentration in the septic shock group was significantly lower than the mean of healthy individuals. Intact C2 was not detected in known C2-deficient individuals. These assays allow parallel quantitation of the structurally and functionally homologous proteins of the classical (C2) and alternative (B) pathways, which is of interest in patients with genetic and acquired hypocomplementemia. 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  3. Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles: Behavior towards Intact and Impaired Human Skin and Keratinocytes Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin absorption and toxicity on keratinocytes of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs have been investigated. Co3O4NPs are commonly used in industrial products and biomedicine. There is evidence that these nanoparticles can cause membrane damage and genotoxicity in vitro, but no data are available on their skin absorption and cytotoxicity on keratinocytes. Two independent 24 h in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells, using intact (experiment 1 and needle-abraded human skin (experiment 2. Co3O4NPs at a concentration of 1000 mg/L in physiological solution were used as donor phase. Cobalt content was evaluated by Inductively Coupled–Mass Spectroscopy. Co permeation through the skin was demonstrated after 24 h only when damaged skin protocol was used (57 ± 38 ng·cm−2, while no significant differences were shown between blank cells (0.92 ± 0.03 ng cm−2 and those with intact skin (1.08 ± 0.20 ng·cm−2. To further investigate Co3O4NPs toxicity, human-derived HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to Co3O4NPs and cytotoxicity evaluated by MTT, Alamarblue® and propidium iodide (PI uptake assays. The results indicate that a long exposure time (i.e., seven days was necessary to induce a concentration-dependent cell viability reduction (EC50 values: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.8–1.9 × 10−4 M, MTT essay; 3.7 × 10−5 M, 95% CI = 2.2–6.1 × 10−5 M, AlamarBlue® assay that seems to be associated to necrotic events (EC50 value: 1.3 × 10−4 M, 95% CL = 0.9–1.9 × 10−4 M, PI assay. This study demonstrated that Co3O4NPs can penetrate only damaged skin and is cytotoxic for HaCat cells after long term exposure.

  4. Human Red Cells With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purified cells were used as hosts for the culture of P.falciparum in vitro. Results show that GPI-linked molecules on the red cell surface are not required for the efficient entry of the parasites, and that the PNH red cells are competent to sustain the growth of P.falciparum. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol ...

  5. Permeation of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles through intact and damaged human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, Marcella; Crosera, Matteo; Bianco, Carlotta; Adami, Gianpiero; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo; Jaganjac, Morana; Bovenzi, Massimo; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate percutaneous penetration of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (PtNPs: 5.8 ± 0.9 nm, RhNPs: 5.3 ± 1.9 nm) through human skin. Salts compounds of these metals are sensitizers and some also carcinogenic agents. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged skin. PtNPs and RhNPs, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, were synthesized by reduction of Na 2 PtC l6 and RhCl 3 ·3H 2 O respectively. Suspensions with a concentration of 2.0 g/L of PtNPs and RhNPs were dispersed separately in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and applied as donor phases to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Measurements of the content of the metals in the receiving solution and in the skin were performed subsequently. Rhodium skin permeation was demonstrated through damaged skin, with a permeation flux of 0.04 ± 0.04 μg cm −2  h −1 and a lag time of 7.9 ± 1.1 h, while no traces of platinum were found in receiving solutions. Platinum and rhodium skin-analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metals in damaged skin. Rh and Pt applied as NPs can penetrate the skin barrier and Rh can be found in receiving solutions. These experiments pointed out the need for skin contamination prevention, since even a minor injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase penetration

  6. Permeation of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles through intact and damaged human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Marcella [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy); Crosera, Matteo; Bianco, Carlotta; Adami, Gianpiero; Montini, Tiziano; Fornasiero, Paolo [University of Trieste, Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Italy); Jaganjac, Morana [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Laboratory for Oxidative Stress, Department of Molecular Medicine (Croatia); Bovenzi, Massimo; Filon, Francesca Larese, E-mail: larese@units.it [University of Trieste, Clinical Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate percutaneous penetration of platinum and rhodium nanoparticles (PtNPs: 5.8 ± 0.9 nm, RhNPs: 5.3 ± 1.9 nm) through human skin. Salts compounds of these metals are sensitizers and some also carcinogenic agents. In vitro permeation experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells with intact and damaged skin. PtNPs and RhNPs, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, were synthesized by reduction of Na{sub 2}PtC{sub l6} and RhCl{sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O respectively. Suspensions with a concentration of 2.0 g/L of PtNPs and RhNPs were dispersed separately in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 and applied as donor phases to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. Measurements of the content of the metals in the receiving solution and in the skin were performed subsequently. Rhodium skin permeation was demonstrated through damaged skin, with a permeation flux of 0.04 ± 0.04 μg cm{sup −2} h{sup −1} and a lag time of 7.9 ± 1.1 h, while no traces of platinum were found in receiving solutions. Platinum and rhodium skin-analysis showed significantly higher concentrations of the metals in damaged skin. Rh and Pt applied as NPs can penetrate the skin barrier and Rh can be found in receiving solutions. These experiments pointed out the need for skin contamination prevention, since even a minor injury to the skin barrier can significantly increase penetration.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  8. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Keller

    Full Text Available Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics.

  9. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics.

  10. Development of a New Reporter Gene System-dsRed/Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase-Xanthine for Molecular Imaging of Processes Behind the Intact Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Doubrovin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a novel dual-modality fusion reporter gene system consisting of Escherichia coli xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (XPRT for nuclear imaging with radiolabeled xanthine and Discosoma red fluorescent protein for optical fluorescent imaging applications. The dsRed/XPRT fusion gene was successfully created and stably transduced into RG2 glioma cells, and both reporters were shown to be functional. The level of dsRed fluorescence directly correlated with XPRT enzymatic activity as measured by ribophosphorylation of [14C]-xanthine was in vitro (Ki = 0.124 ± 0.008 vs. 0.00031 ± 0.00005 mL/min/g in parental cell line, and [*]-xanthine octanol/water partition coefficient was 0.20 at pH = 7.4 (logP = 0.69, meeting requirements for the blood-brain barrier (BBB penetrating tracer. In the in vivo experiment, the concentration of [* C]-xanthine in the normal brain varied from 0.20 to 0.16 + 0.05% dose/g under 0.87 + 0.24% dose/g plasma radiotracer concentration. The accumulation in vivo in the transfected flank tumor was to 2.4 ± 0.3% dose/g, compared to 0.78 ± 0.02% dose/g and 0.64 ± 0.05% dose/g in the control flank tumors and intact muscle, respectively. [14C]-Xanthine appeared to be capable of specific accumulation in the transfected infiltrative brain tumor (RG2-dsRed/XPRT, which corresponded to the 585 nm fluorescent signal obtained from the adjacent cryosections. The images of endogenous gene expression with the “sensory system” have to be normalized for the transfection efficiency based on the “beacon system” image data. Such an approach requires two different “reporter genes” and two different “reporter substrates.” Therefore, the novel dsRed/XPRT fusion gene can be used as a multimodality reporter system in the biological applications requiring two independent reporter genes, including the cells located behind the BBB.

  11. Pulpal blood flow recorded from human premolar teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter using either red or infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human premolar teeth. Recordings were made from 11 healthy teeth in 9 subjects (aged 16-30 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, the dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 80%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. Removal and replacement of the pulp reduced the mean blood flow by 58%. There was no further change when the pulp was removed. With red light, the dam reduced the signal from intact teeth by 60%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. The signal fell by 67% after pulp removal and replacement and did not change significantly when the pulp was removed. Opaque rubber dam minimises the contribution of non-pulpal tissues to the laser Doppler signal recorded from premolars. Using dam, the pulp contributed about 60% to the blood flow signal with both red and infrared light. The difference between them in this respect was not significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of Lycopene, β-Carotene, and Total Soluble Solids in Intact Red-Flesh Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Using On-Line Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Costa, Stefania; Rugiero, Irene; Pedrini, Paola; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2017-04-11

    A great interest has recently been focused on lycopene and β-carotene, because of their antioxidant action in the organism. Red-flesh watermelon is one of the main sources of lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in post-harvesting has permitted us to rapidly quantify lycopene, β-carotene, and total soluble solids (TSS) on single intact fruits. Watermelons, harvested in 2013-2015, were submitted to near-infrared (NIR) radiation while being transported along a conveyor belt system, stationary and in movement, and at different positions on the belt. Eight hundred spectra from 100 samples were collected as calibration set in the 900-1700 nm interval. Calibration models were performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression on pre-treated spectra (derivatives and SNV) in the ranges 2.65-151.75 mg/kg (lycopene), 0.19-9.39 mg/kg (β-carotene), and 5.3%-13.7% (TSS). External validation was carried out with 35 new samples and on 35 spectra. The PLS models for intact watermelon could predict lycopene with R² = 0.877 and SECV = 15.68 mg/kg, β-carotene with R² = 0.822 and SECV = 0.81 mg/kg, and TSS with R² = 0.836 and SECV = 0.8%. External validation has confirmed predictive ability with R² = 0.805 and RMSEP = 16.19 mg/kg for lycopene, R2 = 0.737 and RMSEP = 0.96 mg/kg for β-carotene, and R² = 0.707 and RMSEP = 1.4% for TSS. The results allow for the market valorization of fruits.

  13. Evaluation of an intact, an ACL-deficient, and a reconstructed human knee joint finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairis, Achilles; Stefanoudakis, George; Petousis, Markos; Vidakis, Nectarios; Tsainis, Andreas-Marios; Kandyla, Betina

    2016-02-01

    The human knee joint has a three-dimensional geometry with multiple body articulations that produce complex mechanical responses under loads that occur in everyday life and sports activities. Understanding the complex mechanical interactions of these load-bearing structures is of use when the treatment of relevant diseases is evaluated and assisting devices are designed. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee is one of four main ligaments that connects the femur to the tibia and is often torn during sudden twisting motions, resulting in knee instability. The objective of this work is to study the mechanical behavior of the human knee joint and evaluate the differences in its response for three different states, i.e., intact, ACL-deficient, and surgically treated (reconstructed) knee. The finite element models corresponding to these states were developed. For the reconstructed model, a novel repair device was developed and patented by the author in previous work. Static load cases were applied, as have already been presented in a previous work, in order to compare the calculated results produced by the two models the ACL-deficient and the surgically reconstructed knee joint, under the exact same loading conditions. Displacements were calculated in different directions for the load cases studied and were found to be very close to those from previous modeling work and were in good agreement with experimental data presented in literature. The developed finite element model for both the intact and the ACL-deficient human knee joint is a reliable tool to study the kinematics of the human knee, as results of this study show. In addition, the reconstructed human knee joint model had kinematic behavior similar to the intact knee joint, showing that such reconstruction devices can restore human knee stability to an adequate extent.

  14. Viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in the ejaculate as a marker of semen quality and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte Louise; Rehfeld, Anders; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible, in an unbiased and clinical relevant way, to determine the number of viable acrosome-intact human spermatozoa in ejaculates and to use this as a measure of fertility chances? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image cytometry enables easy and unbiased quantification of viable acrosome......-intact spermatozoa and it correlates with semen quality and fertility status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The presence of the acrosome and its ability to respond to physiological inducers (e.g. progesterone) in the female reproductive tract at the appropriate time and place is required for fertilization. However......, the available assays are labor intensive and therefore not used clinically. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Washed semen samples and capacitated swim-up fractions from volunteers were used to develop the assay. Subsequently washed ejaculates from patients in fertility treatment (n = 156), proven fertile men (n...

  15. Enzymatic methylation of band 3 anion transporter in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, L.L.; Clarke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Band 3, the anion transport protein of erythrocyte membranes, is a major methyl-accepting substrate of the intracellular erythrocyte protein carboxyl methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine: protein-D-aspartate O-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.77). The localization of methylation sites in intact cells by analysis of proteolytic fragments indicated that sites were present in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain as well as the membranous C-terminal portion of the polypeptide. The amino acid residues that serve as carboxyl methylation sites of the erythrocyte anion transporter were also investigated. 3 H-Methylated band 3 was purified from intact erythrocytes incubated with L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine and from trypsinized and lysed erythrocytes incubated with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. After proteolytic digestion with carboxypeptidase Y, D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester was isolated in low yields (9% and 1%, respectively) from each preparation. The bulk of the radioactivity was recovered as [ 3 H]methanol, and the amino acid residue(s) originally associated with these methyl groups could not be determined. No L-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl ester or glutamyl gamma-[ 3 H]methyl ester was detected. The formation of D-aspartic acid beta-[ 3 H]methyl esters in this protein in intact cells resulted from protein carboxyl methyltransferase activity since it was inhibited by adenosine and homocysteine thiolactone, which increases the intracellular concentration of the potent product inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine, and cycloleucine, which prevents the formation of the substrate S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine

  16. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjalainen, S.; Soederling, E.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with ( 14 C)- or ( 3 H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm 2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  17. Autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, S; Soederling, E [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (/sup 14/C)- or (/sup 3/H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm/sup 2/ in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen.

  18. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  19. Gene Expression Profiling of the Intact Dermal Sheath Cup of Human Hair Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Shiro; Ishimatsu-Tsuji, Yumiko; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuzo; Soma, Tsutomu; Ideta, Ritsuro; Mukai, Hideki; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2018-04-24

    Cells that constitute the dermal papillae of hair follicles might be derived from the dermal sheath, the peribulbar component of which is the dermal sheath cup. The dermal sheath cup is thought to include the progenitor cells of the dermal papillae and possesses hair inductive potential; however, it has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the gene expression profile of the intact dermal sheath cup, and identified dermal sheath cup signature genes, including extracellular matrix components and BMP-binding molecules, as well as TGF-b1 as an upstream regulator. Among these, GREM2, a member of the BMP antagonists, was found by in situ hybridization to be highly specific to the dermal sheath cup, implying that GREM2 is a key molecule contributing to maintenance of the properties of the dermal sheath cup.

  20. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  1. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith

    2008-01-01

    study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning...... calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non...... compared to human skin, in agreement with the results from DSC. ROC underwent a lipid lamellar order to disorder transition (T2) at a slightly lower temperature (68 degrees C) than human skin (74 degrees C). These differences in stratum corneum lipid composition and the thermal phase transitions may...

  2. Localization by whole-body autoradiography of intact and fragmented radiolabeled antibodies in a metastatic human colonic cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fand, Irwin; Sharkey, R.M.; Grundy, J.P.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this report, we have employed macroautoradiography to compare the tumor targeting of 125 I-labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) MAb (NP-4) to 125 I-labeled anti-colon-specific antigen-p (CSAp) MAb (Mu-9) and their labeled F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments, in nude mice each bearing large dorsal human colonic tumor xenografts, and small nodular tumors in the liver and lungs. Using intact MAbs (NP-4 and Mu-9), clearance of background radioactivity was delayed to 3-7 days post-treatment. Treatment with F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments of both NP-4 and Mu-9 MAbs, however, promoted clearance of background 125 I-radioactivity which was well advanced by 6-24 h and complete by 24-48 h after injection. Localization of 125 I-radioactivity in large and micrometastatic tumor perimeters was the most characteristic uptake pattern observed for both intact and fragmented MAbs. Qualitative analysis of macroautoradiographic images and quantitative densitometry indicated that the higher tumor-to-blood ratios achieved with labeled F(ab') 2 and Fab' fragments at early time points, compared to labeled whole immunoglobulin, appeared to be more a function of rapid plasma clearance, tumor mass, location of xenografts and specific tumor growth patterns than increased tumor penetrance by lower molecular weight univalent and bivalent immune fragments. (Author)

  3. Optical effects of exposing intact human lenses to ultraviolet radiation and visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Eskildsen, Lars; Lundeman, Jesper Holm

    2011-01-01

    region of incoming visible light. The aim of the present study was to examine the optical effects on human lenses of short wavelength visible light and ultraviolet radiation. METHODS: Naturally aged human donor lenses were irradiated with UVA (355 nm), violet (400 and 405 nm) and green (532 nm) lasers......: Irradiation with high intensity lasers caused scattering lesions in the human lenses. These effects were more likely to be seen when using pulsed lasers because of the high pulse intensity. Prolonged irradiation with UVA led to photodarkening whereas no detrimental effects were observed after irradiation...

  4. Optical effects of exposing intact human lenses to ultraviolet radiation and visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Eskildsen, Lars Baunsgaard; Lundeman, Jesper Holm

    2011-01-01

    wavelength region of incoming visible light. The aim of the present study was to examine the optical effects on human lenses of short wavelength visible light and ultraviolet radiation. METHODS: Naturally aged human donor lenses were irradiated with UVA (355 nm), violet (400 and 405 nm) and green (532 nm....... RESULTS: Irradiation with high intensity lasers caused scattering lesions in the human lenses. These effects were more likely to be seen when using pulsed lasers because of the high pulse intensity. Prolonged irradiation with UVA led to photodarkening whereas no detrimental effects were observed after...

  5. Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Sforza, Stefano; Galaverna, Gianni; Ghidini, Cristiana; Caporaso, Nicola; Vescovi, Pier Paolo; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2005-05-01

    Many in vitro studies demonstrated significant biological effects of trans-resveratrol. Thus, understanding the rate of intestinal absorption and metabolization in vivo of trans-resveratrol is the prerequisite to evaluate its potential health impact. Bioavailability studies mainly in animals or in humans using the pure compound at very high doses were performed. In this work, trans-resveratrol bioavailability from a moderate consumption of red wine in 25 healthy humans has been studied by three different experiments. The wine ingestion was associated to three different dietary approaches: fasting, a standard meal, a meal with high and low amount of lipids. Trans-resveratrol 3- and 4'-glucuronides were synthesized, purified, and characterized as pure standards. Bioavailability data were obtained by measuring the concentration of free, 3-glucuronide and 4'-glucuronide trans-resveratrol by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection, in serum samples taken at different times after red wine administration. Free trans-resveratrol was found, in trace amounts, only in some serum samples collected 30 min after red wine ingestion while after longer times resveratrol glucuronides predominated. Trans-resveratrol bioavailability was shown to be independent from the meal or its lipid content. The finding in human serum of trans-resveratrol glucuronides, rather than the free form of the compound, with a high interindividual variability, raises some doubts about the health effects of dietary resveratrol consumption and suggests that the benefits associated to red wine consumption could be probably due to the whole antioxidant pool present in red wine.

  6. The effect of cryo-storage on the beta 2-adrenoceptor density and responsiveness in intact human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, P; Johansen, Torben; Friis, U G

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cryo-storage on beta 2-adrenoceptor number and formation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in intact human lymphocytes as a measure of the beta 2-adrenoceptor responsiveness. Cryo-storage at -196 degrees C up to 12 months caused no significant......), but changed significantly after long-term storage (3-12 months). We can conclude that lymphocytes can be stored for months for later determination of beta-adrenoceptors. The cryo-storage method described in this paper are, however, only useful for measurements of very large changes in cAMP formation, and our...... results indicate that the method should be further modified in order to preserve the lymphocyte responsiveness after cryo-storage....

  7. RhoA/ROCK pathway is the major molecular determinant of basal tone in intact human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.

  8. Subdermal penetration of topically applied clobetasol propionate in ointment base through intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Sindrup, J H; Kristensen, J K

    1992-01-01

    Some data have demonstrated a substantial subdermal accumulation of topically applied drugs in animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible effect of epicutaneously applied clobetasol propionate on blood flow in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Nine healthy subjects were studied...

  9. Canine and human visual cortex intact and responsive despite early retinal blindness from RPE65 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Aguirre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RPE65 is an essential molecule in the retinoid-visual cycle, and RPE65 gene mutations cause the congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA. Somatic gene therapy delivered to the retina of blind dogs with an RPE65 mutation dramatically restores retinal physiology and has sparked international interest in human treatment trials for this incurable disease. An unanswered question is how the visual cortex responds after prolonged sensory deprivation from retinal dysfunction. We therefore studied the cortex of RPE65-mutant dogs before and after retinal gene therapy. Then, we inquired whether there is visual pathway integrity and responsivity in adult humans with LCA due to RPE65 mutations (RPE65-LCA.RPE65-mutant dogs were studied with fMRI. Prior to therapy, retinal and subcortical responses to light were markedly diminished, and there were minimal cortical responses within the primary visual areas of the lateral gyrus (activation amplitude mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 0.07% +/- 0.06% and volume = 1.3 +/- 0.6 cm(3. Following therapy, retinal and subcortical response restoration was accompanied by increased amplitude (0.18% +/- 0.06% and volume (8.2 +/- 0.8 cm(3 of activation within the lateral gyrus (p < 0.005 for both. Cortical recovery occurred rapidly (within a month of treatment and was persistent (as long as 2.5 y after treatment. Recovery was present even when treatment was provided as late as 1-4 y of age. Human RPE65-LCA patients (ages 18-23 y were studied with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Optic nerve diameter (3.2 +/- 0.5 mm was within the normal range (3.2 +/- 0.3 mm, and occipital cortical white matter density as judged by voxel-based morphometry was slightly but significantly altered (1.3 SD below control average, p = 0.005. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in human RPE65-LCA patients revealed cortical responses with a markedly diminished activation volume (8.8 +/- 1.2 cm(3 compared to controls

  10. Review of Florida Red Tide and Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.; Walsh, Cathy J.; Nierenberg, Kate; Clark, John; Reich, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Julie; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Naar, Jerome; Pierce, Richard; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Abraham, William M.; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Zaias, Julia; Wanner, Adam; Mendes, Eliana; Shalat, Stuart; Hoagland, Porter; Stephan, Wendy; Bean, Judy; Watkins, Sharon; Clarke, Tainya; Byrne, Margaret; Baden, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The Review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people. PMID:21218152

  11. Phorbol ester induced phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knabbe, C.; Lippman, M.E.; Greene, G.L.; Dickson, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies with a variety of cellular receptors have shown that phorbol ester induced phosphorylation modulates ligand binding and function. In this study the authors present direct evidence that the estrogen receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state can be enhanced specifically by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Cells were cultured to 6h in the presence of [ 32 P]-orthophosphate. Whole cell extracts were immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody (D58) against the estrogen receptor and subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Autoradiography showed a specific band in the region of 60-62 kDa which was significantly increased in preparations from PMA treated cells. Phospho-amino acid analysis demonstrated specific phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. Cholera toxin or forskolin did not change the phosphorylation state of this protein. In a parallel binding analysis PMA led to a rapid decrease of estrogen binding sites. The estrogen induction of both progesterone receptors and growth in semisolid medium was blocked by PMA, whereas the estrogen induction of the 8kDa protein corresponding to the ps2 gene product and of the 52 kDa protein was not affected. In conclusion, phorbol esters can induce phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor. This process may be associated with the inactivation of certain receptor functions

  12. Optimization of PMAxx pretreatment to distinguish between human norovirus with intact and altered capsids in shellfish and sewage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Walter; Khezri, Mohammad; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Aznar, Rosa; Sánchez, Gloria

    2018-02-02

    Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0.5% of Triton, and double photoactivation) were applied to mussels, oysters and cockles artificially inoculated with thermally-inactivated (99°C for 5min) HuNoV GI and GII. This pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI in cockles and HuNoV GII in mussels by >3 log. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI and GII between 1 and 1.5 log in oysters. Thermal inactivation of HuNoV GI and GII in PBS, sewage and bioaccumulated oysters was also evaluated by the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment. Results showed significant differences between reductions observed in the control and PMAxx-treated samples in PBS following treatment at 72 and 95°C for 15min. In sewage, the RT-qPCR signal of HuNoV GI was completely removed by the PMAxx pretreatment after heating at 72 and 95°C, while the RT-qPCR signal for HuNoV GII was completely eliminated only at 95°C. Finally, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment was applied to naturally contaminated sewage and oysters, resulting in most of the HuNoV genomes quantified in sewage and oyster samples (12 out of 17) corresponding to undamaged capsids. Although this procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment represents a step forward to better interpret the quantification of intact HuNoVs in complex matrices, such as sewage and shellfish, and it could certainly be included in the procedures based on RT-qPCR. Copyright

  13. Dengue virus infection induces broadly cross-reactive human IgM antibodies that recognize intact virions in humanized BLT-NSG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Smita; Smith, Kenneth; Ramirez, Alejandro; Woda, Marcia; Pazoles, Pamela; Shultz, Leonard D; Greiner, Dale L; Brehm, Michael A; Mathew, Anuja

    2015-01-01

    The development of small animal models that elicit human immune responses to dengue virus (DENV) is important since prior immunity is a major risk factor for developing severe dengue disease. This study evaluated anti-DENV human antibody (hAb) responses generated from immortalized B cells after DENV-2 infection in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) mice that were co-transplanted with human fetal thymus and liver tissues (BLT-NSG mice). DENV-specific human antibodies predominantly of the IgM isotype were isolated during acute infection and in convalescence. We found that while a few hAbs recognized the envelope protein produced as a soluble recombinant, a number of hAbs only recognized epitopes on intact virions. The majority of the hAbs isolated during acute infection and in immune mice were serotype-cross-reactive and poorly neutralizing. Viral titers in immune BLT-NSG mice were significantly decreased after challenge with a clinical strain of dengue. DENV-specific hAbs generated in BLT-NSG mice share some of the characteristics of Abs isolated in humans with natural infection. Humanized BLT-NSG mice provide an attractive preclinical platform to assess the immunogenicity of candidate dengue vaccines. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity: No effect of the color red on human mate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Peperkoorn, Leonard; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating). Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual) attractiveness. Exper...

  15. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  16. Near infrared light induces post-translational modifications of human red blood cell proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Dzik, Małgorzata; Chludzińska, Ludmiła; Tomków, Tomasz; Mehl, Joanna; Detyna, Jerzy; Gałecka, Katarzyna; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that near infrared (NIR) light exerts beneficial effects on cells. Its usefulness in the treatment of cancer, acute brain injuries, strokes and neurodegenerative disorders has been proposed. The mechanism of the NIR action is probably of photochemical nature, however it is not fully understood. Here, using a relatively simple biological model, human red blood cells (RBCs), and a polychromatic non-polarized light source, we investigate the impact of NIR radiation on the oxygen carrier, hemoglobin (Hb), and anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3). The exposure of intact RBCs to NIR light causes quaternary transitions in Hb, dehydration of proteins and decreases the amount of physiologically inactive methemoglobin, as detected by Raman spectroscopy. These effects are accompanied by a lowering of the intracellular pH (pHi) and changes in the cell membrane topography, as documented by atomic force microscopy (AFM). All those changes are in line with our previous studies where alterations of the membrane fluidity and membrane potential were attributed to NIR action on RBCs. The rate of the above listed changes depends strictly on the dose of NIR light that the cells receive, nonetheless it should not be considered as a thermal effect.

  17. A comparison between red and infrared light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsamanmith, Kanittha; Timpawat, Siriporn; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    To compare red (635 nm) and infrared (780 nm) light for recording pulpal blood flow from human anterior teeth with a laser Doppler flow meter. Recordings were made from 7 healthy teeth in 5 subjects (aged 22-55 years) using a laser Doppler flow meter (Periflux 4001) equipped with both red and infrared lasers. Average blood flow signals were obtained with both light sources alternately from each tooth under five conditions: intact tooth without opaque rubber dam, intact tooth with dam, after injecting local anaesthetic (3% Mepivacaine) (LA) over the apex of the tooth and cavity preparation to almost expose the pulp, after removal and replacement of the pulp, and with the root canal empty. With infrared light, because of technical limitations, data were obtained for the first three conditions only. The dam significantly decreased the mean blood flow by 82%. Injecting LA and cavity preparation had no significant effect. With red light, dam produced a decrease of 56%, and the resulting signal was reduced by 33% after LA and cavity preparation. The remaining signal fell by 46% after pulp removal and replacement. This contribution of the pulp is similar to that recorded previously with infrared light. There was no significant further change when the pulp was finally removed. The importance of using opaque rubber dam is confirmed. With dam, there is no advantage to using red rather than infrared light, and in each case the pulp contributes less than 50% to the blood flow signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity : No Effect of the Color Red on Human Mate Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperkoorn, L.S.; Roberts, S. Craig; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2016-01-01

    Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by

  19. Far red/near infrared light-induced protection against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury remains intact under diabetic conditions and is independent of nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes eKeszler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Far red/near-infrared light (NIR promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS-/- mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO in a wavelength (660-830 nm and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.

  20. Comparative study of intact A7 MoAc and F(ab')2 fragments for radioimmunoimaging of human colon cancer in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shuji; Suzuki, Naomi; Shimura, Noriko; Kubodera, Akiko; Kubota, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1993-01-01

    Differences of pharmacokinetics and tumor imaging ability between intact monoclonal antibody A7 (A7 MoAb) and F(ab) 2 fragments were studied in human colon cancer (LS-174T)-bearing nude mice. The authors examined the yield and the immunoreactivity of F(ab) 2 fragments after treatment with ficin as a function of time. The yield of F(ab) 2 fragments reached about 50% after ficin treatment for 8 h, and the F(ab) 2 retained about 80% of the immunoreactivity of the corresponding MoAb. Longer digestion with ficin produced smaller fragments (less than 92 kDa) with a lower yield and most of the immunoreactivity was lost. In pharmacokinetics studies, the F(ab') 2 was preferentially taken up by the tumor, cleared more rapidly from the blood circulation and seemed to have less non-specific tissue binding than intact A7 MoAb. The tumor image obtained at an early time using 131 I-F(ab') 2 was much superior in quality to that with intact 131 I-A7 MoAb. The use of F(ab') 2 fragments may be effective for tumor diagnosis and therapy. (author)

  1. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  2. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  3. Revising the South African guidelines for human settlement planning and design (the red book)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Willemien

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design, commonly known as the Red Book, is a South African publication aimed at providing practical guidance to built environment professionals in support of the creation of sustainable and vibrant...

  4. Pharmacology of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, HN-56249: a novel compound exhibiting a marked preference for the human enzyme in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Fellier, H; Christoph, T; Kremminger, P; Hartmann, M; Blaschke, H; Rovensky, F; Towart, R; Stimmeder, D

    2000-04-01

    HN-56249 (3-(2,4-dichlorothiophenoxy)-4-methylsulfonylamino-benzenesu lfonamide), a highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is the prototype of a novel series of COX inhibitors comprising bicyclic arylethersulfonamides; of this series HN-56249 is the most potent and selective human COX-2 inhibitor. HN-56249 inhibited platelet aggregation as a measure of COX-1 activity only moderately (IC50 26.5+/-1.7 microM). In LPS-stimulated monocytic cells the release of prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha as a measure of COX-2 was markedly inhibited (IC50 0.027+/-0.001 microM). Thus, HN-56249 showed an approximately 1000-fold selectivity for COX-2 in intact cells. In whole blood assays HN-56249 showed a potent inhibitory activity for COX-2 (IC50 0.78+/-0.37 microM) only. COX-1 was only weakly inhibited (IC50 867+/-181 microM). Hence, HN-56249 exhibited a greater than 1000-fold selectivity for whole blood COX-2. HN-56249 surpassed the COX-2 selectivities of the COX-2 selective inhibitors 3-cyclohexyloxy-4-methylsulfonylamino-nitrobenzene (NS-398) and 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-sulfonylamino-1-indanone (flosulide) in the intact cell assays by eight- and threefold, respectively, and in the whole blood assays by approximately 40-fold. Following i.v. administration HN-56249 inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema only moderately (ID50 26.2+/-5.7 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM), approximately tenfold less potent than indomethacin (ID50 2.1+/-0.2 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM). After oral administration HN-56249 reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test, however, some 30-fold less potently than diclofenac. Comparing the inhibitory potency of HN-56249 against human COX-2 with that against murine COX-2 in intact cells revealed a 300-fold selectivity for the human enzyme. Similar effects were observed with other COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides. In contrast, non-COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides, including a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited

  5. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  6. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  7. Influence of estrogenic pesticides on membrane integrity and membrane transfer of monosaccharide into the human red cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermann, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Some natural and synthetic estrogens inhibit carrier-mediated transport of glucose into human red blood cells and membrane vesicles from the placenta. The inhibitory action of these estrogens on transport appears to be a direct effect at the membrane and does not involve receptor binding and protein synthesis. It is not clear, however, whether such inhibition is a common feature among estrogenic agents. Several chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have been shown to possess estrogenic activity. These pesticides could have inhibitory effects on the human sodium-independent glucose transporter. Owing to the apparent importance of this membrane transporter in human tissues, direct interaction of hormones and xenobiotics with the glucose transporter is of fundamental significance. Some pesticides have been shown to alter membrane structure directly and alter the passive permeability of membranes. Whether the estrogenic pesticides influence passive diffusion of sugars across membranes has not been established. Finally, preliminary observations have suggested that some estrogens and pesticides have lytic effects on intact cells. Consequently, this study focuses on the ability of several estrogens and estrogenic pesticides to disrupt the cell membrane, influence the monosaccharide transporter, and alter the rate of monosaccharide permeation through the membrane by simple diffusion

  8. Circulating Red Cell–derived Microparticles in Human Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Krudsood, Srivicha; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E.; White, Nicholas J.; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In patients with falciparum malaria, plasma concentrations of cell-derived microparticles correlate with disease severity. Using flow cytometry, we quantified red blood cell–derived microparticles (RMPs) in patients with malaria and identified the source and the factors associated with production. RMP concentrations were increased in patients with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 29; median, 457 RMPs/μL [range, 13–4,342 RMPs/μL]), Plasmodium vivax (n = 5; median, 409 RMPs/μL [range, 281–503/μL]), and Plasmodium malariae (n = 2; median, 163 RMPs/μL [range, 127–200 RMPs/μL]) compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 11; median, 8 RMPs/μL [range, 3–166 RMPs/μL]; P = .01). RMP concentrations were highest in patients with severe falciparum malaria (P = .01). Parasitized red cells produced >10 times more RMPs than did unparasitized cells, but the overall majority of RMPs still derived from uninfected red blood cells (URBCs). In cultures, RMP production increased as the parasites matured. Hemin and parasite products induced RMP production in URBCs, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting heme-mediated oxidative stress as a pathway for the generation of RMPs. PMID:21282195

  9. Circulating red cell-derived microparticles in human malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Dondorp, Arjen M; Krudsood, Srivicha; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E; White, Nicholas J; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Day, Nicholas P J; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2011-03-01

    In patients with falciparum malaria, plasma concentrations of cell-derived microparticles correlate with disease severity. Using flow cytometry, we quantified red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in patients with malaria and identified the source and the factors associated with production. RMP concentrations were increased in patients with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 29; median, 457 RMPs/μL [range, 13-4,342 RMPs/μL]), Plasmodium vivax (n = 5; median, 409 RMPs/μL [range, 281-503/μL]), and Plasmodium malariae (n = 2; median, 163 RMPs/μL [range, 127-200 RMPs/μL]) compared with those in healthy subjects (n = 11; median, 8 RMPs/μL [range, 3-166 RMPs/μL]; P = .01). RMP concentrations were highest in patients with severe falciparum malaria (P = .01). Parasitized red cells produced >10 times more RMPs than did unparasitized cells, but the overall majority of RMPs still derived from uninfected red blood cells (URBCs). In cultures, RMP production increased as the parasites matured. Hemin and parasite products induced RMP production in URBCs, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, suggesting heme-mediated oxidative stress as a pathway for the generation of RMPs.

  10. Kinematics of Different Components of the Posterolateral Corner of the Knee in the Lateral Collateral Ligament-intact State: A Human Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnick, Christoph; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Raschke, Michael J; Vogel, Nils; Schulze, Martin; von Glahn, Mathias; Drenck, Tobias C; Herbort, Mirco

    2017-10-01

    To determine the static stabilizing effects of different anatomical structures of the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee in the lateral collateral ligament (LCL)-intact state. Thirteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected and tested using an industrial robot with an optical tracking system. Kinematics were determined for 134 N anterior/posterior loads, 10 N m valgus/varus loads, and 5 N m internal/external rotatory loads in 0°, 20°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The PLC structures were dissected and consecutively released: (I) intact knee joint, (II) with released posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), (III) popliteomeniscal fibers, (IV) popliteofibular ligament, (V) arcuat and popliteotibial fibers, (VI) popliteus tendon (PLT), and (VII) LCL. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed with significance set at P < .05. After releasing the PCL, posterior tibial translation increased by 5.2 mm at 20° to 9.4 mm at 90° of joint flexion (P < .0001). A mild 1.8° varus instability was measured in 0° of flexion (P = .0017). After releasing the PLC structures, posterior tibial translation further increased by 2.9 mm at 20° to 5.9 mm at 90° of flexion (P < .05) and external rotation angle increased by 2.6° at 0° to 7.9° at 90° of flexion (P < .05, vs II). Varus stability did not decrease. Mild differences between states V and VI were found in 60° and 90° external rotation tests (2.1° and 3.1°; P < .05). The connecting ligaments/fibers to the PLT act as a primary static stabilizer against external rotatory loads and a secondary stabilizer against posterior tibial loads (when PCL is injured). After releasing these structures, most static stabilizing function of the intact PLT is lost. The PLC has no varus-stabilizing function in the LCL-intact knee. Anatomy and function of these structures for primary and secondary joint stability should be considered for clinical diagnostics and when performing surgery in

  11. Protective effect of red wine on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, M.; Joksic, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of red wines 'Cabernet Sauvignon' on the micronuclei formation in human lymphocytes. Blood samples of healthy volunteers were irratiated in vitro using 60 Co as a source of radiation, dose of 2Gy. Irradiated samples, as well as unirradiated controls, were treated with concentrations of red wine ranged from 100-500 ml/2x106 cells. Obtained results demonstrated significant decrease of the micronuclei frequency (t=9.14; p0.05) in treated samples versus untreated controls. The results of our study demonstrated radioprotective effect of red wine

  12. Sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells caused by snake, red-back spider, bee and blue-ringed octopus venoms and its inhibition by snake sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsenberger, W; Leigh, C M; Mirtschin, P J

    1995-06-01

    It was found that bee (Apis mellifera) venom, red-back spider (Latrodectus mactans) venom, blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa) venom, ten different snake venoms, phospholipase A2 and four snake toxins caused sphero-echinocytosis of human red blood cells at 200 ng/ml. Most venoms and toxins lost the ability to deform human red blood cells when their components of less than mol. wt 10,000 were applied. In a number of cases the sphero-echinocytotic effect was also inhibited by blood sera of Notechis scutatus and Pseudonaja textilis.

  13. Red is not a proxy signal for female genitalia in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Johns

    Full Text Available Red is a colour that induces physiological and psychological effects in humans, affecting competitive and sporting success, signalling and enhancing male social dominance. The colour is also associated with increased sexual attractiveness, such that women associated with red objects or contexts are regarded as more desirable. It has been proposed that human males have a biological predisposition towards the colour red such that it is 'sexually salient'. This hypothesis argues that women use the colour red to announce impending ovulation and sexual proceptivity, with this functioning as a proxy signal for genital colour, and that men show increased attraction in consequence. In the first test of this hypothesis, we show that contrary to the hypothesis, heterosexual men did not prefer redder female genitalia and, by extension, that red is not a proxy signal for genital colour. We found a relative preference for pinker genital images with redder genitalia rated significantly less sexually attractive. This effect was independent of raters' prior sexual experience and variation in female genital morphology. Our results refute the hypothesis that men's attraction to red is linked to an implied relationship to genital colour and women's signalling of fertility and sexual proceptivity.

  14. Third harmonic generation imaging of intact human cerebral organoids to assess key components of early neurogenesis in Rett Syndrome (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Murat; Feldman, Danielle; Wang, Tianyu; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Chou, Stephanie; Swaney, Justin; Chung, Kwanghun; Xu, Chris; So, Peter T. C.; Sur, Mriganka

    2017-02-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive, X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects girls. It is mostly caused by a sporadic mutation in the gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2).The clinical features of RTT are most commonly reported to emerge between the ages of 6-18 months and implicating RTT as a disorder of postnatal development. However, a variety of recent evidence from our lab and others demonstrates that RTT phenotypes are present at the earliest stages of brain development including neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. We have used RTT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells to generate 3D human cerebral organoids that can serve as a model for human neurogenesis in vitro. We aim to expand on our existing findings in order to determine aberrancies at individual stages of neurogenesis by performing structural and immunocytochemical staining in isogenic control and MeCP2-deficient organoids. In addition, we aim to use Third Harmonic Generation (THG) microscopy as a label-free, nondestructive 3D tissue visualization method in order to gain a complete understanding of the structural complexity that underlies human neurogenesis. As a proof of concept, we have performed THG imaging in healthy intact human cerebral organoids cleared with SWITCH. We acquired an intrinsic THG signal with the following laser configurations: 400 kHz repetition rate, 65 fs pulse width laser at 1350 nm wavelength. In these THG images, nuclei are clearly delineated and cross sections demonstrate the depth penetration capacity (< 1mm) that extends throughout the organoid. Imaging control and MeCP2-deficient human cerebral organoids in 2D sections reveals structural and protein expression-based alterations that we expect will be clearly elucidated via both THG and three-photon fluorescence microscopy.

  15. Uptake of intact TPGS (d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) a water-miscible form of vitamin E by human cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traber, M.G.; Thellman, C.A.; Rindler, M.J.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism by which TPGS (alpha-tocopheryl succinate esterified to polyethylene glycol 1000 [PEG 1000]) delivers tocopherol (vitamin E) was studied in human fibroblasts and erythrocytes and a human intestinal cell line, Caco-2. The total cellular tocopherol content of saponified samples of fibroblasts or Caco-2 incubated for 4 h with TPGS (4 mumol/L) increased 10-fold without an increase in the free tocopherol content of nonsaponified samples. A 24-h incubation resulted in a free tocopherol content of approximately 20%, suggesting that intracellular hydrolysis of ester bonds had occurred. The increase in total tocopherol content after a 4-h incubation with TPGS was temperature dependent; no change was measurable at 4 degrees C. Addition of metabolic inhibitors during incubation with TPGS at 37 degrees C did not prevent the increase. [ 14 C]TPGS (synthesized from [ 14 C]PEG 1000) was taken up by Caco-2 cells but [ 14 C]PEG 1000 was not. The intracellular total tocopherol (pmol) equaled the [ 14 C]TPGS (pmol), unequivocally demonstrating uptake of the intact TPGS molecule

  16. The fight against human trafficking in the Amsterdam Red Light District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spapens, A.C.M.; Rijken, C.R.J.J.

    The Amsterdam Red Light District is famous for its sex-oriented businesses. Although prostitution was legalized in 2000, this did not end some of its criminal side effects, particularly the trafficking in women. In an effort to combat human trafficking in the district, the local authorities launched

  17. Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, O O; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E. It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.

  18. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew G; Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J; Phalan, Ben; Millers, Kimberley A; Duarte, Adam; Butchart, Stuart H M; Levi, Taal

    2017-07-27

    Global biodiversity loss is a critical environmental crisis, yet the lack of spatial data on biodiversity threats has hindered conservation strategies. Theory predicts that abrupt biodiversity declines are most likely to occur when habitat availability is reduced to very low levels in the landscape (10-30%). Alternatively, recent evidence indicates that biodiversity is best conserved by minimizing human intrusion into intact and relatively unfragmented landscapes. Here we use recently available forest loss data to test deforestation effects on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories of extinction risk for 19,432 vertebrate species worldwide. As expected, deforestation substantially increased the odds of a species being listed as threatened, undergoing recent upgrading to a higher threat category and exhibiting declining populations. More importantly, we show that these risks were disproportionately high in relatively intact landscapes; even minimal deforestation has had severe consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. We found little support for the alternative hypothesis that forest loss is most detrimental in already fragmented landscapes. Spatial analysis revealed high-risk hot spots in Borneo, the central Amazon and the Congo Basin. In these regions, our model predicts that 121-219 species will become threatened under current rates of forest loss over the next 30 years. Given that only 17.9% of these high-risk areas are formally protected and only 8.9% have strict protection, new large-scale conservation efforts to protect intact forests are necessary to slow deforestation rates and to avert a new wave of global extinctions.

  19. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  20. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of resealed red blood cell membranes (ghosts) allows the study of the transport of a compound in a nonmetabolizing system with a biological membrane. Transmembrane movements of anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, arachidonoylethanolamide) have been studied by exchange efflux experiments...... at 0°C and pH 7.3 with albumin-free and albumin-filled human red blood cell ghosts. The efflux kinetics is biexponential and is analyzed in terms of compartment models. The distribution of anandamide on the membrane inner to outer leaflet pools is determined to be 0.275 ± 0.023, and the rate constant...... of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...

  1. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction.

  2. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  3. F NMR measurement of intracellular free calcium in human red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Schanne, F.A.X.

    1986-01-01

    Optical techniques for the measurement of intracellular Ca are not readily applicable to the human red cell because of the intense absorption of hemoglobin. The authors have therefore examined the use of 19 F NMR of 5,5'-difluoro-1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (5FBAPTA) introduced non-disruptively by intracellular hydrolysis of the membrane-permeant acetoxymethyl ester derivative. 19 F NMR spectra of 5FBAPTA-containing erythrocytes at 188 MHz displayed two well resolved resonances corresponding to the free and Ca-bound forms of the chelator, the resonance of the free form being ten-fold larger than that of the Ca-bound form. Addition of the ionophore A23187 resulted in the disappearance of the resonance of the free anion and a quantitative increase in the intensity of the resonance of the Ca-complex. From these data, and a K/sub D/ of 708 nM for the Ca-5FBAPTA complex, the authors estimate red cell free Ca to be 70 nM, which is in the range of values obtained for other cells, despite the fact that the human red cell, which lacks intracellular organelles for storing Ca, possesses only 1 μmol total Ca/1. cells in comparison to mmols of total Ca found in other cells. The authors ability to use 19 F NMR to measure free Ca in the red blood cell paves the way for future NMR studies of red cell free Ca concentrations in human essential hypertension as well as in other diseases states in which alterations in cellular Ca homeostasis may be involved

  4. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the photoprotective effects of red ochre on human skin by in vitro laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan F. Rifkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological indicators of cognitive complexity become increasingly prevalent during the African Middle Stone Age, with the habitual exploitation of red ochre widely viewed as a key feature of the emergence of modern human behaviour. Given that some of the uses of ochre remain ambiguous, we present the preliminary results of an ongoing study in which we explore the efficacy of red ochre as a photoprotective device or sunscreen. The capacity of ochre to inhibit the susceptibility of humans to the detrimental effects of ultraviolet radiation was confirmed through the in vitro calculation of the sun protection factor values of samples derived from the Kunene Region in Namibia and the Bokkeveld Group deposits, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Visible spectroscopy was employed to determine colourimetric parameters of samples and assess the correlation between ochre colour and sun protection factor. The possible role of ochre as a sunscreen agent for hominin populations, including modern humans, during the Middle Stone Age in Africa is explored. We conclude that the habitual use of red ochre as a photoprotective agent likely played a role in the ability of prehistoric humans to adapt to novel environmental circumstances.

  6. Label-free morphology-based prediction of multiple differentiation potentials of human mesenchymal stem cells for early evaluation of intact cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Sasaki

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of cellular potential of stem cells, such as human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs, is important for achieving stable and effective outcomes in clinical stem cell therapy. Here, we report a method for image-based prediction of the multiple differentiation potentials of hBMSCs. This method has four major advantages: (1 the cells used for potential prediction are fully intact, and therefore directly usable for clinical applications; (2 predictions of potentials are generated before differentiation cultures are initiated; (3 prediction of multiple potentials can be provided simultaneously for each sample; and (4 predictions of potentials yield quantitative values that correlate strongly with the experimental data. Our results show that the collapse of hBMSC differentiation potentials, triggered by in vitro expansion, can be quantitatively predicted far in advance by predicting multiple potentials, multi-lineage differentiation potentials (osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic and population doubling potential using morphological features apparent during the first 4 days of expansion culture. In order to understand how such morphological features can be effective for advance predictions, we measured gene-expression profiles of the same early undifferentiated cells. Both senescence-related genes (p16 and p21 and cytoskeleton-related genes (PTK2, CD146, and CD49 already correlated to the decrease of potentials at this stage. To objectively compare the performance of morphology and gene expression for such early prediction, we tested a range of models using various combinations of features. Such comparison of predictive performances revealed that morphological features performed better overall than gene-expression profiles, balancing the predictive accuracy with the effort required for model construction. This benchmark list of various prediction models not only identifies the best morphological feature

  7. Electron probe study of human and red deer cementum and root dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toetdal, B. (Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of Technology); Hals, E. (Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, University of Bergen, Norway)

    1985-01-01

    A topographical description of the concentration profiles of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, F, S, and K in human and red deer cementum and root dentin is given. The concentrations reported should be regarded as semiquantitative values. A downward slope of the Ca, P, and Mg profiles toward the pulpal cavity seemed largely to correspond with the secondary dentin. Marked elevations of the Zn profiles, modest elevations of the F profiles, and in a few instances of the S profiles, toward root surface and pulpal cavity were registered. In a couple of scans a slight elevation of the K profile toward the root surface was observed. A high degree of concordance in human and red deer teeth was ascertained.

  8. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol metabolic profile in healthy humans after moderate consumption of red wine and grape extract tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Escribano, Elvira; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia

    2012-11-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of the metabolic profile of resveratrol has been performed in healthy men after moderate red wine (RW) consumption. The bioavailability of resveratrol is highly influenced by several factors such as the food matrix and, therefore, this study has been compared with a pilot study in which men ingested grape extract (GE) tablets as a nutraceutical, containing similar total amounts of resveratrol than RW. Blood and urine samples were taken before and at several time points after intervention and then analyzed by SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Up to 17 resveratrol and piceid derivatives were identified, including those formed by the intestinal microbiota. Resveratrol glucosides were found in plasma as intact forms and reached the lowest maximum concentrations 1h after both interventions. Higher plasma concentrations and longer times (t(max)) were observed for resveratrol glucuronides due to phase II metabolism and even higher values for conjugates derived from microbiota, such as dihydroresveratrol-glucuronides. The same trend was observed for total excreted amounts in urine samples. When both treatments were compared, statistically significant differences for some metabolites were obtained, which may be due to the different composition of resveratrol and piceid in both sources. However, GE formulation seems to delay resveratrol absorption, staying longer in the gut where could be metabolized to a greater degree, since 2.1-3.6-fold higher urinary concentrations of microbial metabolites were observed after GE intervention at 12-24h urinary fraction. Therefore, supplement intake could be also a way to bring resveratrol benefits to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between Activation and Repolarization Restitution Properties in the Intact Human Heart: In-Vivo Whole-Heart Data and Mathematical Description.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Orini

    Full Text Available The restitution of the action potential duration (APDR and conduction velocity (CVR are mechanisms whereby cardiac excitation and repolarization adapt to changes in heart rate. They modulate the vulnerability to dangerous arrhythmia, but the mechanistic link between restitution and arrhythmogenesis remains only partially understood.This paper provides an experimental and theoretical study of repolarization and excitation restitution properties and their interactions in the intact human epicardium. The interdependence between excitation and repolarization dynamic is studied in 8 patients (14 restitution protocols, 1722 restitution curves undergoing global epicardial mapping with multi-electrode socks before open heart surgery. A mathematical description of the contribution of both repolarization and conduction dynamics to the steepness of the APDR slope is proposed.This study demonstrates that the APDR slope is a function of both activation and repolarization dynamics. At short cycle length, conduction delay significantly increases the APDR slope by interacting with the diastolic interval. As predicted by the proposed mathematical formulation, the APDR slope was more sensitive to activation time prolongation than to the simultaneous shortening of repolarization time. A steep APDR slope was frequently identified, with 61% of all cardiac sites exhibiting an APDR slope > 1, suggesting that a slope > 1 may not necessarily promote electrical instability in the human epicardium. APDR slope did not change for different activation or repolarization times, and it was not a function of local baseline APD. However, it was affected by the spatial organization of electrical excitation, suggesting that in tissue APDR is not a unique function of local electrophysiological properties. Spatial heterogeneity in both activation and repolarization restitution contributed to the increase in the modulated dispersion of repolarization, which for short cycle length was

  11. The effect of storage time of human red cells on intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation in a rat isovolemic exchange model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, N. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Mik, E. G.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Verhaar, R.; Goedhart, P. T.; de Korte, D.; Ince, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the storage time of human leukodepleted red blood cell concentrates compromises intestinal microvascular oxygen concentration oxygen (muPo(2)) during isovolemic exchange transfusion at low hematocrit. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting:

  12. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Watkins, Paul A; Moser, Hugo W; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Ryder, Oliver A; Hacia, Joseph G

    2011-06-17

    Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC) levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and rodents with plasmalogen disorders, we propose that cross

  13. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  14. (Photosynthesis in intact plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Progress in the two years since the last renewal application has been excellent. We have made substantial contributions on both main fronts of the projects, and are particularly happy with the progress of our research on intact plants. The approach of basing our field work on a sound foundation of laboratory studies has enabled is to use methods which provide unambiguous assays of well characterized reactions. We have also made excellent progress in several laboratory studies which will have direct applications in future field work, and have introduced to the laboratory a range of molecular genetics techniques which will allow us to explore new options in the attempt to understand function at the level of molecular structure.

  15. Isolation, sequencing and expression of RED, a novel human gene encoding an acidic-basic dipeptide repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assier, E; Bouzinba-Segard, H; Stolzenberg, M C; Stephens, R; Bardos, J; Freemont, P; Charron, D; Trowsdale, J; Rich, T

    1999-04-16

    A novel human gene RED, and the murine homologue, MuRED, were cloned. These genes were named after the extensive stretch of alternating arginine (R) and glutamic acid (E) or aspartic acid (D) residues that they contain. We term this the 'RED' repeat. The genes of both species were expressed in a wide range of tissues and we have mapped the human gene to chromosome 5q22-24. MuRED and RED shared 98% sequence identity at the amino acid level. The open reading frame of both genes encodes a 557 amino acid protein. RED fused to a fluorescent tag was expressed in nuclei of transfected cells and localised to nuclear dots. Co-localisation studies showed that these nuclear dots did not contain either PML or Coilin, which are commonly found in the POD or coiled body nuclear compartments. Deletion of the amino terminal 265 amino acids resulted in a failure to sort efficiently to the nucleus, though nuclear dots were formed. Deletion of a further 50 amino acids from the amino terminus generates a protein that can sort to the nucleus but is unable to generate nuclear dots. Neither construct localised to the nucleolus. The characteristics of RED and its nuclear localisation implicate it as a regulatory protein, possibly involved in transcription.

  16. Proteins involved in invasion of human red blood cells by malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaśkiewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by parasites of Plasmodium species. It is responsible for around 1-2 million deaths annually, mainly children under the age of 5. It occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical areas.Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species:[i] P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. knowlesi[/i] and [i]P. ovale[/i]. Mosquitoes spread the disease by biting humans. The malaria parasite has two stages of development: the human stage and the mosquito stage. The first stage occurs in the human body and is divided into two phases: the liver phase and the blood phase.The invasion of erythrocytes by [i]Plasmodium[/i] merozoites is a multistep process of specific protein interactions between the parasite and red blood cell. The first step is the reversible merozoite attachment to the erythrocyte followed by its apical reorientation, then formation of an irreversible “tight” junction and finally entry into the red cell in a parasitophorous vacuole.The blood phase is supported by a number of proteins produced by the parasite. The merozoite surface GPI-anchored proteins (MSP-1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 10 assist in the process of recognition of susceptible erythrocytes, apical membrane antigen (AMA-1 may be directly responsible for apical reorientation of the merozoite and apical proteins which function in tight junction formation. These ligands are members of two families: Duffy binding-like (DBL and reticulocyte binding-like (RBL proteins. In [i]Plasmodium[/i] [i]falciparum[/i] the DBL family includes: EBA-175, EBA-140 (BAEBL, EBA-181 (JESEBL, EBA-165 (PEBL and EBL-1 ligands.To date, no effective antimalarial vaccine has been developed, but there are several studies for this purpose. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the molecular basis of host cells invasion by parasites. Major efforts are focused on developing a multiantigenic and multiepitope vaccine preventing all steps of [i]Plasmodium[/i] invasion.

  17. Directly observed reversible shape changes and hemoglobin stratification during centrifugation of human and Amphiuma red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph F; Inoué, Shinya

    2006-02-21

    This paper describes changes that occur in human and Amphiuma red blood cells observed during centrifugation with a special microscope. Dilute suspensions of cells were layered, in a centrifuge chamber, above an osmotically matched dense solution, containing Nycodenz, Ficoll, or Percoll (Pharmacia) that formed a density gradient that allowed the cells to slowly settle to an equilibrium position. Biconcave human red blood cells moved downward at low forces with minimum wobble. The cells oriented vertically when the force field was increased and Hb sedimented as the lower part of each cell became bulged and assumed a "bag-like" shape. The upper centripetal portion of the cell became thinner and remained biconcave. These changes occurred rapidly and were completely reversible upon lowering the centrifugal force. Bag-shaped cells, upon touching red cells in rouleau, immediately reverted to biconcave disks as they flipped onto a stack. Amphiuma red cells displayed a different type of reversible stratification and deformation at high force fields. Here the cells became stretched, with the nucleus now moving centrifugally, the Hb moving centripetally, and the bottom of the cells becoming thinner and clear. Nevertheless, the distribution of the marginal bands at the cells' rim was unchanged. We conclude that centrifugation, per se, while changing a red cell's shape and the distribution of its intracellular constituents, does so in a completely reversible manner. Centrifugation of red cells harboring altered or missing structural elements could provide information on shape determinants that are still unexplained.

  18. Human kinetic distribution of I-123 F(Ab')/sub 2/ and FAb compared to the parent I-123 intact antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, S.J.; De Nardo, G.L.; O'Grady, L.F.; Peng, J.S.; Macey, D.J.; Mills, S.L.; Caridiff, R.D.; Epstein, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies are being performed by many investigators using a variety of molecular forms of the antibody. This study evaluates two I-123-labeled antibodies (Lym-1 IgG2a and B6.01 IgG1) and their I-123-labeled FAb and F(Ab')/sub 2/ for relative whole body distribution and kinetics, selected organ kinetics, and site of degradation. Evidence of immunocomplex formation, circulating antigen, and HAMA, were monitored by HPLC-TSK analysis and appropriate radioassays of the plasma. Each antibody and each I-123-labeled fragment has been evaluated in 5 patients. One patient had serial comparisons of the radiolabeled parent molecule, F(Ab')/sub 2/ (100μg and 5 mg) and FAb (100μg) of Lym-1. Blood clearance, urine excretion rate, and plasma and urine HPLC fractionation of the radioactive species were determined. Whole body clearance by total body scans and organ clearance were obtained by geometric mean of anterior and posterior areas of interest. The FAb and F(Ab')/sub 2/ fragments had similar blood pool recovery 5 minutes after the 5-minute injection. These were the same as blood levels when 5mg of intact I-123-labeled antibody was given. The second phase of the blood curves for F(Ab')/sub 2/ had a T1/2 of 35-40 hours and for FAb was 15-20 hours. Urine excretion varied, but agreed with total body loss from body scan information. The patient with serial studies had a 24-hour residual dose of 82% for FAb, 62% for 10μg for F(Ab')/sub 2/ and 61% for 5mg of F(Ab')/sub 2/. Renal uptake for all patients was higher and more persistent with both fragments than intact antibody, but hepatic uptake was less

  19. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  20. Mesoporous silica particles modified with graphitic carbon: interaction with human red blood cells and plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Bettini, Jefferson; Strauss, Mathias, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Joao Paulo Vita; Mazali, Italo Odone [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work the interaction of the mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15, ∼700 nm) modified with graphitic carbon (SBA-15/C) on human red blood cells (hemolysis) and plasma proteins (protein corona formation) is studied. XPS and CHN analysis showed that the carbon content on the SBA-15/C samples varied from 2 to 10% and was tuned by the functionalization step. The formed carbon structures where associated to graphitic nanodomains coating the pores surface as verified by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR. Advanced TEM/EELS analysis showed that the carbon structures are distributed along the SBA-15 mesopores. SAXS and textural analyses were used to confirm that the porous structure of the silica support is kept after the modification procedure and to calculate the number of graphitic carbon stacked layers coating the mesopores. After incubation of SBA-15 with human red blood cells (RBCs), it was observed a dose-dependent hemolytic effect, probably, due to binding of the material silanol-rich surface to the phosphatidylcholine molecules from the RBC membrane. The graphitic carbon modifications have mitigated this effect, indicating that the graphitic carbon coating protected the silanol groups of the particle surface hindering the hemolysis. Considering the protein corona formation, selective biomolecular interaction of proteins was observed for the different materials using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Besides, graphitic carbon modification decreased the amount of proteins on the corona. Together, the in vitro hemolysis and protein corona assays are promising biological models to understand the influence of silica surface functionalization on their bionano-interactions. Finally, our work contributes to the development of fundamental research on such nanomaterials chemistry in the emerging field of nanobioscience and nanotoxicology. (author)

  1. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  2. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels elicited by calcium or lead in human red cells can be explained by heterogeneity of agonist distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Garcia-Sancho, J.; Herreros, B.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the all or none cell response of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels to added Ca in human red cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine. A procedure was used which allows separation and differential analysis of responding and nonresponding cells. Responding (H for heavy) cells incubated in medium containing 5 mM K lose KCl and water and increase their density to the point of sinking on diethylphthalate (specific gravity = 1.12) on centrifugation. Nonresponding (L for light) cells do not lose KCl at all. There is no intermediate behavior. Increasing the Ca concentration in the medium increases the fraction of cells which become H. No differences in the sensitivity to Ca2+ of the individual K+ channels were detected in inside-out vesicles prepared either from H or from L cells. The Ca content of H cells was higher than that of L cells. Cells depleted of ATP by incubation with iodoacetate and inosine sustain pump-leak Ca fluxes of about 15 mumol/liter cells per hour. ATP seems to be resynthesized in these cells at the expense of cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate stores at a rate of about 150 mumol/liter cells per hour. Inhibition of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase by tetrathionate increased 6-8 times the measured rate of uptake of external 45Ca. This was accompanied by an increase in the fraction of H cells. All or none cell responses of Ca2+-dependent K channels have also been evidenced in intact human red cells on addition of Pb. They have the same characteristics as those in responding and nonresponding cells. The detailed study of the kinetics of Pb-induced shrinkage of red cells suspended in medium containing 5 mM K showed that changes of Pb concentration changed not only the fraction of H cells but also the rate of shrinkage of responding cells. H cells generated by Pb treatment contained significantly more lead than L cells

  3. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Binocular Symmetry/Asymmetry of Scleral Redness as a Cue for Sadness, Healthiness, and Attractiveness in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Provine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Among primates, only humans have the white sclerae that provide the ground necessary to display their own color and that of the overlying conjunctiva. Scleral color, primarily redness, provides cues of socially and biologically significant information about an individual. The present study examines the effect of the asymmetry of binocular scleral redness on perceived sadness, healthiness, and attractiveness by contrasting ratings of images of individuals who had one, both, or neither sclera reddened by digital editing. Building upon previous research, this study further defines the details of the scleral color display and contributes to the more general issue of facial and body symmetry, predictors of phenotypic condition and genotypic quality that are of interest to evolutionary theorists. Individuals with binocular and monocular redness were rated as sadder, less healthy, and less attractive than those with untinted control sclerae, with ratings corresponding to the degree of redness or whiteness. Bilaterally symmetrical (binocular scleral redness or whiteness provided anchorage points for ratings, with ratings for bilaterally asymmetrical (monocular redness or whiteness falling between them; there was no unique effect of asymmetry.

  5. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Agnvall

    Full Text Available Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0 and the fifth selected generation (S5, focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

  6. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication. PMID:27851792

  7. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  8. Human red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase and monophosphoglycerate mutase: genetic evidence for two separate loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Anderson, J E; Giblett, E R

    1977-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of human red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase (DPGM) and monophosphoglycerate mutase (MPGM) were compared by starch gel electrophoresis. The isozyme patterns showed that genetic variation of the enzymes were independent from each other, thus DPGM and MPGM must be controlled by two separate loci. Images Fig. 1 PMID:195467

  9. Rejuvenation of stored human red blood cells reverses the renal microvascular oxygenation deficit in an isovolemic transfusion model in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Hilarius, Petra M.; Johannes, Tanja; de Korte, Dirk; Ince, Can; Verhoeven, Arthur J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Storage of red blood cells (RBCs) results in various biochemical changes, including a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid. Previously it was shown that stored human RBCs show a deficit in the oxygenation of the microcirculation in the gut of

  10. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  11. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  12. Comparative effects of red and white grapes on oxidative markers and lipidemic parameters in adult hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Ali Reza; Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of consuming red versus white whole grapes on oxidative and lipidemic indices in people with hypercholesterolemia. Sixty nine patients were randomized into three groups. The two treatment groups consumed 500 g of either Condori red grapes or Shahroodi white grapes daily for 8 weeks, and the third group served as a control. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by colorimetric methods at baseline and at the end of the study. In addition, the polyphenol and fiber content of the two grape varieties was measured. TBARS was reduced in both study groups compared to the control group, and the reduction was greater in the group that consumed red grapes compared to the white grapes. TAC was increased significantly in both red and white grape consuming groups compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were decreased in the red grape group compared to the control group. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, TG or HDL-C were observed among the groups. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the whole fruit of red grapes has more potent anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic effects compared to the white grapes in hyperlipidemic adult humans. Hence, the whole fruit of red grapes may be an excellent fruit choice not only to prevent oxidative stress related metabolic disorders but also cholesterol related cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperlipidemic adult humans.

  13. The Action of Red Cell Calcium Ions on Human Erythrophagocytosis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Romero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we have studied in vitro the effect of increasing red cell Ca2+ ions on human erythrophagocytosis by peripheral monocyte-derived autologous macrophages. In addition, the relative contribution to phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine exposure, autologous IgG binding, complement deposition and Gárdos channel activity was also investigated. Monocytes were obtained after ficoll-hypaque fractionation and induced to transform by adherence to glass coverslips, for 24 h at 37°C in a RPMI medium, containing 10% fetal calf serum. Red blood cells (RBC were loaded with Ca2+ using 10 μM A23187 and 1 mM Ca-EGTA buffers, in the absence of Mg2+. Ca2+-loaded cells were transferred to above coverslips and incubated for 2 h at 37°C under various experimental conditions, after which phagocytosis was assessed by light microscopy. Confirming earlier findings, phagocytosis depended on internal Ca2+. Accordingly; it was linearly raised from about 2–15% by increasing the free Ca2+ content of the loading solution from 0.5 to 20 μM, respectively. Such a linear increase was virtually doubled by the presence of 40% autologous serum. At 7 μM Ca2+, the phagocytosis degree attained with serum was practically equal to that obtained with either 2 mg/ml affinity-purified IgG or 40% IgG-depleted serum. However, phagocytosis was reduced to levels found with Ca2+ alone when IgG-depleted serum was inactivated by heat, implying an involvement of complement. On the other hand, phagocytosis in the absence of serum was markedly reduced by preincubating macrophages with phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes. In contrast, a similar incubation in the presence of serum affected it partially whereas employing liposomes made only of phosphatidylcholine essentially had no effect. Significantly, the Gárdos channel inhibitors clotrimazole (2 μM and TRAM-34 (100 nM fully blocked serum-dependent phagocytosis. These findings show that a raised internal Ca2+ promotes

  14. Automated high resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography for quantitative phase imaging of human red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neeru; Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Ahmad, Azeem; Mehta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    We developed an automated high-resolution full-field spatial coherence tomography (FF-SCT) microscope for quantitative phase imaging that is based on the spatial, rather than the temporal, coherence gating. The Red and Green color laser light was used for finding the quantitative phase images of unstained human red blood cells (RBCs). This study uses morphological parameters of unstained RBCs phase images to distinguish between normal and infected cells. We recorded the single interferogram by a FF-SCT microscope for red and green color wavelength and average the two phase images to further reduced the noise artifacts. In order to characterize anemia infected from normal cells different morphological features were extracted and these features were used to train machine learning ensemble model to classify RBCs with high accuracy.

  15. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  16. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ho Mien

    Full Text Available Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2 s(-1, intermittent red light (1 min on/off, or bright white light (2,500 lux near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group. Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69, with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  17. On the Mechanism of Human Red Blood Cell Longevity: Roles of Calcium, the Sodium Pump, PIEZO1, and Gardos Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio L. Lew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a healthy adult, the transport of O2 and CO2 between lungs and tissues is performed by about 2 · 1013 red blood cells, of which around 1.7 · 1011 are renewed every day, a turnover resulting from an average circulatory lifespan of about 120 days. Cellular lifespan is the result of an evolutionary balance between the energy costs of maintaining cells in a fit functional state versus cell renewal. In this Review we examine how the set of passive and active membrane transporters of the mature red blood cells interact to maximize their circulatory longevity thus minimizing costs on expensive cell turnover. Red blood cell deformability is critical for optimal rheology and gas exchange functionality during capillary flow, best fulfilled when the volume of each human red blood cell is kept at a fraction of about 0.55–0.60 of the maximal spherical volume allowed by its membrane area, the optimal-volume-ratio range. The extent to which red blood cell volumes can be preserved within or near these narrow optimal-volume-ratio margins determines the potential for circulatory longevity. We show that the low cation permeability of red blood cells allows volume stability to be achieved with extraordinary cost-efficiency, favouring cell longevity over cell turnover. We suggest a mechanism by which the interplay of a declining sodium pump and two passive membrane transporters, the mechanosensitive PIEZO1 channel, a candidate mediator of Psickle in sickle cells, and the Ca2+-sensitive, K+-selective Gardos channel, can implement red blood cell volume stability around the optimal-volume-ratio range, as required for extended circulatory longevity.

  18. The Kinetics of Ouabain Inhibition and the Partition of Rubidium Influx in Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, L. A.; Adragna, Norma

    1971-01-01

    In the development of ouabain inhibition of rubidium influx in human red blood cells a time lag can be detected which is a function of at least three variables: the concentrations of external sodium, rubidium, and ouabain. The inhibition is antagonized by rubidium and favored by sodium. Similar considerations could be applied to the binding of ouabain to membrane sites. The total influx of rubidium as a function of external rubidium concentration can be separated into two components: (a) a linear uptake not affected by external sodium or ouabain and not requiring an energy supply, and (b) a saturable component. The latter component, on the basis of the different effects of the aforementioned factors, can be divided into three fractions. The first is ouabain-sensitive, inhibited by external sodium at low rubidium, and requires an energy supply; this represents about 70–80% of the total uptake and is related to the active sodium extrusion mechanism. The second is ouabain-insensitive, activated by external sodium over the entire range of rubidium concentrations studied, and dependent on internal ATP; this represents about 15% of the total influx; it could be coupled to an active sodium extrusion or belong to a rubidium-potassium exchange. The third, which can be called residual influx, is ouabain-insensitive, unaffected by external sodium, and independent of internal ATP; this represents about 10–20% of the total influx. PMID:5553102

  19. Histones induce phosphatidylserine exposure and a procoagulant phenotype in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, F; Ammollo, C T; Esmon, N L; Esmon, C T

    2014-10-01

    Extracellular histones exert part of their prothrombotic activity through the stimulation of blood cells. Besides platelets, histones can bind to red blood cells (RBCs), which are important contributors to thrombogenesis, but little is known about the functional consequences of this interaction. To evaluate the effect of histones on the procoagulant potential of human RBCs with particular regard to the expression of surface phosphatidylserine (PS). PS exposure on human RBCs treated with a natural mixture of histones or recombinant individual histones was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin-V binding and measured with flow cytometry. Calcium influx in RBCs loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorophore Fluo-4 AM was assessed with flow cytometry. The procoagulant potential of histone-treated RBCs was evaluated with a purified prothrombinase assay and a one-stage plasma recalcification clotting test. Natural histones induced PS exposure on RBCs in a dose-dependent manner, and neutralization or cleavage of histones by heparin or activated protein C, respectively, abolished PS externalization. H4 was mainly responsible for the stimulating activity of histones, whereas the other subtypes were almost ineffective. Similarly, natural histones and H4 induced influx of calcium into RBCs, whereas the other individual histones did not. Histone-induced exposure of PS on RBCs translated into increased prothrombinase complex-mediated prothrombin activation and accelerated fibrin formation in plasma. Histones induce RBCs to express a procoagulant phenotype through the externalization of PS. This finding provides new insights into the prothrombotic activity of extracellular histones. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o

  1. Isolation and structure determination of the intact sialylated N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human follitropin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Hård, K.; Mekking, A.; Damm, J.B.L.; Kamerling, J.P.; Boer, W. de; Wijnands, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically active recombinant human follitropin has been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The carbohydrate chains of the recombinant glycoprotein hormone were enzymatically released by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F. The oligosaccharides were separated from

  2. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of Red Sorghum Bran Anthocyanin on a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, P.S.; Kumar, M.S.; Das, A.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women worldwide both in the developed and developing countries. Thus effective treatment of breast cancer with potential antitumour drugs is important. In this paper, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has been employed to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of red sorghum bran anthocyanin. The present investigation showed that red sorghum bran anthocyanin induced growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells at significant level. The growth inhibition is dose dependent and irreversible in nature. When MCF-7 cells were treated with red sorghum bran anthocyanins due to activity of anthocyanin morphological changes were observed. The morphological changes were identified through the formation of apoptopic bodies. The fragmentation by these anthocyanins on DNA to oligonuleosomal-sized fragments, is a characteristic of apoptosis, and it was observed as concentration-dependent. Thus, this paper clearly demonstrates that human breast cancer cell MCF-7 is highly responsive by red sorghum bran anthocyanins result from the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

  3. Application of pressure ultrafiltration in determining the binding capacity of drugs to human albumin and to plasma proteins of intact and irradiated rat females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, M.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of the binding of drugs to plasma proteins has repeatedly been demonstrated and draws the interest of many pharmacologists. The described experiments served to study the binding of isoniazid (INH) to human albumin of various dilution and to whole plasma proteins of irradiated (on the Oth, 3rd and 6th day after exposure to 154.8 mC/kg=600 R) and non-irradiated rats using the technique of modified accelerated ultrafiltration through cellophane. The total characteristics of the binding and its changes were demonstrated by the equilibrium constant, the numbers of binding sites and the changes of free binding energy. The results show that the dilution of human albumin affects the strength of the INH binding on this albumin and further that the normally weak INH binding is diminished even more in irradiated rats. This cannot be explained by the change in the percentage composition of the rat plasma. (author)

  4. Monomethylfumarate induces γ-globin expression and fetal hemoglobin production in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and erythroid cells, and in intact retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promsote, Wanwisa; Makala, Levi; Li, Biaoru; Smith, Sylvia B; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Pace, Betty S; Martin, Pamela M

    2014-05-13

    Sickle retinopathy (SR) is a major cause of vision loss in sickle cell disease (SCD). There are no strategies to prevent SR and treatments are extremely limited. The present study evaluated (1) the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell as a hemoglobin producer and novel cellular target for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction, and (2) monomethylfumarate (MMF) as an HbF-inducing therapy and abrogator of oxidative stress and inflammation in SCD retina. Human globin gene expression was evaluated by RT-quantitative (q)PCR in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and in primary RPE cells isolated from Townes humanized SCD mice. γ-Globin promoter activity was monitored in KU812 stable dual luciferase reporter expressing cells treated with 0 to 1000 μM dimethylfumarate, MMF, or hydroxyurea (HU; positive control) by dual luciferase assay. Reverse transcriptase-qPCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), immunofluorescence, and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate γ-globin expression and HbF production in primary human erythroid progenitors, ARPE-19, and normal hemoglobin producing (HbAA) and homozygous β(s) mutation (HbSS) RPE that were treated similarly, and in MMF-injected (1000 μM) HbAA and HbSS retinas. Dihydroethidium labeling and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), IL-1β, and VEGF expression were also analyzed. Retinal pigment epithelial cells express globin genes and synthesize adult and fetal hemoglobin MMF stimulated γ-globin expression and HbF production in cultured RPE and erythroid cells, and in HbSS mouse retina where it also reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. The production of hemoglobin by RPE suggests the potential involvement of this cell type in the etiology of SR. Monomethylfumarate influences multiple parameters consistent with improved retinal health in SCD and may therefore be of therapeutic potential in SR treatment. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. Simultaneous RNA quantification of human and retroviral genomes reveals intact interferon signaling in HTLV-1-infected CD4+ T cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens Britta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IFN-α contributes extensively to host immune response upon viral infection through antiviral, pro-apoptotic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Although extensively documented in various types of human cancers and viral infections, controversy exists in the exact mechanism of action of IFN-α in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 retroviral infections. Results IFN-α displayed strong anti-HIV-1 effects in HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected MT-4 cells in vitro, demonstrated by the dose-dependent inhibition of the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect (IC50 = 83.5 IU/ml, p 50 = 1.2 IU/ml, p  Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that both the absence of in vitro antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity as well as the modest post-transcriptional antiviral activity of IFN-α against HTLV-1, were not due to a cell-intrinsic defect in IFN-α signalisation, but rather represents a retrovirus-specific phenomenon, considering the strong HIV-1 inhibition in co-infected cells.

  6. Ethyl cellulose nanocarriers and nanocrystals differentially deliver dexamethasone into intact, tape-stripped or sodium lauryl sulfate-exposed ex vivo human skin - assessment by intradermal microdialysis and extraction from the different skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döge, Nadine; Hönzke, Stefan; Schumacher, Fabian; Balzus, Benjamin; Colombo, Miriam; Hadam, Sabrina; Rancan, Fiorenza; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Schindler, Anke; Rühl, Eckart; Skov, Per Stahl; Church, Martin K; Hedtrich, Sarah; Kleuser, Burkhard; Bodmeier, Roland; Vogt, Annika

    2016-11-28

    Understanding penetration not only in intact, but also in lesional skin with impaired skin barrier function is important, in order to explore the surplus value of nanoparticle-based drug delivery for anti-inflammatory dermatotherapy. Herein, short-term ex vivo cultures of (i) intact human skin, (ii) skin pretreated with tape-strippings and (iii) skin pre-exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to assess the penetration of dexamethasone (Dex). Intradermal microdialysis was utilized for up to 24h after drug application as commercial cream, nanocrystals or ethyl cellulose nanocarriers applied at the therapeutic concentration of 0.05%, respectively. In addition, Dex was assessed in culture media and extracts from stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis after 24h, and the results were compared to those in heat-separated split skin from studies in Franz diffusion cells. Providing fast drug release, nanocrystals significantly accelerated the penetration of Dex. In contrast to the application of cream and ethyl cellulose nanocarriers, Dex was already detectable in eluates after 6h when applying nanocrystals on intact skin. Disruption of the skin barrier further accelerated and enhanced the penetration. Encapsulation in ethyl cellulose nanocarriers delayed Dex penetration. Interestingly, for all formulations highly increased concentrations in the dialysate were observed in tape-stripped skin, whereas the extent of enhancement was less in SLS-exposed skin. The results were confirmed in tissue extracts and were in line with the predictions made by in vitro release studies and ex vivo Franz diffusion cell experiments. The use of 45kDa probes further enabled the collection of inflammatory cytokines. However, the estimation of glucocorticoid efficacy by Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 analysis was limited due to the trauma induced by the probe insertion. Ex vivo intradermal microdialysis combined with culture media analysis provides an effective, skin-sparing method for

  7. Release of (14C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M.

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ( 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action

  8. Effect of DNA polymerase inhibitors on DNA repair in intact and permeable human fibroblasts: Evidence that DNA polymerases δ and β are involved in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.A.; Miller, M.R.; McClung, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of DNA polymerases α, β, and δ in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was investigated in human fibroblasts (HF). The effects of anti-(DNA polymerase α) monoclonal antibody, (p-n-butylphenyl)deoxyguanosine triphosphate (BuPdGTP), dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP), and aphidicolin on MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis were investigated to dissect the roles of the different DNA polymerases. A subcellular system (permeable cells), in which DNA repair synthesis and DNA replication were differentiated by CsCl gradient centrifugation of BrdUMP density-labeled DNA, was used to examine the effects of the polymerase inhibitors. Another approach investigated the effects of several of these inhibitors of MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis in intact cells by measuring the amount of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated into repair DNA as determined by autoradiography and quantitation with an automated video image analysis system. In permeable cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 56% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL, 6% by 10 μM BuPdGTP, 13% by anti-(DNA polymerse α) monoclonal antibodies, and 29% by ddTTP. In intact cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 57% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL and was not significantly inhibited by microinjecting anti-(DNA polymerase α) antibodies into HF nuclei. These results indicate that both DNA polymerase δ and β are involved in repairing DNA damage caused by MNNG

  9. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  10. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Psustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  11. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence......Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs...

  12. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  13. Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Pim; Zhang, Weihua; Mateo Leach, Irene; Rendon, Augusto; Verweij, Niek; Sehmi, Joban; Paul, Dirk S; Elling, Ulrich; Allayee, Hooman; Li, Xinzhong; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Voss, Katrin; Weichenberger, Christian X; Albers, Cornelis A; Al-Hussani, Abtehale; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Ciullo, Marina; Danjou, Fabrice; Dina, Christian; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Franke, Lude; Gögele, Martin; Hartiala, Jaana; Hersch, Micha; Holm, Hilma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Lagou, Vasiliki; Langenberg, Claudia; Lopez, Lorna M; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Melander, Olle; Murgia, Federico; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Reilly, Paul F; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Parsa, Afshin; Pirastu, Nicola; Porcu, Eleonora; Portas, Laura; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Shin, So-Youn; Tang, Clara S; Teumer, Alexander; Traglia, Michela; Ulivi, Sheila; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing Hua; Anni, Franco; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Attwood, Antony; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Benyamin, Beben; Boehm, Bernhard O; Cookson, William O; Das, Debashish; de Bakker, Paul I W; de Boer, Rudolf A; de Geus, Eco J C; de Moor, Marleen H; Dimitriou, Maria; Domingues, Francisco S; Döring, Angela; Engström, Gunnar; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fischer, Krista; Galanello, Renzo; Garner, Stephen F; Genser, Bernd; Gibson, Quince D; Girotto, Giorgia; Gudbjartsson, Daniel Fannar; Harris, Sarah E; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hastie, Claire E; Hedblad, Bo; Illig, Thomas; Jolley, Jennifer; Kähönen, Mika; Kema, Ido P; Kemp, John P; Liang, Liming; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Loos, Ruth J F; Meacham, Stuart; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Memari, Yasin; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Kathy; Moffatt, Miriam F; Nauck, Matthias; Novatchkova, Maria; Nutile, Teresa; Olafsson, Isleifur; Onundarson, Pall T; Parracciani, Debora; Penninx, Brenda W; Perseu, Lucia; Piga, Antonio; Pistis, Giorgio; Pouta, Anneli; Puc, Ursula; Raitakari, Olli; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Ruggiero, Daniela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saint-Pierre, Aude; Sala, Cinzia; Salumets, Andres; Sambrook, Jennifer; Schepers, Hein; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Silljé, Herman H W; Sladek, Rob; Smit, Johannes H; Starr, John M; Stephens, Jonathan; Sulem, Patrick; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tragante, Vinicius; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Pelt, L Joost; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Völker, Uwe; Whitfield, John B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Algra, Ale; Cucca, Francesco; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Danesh, John; Deary, Ian J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Elliott, Paul; Fortina, Paolo; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Greinacher, Andreas; Hazen, Stanley L; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Khaw, Kay Tee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D; Montgomery, Grant W; Moore, Carmel; Navis, Gerjan; Pirastu, Mario; Pramstaller, Peter P; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Schadt, Eric; Scott, James; Shuldiner, Alan R; Smith, George Davey; Smith, J Gustav; Snieder, Harold; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tang, W H Wilson; Toniolo, Daniela; Tönjes, Anke; Visscher, Peter M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Beckmann, Jacques S; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Ferreira, Manuel A; Sanna, Serena; Uda, Manuela; Hicks, Andrew A; Penninger, Josef Martin; Gieger, Christian; Kooner, Jaspal S; Ouwehand, Willem H; Soranzo, Nicole; Chambers, John C

    2012-12-20

    Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P < 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.

  14. Changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine: a human trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of moderate consumption of red wine to modulate the intestinal inflammation response on healthy humans. Fecal samples from a human intervention study (n=34 were collected before and after consumption of red wine for 4 weeks, and 24 immune markers including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were analysed. When considering the whole group of case volunteers, almost no statistically significant differences were found in the immune markers after wine consumption. However, a detailed exploration of the values differentiated a 6-volunteer subgroup that showed unusually high values of cytokines before wine consumption. For this subgroup, wine consumption significantly reduced the content of 16 out of 24 markers down to usual values, especially noticeable for cytokines related to the promotion of initial inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma. This study reveals, for the first time, changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine.

  15. How can we conserve intact tropical peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian; Roucoux, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The scientific community has, for more than three decades, been expressing increasing alarm about the fate of peatlands in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive land-use conversion and drainage for rice and oil palm have greatly compromised peatland hydrology, ecology, biological richness, and carbon storage. The discourse in the literature on these peatlands is now moving on from attempts to preserve the last remaining fragments of peat-swamp forest, towards discussion of how best to restore damaged ecosystems, and whether it is possible to manage plantations more 'sustainably'. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that peatlands occur quite widely in other parts of the lowland tropics, including parts of Amazonia and the Congo Basin, and many of these peatlands can reasonably be described as 'intact': although few if any parts of the tropics are totally unaffected by human actions, the hydrology and functional ecology of these systems appear to be close to a 'natural' state. The question then arises as to what should be done with the knowledge of their existence. Here we analyse the arguments in favour of protecting intact peatlands, and the potential conflicts with other priorities such as economic development and social justice. We evaluate alternative mechanisms for protecting intact peatlands, focusing on the particular issues raised by peatlands as opposed to other kinds of tropical ecosystem. We identify ways in which natural science agendas can help to inform these arguments, using our own contributions in palaeoecology and carbon mapping as examples. Finally, we argue for a radical reconsideration of research agendas in tropical peatlands, highlighting the potential contribution of methodologies borrowed from the social sciences and humanities.

  16. Red Orange: Experimental Models and Epidemiological Evidence of Its Benefits on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Grosso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy, California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  17. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  18. Inborn defects in the antioxidant systems of human red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, Rob; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; Roos, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) contain large amounts of iron and operate in highly oxygenated tissues. As a result, these cells encounter a continuous oxidative stress. Protective mechanisms against oxidation include prevention of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenging of various forms of

  19. Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, P.; Zhang, W.; Mateo Leach, I.; Rendon, A.; Verweij, N.; Sehmi, J.; Paul, D.S.; Elling, U.; Allayee, H.; Li, X.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Tan, S.T.; Voss, K.; Weichenberger, C.X.; Albers, C.A.; Al-Hussani, A.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Ciullo, M.; Danjou, F.; Dina, C.; Esko, T.; Evans, D.M.; Franke, L.; Gogele, M.; Hartiala, J.; Hersch, M.; Holm, H.; Hottenga, J.J.; Kanoni, S.; Kleber, M.E.; Lagou, V.; Langenberg, C.; Lopez, L.M.; Lyytikainen, L.P.; Melander, O.; Murgia, F.; Nolte, I.M.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Padmanabhan, S.; Parsa, A.; Pirastu, N.; Porcu, E.; Portas, L.; Prokopenko, I.; Ried, J.S.; Shin, S.Y.; Tang, C.S.; Teumer, A.; Traglia, M.; Ulivi, S.; Westra, H.J.; Yang, J.; Zhao, J.H.; Anni, F.; Abdellaoui, A.; Attwood, A.; Balkau, B.; Bandinelli, S.; Bastardot, F.; Benyamin, B.; Boehm, B.O.; Cookson, W.O.; Das, D; de Bakker, P.I.; de Boer, R.A.; de Geus, E.J.; de Moor, M.H.; Dimitriou, M.; Domingues, F.S.; Doring, A.; Engstrom, G.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Ferrucci, L.; Fischer, K.; Galanello, R.; Garner, S.F.; Genser, B.; Gibson, Q.D.; Girotto, G.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Harris, S.E.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Hastie, C.E.; Hedblad, B.; Illig, T.; Jolley, J.; Kahonen, M.; Kema, I.P.; Kemp, J.P.; Liang, L.; Lloyd-Jones, H.; Loos, R.J.; Meacham, S.; Medland, S.E.; Meisinger, C.; Memari, Y.; Mihailov, E.; Miller, K.; Moffatt, M.F.; Nauck, M., et al.

    2012-01-01

    Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related

  20. The impact of the matrix of red beet products and interindividual variability on betacyanins bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczkowski, Wieslaw; Romaszko, Ewa; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Piskula, Mariusz K

    2018-06-01

    The influence of the matrix of red beetroot products and interindividual variability on betacyanins bioavailability in humans was studied. In a randomized crossover study 12 volunteers consumed red beet juice and crunchy slices containing betanin and isobetanin. Betalains were analyzed by the HPLC-DAD-MS. Urine samples examined after the consumption of both products contained not only native betacyanins but also their aglycones. In case of juice, the highest betacyanins urine excretion rate was observed within the first 2 h (64 nmol/h), while in case of crunchy slices within the period of 2-4 h (66 nmol/h). Among volunteers, the average total betacyanins excretion rate ranged from 18.54 to 67.96 nmol/h and, 13.15 to 63.58 nmol/h for red beet juice and crunchy slices, respectively. In total, approximately 0.3% of betacyanins (ranging from 0.12 to 0.58%) ingested from both products was excreted. The study showed that betacyanins bioavailability from juice and crunchy slices is similar, with the matrix of products consumed having an impact on betacyanins excretion profile, and the phenotype of volunteers affecting betacyanins excretion rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A red fluorescent nude mouse model of human endometriosis: advantages of a non-invasive imaging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Hong, Shanshan; Tan, Jinfeng; Ke, Peiqi; Liang, Lili; Fei, Hui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Liqun; Liu, Yongdong; Yu, Bingjun

    2014-05-01

    To establish red fluorescent human endometriosis lesions in a nude mouse model and dynamically and non-invasively to compare intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection models. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and epithelial cells (EECs) isolated from 24 patients with a normal uterine cavity were transfected with 2.5×10(8) (Group 1) and 1.25×10(8) (Group 2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of adenovirus encoding red fluorescent protein (Ad-RFP). Transfection efficiencies, fluorescence intensity and apoptosis rate of the two types of cells were compared in vitro. A mixture of 2.5×10(8) PFU Ad-RFP-infected approximately 400 EECs cell mass and 2×10(6) ESCs for 36h was injected individually into 24 female nude mice subcutaneously (Group A) or intraperitoneally (Group B). From Day 5 after injection, an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) was used to non-invasively observe and compare the lesions of the two groups every week until Day 33. Specifically, the fluorescent intensity, positive rates, persistence time and lesion weight in the implanted human endometriosis lesions were compared. A parametric Student's t-test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Compared with 1.25×10(8) PFU RFP, a titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP ESCs and EECs incubated for 36h exhibited higher transfection efficiencies and higher fluorescence intensities in vitro. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent human endometriosis lesions originating from an RFP titre of 2.5×10(8) PFU showed that the intensity and lesion weight in Group A were significantly higher than in Group B. However, the two groups had the same RFP-positive rates and fluorescence persistence. The structure of each lesion was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to confirm its human endometrial origin. The red fluorescent human endometriosis model established by subcutaneously injecting 2.5×10(8) PFU RFP-transfected stromal cells and epithelial cells into nude mice had a higher fluorescent positive

  3. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological lev...

  4. Bacteria of the human gut microbiome catabolize red seaweed glycans with carbohydrate-active enzyme updates from extrinsic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Kelly, Amelia G; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Martens, Eric C; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2012-11-27

    Humans host an intestinal population of microbes--collectively referred to as the gut microbiome--which encode the carbohydrate active enzymes, or CAZymes, that are absent from the human genome. These CAZymes help to extract energy from recalcitrant polysaccharides. The question then arises as to if and how the microbiome adapts to new carbohydrate sources when modern humans change eating habits. Recent metagenome analysis of microbiomes from healthy American, Japanese, and Spanish populations identified putative CAZymes obtained by horizontal gene transfer from marine bacteria, which suggested that human gut bacteria evolved to degrade algal carbohydrates-for example, consumed in form of sushi. We approached this hypothesis by studying such a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) obtained by horizontal gene transfer by the gut bacterium Bacteroides plebeius. Transcriptomic and growth experiments revealed that the PUL responds to the polysaccharide porphyran from red algae, enabling growth on this carbohydrate but not related substrates like agarose and carrageenan. The X-ray crystallographic and biochemical analysis of two proteins encoded by this PUL, BACPLE_01689 and BACPLE_01693, showed that they are β-porphyranases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 16 and 86, respectively. The product complex of the GH86 at 1.3 Å resolution highlights the molecular details of porphyran hydrolysis by this new porphyranase. Combined, these data establish experimental support for the argument that CAZymes and associated genes obtained from extrinsic microbes add new catabolic functions to the human gut microbiome.

  5. Intact Protein Analysis at 21 Tesla and X-Ray Crystallography Define Structural Differences in Single Amino Acid Variants of Human Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Amino Acid Aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lissa C.; Håkansson, Maria; Walse, Björn; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2017-09-01

    Structural technologies are an essential component in the design of precision therapeutics. Precision medicine entails the development of therapeutics directed toward a designated target protein, with the goal to deliver the right drug to the right patient at the right time. In the field of oncology, protein structural variants are often associated with oncogenic potential. In a previous proteogenomic screen of patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) tumor materials, we identified a sequence variant of human mitochondrial branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 as a putative factor of resistance of GBM to standard-of-care-treatments. The enzyme generates glutamate, which is neurotoxic. To elucidate structural coordinates that may confer altered substrate binding or activity of the variant BCAT2 T186R, a 45 kDa protein, we applied combined ETD and CID top-down mass spectrometry in a LC-FT-ICR MS at 21 T, and X-Ray crystallography in the study of both the variant and non-variant intact proteins. The combined ETD/CID fragmentation pattern allowed for not only extensive sequence coverage but also confident localization of the amino acid variant to its position in the sequence. The crystallographic experiments confirmed the hypothesis generated by in silico structural homology modeling, that the Lys59 side-chain of BCAT2 may repulse the Arg186 in the variant protein (PDB code: 5MPR), leading to destabilization of the protein dimer and altered enzyme kinetics. Taken together, the MS and novel 3D structural data give us reason to further pursue BCAT2 T186R as a precision drug target in GBM. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Reconciling certification and intact forest landscape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschroth, Fritz; Garcia, Claude; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2018-05-29

    In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concessionary logging areas revealed greater loss of IFL in certified than in noncertified concessions. In areas of informal (i.e., nonregulated) extraction, road networks are known to be less detectable by remote sensing. Under the current definition of IFL, companies certified under FSC standards are likely to be penalized relative to the noncertified as well as the informal logging sector on account of their planned road networks, despite an otherwise better standard of forest management. This could ultimately undermine certification and its wider adoption, with implications for the future of sustainable forest management.

  7. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Lesecque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC, which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  8. The red queen model of recombination hotspots evolution in the light of archaic and modern human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesecque, Yann; Glémin, Sylvain; Lartillot, Nicolas; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Duret, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Recombination is an essential process in eukaryotes, which increases diversity by disrupting genetic linkage between loci and ensures the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. In the human genome, recombination events are clustered in hotspots, whose location is determined by the PRDM9 protein. There is evidence that the location of hotspots evolves rapidly, as a consequence of changes in PRDM9 DNA-binding domain. However, the reasons for these changes and the rate at which they occur are not known. In this study, we investigated the evolution of human hotspot loci and of PRDM9 target motifs, both in modern and archaic human lineages (Denisovan) to quantify the dynamic of hotspot turnover during the recent period of human evolution. We show that present-day human hotspots are young: they have been active only during the last 10% of the time since the divergence from chimpanzee, starting to be operating shortly before the split between Denisovans and modern humans. Surprisingly, however, our analyses indicate that Denisovan recombination hotspots did not overlap with modern human ones, despite sharing similar PRDM9 target motifs. We further show that high-affinity PRDM9 target motifs are subject to a strong self-destructive drive, known as biased gene conversion (BGC), which should lead to the loss of the majority of them in the next 3 MYR. This depletion of PRDM9 genomic targets is expected to decrease fitness, and thereby to favor new PRDM9 alleles binding different motifs. Our refined estimates of the age and life expectancy of human hotspots provide empirical evidence in support of the Red Queen hypothesis of recombination hotspots evolution.

  9. Volumetric measurement of human red blood cells by MOSFET-based microfluidic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye; Cheng, Yuanbing; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a MOSFET-based (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) microfluidic gate to characterize the translocation of red blood cells (RBCs) through a gate. In the microfluidic system, the bias voltage modulated by the particles or biological cells is connected to the gate of MOSFET. The particles or cells can be detected by monitoring the MOSFET drain current instead of DC/AC-gating method across the electronic gate. Polystyrene particles with various standard sizes are utilized to calibrate the proposed device. Furthermore, RBCs from both adults and newborn blood sample are used to characterize the performance of the device in distinguishing the two types of RBCs. As compared to conventional DC/AC current modulation method, the proposed device demonstrates a higher sensitivity and is capable of being a promising platform for bioassay analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, R.C.; Buffler, R.T.; Bruggemann, J.H.; Guillaume, M.M.M.; Berhe, S.M.; Negassi, B.; Libsekal, Y.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.L.; Cosel, von R.; Néraudeau, D.; Gagnon, M.

    2000-01-01

    The geographical origin of modern humans is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. The 'multiregional evolution' hypothesis argues that modern humans evolved semi-independently in Europe, Asia and Africa between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago, whereas the 'out of Africa' hypothesis contends that

  11. Human rights on the thin red line between universality and relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rights represent an open legal and political concept with a very wide value variable. Academic discussions on human rights nature have mostly commenced after the World War II during the trend of human rights internationalization, reaching their climax after the Cold war. This paper examines actual theories on human rights, from those accepting them as universal, up to those marking another pole, favoring idea of absolute relativity of human rights. The author asserts that the most acceptable should be a middle solution, standing of moderate relativism or position of relative universalism of human rights. He claims that only a very limited circle of basic, 'substantial' human rights, having been accepted through an intercultural consensus, may pretend to be treated as universal. Out of that narrow sphere, there are many other human rights whose meaning and interpretation depend strongly upon concrete cultural context. The author points that in those cases it is important to respect a relativistic discourse and that the only solution should be explored within an intercultural and inter-civilizational dialogue, where non-western values should be equally treated as the western ones.

  12. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Fuhrmann, Jens C; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Rein, Dietrich; Peters, Sonja; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Draijer, Richard; van Duynhoven, John; Garczarek, Ursula

    2012-03-28

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of red wine and grape juice extracts (WGM) for 4 days in a placebo-controlled, crossover study. Syringic acid, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, pyrogallol, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were confirmed as the strongest urinary markers of WGM intake. Overall, WGM had a mild impact on the endogenous metabolism. Most noticeable were changes in several amino acids deriving from tyrosine and tryptophan. Reductions in the microbial metabolites p-cresol sulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid and increases in indole-3-lactic acid and nicotinic acid were observed in urine. In plasma, tyrosine was reduced. The results suggest that short-term intake of WGM altered microbial protein fermentation and/or amino acid metabolism.

  13. A study of membrane protein defects and alpha hemoglobin chains of red blood cells in human beta thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer-Fessard, P.; Garel, M.C.; Domenget, C.; Guetarni, D.; Bachir, D.; Colonna, P.; Beuzard, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The soluble pool of alpha hemoglobin chains present in blood or bone marrow cells was measured with a new affinity method using a specific probe, beta A hemoglobin chain labeled with [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide. This pool of soluble alpha chains was 0.067 ± 0.017% of hemoglobin in blood of normal adult, 0.11 ± 0.03% in heterozygous beta thalassemia and ranged from 0.26 to 1.30% in homozygous beta thalassemia intermedia. This elevated pool of soluble alpha chains observed in human beta thalassemia intermedia decreased 33-fold from a value of 10% of total hemoglobin in bone marrow cells to 0.3% in the most dense red blood cells. The amount of insoluble alpha chains was measured by using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in urea and Triton X-100. In beta thalassemia intermedia the amount of insoluble alpha chains was correlated with the decreased spectrin content of red cell membrane and was associated with a decrease in ankyrin and with other abnormalities of the electrophoretic pattern of membrane proteins. The loss and topology of the reactive thiol groups of membrane proteins was determined by using [ 3 H]N-ethylmaleimide added to membrane ghosts prior to urea and Triton X-100 electrophoresis. Spectrin and ankyrin were the major proteins with the most important decrease of thiol groups

  14. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, α-globulin, and γ-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  15. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  16. Carboxylated nanodiamonds inhibit γ-irradiation damage of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K; Silva-Campa, E; Melendrez-Amavizca, R; Teran Arce, F; Mata-Haro, V; Landon, P B; Zhang, C; Pedroza-Montero, M; Lal, R

    2016-04-07

    Nanodiamonds when carboxylated (cNDs) act as reducing agents and hence could limit oxidative damage in biological systems. Gamma (γ)-irradiation of whole blood or its components is required in immunocompetent patients to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, γ-irradiation of blood also deoxygenates red blood cells (RBCs) and induces oxidative damage, including abnormalities in cellular membranes and hemolysis. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we examined the effect of cNDs on γ-irradiation mediated deoxygenation and morphological damage of RBCs. γ-Radiation induced several morphological phenotypes, including stomatocytes, codocytes and echinocytes. While stomatocytes and codocytes are reversibly damaged RBCs, echinocytes are irreversibly damaged. AFM images show significantly fewer echinocytes among cND-treated γ-irradiated RBCs. The Raman spectra of γ-irradiated RBCs had more oxygenated hemoglobin patterns when cND-treated, resembling those of normal, non-irradiated RBCs, compared to the non-cND-treated RBCs. cND inhibited hemoglobin deoxygenation and morphological damage, possibly by neutralizing the free radicals generated during γ-irradiation. Thus cNDs have the therapeutic potential to preserve the quality of stored blood following γ-irradiation.

  17. Relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demel, R.A.; Geurts van Kessel, W.S.M.; Zwaal, R.F.A.; Roelofsen, B.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    The action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. The phospholipases which cannot hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, phospholipase A2 from

  18. Human missions to Mars enabling technologies for exploring the red planet

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, Donald

    2016-01-01

    A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth’s surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of el...

  19. Digested BLG can induce tolerance when co-administered with intact BLG in Brown Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    the human gastro-duodenal digestion process. Four different fractions of BLG-digest was made, based on sizes of peptides or aggregates hereof. Intact BLG and the four fractions of BLG-digesta were characterized by protein chemical analyses. Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunised i.p. three times without......Background: Milk is a major constituent of small children’s diet. Milk allergy is also one of the most common allergies in small children. Prevention, treatment and general understanding of this allergy are therefore important. Methods: Intact BLG was digested in an in vitro model simulating...... the use of adjuvant with either PBS (control), 200 µg of intact BLG, 30 µg of intact BLG, 200 µg of digested BLG (with 30 µg of intact BLG), 200 µg of digested BLG, 200 µg of a fraction of large complexes or 200 µg of a fraction of small complexes (all three without intact BLG). Sera from BN rats were...

  20. Effects of radiation quality on the opening of stomata in intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, K.; Kozłowska, B.; Ciereszko, I.; Maleszewski, S.

    1997-01-01

    In intact French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves blue radiation enhanced opening of stomata both when it was used individually and when it was used as preirradiation before ''white light'' irradiation. Effects of red radiation were just the contrary

  1. Strategies for Analyzing Data from Intact Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Lawrence H.; Lane, Carolyn E.

    Action research often necessitates the use of intact groups for the comparison of educational treatments or programs. This paper considers several analytical methods that might be used for such situations when pretest scores indicate that these intact groups differ significantly initially. The methods considered include gain score analysis of…

  2. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  3. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prykova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to r...

  4. Superior Red Blood Cell Generation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Through a Novel Microcarrier-Based Embryoid Body Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Jaichandran; Lam, Alan Tin-Lun; Chen, Hong Yu; Yang, Bin Xia; Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Reuveny, Shaul; Loh, Yuin-Han; Oh, Steve Kah-Weng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro generation of red blood cells (RBCs) from human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells appears to be a promising alternate approach to circumvent shortages in donor-derived blood supplies for clinical applications. Conventional methods for hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) rely on embryoid body (EB) formation and/or coculture with xenogeneic cell lines. However, most current methods for hPSC expansion and EB formation are not amenable for scale-up to levels required for large-scale RBC generation. Moreover, differentiation methods that rely on xenogenic cell lines would face obstacles for future clinical translation. In this study, we report the development of a serum-free and chemically defined microcarrier-based suspension culture platform for scalable hPSC expansion and EB formation. Improved survival and better quality EBs generated with the microcarrier-based method resulted in significantly improved mesoderm induction and, when combined with hematopoietic differentiation, resulted in at least a 6-fold improvement in hematopoietic precursor expansion, potentially culminating in a 80-fold improvement in the yield of RBC generation compared to a conventional EB-based differentiation method. In addition, we report efficient terminal maturation and generation of mature enucleated RBCs using a coculture system that comprised primary human mesenchymal stromal cells. The microcarrier-based platform could prove to be an appealing strategy for future scale-up of hPSC culture, EB generation, and large-scale generation of RBCs under defined and xeno-free conditions.

  5. Single-cell force spectroscopy as a technique to quantify human red blood cell adhesion to subendothelial laminin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Partola, Kostyantyn; Zhang, Jing; Andemariam, Biree; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-12-18

    Single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based assay, enables quantitative study of cell adhesion while maintaining the native state of surface receptors in physiological conditions. Human healthy and pathological red blood cells (RBCs) express a large number of surface proteins which mediate cell-cell interactions, or cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In particular, RBCs adhere with high affinity to subendothelial matrix laminin via the basal cell adhesion molecule and Lutheran protein (BCAM/Lu). Here, we established SCFS as an in vitro technique to study human RBC adhesion at baseline and following biochemical treatment. Using blood obtained from healthy human subjects, we recorded adhesion forces from single RBCs attached to AFM cantilevers as the cell was pulled-off of substrates coated with laminin protein. We found that an increase in the overall cell adhesion measured via SCFS is correlated with an increase in the resultant total force measured on 1 µm(2) areas of the RBC membrane. Further, we showed that SCFS can detect significant changes in the adhesive response of RBCs to modulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Lastly, we identified variability in the RBC adhesion force to laminin amongst the human subjects, suggesting that RBCs maintain diverse levels of active BCAM/Lu adhesion receptors. By using single-cell measurements, we established a powerful new method for the quantitative measurement of single RBC adhesion with specific receptor-mediated binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P alopecia at a rate similar to that observed in males using the same parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  8. The Potential Impact of Mars' Atmospheric Dust on Future Human Exploration of the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhalter, D.; Levine, J. S.; Kerschmann, R.; Beaty, D. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Ashley, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing focus by NASA and other space agencies on a crewed mission to Mars in the 2039 time-frame, many Mars-specific environmental factors are now starting to be considered by NASA and other engineering teams. Learning from NASA's Apollo Missions to the Moon, where lunar dust turned out to be a significant challenge to mission and crew safety, attention is now turning to the dust in Mars' atmosphere and regolith. To start the process of identifying possible dust-caused challenges to the human presence on Mars, and thus aid early engineering and mission design efforts, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Robotic Spacecraft Technical Discipline Team organized and conducted a Workshop on the "Dust in Mars' Atmosphere and Its Impact on the Human Exploration of Mars", held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), Houston, TX, June 13-15, 2017. The workshop addressed the following general areas: 1. What is known about Mars' dust in terms of its physical and chemical properties, its local and global abundance and composition, and its variability.2. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on human health.3. What is the impact of Mars atmospheric dust on surface mechanical systems (e.g., spacesuits, habitats, mobility systems, etc.). We present the top priority issues identified in the workshop.

  9. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of human skin hemodynamics using a digital red-green-blue camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kawase, Tatsuya; Maeda, Takaaki; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Niizeki, Kyuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Experiments using tissue-like agar gel phantoms demonstrated the ability of the developed method to quantitatively visualize the transition from an oxygenated blood to a deoxygenated blood in dermis. In vivo imaging of the chromophore concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the skin of the human hand are performed for 14 subjects during upper limb occlusion at 50 and 250 mm Hg. The response of the total blood concentration in the skin acquired by this method and forearm volume changes obtained from the conventional strain-gauge plethysmograph were comparable during the upper arm occlusion at pressures of both 50 and 250 mm Hg. The results presented in the present paper indicate the possibility of visualizing the hemodynamics of subsurface skin tissue.

  11. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca(2+)-sensitive and Ca(2+)-resistant human colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-10-08

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation.

  12. Growth-inhibitory effects of a mineralized extract from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, on Ca2+-sensitive and Ca2+-resistant human colon carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Hu, Xin; Chakrabarty, Subhas; Varani, James

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and differentiation were assessed in a series of human colon carcinoma cell lines in response to a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion calcareum. The extract contains 12% Ca2+, 1% Mg2+, and detectable amounts of 72 trace elements, but essentially no organic material. The red algae extract was as effective as inorganic Ca2+ alone in suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of colon carcinoma cells that are responsive to a physiological level of extracellular Ca2+ (1.4 mM). However, with cells that are resistant to Ca2+ alone, the extract was still able to reduce proliferation and stimulate differentiation. PMID:19394137

  13. Effect of low-power red light laser irradiation on the viability of human skin fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, K.; Rozga, B.; Leyko, W.; Bryszewska, M. [Institute of Biophysics, University of Lodz (Poland); Kolodziejczyk, K.; Szosland, D. [Diabetological Clinic, Medical Academy of Lodz (Poland)

    1998-10-01

    Human skin fibroblast monolayers (S-126 cell line) were exposed to laser radiation (wavelength 670 nm, power density 40 mW/cm{sup 2}). The energy densities were 2 J/cm{sup 2} and 12 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively, and the irradiation was carried out at a temperature of 22 C. For fibroblast viability evaluation, the colorimetric assay (conversion of thiazolyl blue to formazan) was used. The experiments were carried out at 37 C, in the presence of 5% CO{sub 2}, and at different time periods of incubation after irradiation (2, 4, 8 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days). The results indicated that there was a certain stimulating effect on the long-term proliferation of skin fibroblasts and that the stimulation proceeded in two stages, the first one 2 h and the second one 3 days post-irradiation. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  14. [3H]Ouabain binding and Na+, K+-ATPase in resealed human red cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, D.G.; Lauf, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of the cardiac glycoside [ 3 H]ouabain with the Na+, K+ pump of resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. Binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to high intracellular Na+ ghosts was studied in high extracellular Na+ media, a condition determined to produce maximal ouabain binding rates. Simultaneous examination of both the number of ouabain molecules bound per ghost and the corresponding inhibition of the Na+, K+-ATPase revealed that one molecule of [ 3 H]ouabain inhibited one Na+, K+-ATPase complex. Intracellular magnesium or magnesium plus inorganic phosphate produced the lowest ouabain binding rate. Support of ouabain binding by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was negligible, provided synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the residual adenylate kinase activity was prevented by the adenylate kinase inhibitor Ap5A. Uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) alone did not support ouabain binding after inhibition of the endogenous nucleoside diphosphokinase by trypan blue and depletion of residual ATP by the incorporation of hexokinase and glucose. ATP acting solely at the high-affinity binding site of the Na+, K+ pump (Km approximately 1 microM) promoted maximal [ 3 H]ouabain binding rates. Failure of 5'-adenylyl-beta-gamma-imidophosphate (AMP-PNP) to stimulate significantly the rate of ouabain binding suggests that phosphorylation of the pump was required to expose the ouabain receptor

  15. Long-term conservation of human red blood cells for transfusion; Langzeitkonservierung von menschlichen roten Blutkoerperchen zur Transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sputtek, A. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Transfusionsmedizin; Mingers, B. [Ing.-Buero Mingers, Willich-Anrath (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Since decades various cold conservation techniques have been available for storing cell-free as well as cell-containing components of human blood for long time periods. The development of a method based on hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and liquid nitrogen (=LN{sub 2}) has now greatly simplified the technical management of the cryoconservation of red blood cells (erythrocytes). This technique is meanwhile proven at the laboratory scale, in animal experiments, and clinical phase I and phase II tests on patients and test subjects. However, there are still a number of technical problems to be solved before it can be used at a larger scale. [Deutsch] Bereits seit Jahrzehnten koennen sowohl zellfreie als auch zellhaltige Komponenten des menschlichen Blutes durch unterschiedliche Kaeltekonservierungsverfahren ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum haltbar gemacht werden. Die technische Handhabung der Tiefkaelte-Konservierung von roten Blutkoerperchen (= Erythrozyten) konnte durch die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens unter Einsatz des Gefrierschutzadditivs Hydroxyethylstaerke (= HES) und Fluessigstickstoff (= LN{sub 2}) stark vereinfacht werden. Im Labormassstab, in Tierversuchen und in Klinischen Phase-I- und Phase-II-Pruefungen an Probanden bzw. Patienten hat es sich inzwischen bewaehrt. Vor einem `grosstechnischen` Einsatz sind allerdings noch eine Reihe von technischen Fragestellungen zu klaeren. (orig.)

  16. NO Metabolites Levels in Human Red Blood Cells are Affected by Palytoxin, an Inhibitor of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli-Alinovi, Cristiana; Tellone, Ester; Russo, Anna Maria; Ficarra, Silvana; Pirolli, Davide; Galtieri, Antonio; Giardina, Bruno; Misiti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Palytoxin (PTX), a marine toxin, represents an increasing hazard for human health. Despite its high toxicity for biological systems, the mechanisms triggered by PTX, are not well understood. The high affinity of PTX for erythrocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump is largely known, and it indicates PTX as a sensitive tool to characterize the signal transducer role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Previously, it has been reported that in red blood cells (RBC), probably via a signal transduction generated by the formation of a PTX-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase complex, PTX alters band 3 functions and glucose metabolism. The present study addresses the question of which other signaling pathways are regulated by Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in RBC. Here it has been evidenced that PTX following its interaction with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, alters RBC morphology and this event is correlated to decreases by 30% in nitrites and nitrates levels, known as markers of plasma membrane eNOS activity. Orthovanadate (OV), an antagonist of PTX binding to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, was able to reverse the effects elicited by PTX. Finally, current investigation firstly suggests that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump, following its interaction with PTX, triggers a signal transduction involved in NO metabolism regulation.

  17. Passive transport pathways for Ca2+ and Co2+ in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The passive transport of calcium and cobalt and their interference were studied in human red cells using (45)Ca and (57)Co as tracers. In ATP-depleted cells, with the ATP concentration reduced to about 1µM, the progress curve for (45)Ca uptake at 1mM rapidly levels off with time, consistent...... with a residual Ca-pump activity building up at increasing [Ca(T)](c) to reach at [Ca(T)](c) about 5µmol(lcells)(-1) a maximal pump rate that nearly countermands the passive Ca influx, resulting in a linear net uptake at a low level. In ATP-depleted cells treated with vanadate, supposed to cause Ca-pump arrest......, a residual pump activity is still present at high [Ca(T)](c). Moreover, vanadate markedly increases the passive Ca(2+) influx. The residual Ca-pump activity in ATP-depleted cells is fuelled by breakdown of the large 2,3-DPG pool, rate-limited by the sustainable ATP-turnover at about 40-50µmol(lcells)(-1)h(-1...

  18. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E.; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin’s pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin’s redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  19. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  20. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell (Na/sup +//K/sup +/) ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersected between 23 and 24 C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to a 6 W/kg dose rate at 1 C intervals between 23 and 27 C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. An hypothesis based on the interaction of microwave radiation with enzyme structure during a conformational rearrangement is proposed as an explanation for the effect.

  1. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  2. The Molecular Basis for Altered Cation Permeability in Hereditary Stomatocytic Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F. Flatt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal human RBCs have a very low basal permeability (leak to cations, which is continuously corrected by the Na,K-ATPase. The leak is temperature-dependent, and this temperature dependence has been evaluated in the presence of inhibitors to exclude the activity of the Na,K-ATPase and NaK2Cl transporter. The severity of the RBC cation leak is altered in various conditions, most notably the hereditary stomatocytosis group of conditions. Pedigrees within this group have been classified into distinct phenotypes according to various factors, including the severity and temperature-dependence of the cation leak. As recent breakthroughs have provided more information regarding the molecular basis of hereditary stomatocytosis, it has become clear that these phenotypes elegantly segregate with distinct genetic backgrounds. The cryohydrocytosis phenotype, including South-east Asian Ovalocytosis, results from mutations in SLC4A1, and the very rare condition, stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis, is caused by mutations in SLC2A1. Mutations in RHAG cause the very leaky condition over-hydrated stomatocytosis, and mutations in ABCB6 result in familial pseudohyperkalemia. All of the above are large multi-spanning membrane proteins and the mutations may either modify the structure of these proteins, resulting in formation of a cation pore, or otherwise disrupt the membrane to allow unregulated cation movement across the membrane. More recently mutations have been found in two RBC cation channels, PIEZO1 and KCNN4, which result in dehydrated stomatocytosis. These mutations alter the activation and deactivation kinetics of these channels, leading to increased opening and allowing greater cation fluxes than in wild type.

  3. Intact glycopeptide characterization using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Qu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wang, Zhe; Prytkova, Iya; Wu, Si

    2016-05-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most prominent and extensively studied protein post-translational modifications. However, traditional proteomic studies at the peptide level (bottom-up) rarely characterize intact glycopeptides (glycosylated peptides without removing glycans), so no glycoprotein heterogeneity information is retained. Intact glycopeptide characterization, on the other hand, provides opportunities to simultaneously elucidate the glycan structure and the glycosylation site needed to reveal the actual biological function of protein glycosylation. Recently, significant improvements have been made in the characterization of intact glycopeptides, ranging from enrichment and separation, mass spectroscopy (MS) detection, to bioinformatics analysis. In this review, we recapitulated currently available intact glycopeptide characterization methods with respect to their advantages and limitations as well as their potential applications.

  4. In Vitro Large Scale Production of Human Mature Red Blood Cells from Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Coculturing with Human Fetal Liver Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafei Xi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 109-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β-globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  5. Enhanced opsonisation of Rhesus D-positive human red blood cells by recombinant polymeric immunoglobulin G anti-G antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Solano, Dylana; Fuenmayor, Jaheli; Montaño, Ramon F

    2018-02-01

    Anti-RhD antibodies (anti-D) are important in the prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN) due to RhD incompatibility. Current preparations of anti-D are sourced from hyperimmune human plasma, so its production carries a risk of disease and is dependent on donor availability. Despite the efforts to develop a monoclonal preparation with similar prophylactic properties to the plasma-derived anti-D, no such antibody is yet available. Here we studied the agglutinating, opsonic and haemolytic activities of two recombinant polymeric immunoglobulins (Ig) against the G antigen of the Rh complex. Recombinant polymeric anti-G IgG1 (IgG1μtp) and IgG3 (IgG3μtp) were produced in vitro, purified by protein G-affinity chromatography, and analysed by gel electrophoresis. Their agglutinating, opsonic and haemolytic activities were evaluated using haemagglutination, erythrophagocytosis, and complement activation assays. The recombinant IgG1μtp and IgG3μtp anti-G antibodies ranged from 150,000 to 1,000,000 Da in molecular weight, indicating the formation of polymeric IgG. No complement activation or haemolytic activity was detected upon incubation of RhD-positive red-blood cells with the polymeric anti-G IgG. Both polymers were better opsonins than a prophylactic preparation of plasma-derived anti-D. The enhanced opsonic properties of the polymeric anti-G IgG1μtp and IgG3μtp could allow them to mediate the clearance of RhD-positive red blood cells from circulation more efficiently than natural or other synthetic prophylactic anti-D options. Their inability to induce complement-mediated haemolysis would be prophylactically convenient and is comparable in vitro to that of the available plasma-derived polyclonal anti-D preparations. The described properties suggest that polymeric antibodies like these (but with anti-D specificity) may be testable candidates for prophylaxis of HDFN caused by anti-D.

  6. Mutually exclusive expression of human red and green visual pigment-reporter transgenes occurs at high frequency in murine cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Smallwood, P M; Cowan, M; Blesh, D; Lawler, A; Nathans, J

    1999-04-27

    This study examines the mechanism of mutually exclusive expression of the human X-linked red and green visual pigment genes in their respective cone photoreceptors by asking whether this expression pattern can be produced in a mammal that normally carries only a single X-linked visual pigment gene. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice that carry a single copy of a minimal human X chromosome visual pigment gene array in which the red and green pigment gene transcription units were replaced, respectively, by alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase reporters. As determined by histochemical staining, the reporters are expressed exclusively in cone photoreceptor cells. In 20 transgenic mice carrying any one of three independent transgene insertion events, an average of 63% of expressing cones have alkaline phosphatase activity, 10% have beta-galactosidase activity, and 27% have activity for both reporters. Thus, mutually exclusive expression of red and green pigment transgenes can be achieved in a large fraction of cones in a dichromat mammal, suggesting a facile evolutionary path for the development of trichromacy after visual pigment gene duplication. These observations are consistent with a model of visual pigment expression in which stochastic pairing occurs between a locus control region and either the red or the green pigment gene promotor.

  7. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, W Henry [Danville, CA; Krauss, Ronald M [Berkeley, CA; Blanche, Patricia J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  8. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Michelle; Lexis, Louise; Lewandowski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs) and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs) volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P < 0.03), and significant decreases in plasma MDA (P < 0.001) and GSH (P < 0.004) in young and old subjects. The results show that the consumption of 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, significantly increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status. PMID:17888186

  9. Antimicrobial activity of a new intact skin antisepsis formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Antonello; Viotti, Pier Luigi; Vitali, Matteo; Clementi, Massimo

    2003-04-01

    Different antiseptic formulations have shown limitations when applied to disinfecting intact skin, notably short-term tolerability and/or efficacy. The purpose of this study was optimizing a new antiseptic formulation specifically targeted at intact skin disinfection and evaluating its in vitro microbicidal activity and in vivo efficacy. The biocidal properties of the antiseptic solution containing 0.5% chloramine-T diluted in 50% isopropyl alcohol (Cloral; Eurospital SpA Trieste, Italy) were measured in vitro versus gram-positive-, gram-negative-, and acid-alcohol-resistant germs and fungi with standard suspension tests in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Virus-inhibiting activity was evaluated in vitro against human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. Tests used different methods for the different biologic and in vitro replication capacity of these human viruses. Lastly, Cloral tolerability and skin colonization retardation efficacy after disinfection were studied in vivo. The antiseptic under review showed fast and sustained antimicrobial activity. The efficacy of Cloral against clinically important bacterial and viral pathogens and fungi was highlighted under the experimental conditions described in this article. Finally, microbial regrowth lag and no side effects were documented in vivo after disinfection of 11 volunteers. A stable chloramine-T solution in isopropyl alcohol may be suggested for intact skin antisepsis.

  10. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  11. Clearance of human IgG1-sensitised red blood cells in vivo in humans relates to the in vitro properties of antibodies from alternative cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Armour

    Full Text Available We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance.

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell proliferation with preserved red blood cell differentiation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Show Xuan; Leong, Yin Yee; Ng, Wai Hoe; Ng, Albert Wee Po; Ismail, Ida Shazrina; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Tan, Jun Jie

    2017-06-01

    Studies showed that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offered greater therapeutic effects but little is known regarding the effects of human Wharton's jelly derived MSCs on HSC expansion and red blood cell (RBC) generation in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MSCs on HSC expansion and differentiation. HSCs were co-cultured with MSCs or with 10% MSCs-derived conditioned medium, with HSCs cultured under standard medium served as a control. Cell expansion rates, number of mononuclear cell post-expansion and number of enucleated cells post-differentiation were evaluated. HSCs showed superior proliferation in the presence of MSC with mean expansion rate of 3.5 × 10 8  ± 1.8 × 10 7 after day 7 compared to the conditioned medium and the control group (8.9 × 10 7  ± 1.1 × 10 8 and 7.0 × 10 7  ± 3.3 × 10 6 respectively, P cell was greater compared to earlier passages, indicating successful RBC differentiation. Cord blood-derived CD34 + HSCs can be greatly expanded by co-culturing with MSCs without affecting the RBC differentiation capability, suggesting the importance of direct MSC-HSCs contact in HSC expansion and RBC differentiation. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Louise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status.

  14. Red - take a closer look.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L Buechner

    Full Text Available Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure or approach of reward (e.g., mating depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers' attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation.

  15. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...

  16. Epispadias in boys with an intact prepuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E. M. E.; Kuijper, C. F.; Chrzan, R. J.; Dik, P.; Klijn, A. J.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    To present an overview of the clinical presentation and pathological anatomy, and the results of surgical correction of 7 cases of epispadias with intact prepuce; a rare condition that has only occasionally been reported in literature. A retrospective search was performed in the surgical and

  17. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  18. Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ken-Ji; Carle, G. C.; Bunch, T. E.; Mendez, David J.; Ryder, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Small Particles Intact Capture Experiment (SPICE) will develop technologies and engineering techniques necessary to capture nearly intact, uncontaminated cosmic and interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). Successful capture of such particles will benefit the exobiology and planetary science communities by providing particulate samples that may have survived unaltered since the formation of the solar system. Characterization of these particles may contribute fundamental data to our knowledge of how these particles could have formed into our planet Earth and, perhaps, contributed to the beginnings of life. The term 'uncontaminated' means that captured cosmic and IDP particles are free of organic contamination from the capture process and the term 'nearly intact capture' means that their chemical and elemental components are not materially altered during capture. The key to capturing cosmic and IDP particles that are organic-contamination free and nearly intact is the capture medium. Initial screening of capture media included organic foams, multiple thin foil layers, and aerogel (a silica gel); but, with the exception of aerogel, the requirements of no contamination or nearly intact capture were not met. To ensure no contamination of particles in the capture process, high-purity aerogel was chosen. High-purity aerogel results in high clarity (visual clearness), a useful quality in detection and recovery of embedded captured particles from the aerogel. P. Tsou at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) originally described the use of aerogel for this purpose and reported laboratory test results. He has flown aerogel as a 'GAS-can Lid' payload on STS-47 and is evaluating the results. The Timeband Capture Cell Experiment (TICCE), a Eureca 1 experiment, is also flying aerogel and is scheduled for recovery in late April.

  19. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  20. Differential effect of HOE642 on two separate monovalent cation transporters in the human red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Ingolf; Weiss, Erwin; Robinson, Hannah C

    2007-01-01

    Residual K(+) fluxes in red blood cells can be stimulated in conditions of low ionic strength. Previous studies have identified both the non-selective, voltage-dependent cation (NSVDC) channel and the K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) exchanger as candidate pathways mediating this effect, although it is possible...... blood cell apoptosis (eryptosis) and disease....

  1. Transfusion of 35-day-stored red blood cells does not alter lipopolysaccharide tolerance during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Hezel, Maike E.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van der Spek, Anne H.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) encompasses immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects induced by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Changes that occur during storage in the RBC product have been hypothesized to underlie TRIM, mediated by tolerance of toll-like receptors (TLR). We

  2. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  3. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves : Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, MHA; Piersma, T; Damste, JSS; Dekker, Marlèn H.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  4. Calcium hydroxylapatite treatment of human skin: evidence of collagen turnover through picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerbinati N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Zerbinati,1 Alberto Calligaro2 1Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria (Varese and Polyspecialist Medical Center, Pavia, 2Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Histology and Embryology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA, Radiesse® is a biocompatible, injectable filler for facial soft-tissue augmentation that provides volume to tissues, followed by a process of neocollagenesis for improved skin quality. Objective: To examine the effects of CaHA treatment on the molecular organization of collagen using a combination of picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy.Methods: Five subjects received subdermal injection of 0.3 mL of CaHA in tissues scheduled for removal during abdominoplasty 2 months later. Tissue specimens from the CaHA injection site and a control untreated area were obtained from excised skin at the time of surgery. Processed tissue sections were stained with picrosirius red solution 0.1% and visualized under circularly polarized light microscopy for identification of thick mature (type I and thin newly formed (type III collagen fibers. Pixel signals from both the control and CaHA-treated areas were extracted from the images, and morphometric computerized hue analysis was performed to provide a quantitative evaluation of mature and newly formed collagen fibers.Results: Under picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy, green/yellow areas (thin newly formed collagen type III were visible among the collagen fibers in tissue sections from the area of CaHA injection. In contrast, the majority of the collagen fibers appeared red (thick mature collagen type I in control tissues. Morphometric analysis confirmed that, following CaHA treatment, the proportion of fibers represented by thin newly formed collagen type III increased significantly (p<0.01 in comparison with the

  5. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, K B

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada`s Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the `exclusion zone.` A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D{sub o}) for {sup 129}1 and {sup 14}C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D{sup i}) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs.

  6. Measurement of diffusive properties of intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.

    1996-12-01

    In the Postclosure Assessment of a Reference System for the Disposal of Canada's Nuclear Fuel Waste (Goodwin et al. 1994) the disposal vault is assumed to be surrounded by a zone of intact rock, referred to as the 'exclusion zone.' A sensitivity analysis of the relative effectiveness of the several engineered and natural barriers that contribute to the safety of the reference disposal system has shown that this zone of intact rock is the most effective of these barriers to the movement of radionuclides through the reference system. Peer review of the geosphere model used in the case study for the EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program has identified the need to quantify the properties of the intact rock surrounding the disposal vault that would control the transport of radionuclides by diffusion. The Postclosure Assessment also identified the need for appropriate values of the free water diffusion coefficient (D o ) for 129 1 and 14 C. The measurement of rock resistivity allows the calculation of the Formation Factor for a rock This review describes the Formation Factor, diffusivity, permeability, and porosity, and how these properties might be measured or inferred for insitu rock under the conditions that apply to the intact rock surrounding a potential disposal vault. The importance of measuring the intrinsic diffusion coefficient (D i ) of diffusing species under solution salinities simulating those of groundwaters is emphasised, and a method of measurement is described that is independent of the diffusing medium, and which would be appropriate for measurements made in chemically complex media such as groundwaters. (author). 95 refs., 4 tabs., 39 figs

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  8. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  9. Isolation of Functionally Intact Rhodoplasts from Griffithsia monilis (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Ross McC.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for isolating photosynthetically active rhodoplasts (“red algal chloroplasts”) from the marine alga Griffithsia monilis. The rhodoplasts exhibited rates of CO2 fixation and CO2-dependent O2 evolution in the order of 200 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll a per hour when illuminated with red or green light and were approximately 80% intact. The response of the rate of photosynthesis to the inorganic phosphate and pyrophosphate concentrations in the medium was qualitatively similar to that previously reported for spinach chloroplasts. Osmotically shocked rhodoplasts evolved O2 from ferricyanide in red, but not in green, light and were completely uncoupled. Rhodoplast envelope rupture appeared to be accompanied by phycobilisome loss from the thylakoids. Images PMID:16661632

  10. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  11. Sorption of cesium in intact rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puukko, E.

    2014-04-01

    The mass distribution coefficient K d is used in performance assessment (PA) to describe sorption of a radionuclide on rock. The R d is determined using crushed rock which causes uncertainty in converting the R d values to K d values for intact rock. This work describes a method to determine the equilibrium of sorption on intact rock. The rock types of the planned Olkiluoto waste disposal site were T-series mica gneiss (T-MGN), T-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (T-TGG), P-series tonalite granodiorite granite gneiss (P-TGG) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). These rocks contain different amount of biotite which is the main sorbing mineral. The sorption of cesium on intact rock slices was studied by applying an electrical field to speed up migration of cesium into the rock. Cesium is in the solution as a noncomplex cation Cs + and it is sorbed by ion exchange. The tracer used in the experiments was 134 Cs. The experimental sorption on the intact rock is compared with values calculated using the in house cation exchange sorption model (HYRL model) in PHREEQC program. The observed sorption on T-MGN and T-TGG rocks was close to the calculated values. Two PGR samples were from a depth of 70 m and three samples were from a depth of 150 m. Cesium sorbed more than predicted on the two 70 m PGR samples. The sorption of Cs on the three 150 m PGR samples was small which was consistent with the calculations. The pegmatitic granite PGR has the smallest content of biotite of the four rock types. In the case of P-TGG rock the observed values of sorption were only half of the calculated values. Two kind of slices were cut from P-TGG drill core. The slices were against and to the direction of the foliation of the biotite rims. The sorption of cesium on P-TGG rock was same in both cases. The results indicated that there was no effect of the directions of the electric field and the foliation of biotite in the P-TGG rock. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of intact plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraya, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Plastids are specialized cell organelles in plant cells that are differentiated into various forms including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts, and fulfill important functions in maintaining the overall cell metabolism and sensing environmental factors such as sunlight. It is therefore important to grasp the mechanisms of differentiation and functional changes of plastids in order to enhance the understanding of vegetality. In this chapter, details of a method for the extraction of intact plastids that makes analysis possible while maintaining the plastid functions are provided; in addition, a quantitative shotgun method for analyzing the composition and changes in the content of proteins in plastids as a result of environmental impacts is described.

  13. Oxidation of molecular tritium by intact soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.W.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the rate of oxidation of molecular tritium (T 2 ) to tritiated water (HTO) were determined for intact soils during field exposures. Maximum deposition velocities of approximately 0.03 cm/sec were measured for T 2 at low wind speeds for a variety of soils over a wide range of conditions. Deposition velocities were slightly inhibited in wet soils and at 0 0 C. In dry soils, oxidation of T 2 to HTO occurred deeper in the soil profile, but deposition velocities were unaffected

  14. Membrane-bound 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, W; Neuvians, M

    1970-12-01

    Gradual osmotic hemolysis of human erythrocytes reduces the cell content of whole protein, hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and triosephosphate isomerase extensively, but not that of membrane protein and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. After the refilling of the ghosts with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and reconstitution of the membrane, the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity equals that of intact red cells. The membrane-bound 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase can be activated by sodium hyposulfite. The enzyme system of ghosts seems to differ from that of intact red cells with regard to the optima of pH and temperature. It remains to be elucidated if the membrane binding of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase is related to the transfer of inorganic phosphate across the red cell membrane.

  15. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  16. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacteria of the human gut microbiome catabolize red seaweed glycans with carbohydrate-active enzyme updates from extrinsic microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Kelly, Amelia G.; Pudlo, Nicholas A.; Martens, Eric C.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2012-01-01

    Humans host an intestinal population of microbes—collectively referred to as the gut microbiome—which encode the carbohydrate active enzymes, or CAZymes, that are absent from the human genome. These CAZymes help to extract energy from recalcitrant polysaccharides. The question then arises as to if and how the microbiome adapts to new carbohydrate sources when modern humans change eating habits. Recent metagenome analysis of microbiomes from healthy American, Japanese, and Spanish populations ...

  18. Effects of ultraviolet-visible irradiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Persad, S.; Ranadive, N.S.; Haberman, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the possibility that ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of pheomelanin may be more harmful to cells than the irradiation in the presence of eumelanin. The effects of UV-visible irradiation upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in the presence of the melanin isolated from human black hair (eumelanin) or from red hair (pheomelanin) were investigated. Irradiation of these cells was found to produce cell lysis, as observed by leakage of 51Cr from labeled cells and intracellular lactic dehydrogenase from the cells and decrease in cell viability demonstrated by the trypan blue exclusion test. The three parameters were quantitatively parallel to one another under various experimental conditions, namely different periods of irradiation and irradiation in the presence of different concentrations of melanin. The above effects were more pronounced when the irradiation was carried out in the presence of melanin from red hair than in the presence of black-hair melanin. In the absence of either melanin, the irradiation did not produce any significant effect in cell viability or cell lysis. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of red-hair melanin also decreased the transplantability of these cells. These observations clearly show that irradiation of cells in the presence of pheomelanin could produce cytotoxic effects. The present experimental design may have application in the development of in vitro models for the study of UV radiation-induced cutaneous carcinogenesis. The reactions of pheomelanin may be related to the susceptibility of ''Celtic'' skin to UV radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis.

  19. An intact sequence-specific DNA-binding domain is required for human cytomegalovirus-mediated sequestration of p53 and may promote in vivo binding to the viral genome during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenke, Kyle; Samuel, Melanie A.; McDowell, Eric T.; Toerne, Melissa A.; Fortunato, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The p53 protein is stabilized during infection of primary human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). However, the p53 in HCMV-infected cells is unable to activate its downstream targets. HCMV accomplishes this inactivation, at least in part, by sequestering p53 into viral replication centers within the cell's nucleus soon after they are established. In order to better understand the interplay between HCMV and p53 and the mechanism of sequestration, we constructed a panel of mutant p53-GFP fusion constructs for use in transfection/infection experiments. These mutants affected several post-translational modification sites and several sites within the central sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the protein. Two categories of p53 sequestration were observed when the mutant constructs were transfected into primary fibroblasts and then infected at either high or low multiplicity. The first category, including all of the post-translational modification mutants, showed sequestration comparable to a wild-type (wt) control, while the second category, mutants affecting the DNA-binding core, were not specifically sequestered above control GFP levels. This suggested that the DNA-binding ability of the protein was required for sequestration. When the HCMV genome was analyzed for p53 consensus binding sites, 21 matches were found, which localized either to the promoters or the coding regions of viral proteins involved in DNA replication and processing as well as structural proteins. An analysis of in vivo binding to these identified sites via chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed differential binding to several of the sites over the course of infection

  20. Red Sirius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, D Ya

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changed its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries.

  1. Determination of the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabenstein, D.L.; Isab, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for determining the intracellular pH of intact erythrocytes by 1 H NMR. The determination is based on the pH dependence of the chemical shifts of resonances for carbon-bounded protons of an indicator molecule (imidazole) in intact cells. The imidazole is introduced into the erythrocytes by incubation in an isotonic saline solution of the indicator. The pH dependence of the chemical shifts of the imidazole resonances is calibrated from 1 H NMR spectra of the imidazole-containing red cell lysates whose pH is varied by the addition of acid or base and measured directly with a pH electrode. To reduce in intensity or eliminate the much more intense envelope of resonances from the hemoglobin, the 1 H NMR measurements are made by either the spin-echo Fourier transform technique or by the transfer-or-saturation by cross-relaxation method

  2. Clinical comparison of cardiac blood pool visualization with technetium-99m red blood cells labeled in vivo and with technetium-99m human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.; Rogers, W.L.; Clare, J.M.; Brown, M.L.; Pitt, B.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc-RBC) labeled by an in vivo technique were compared with two preparations of Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) for cardiac blood-pool imaging. Relative distribution of the tracers was analyzed on end-diastolic frames of gated blood-pool studies and on whole-body (head to mid-thigh) anterior pinhole images. The Tc-RBC demonstrated greater relative percentage localization in the cardiac blood pool, higher target-to-background ratios in the left ventricle, and less liver concentration. For cardiac blood-pool imaging, Tc-RBC labeled by the in vivo approach appears to be superior to the two Tc-HSA preparations studied

  3. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ( 3 H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented

  4. A new infusion pathway intactness monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    A new infusion pathway monitoring system has been developed for hospital and home use. The system consists of linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer which constantly monitors the infusion pathway intactness. An AC (alternating current) voltage is induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The induced AC voltage can be recorded by a main electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride tube. A reference electrode is wrapped on the electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltages and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone system).

  5. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FULL-LENGTH HUMAN HEME OXYGENASE-1: PRESENCE OF INTACT MEMBRANE-BINDING REGION LEADS TO INCREASED BINDING AFFINITY FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Warren J.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, this NADPH and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR)-dependent oxidation of heme also releases free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase is done using a 30-kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a GST-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30-kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, we attempted to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces lysine with arginine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild-type HO-1, the K254R mutant could be purified to a single 32-kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the wild-type enzyme. The K254R full-length form had a specific activity of ~200–225 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 HO-1 as compared to ~140–150 nmol bilirubin hr−1nmol−1 for the WT form, which contains the 30-kDa contaminant. This is a 2–3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30-kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other ER-resident enzymes. PMID:17915953

  6. Expression and characterization of full-length human heme oxygenase-1: the presence of intact membrane-binding region leads to increased binding affinity for NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Warren J; Backes, Wayne L

    2007-10-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the chief regulatory enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to biliverdin. In the process of heme degradation, HO-1 receives the electrons necessary for catalysis from the flavoprotein NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), releasing free iron and carbon monoxide. Much of the recent research involving heme oxygenase has been done using a 30 kDa soluble form of the enzyme, which lacks the membrane binding region (C-terminal 23 amino acids). The goal of this study was to express and purify a full-length human HO-1 (hHO-1) protein; however, due to the lability of the full-length form, a rapid purification procedure was required. This was accomplished by use of a glutathione-s-transferase (GST)-tagged hHO-1 construct. Although the procedure permitted the generation of a full-length HO-1, this form was contaminated with a 30 kDa degradation product that could not be eliminated. Therefore, attempts were made to remove a putative secondary thrombin cleavage site by a conservative mutation of amino acid 254, which replaces arginine with lysine. This mutation allowed the expression and purification of a full-length hHO-1 protein. Unlike wild type (WT) HO-1, the R254K mutant could be purified to a single 32 kDa protein capable of degrading heme at the same rate as the WT enzyme. The R254K full-length form had a specific activity of approximately 200-225 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 HO-1 as compared to approximately 140-150 nmol of bilirubin h-1 nmol-1 for the WT form, which contains the 30 kDa contaminant. This is a 2-3-fold increase from the previously reported soluble 30 kDa HO-1, suggesting that the C-terminal 23 amino acids are essential for maximal catalytic activity. Because the membrane-spanning domain is present, the full-length hHO-1 has the potential to incorporate into phospholipid membranes, which can be reconstituted at known concentrations, in combination with other endoplasmic reticulum resident enzymes.

  7. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  8. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahbazi, Ebrahim [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, Reza Salman [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini, E-mail: Salekdeh@royaninstitute.org [Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Systems Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  9. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma; Elkak, Assem; Denizli, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m 2 /g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma

  10. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Wirtz, K. W.; Op den Kamp, J. A.; van Deenen, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    1. The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  11. Transbilayer distribution and mobility of phosphatidylcholine in intact erythrocyte membranes. A study with phosphatidylcholine exchange protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Poorthuis, B.J.H.M.; Wirtz, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068427956; op den Kamp, J.A.F.; van Deenen, L.L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The exchange of phosphatidylcholine between intact human or rat erythrocytes and rat liver microsomes was greatly stimulated by phosphatidylcholine-specific exchange proteins from rat liver and beef liver. It was found, however, that compared to the exchange reaction between phospholipid vesicles

  12. Domestication and tameness: brain gene expression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélteky, Johan; Agnvall, Beatrix; Johnsson, Martin; Wright, Dominic; Jensen, Per

    2016-08-01

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypic modifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiology and reproduction, which are consistent across a range of species. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes could have evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness, an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting from an outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of all domestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or low fear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifth selected generation (S 5 ) showed a divergent pattern of growth and reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger and produced larger offspring. To examine underlying genetic mechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expression in thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fear and stress, in both the parental generation and the S 5 . While parents of the selection lines did not show any differentially expressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjusted p -values below 0.1 in S 5 . These were mainly related to sperm-function, immunological functions, with only a few known to be relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergent selection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamic gene expression profiles related to pathways associated with male reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis that domesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans.

  13. Nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and nanobiointeractions with red blood cells and human plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Leandro C.; de Araújo, Maciel M.; de Moraes, Ana Carolina M.; da Silva, Douglas S.; Ferreira, Ariane G.; Franqui, Lidiane S.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.; Alves, Oswaldo L.

    2018-04-01

    The current work refers to the development of a novel nanocomposite based on graphene oxide (GO) and mesoporous amino silica nanoparticles (H2N-MSNs) and its biological interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) and human blood plasma toward the investigation of nanobiointeractions. Silica nanoparticles and several graphene oxide-based materials are, separately, known for their high hemolytic potential and strong interaction with human plasma proteins. In this context, the GO-MSN interaction and its influence in minimizing the reported effects were investigated. The materials were synthesized by covalently attaching H2N-MSNs onto the surface of GO through an amidation reaction. GO-MSN nanocomposites were obtained by varying the mass of H2N-MSNs and were characterized by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TGA, zeta potential and TEM. The characterization results confirm that nanocomposites were obtained, suggest covalent bond attachment mostly by amine-epoxy reactions and evidence an unexpected reduction reaction of GO by H2N-MSNs, whose mechanism is proposed. Biological assays showed a decrease of hemolysis (RBC lysis) and a minimization of the interaction with human plasma proteins (protein corona formation). These are important findings toward achieving in vivo biocompatibility and understanding the nanobiointeractions. Finally, this work opens possibilities for new nanomedicine applications of GO-MSN nanocomposites, such as drug delivery system.

  14. Diverse captive non-human primates with phytanic acid-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial phytanic acid levels in their red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Ann B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humans and rodents with impaired phytanic acid (PA metabolism can accumulate toxic stores of PA that have deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Ruminants and certain fish obtain PA from the microbial degradation of dietary chlorophyll and/or through chlorophyll-derived precursors. In contrast, humans cannot derive PA from chlorophyll and instead normally obtain it only from meat, dairy, and fish products. Results Captive apes and Old world monkeys had significantly higher red blood cell (RBC PA levels relative to humans when all subjects were fed PA-deficient diets. Given the adverse health effects resulting from PA over accumulation, we investigated the molecular evolution of thirteen PA metabolism genes in apes, Old world monkeys, and New world monkeys. All non-human primate (NHP orthologs are predicted to encode full-length proteins with the marmoset Phyh gene containing a rare, but functional, GA splice donor dinucleotide. Acox2, Scp2, and Pecr sequences had amino acid positions with accelerated substitution rates while Amacr had significant variation in evolutionary rates in apes relative to other primates. Conclusions Unlike humans, diverse captive NHPs with PA-deficient diets rich in plant products have substantial RBC PA levels. The favored hypothesis is that NHPs can derive significant amounts of PA from the degradation of ingested chlorophyll through gut fermentation. If correct, this raises the possibility that RBC PA levels could serve as a biomarker for evaluating the digestive health of captive NHPs. Furthermore, the evolutionary rates of the several genes relevant to PA metabolism provide candidate genetic adaptations to NHP diets.

  15. Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  17. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  18. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine

  19. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  1. Pathophysiology of preterm labor with intact membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Excitons in intact cells of photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Arvi; Pajusalu, Mihkel; Rätsep, Margus

    2013-09-26

    Live cells and regular crystals seem fundamentally incompatible. Still, effects characteristic to ideal crystals, such as coherent sharing of excitation, have been recently used in many studies to explain the behavior of several photosynthetic complexes, especially the inner workings of the light-harvesting apparatus of the oldest known photosynthetic organisms, the purple bacteria. To this date, there has been no concrete evidence that the same effects are instrumental in real living cells, leaving a possibility that this is an artifact of unnatural study conditions, not a real effect relevant to the biological operation of bacteria. Hereby, we demonstrate survival of collective coherent excitations (excitons) in intact cells of photosynthetic purple bacteria. This is done by using excitation anisotropy spectroscopy for tracking the temperature-dependent evolution of exciton bands in light-harvesting systems of increasing structural complexity. The temperature was gradually raised from 4.5 K to ambient temperature, and the complexity of the systems ranged from detergent-isolated complexes to complete bacterial cells. The results provide conclusive evidence that excitons are indeed one of the key elements contributing to the energetic and dynamic properties of photosynthetic organisms.

  3. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  5. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and to elucidate the involvement or roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes. The parameters studied included the following: systolic blood pressure; body weight; food and fluid consumption; urine output; plasma and urine electrolytes; sodium balance; plasma renin activity; plasma corticosterone; renal vascular volume; renal vascular permeability (using 125 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone extravasation rate as an indicator); renal blood flow (using 42 K extraction); kidney weight; hematocrit; and total vascular, plasma, and red cell volumes. Renal x irradiation of intact rats caused polydipsia, polyuria, and reduced urine concentrations of sodium and potassium without significantly affecting blood pressure during the period of study (80 days); plasma renin activity was significantly lowered and had a positive correlation with blood volume; an abnormal blood volume-plasma renin activity relationship is suggested. Adrenalectomy caused prolonged hypotension in saline-maintained rats even though their sodium balance was more positive than that in adrenal-intact or adrenal-regenerating rats with normal or elevated blood pressure. The blood pressure of renally irrradiated, adrenalectomized rats was greater than non-irradiated adrenalectomized rats, but with only borderline significance; it is concluded that the absence of the adrenal glands does not affect the degree or duration of the effects of renal irradiation on blood pressure

  6. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel. Part III: Distribution homogeneity and pH dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekou, P.; Barksmann, T. L.; Christophersen, P.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneity of the distribution of the non-selective voltage-dependent cation channel (the NSVDC channel) in the human erythrocyte, and the pH dependence was investigated. Activation of this channel caused a uniform cellular dehydration, which was characterized by the changes in the erythrocyte...... osmotic resistance profiles: After 1/2 h of activation, the osmolarity at 50% hemolysis changed from 73 mM (control) to 34 mM NaCl, corresponding to 0.48% and 0.21% NaCl respectively. Unchanging standard deviations show participation of the entire erythrocyte population, which implies an even distribution...... of the NSVDC channel among the cells. Inactivation of the NSVDC channel with N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM) or blocking of the Cl- conductance with NS1652 retarded the migration of the resistance profiles towards lower osmolarities. The NSVDC channel activation was blocked by a decrease of the intracellular...

  8. Isolation of intact elastin fibers devoid of microfibrils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2005-01-01

    Purification protocols for elastin generally result in greatly damaged elastin fibers and this likely influences the biological response. We here describe a novel protocol for the isolation of elastin whereby the fibers stay intact, and introduce the term "elastin fiber" for intact elastic fibers

  9. 50 CFR 622.38 - Landing fish intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that is operating under the respective trip limits. Such cut-off fish also may be sold. A maximum of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Landing fish intact. 622.38 Section 622.38... Landing fish intact. The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring that fish...

  10. Release of proteins from intact chloroplasts induced by reactive oxygen species during biotic and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Verma, Dheeraj; Jin, Shuangxia; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Daniell, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress) or paraquat (abiotic stress), GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II) made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide), which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These results suggest a

  11. Release of proteins from intact chloroplasts induced by reactive oxygen species during biotic and abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Chul Kwon

    Full Text Available Plastids sustain life on this planet by providing food, feed, essential biomolecules and oxygen. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. However, specific factors, especially large molecules, released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have not yet been fully elucidated. When tobacco and lettuce transplastomic plants expressing GFP within chloroplasts, were challenged with Erwinia carotovora (biotic stress or paraquat (abiotic stress, GFP was released into the cytoplasm. During this process GFP moves gradually towards the envelope, creating a central red zone of chlorophyll fluorescence. GFP was then gradually released from intact chloroplasts into the cytoplasm with an intact vacuole and no other visible cellular damage. Different stages of GFP release were observed inside the same cell with a few chloroplasts completely releasing GFP with detection of only red chlorophyll fluorescence or with no reduction in GFP fluorescence or transitional steps between these two phases. Time lapse imaging by confocal microscopy clearly identified sequence of these events. Intactness of chloroplasts during this process was evident from chlorophyll fluorescence emanated from thylakoid membranes and in vivo Chla fluorescence measurements (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II made before or after infection with pathogens to evaluate their photosynthetic competence. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion serve as signal molecules for generation of reactive oxygen species and Tiron, scavenger of superoxide anion, blocked release of GFP from chloroplasts. Significant increase in ion leakage in the presence of paraquat and light suggests changes in the chloroplast envelope to facilitate protein release. Release of GFP-RC101 (an antimicrobial peptide, which was triggered by Erwinia infection, ceased after conferring protection, further confirming this export phenomenon. These

  12. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  13. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-08-18

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  14. Comparison of allergenicity and immunogenicity of an intact allergen vaccine and commercially available allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, L; Henmar, H; Würtzen, P A; Lund, G; Hjortskov, N; Larsen, J N

    2007-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy with intact allergen vaccine is a well-documented treatment for allergic diseases. Different vaccine formulations are currently commercially available, the active ingredient either being intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids. The rationale behind allergoids is to decrease allergenicity while maintaining immunogenicity. However, data from the German health authorities based on reporting of adverse events over a 10-year period did not indicate increased safety of allergoids over intact allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical modification on allergenicity and immunogenicity comparing four commercial allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy with an intact allergen vaccine. Solid-phase IgE inhibition and histamine release assays were selected as model systems for allergenicity, and a combination of human T cell proliferation and IgG titres following mouse immunizations were used to address the immunogenicity of the intact allergen vaccine and the four allergoids. In all assays, the products were normalized with respect to the manufacturer's recommended maintenance dose. IgE inhibition experiments showed a change in epitope composition comparing intact allergen vaccine with allergoid. One allergoid product induced enhanced histamine release compared to the intact allergens, while the other three allergoids showed reduced release. Standard T cell stimulation assays using lines from allergic patients showed a reduced response for all allergoids compared with the intact allergen vaccine regardless of the cell type used for antigen presentation. All allergoids showed reduced capacity to induce allergen-specific IgG responses in mice. While some allergoids were associated with reduced allergenicity, a clear reduction in immunogenicity was observed for all allergoid products compared with the intact allergen vaccine, and the commercial allergoids tested therefore do not fulfil the allergoid

  15. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  16. Rapid photolytic release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate from a protected analogue: utilization by the Na:K pump of human red blood cell ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, J.H.; Forbush, B. III; Hoffman, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    2-Nitrobenzyl phosphate and 1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl phosphate have been synthesized and demonstrated to be suitable as photolabile sources of inorganic phosphate. The same protecting groups were attached to the terminal phosphate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate. These caged ATP compounds released adenosine 5'-triphosphate on illumination at 340 nm in aqueous solution and P 3 -1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl-ATP gave about a 70 percent yield in under 30 s. The unphotolyzed caged ATP was neither a substrate nor inhibitor of purified renal Na,K-ATPase (EC 3.61.3). Following photolysis in the presence of the enzyme, the liberated ATP was hydrolyzed but at an inhibited rate. The photo-dependent inhibition could be eliminated by prior addition of glutathione or bisulfite to the irradiated solution. Caged ATP was incorporated into resealed human erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells depleted of internal energy stores. While the NA : K pump was unable to use incorporated caged ATP as a substrate, the ATP liberated by photolysis activated the pump as evidenced by measurements of K-dependent, ouabain-sensitive Na efflux. Thus the caged ATP can be used as a stable source of ATP unmetabolizable by intracellular ATPases until the ATP is released following photolytic irradiation

  17. Assessment of metal contamination in water, sediment, and tissues of Arius thalassinus fish from the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the potential human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic, the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd in water, sediment, and some vital organs of sea catfish, Arius thalassinus collected from polluted and unpolluted sites, were determined. The risk of these metals to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The results showed that the concentration order of metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The levels of studied metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were significantly higher in the polluted site than those of the unpolluted site, with few exceptions. Linear correlation incorporating paired variables (water-sediment, water-fish, and fish-fish) exhibited several significant correlations indicating a common metal pollution. The risk assessment performed revealed that fish consumption was safe for consumers. This field investigation provides a baseline data on metal pollution in this region.

  18. Influence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism on sodium-potassium permeability in human red blood cells: studies with bisulfite and other redox agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John C.

    1969-01-01

    It is known that bisulfite ions can selectively deplete red blood cells of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Studies of the effects of bisulfite on sodium-potassium permeability and metabolism were undertaken to clarify the physiologic role of the abundant quantities of 2,3-DPG in human erythrocytes. Treatment of cells with bisulfite results in a reversible increase in the passive permeability to Na and K ions. Metabolism of glucose to lactate is increased, with a rise in the intracellular ratio of fructose diphosphate to hexose monophosphate. Cell 2,3-DPG is quantitatively converted to pyruvate and inorganic phosphate. The permeability effects of bisulfite are countered by ethacrynic acid and by such oxidizing agents as pyruvate and methylene blue. Taken together, the results suggest that the effects on Na-K flux of bisulfite are related more to the reducing potential of this anion than to its capacity to deplete cells of 2,3-DPG. PMID:5765015

  19. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  20. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2014-09-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Jagdeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

  2. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Gaurav; Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test. The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used.

  3. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  4. Secretion of intact proteins and peptide fragments by lysosomal pathways of protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenman, L.D.; Dice, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    We report that degradation of proteins microinjected into human fibroblasts is accompanied by release into the culture medium of peptide fragments and intact proteins as well as single amino acids. For the nine proteins and polypeptides microinjected, acid-precipitable radioactivity, i.e. peptide fragments and/or intact proteins, ranged from 10 to 67% of the total released radioactivity. Peptide fragments and/or intact protein accounted for 60% of the radioactivity released into the medium by cells microinjected with ribonuclease A. Two major radiolabeled peptide fragments were found, and one was of an appropriate size to function as an antigen in antigen-presenting cells. The peptides released from microinjected ribonuclease A were derived from lysosomal pathways of proteolysis based on several lines of evidence. Previous studies have shown that microinjected ribonuclease A is degraded to single amino acids entirely within lysosomes. We show that release of free amino acids and peptide fragments and/or intact protein was equivalently stimulated by serum deprivation and equivalently inhibited by NH4Cl. We also show that lysosomal degradation of endocytosed [3H]ribonuclease A was accompanied by the release of two peptide fragments similar in size and charge to those from microinjected [ 3 H]ribonuclease A. These findings demonstrate that degradation within lysosomes occurs in a manner that spares specific peptides; they also suggest a previously unsuspected pathway by which cells can secrete cytosol-derived polypeptides

  5. Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer or other hormone-sensitive cancers. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  6. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  7. [Effect of low-energy 633 nm red light stimulation on proliferation and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Y; Li, D L; Duan, X D; Peng, D Z

    2016-09-20

    To investigate the changes of proliferative activity and reactive oxygen species level of human epidermal cell line HaCaT after being irradiated with low-energy 633 nm red light. Irradiation distance was determined through preliminary experiment. HaCaT cells were conventionally sub-cultured with RPMI 1640 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin. Cells of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into blank control group and 0.082, 0.164, 0.245, 0.491, 1.472, 2.453, 4.910, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups according to the random number table, with 3 wells in each group. Cells in blank control group were not irradiated, while cells in the latter 8 irradiation groups were irradiated with 633 nm red light for 10, 20, 30, 60, 180, 300, 600, and 1 200 s in turn. Cells were reirradiated once every 8 hours. After being irradiated for 48 hours (6 times) in irradiation groups, the proliferative activity of cells in 9 groups was determined with cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (2) Another batch of cells were grouped and irradiated as in experiment (1). After being irradiated for once in irradiation groups, cells in 9 groups were conventionally cultured for 60 min with detection reagent of reactive oxygen species. At post culture minute (PCM) 0 (immediately), 30, 60, and 120, reactive oxygen species level of cells was determined with microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) Another batch of cells were divided into blank control group, 0.082, 0.491, 2.453, and 9.810 J/cm(2) irradiation groups, and positive control group. Cells in blank control group and positive control group were not irradiated (positive control reagent of reactive oxygen species was added to cells in positive control group), and cells in irradiation groups were irradiated as in experiment (1) for once. The expression of reactive oxygen species in cells of each

  8. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  9. Sub-minute kinetics of human red cell fumarase: 1 H spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and 13 C rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wright, Alan J; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Gabriele; Brindle, Kevin M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture. The fumarase reaction was studied using time courses of 1 H spin-echo and 13 C-NMR spectra. 1 H-NMR experiments showed that the fumarase reaction in hemolysates is sufficiently rapid to make its kinetics amenable to study in a period of approximately 3 min, a timescale characteristic of hyperpolarized 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (RD-DNP) technique was used to hyperpolarize [1,4- 13 C]fumarate, which was injected into concentrated hemolysates. The kinetic data were analyzed using recently developed FmR α analysis and modeling of the enzymatic reaction using Michaelis-Menten equations. In RD-DNP experiments, the decline in the 13 C-NMR signal from fumarate, and the concurrent rise and fall of that from malate, were captured with high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, which allowed the robust quantification of fumarase kinetics. The kinetic parameters obtained indicate the potential contribution of hemolysis to the overall rate of the fumarase reaction when 13 C-NMR RD-DNP is used to detect necrosis in animal models of implanted tumors. The analytical procedures developed will be applicable to studies of other rapid enzymatic reactions using conventional and hyperpolarized substrate NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gamma ray induced oxidative damage to human red blood cells proteins under hypotonic conditions and its prevention by natural phenolic malabaricone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    As an oxygen shuttle, Human RBCs must continue to perform the task while being exposed to a wide range of environments for each vascular circuit and to a variety of xenobiotics across its life time. The inability to synthesise new protein makes them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress. Antioxidants can help in protecting the RBCs from oxidative insults. Currently herbal antioxidants gained worldwide popularity as drugs and food/drug supplements for the treatment of various diseases. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from M.malabarica (mal B and mal C) to prevent the biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to alterations in red blood cells proteins during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress. Compared to control gamma ray treatment with hypotonic stress resulted in significant haemolysis, associated with increased MDA (3.3 fold, p<0.001) and met-haemoglobin (7.0 fold, p<0.001). The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from SEM images and Heinz body formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K + efflux (30.4%, p<0.05) and increased intracellular Na + concentration (5.2%, p<0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p<0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by 54.7% and Na + -K + ATPase activity (48.%) indicated loss of RBC functionally. Pre-treatment of the RBCs with mal B (5μM), mal C (2.5 μM) or vitamin E (50 μM) for 1 h reversed these adverse effects of gamma radiation under hypotonic conditions on all these parameters and provided significant protection against oxidative haemolysis. (author)

  11. Friction coefficient of an intact free liquid jet moving in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we propose a novel method of determining the friction coefficient of intact free liquid jets moving in quiescent air. The middle-size jets of this kind are relevant for such applications as decorative fountains, fiber-forming, fire suppression, agriculture, and forensics. The present method is based on measurements of trajectories created using a straightforward experimental apparatus emulating such jets at a variety of initial inclination angles. Then, the trajectories are described theoretically, accounting for the longitudinal traction imposed on such jets by the surrounding air. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical predictions shows that the results can be perfectly superimposed with the friction coefficient {C_{{fd}}}=5R{e_d}^{{ - 1/2 ± 0.05}}, in the 621 ≤ R{e_d} ≤ 1289 range, with Red being the Reynolds number based on the local cross-sectional diameter of the jet. The results also show that the farthest distance such jets can reach corresponds to the initial inclination angle α =35° which is in agreement with already published data.

  12. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  13. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  14. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  15. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S; Doctor, Allan

    2017-10-01

    Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis. Specifically, RMPs are produced normally during RBC maturation and their production is accelerated during processing and storage for transfusion. Several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs from that of intact RBCs, and the nature and composition of RMP components are affected by both storage duration and the character of storage solutions. Recognised RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion, as well as influence upon vasoregulation via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Of particular relevance, RMPs are more avid NO scavengers than intact RBCs and this feature has been proposed as a mechanism for the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that has been observed following transfusion. Preliminary human studies demonstrate that circulating RMP abundance increases with RBC transfusion and is associated with altered plasma vasoactivity and abnormal vasoregulation. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from stored RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in transfusion recipients is an area of continued

  16. Mapping the World's Intact Forest Landscapes by Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of large natural forest landscapes is a highly important task to help fulfill different international strategic initiatives to protect forest biodiversity, to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and to stimulate sustainable forest management practices. This paper introduces a new approach for mapping large intact forest landscapes (IFL, defined as an unbroken expanse of natural ecosystems within areas of current forest extent, without signs of significant human activity, and having an area of at least 500 km2. We have created a global IFL map using existing fine-scale maps and a global coverage of high spatial resolution satellite imagery. We estimate the global area of IFL within the current extent of forest ecosystems (forest zone to be 13.1 million km2 or 23.5% of the forest zone. The vast majority of IFL are found in two biomes: Dense Tropical and Subtropical Forests (45.3% and Boreal Forests (43.8%. The lowest proportion of IFL is found in Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests. The IFL exist in 66 of the 149 countries that together make up the forest zone. Three of them - Canada, Russia, and Brazil - contain 63.8% of the total IFL area. Of the world's IFL area, 18.9% has some form of protection, but only 9.7% is strictly protected, i.e., belongs to IUCN protected areas categories I-III. The world IFL map presented here is intended to underpin the development of a general strategy for nature conservation at the global and regional scales. It also defines a baseline for monitoring deforestation and forest degradation that is well suited for use with operational and cost-effective satellite data. All project results and IFL maps are available on a dedicated web site (http://www.intactforests.org.

  17. Reef fish communities in the central Red Sea show evidence of asymmetrical fishing pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kattan, Alexander; Coker, Darren James; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess human impacts and develop rational restoration goals for corals reefs, baseline estimates of fish communities are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the Red Sea, widespread unregulated fishing is thought to have been ongoing for decades, but there is little direct evidence of the impact on reef communities. To contextualize this human influence, reef-associated fish assemblages on offshore reefs in Saudi Arabia and Sudan in the central Red Sea were investigated. These reefs have comparable benthic environments, experience similar oceanographic influences, and are separated by less than 300 km, offering an ideal comparison for identifying potential anthropogenic impacts such as fishing pressure. This is the first study to assess reef fish biomass in both these regions, providing important baselines estimates. We found that biomass of top predators on offshore Sudanese reefs was on average almost three times that measured on comparable reefs in Saudi Arabia. Biomass values from some of the most remote reefs surveyed in Sudan’s far southern region even approach those previously reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, Pitcairn Islands, and other isolated Pacific islands and atolls. The findings suggest that fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs, most conspicuously in the form of top predator removal. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation and enforcement of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia, while making a strong case for protection in the form of no-take marine protected areas to maintain preservation of the relatively intact southern Sudanese Red Sea.

  18. Reef fish communities in the central Red Sea show evidence of asymmetrical fishing pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kattan, Alexander

    2017-03-09

    In order to assess human impacts and develop rational restoration goals for corals reefs, baseline estimates of fish communities are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the Red Sea, widespread unregulated fishing is thought to have been ongoing for decades, but there is little direct evidence of the impact on reef communities. To contextualize this human influence, reef-associated fish assemblages on offshore reefs in Saudi Arabia and Sudan in the central Red Sea were investigated. These reefs have comparable benthic environments, experience similar oceanographic influences, and are separated by less than 300 km, offering an ideal comparison for identifying potential anthropogenic impacts such as fishing pressure. This is the first study to assess reef fish biomass in both these regions, providing important baselines estimates. We found that biomass of top predators on offshore Sudanese reefs was on average almost three times that measured on comparable reefs in Saudi Arabia. Biomass values from some of the most remote reefs surveyed in Sudan’s far southern region even approach those previously reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, Pitcairn Islands, and other isolated Pacific islands and atolls. The findings suggest that fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs, most conspicuously in the form of top predator removal. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation and enforcement of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia, while making a strong case for protection in the form of no-take marine protected areas to maintain preservation of the relatively intact southern Sudanese Red Sea.

  19. Fundamental studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) of human peripheral blood leukocytes using sheep red blood cells as target cells, and the effect of erythrophagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    We investigated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human peripheral blood leukocytes by using 51 Cr-labelled sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells and anti-SRBC rabbit antibody. Lysis of SRBC was mediated by either human peripheral lymphoid cells or phagocytes (Monocytes and granulocytes). SRBC were useful as target cells in ADCC assay against human lymphoid cells, since decreased cytotoxic activity of phagocyte-contaminated crude lymphocyte fraction was recovered by elimination of contaminating phagocytes. The monocytes inhibited ADCC of lymphoid cells through phagocytosis of SRBC. This assay system may be useful for estimating not only Fc receptor-mediated cytotoxicity but also Fc receptor-mediated phagocytic activity of human peripheral blood leukocytes. (author)

  20. A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus marker rates for directed versus volunteer blood donations to the American Red Cross during 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Kerri A; Moritz, Erin D; Steele, Whitney R; Eder, Anne F; Stramer, Susan L

    2013-06-01

    At most US blood centers, patients may still opt to choose specific donors to give blood for their anticipated transfusion needs. However, there is little evidence of improved safety with directed donation when compared to volunteer donation. The percentage of directed donations made to the American Red Cross (ARC) from 1995 to 2010 was determined. Infectious disease marker rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) were calculated for volunteer and directed donations made from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare marker-positive rates of directed donations to volunteer donations. The percentage of donations from directed donors declined from 1.6% in 1995 to 0.12% in 2010. From 2005 to 2010, the ARC collected 38,894,782 volunteer and 69,869 directed donations. Rates of HIV, HCV, HBV, and HTLV for volunteer donations were 2.9, 32.2, 12.4, and 2.5 per 100,000 donations, respectively; for directed, the rates were 7.2, 93.0, 40.1, and 18.6 per 100,000. After demographics and first-time or repeat status were adjusted for, corresponding ORs of viral marker positivity in directed versus volunteer donations were not significant for HIV, HBV, or HTLV and significant for HCV (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.90). Directed donations have declined by 92% at the ARC since 1995, but have higher viral marker rates than volunteer donations. The difference can be explained in part by the effects of first-time or repeat status of the donors. Patients considering directed donation should be appropriately counseled about the potential risks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, F.; Vogelhuber, M.

    2015-11-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature

  2. Assessment of geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay - Expert report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F. [Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETHZ, Zürich (Switzerland); Vogelhuber, M. [Dr. von Moos AG, Geotechnisches Büro, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI presents an expert report published on the assessment of the geomechanical properties of intact Opalinus Clay. This review report addresses the conceptual constitutive framework for repositories in Opalinus Clay. The author addresses the geomechanical fundamentals that are necessary in order to adequately judge experiments on intact Opalinus Clay and the interpretation of the results. The report assesses in detail the various test series on intact Opalinus Clay carried out along with the interpretations made by experts and NAGRA. Further assessments are quoted including those on sample geometries tested, effective strength properties, undrained shear strength properties and elastic properties. The results of work done by other experts are also presented and discussed. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature.

  3. Beta Adrenergic Regulation of Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses in Intact Rat and Isolated Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA allow large diameter particles of venous origin to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed and embolize the systemic arterial circulation. IPAVA have been routinely observed in healthy humans with exercise, hypoxia, and catecholamine infusion, but the mechanism by which they are recruited is not well-defined. We hypothesized that beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation recruits IPAVA and that receptor blockade would limit hypoxia-induced IPAVA recruitment. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the transpulmonary passage of microspheres in intact rats and isolated rats lung infused with the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol. We also evaluated IPAVA recruitment in intact rats with hypoxia and the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker propranolol. We found that IPAVA are recruited in the intact rat by isoproterenol and their recruitment by hypoxia can be minimized by propranolol, suggesting a role for the adrenergic system in the recruitment of IPAVA by hypoxia. IPAVA recruitment is completely abolished by ventilation with 100% oxygen. Isoproterenol also recruits IPAVA in isolated rat lungs. The fact that isoproterenol can recruit IPAVA in isolated lungs, without increased pulmonary flow, suggests that elevated cardiac output is not required for IPAVA recruitment.

  4. Ingested soluble CD14 from milk is transferred intact into the blood of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tonya L; Spencer, William J; Davis, Laura D R; Harrold, Joann; Mack, David R; Altosaar, Illimar

    2014-02-01

    Milk acts as an edible immune system that is transferred from mother to newborn. Soluble Cluster of Differentiation 14 (sCD14) is a protein found in significant quantities in human milk (~8-29 µg/ml). At a 10-fold lower concentration in the blood (~3 µg/ml), the most notable role of sCD14 is to sequester lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria from immune cells. To explore the pharmacodynamics of this milk protein and its biological fate, the biodistribution of radiolabeled sCD14 ((14)C, (125)I) was monitored in 10-d-old rat pups. Up to 3.4 ± 2.2% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed, intact, in the pup blood for up to 8 h post-ingestion. Additionally, 30.3 ± 13.0% of the radiolabeled sCD14 administered was observed degraded in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. A reservoir of intact, administered sCD14 (3.2 ± 0.3%), however, remained in the stomach at 8 h post-ingestion. Intact sCD14 was observed in the small intestine at 5.5 ± 1.6% of the dose fed at 8 h post-ingestion. The presence of intact sCD14 in the blood and the gastrointestinal tract of newborns post-ingestion has implications in the development of allergies, obesity, and other inflammation-related pathogeneses later in life.

  5. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent on human red blood corpuscles: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of various volumes of 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine gluconate and mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD by checking for hemolysis of human red blood corpuscles. Materials and Methods: A total volume of 100 μl of diluted red blood corpuscles obtained through centrifugation was added to three irrigating solutions (5.25% of sodium hypochlorite, 2% of chlorhexidine and MTAD of six test tubes each. Individual irrigants per group were added in increasing volume starting from the second test tube keeping the first one as the control. After incubation for 3 min hemoglobin content was measured using an automated hemoanalyzer data was analyzed using one sample t-test. Results: Sodium hypochlorite is the most cytotoxic solution followed by MTAD and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study suggests that the three irrigating solutions do cause detrimental effects on the diluted red blood corpuscles. A great deal of care should therefore be exercised when using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite during endodontic irrigation.

  7. Bioavailability and in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta an...

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  9. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  10. Behavior Management Style of Single Parents and Intact Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…

  11. Non-intact zona improves development of murine preimplantation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl5

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), .... Based on microscopic examination, the ZP of some ..... permeable structure of ZP that allowed penetration of.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs

  13. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-12-01

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470 nm......, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus....

  15. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470¿nm......, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus....

  16. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  17. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  18. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  19. Radioimmunolocalization and selective delivery of radiation in a rat model system: comparison of intact and fragmented antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.Z.; Seymour-Munn, K.; Axiak, S.M.; Raison, R.L.; Basten, A.; Towson, J.E.; Bautovitch, G.J.; Morris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) fragments are known to have advantages over intact immunoglobulins for radioimmunoscintigraphy. It is less clear whether they are as effective in the delivery of radioimmunotherapy. The imaging and dosimetric properties of an intact MoAb, K-1-21, reactive against human kappa light chains (LC) were compared with that of its F(ab') 2 and Fab fragments using a normal rat model system. Two days after injection of 131 I-K-1-21 into rats bearing antigen-sepharose implants, gamma camera images showed specific localization of the MoAb to the target (kappa LC) but not to the control (lambda LC) implant. Better images were obtained with K-1-21 F(ab') 2 than with Fab or intact antibody. Mean kappa implant: blood ratios were 8.6 ± 3.9 for Fab, 7.9 ± 1.8 for F(ab') 2 and 2.0 ± 0.3 for intact K-1-21. The improvement associated with the use of 131 I-K-1-21 fragments was, however, achieved at the expense of lower absolute values of activity at the target site. Thus the absorbed dose delivered to the implant by the intact K-1-21 was double that delivered with F(ab') 2 and six times that delivered with Fab. As intact K-1-21 also delivered a greater radiation dose to normal tissues, F(ab') 2 fragments may have the greatest overall advantages for therapy with radionuclide MoAb conjugates. (author)

  20. Allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose-relationship of three intact allergen vaccines and four allergoid vaccines for subcutaneous grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmar, H; Lund, G; Lund, L; Petersen, A; Würtzen, P A

    2008-09-01

    Different vaccines containing intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids as active ingredients are commercially available for specific immunotherapy. Allergoids are claimed to have decreased allergenicity without loss of immunogenicity and this is stated to allow administration of high allergoid doses. We compared the allergenicity and immunogenicity of four commercially available chemically modified grass pollen allergoid products with three commercially available intact grass pollen allergen vaccines. The allergenicity was investigated with immunoglobulin (Ig)E-inhibition and basophil activation assays. Human T cell proliferation and specific IgG-titres following mouse immunizations were used to address immunogenicity. Furthermore, intact allergen vaccines with different contents of active ingredients were selected to study the influence of the allergen dose. In general, a lower allergenicity for allergen vaccines was clearly linked to a reduced immunogenicity. Compared with the vaccine with the highest amount of intact allergen, the allergoids caused reduced basophil activation as well as diminished immunogenicity demonstrated by reduced T cell activation and/or reduced induction of murine grass-specific IgG antibodies. Interestingly, intact allergen vaccines with lower content of active ingredient exhibited similarly reduced allergenicity, while immunogenicity was still higher or equal to that of allergoids. The low allergenicity observed for some allergoids was inherently linked to a significantly lower immunogenic response questioning the rationale behind the chemical modification into allergoids. In addition, the linkage between allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose found for intact allergen vaccines and the immunogen as well as allergenic immune responses observed for allergoids suggest that the modified allergen vaccines do not contain high doses of immunologically active ingredients.

  1. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21 and Chung- wan(CV12 to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. Results : 1. For expression of mRNA of Cox-1 using RT-PCR, the control group and the experiment groups didn't show significant differences. For Cox-2, both experiment groups and the normal group showed significant decrease. 2.For expression of mRNA of Bcl-2 using RT-PCR, experiment groups showed slight decrease compared to the control group. For Bax, no significant changes were shown between the control group and experiment groups. 3.For survival time, all of experiment groups showed 11.1 % increase compared to the control group. 4. For IL-2 and IL-4 productivity using Flow cytometry, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 5.For IL-2 productivity using ELISA, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 6.For expression of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR, significant increase of IL-2 and IL-4 were witnessed in the experiment group II compared to the control group. Significant increase of IL-10 was shown in all of experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can expect that distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture may be further effects in anti-cancer and immune improvement if increasing concentration.

  2. Structural determination of intact proteins using mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Gary [San Francisco, CA; Schoeniger, Joseph S [Oakland, CA; Young, Malin M [Livermore, CA

    2008-05-06

    The present invention relates to novel methods of determining the sequence and structure of proteins. Specifically, the present invention allows for the analysis of intact proteins within a mass spectrometer. Therefore, preparatory separations need not be performed prior to introducing a protein sample into the mass spectrometer. Also disclosed herein are new instrumental developments for enhancing the signal from the desired modified proteins, methods for producing controlled protein fragments in the mass spectrometer, eliminating complex microseparations, and protein preparatory chemical steps necessary for cross-linking based protein structure determination.Additionally, the preferred method of the present invention involves the determination of protein structures utilizing a top-down analysis of protein structures to search for covalent modifications. In the preferred method, intact proteins are ionized and fragmented within the mass spectrometer.

  3. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  4. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  5. Isolation and Properties of Intact Chromoplasts from Tomato Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Norio, Iwatsuki; Ryuichi, Moriyama; Tadashi, Asahi; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Nagoya University

    1984-01-01

    Intact chromoplasts were isolated from tomato fruits at different ripening stages by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated chromoplast fractions were contaminated very little by other organelles, although the fraction from fully ripened fruits contained some mitochondria and microbodies. As the transformation of chloroplasts to chromoplasts proceeded, the density of the plastids decreased from 1.096 to 1.075g・cm^ and the decrease was related to a decrease in chlorophyll and an...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  7. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Gale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  8. Phase separation of the plasma membrane in human red blood cells as a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maulucci

    Full Text Available Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes. Here, through a functional two-photon microscopy approach we retrieved fluidity maps at submicrometric scale in RBC of T1DM patients with and without complications, detecting an altered membrane equilibrium. We found that a phase separation between fluid and rigid domains occurs, triggered by systemic effects on membranes fluidity of glycation and oxidation. The phase separation patterns are different among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. Blood cholesterol and LDL content are positively correlated with the extent of the phase separation patterns. To quantify this extent a machine learning approach is employed to develop a Decision-Support-System (DSS able to recognize different fluidity patterns in RBC. Preliminary analysis shows significant differences(p<0.001 among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. The development of an assay based on Phase separation of the plasma membrane of the Red Blood cells is a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and could allow customization and the selection of medical treatments in T1DM in clinical settings, and enable the early detection of complications.

  9. [The influence of pulsed low-intensity laser radiation of the red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra on the human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, S V; Kliuchnikov, D Iu; Antipov, E V; Volchkov, S E; Kiseleva, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have for a long time been an object of investigation with a view to elucidating the prospects for their application in clinical medicine and cosmetology. One of the approaches to the non-specific regulation of the activity of these cells at the stage of preliminary in vitro combination is the treatment with low-intensity laser radiation (LILR). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using pulsed LILR of the infrared and red spectra for this purpose. We used the 4th passage adhesive MSC cultures based at the umbilical tissue of a donor who gave the informed consent to participate in the study. The source of illumination was a Lazmik-VLOK laser therapeutic apparatus (RU No RZN 2014/1410 dated 06.02.2014) with the matrix laser infrared radiation heads (wavelength 904 nm, light pulse length 108 ns, frequency 1500 Hz). The apparatus was operated either in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.05 and 0.14 mW/cm2 and the red spectrum (wavelength 635 nm, light pulse length 144 ns, frequency 1500 Hz) or in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.03 and 0.12. The exposition was 5 min in both regimes. The study has demonstrated that neither the morphological structure nor the viability of mesenchymal stem cells changed under the influence of energy and time parameters used in experiments. The number of cells was shown to slightly increase in comparison with control. The most pronounced effect was documented after illumination with pulse infrared (904 nm) LILR in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime. The maximum effect was observed during a period between days 1 and 3 of cultivation.

  10. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    . Animals-12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers. Procedures-CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral...

  11. Application of a handheld Pressure Application Measurement device for the characterisation of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in intact pig tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Sandercock, Dale A.; Malcolm, Emma M.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of nociceptive thresholds is employed in animals and humans to evaluate changes in sensitivity potentially arising from tissue damage. Its application on the intact pig tail might represent a suitable method to assess changes in nociceptive thresholds arising from tail injury...... to the body was observed (P knowledge, no other...... nociceptive threshold in pig tails. This methodological approach is possibly suitable for assessing changes in tail stump MNTs after tail injury caused by tail docking and biting....

  12. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yong; Na, Gao; Chi, Fang-Lu; Jin, Kai; Pan, Tie-Zheng; Gao, Zhen

    2012-02-22

    Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI). However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM) has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears) were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1) the experiment group (on malleus): the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2) negative control group (in vivo): the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3) positive control group (Hy-M30): a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  13. Feasible pickup from intact ossicular chain with floating piezoelectric microphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hou-Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Many microphones have been developed to meet with the implantable requirement of totally implantable cochlear implant (TICI. However, a biocompatible one without destroying the intactness of the ossicular chain still remains under investigation. Such an implantable floating piezoelectric microphone (FPM has been manufactured and shows an efficient electroacoustic performance in vitro test at our lab. We examined whether it pick up sensitively from the intact ossicular chain and postulated whether it be an optimal implantable one. Methods Animal controlled experiment: five adult cats (eight ears were sacrificed as the model to test the electroacoustic performance of the FPM. Three groups were studied: (1 the experiment group (on malleus: the FPM glued onto the handle of the malleus of the intact ossicular chains; (2 negative control group (in vivo: the FPM only hung into the tympanic cavity; (3 positive control group (Hy-M30: a HiFi commercial microphone placed close to the site of the experiment ear. The testing speaker played pure tones orderly ranged from 0.25 to 8.0 kHz. The FPM inside the ear and the HiFi microphone simultaneously picked up acoustic vibration which recorded as .wav files to analyze. Results The FPM transformed acoustic vibration sensitively and flatly as did the in vitro test across the frequencies above 2.0 kHz, whereas inefficiently below 1.0 kHz for its overloading mass. Although the HiFi microphone presented more efficiently than the FPM did, there was no significant difference at 3.0 kHz and 8.0 kHz. Conclusions It is feasible to develop such an implantable FPM for future TICIs and TIHAs system on condition that the improvement of Micro Electromechanical System and piezoelectric ceramic material technology would be applied to reduce its weight and minimize its size.

  14. The uptake of radioactive iodine in rat intact Graafian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Lieberman, G.L.; Lieberman, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of iodine-131 in the ovaries of mammals has important implications in the use of I-131 for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease in women. The authors studied the I-131 uptake in whole ovaries and in isolated Graafian follicles of sexually mature rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, in groups of 5-6 animals, were injected IP with 10-50 μCi of I-131, at 3, 12, and 24 hrs prior to the day of proestrus and killed on the day of proestrus. The thyroid gland and ovaries were removed intact and these organs, as well as eight other tissue specimens, were weighed. The large preovulatory follicles (6-9/ovary) were then isolated under a dissecting microscope and the remaining ovary weighed. All samples were counted in a gamma well counter and the % dose/g estimated. The thyroid gland showed 23.7% dose/organ at 24 hrs. Blood decreased from 1.6% dose/g at 3 hrs to 0.5% dose/g at 24 hrs with the uterus showing 1.1% dose/g and 0.4% dose/g at the same times. Ovarian tissue was 0.5, 0.1, and 0.1% dose/g at 3,12, and 24 hrs respectively, while the intact Graafian follicles had from one-tenth to one-third the concentration of the ovary at the same times. (0.05, 0.03, and 0.03% dose/g). The authors found that the intact Graafian follicle concentrates approximately one-thirtieth to one-sixteenth of the I-131 in the blood and one-tenth to one-third of the I-131 in the ovary. This suggests that there is no active uptake of I-131 in the follicle or follicular fluid

  15. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  16. Decadal Stability of Red Sea Mangroves

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2015-12-15

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  17. Radionuclide sorption on crushed and intact granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Tryggve E.; Locklund, Birgitta

    1989-05-01

    The specific surface areas and distribution ratios for sorption of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 152 Eu were measured for crushed and intact granite rock. The experimental data can be accommodated by a sorption model encompassing sorption on outer and inner surface. It is clearly demonstrated that the time required to obtain reliable Kd-values for the sorption of strongly sorbing radionuclides like 152 Eu is very long due to solution depletion and slow diffusion into the rock. A combination of surface area measurements and batch sorption with small particles may therefore be preferable when studying strongly sorbing nuclides. (authors) (17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  18. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  19. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  20. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  1. Mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion chromatography for intact protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Hu, Zhuo; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-05-10

    A mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase C8PN composed of octyl and amino group has been developed for separation of intact protein. Before the separation of proteins, a set of probe compounds were employed to evaluate the chromatographic properties of C8PN, demonstrating typical reversed phase/positively charged repulsion interaction on this stationary phase as estimated. Then the new C8PN stationary phase was used to separate a standard protein mixture on the reversed phase mode. Compared with a commercial C4 stationary phase, it showed different selectivity for some proteins. In order to better understand the properties of C8PN, the effect of acetonitrile content was investigated based on retention equation. Higher values of the equation parameters on C8PN demonstrated that the protein retentions were more sensitive to the change of acetonitrile content. Besides, the influences of buffer salt additives on the protein retentions were also studied. The retention factors of the proteins got larger with the increase of buffer salt concentration, which confirmed the positively charged repulsion interaction on the column. Finally, the C8PN was further applied to separate oxidized- and reduced- forms of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. Our study indicated the advantages and application potential of mixed-mode reversed phase/positively charged repulsion stationary phase for intact protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of intact yeasts and cell extracts to reduce Scrapie prions during biotransformation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyben, David; Boqvist, Sofia; Passoth, Volkmar; Renström, Lena; Allard Bengtsson, Ulrika; Andréoletti, Olivier; Kiessling, Anders; Lundh, Torbjörn; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2018-02-08

    Yeasts can be used to convert organic food wastes to protein-rich animal feed in order to recapture nutrients. However, the reuse of animal-derived waste poses a risk for the transmission of infectious prions that can cause neurodegeneration and fatality in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity during the biotransformation of waste substrates-thereby becoming a biosafety hurdle in such a circular food system. During pre-screening, 30 yeast isolates were spiked with Classical Scrapie prions and incubated for 72 h in casein substrate, as a waste substitute. Based on reduced Scrapie seeding activity, waste biotransformation and protease activities, intact cells and cell extracts of 10 yeasts were further tested. Prion analysis showed that five yeast species reduced Scrapie seeding activity by approximately 1 log10 or 90%. Cryptococcus laurentii showed the most potential to reduce prion activity since both intact and extracted cells reduced Scrapie by 1 log10 and achieved the highest protease activity. These results show that select forms of yeast can act as a prion hurdle during the biotransformation of waste. However, the limited ability of yeasts to reduce prion activity warrants caution as a sole barrier to transmission as higher log reductions are needed before using waste-cultured yeast in circular food systems.

  3. IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Nielsen, H.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    epitopes have been suggested to be of great importance. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify IgE specific epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1, and to compare epitope patterns between humans and rats. MethodsSera from five peanut allergic patients and five Brown Norway rats were used...... to identify intact and digested Ara h 1-specific IgE epitopes by competitive immunoscreening of a phage-displayed random hepta-mer peptide library using polyclonal IgE from the individual sera. The resulting peptide sequences were mapped on the surface of a three-dimensional structure of the Ara h 1 molecule...... to mimic epitopes using a computer-based algorithm. ResultsPatients as well as rats were shown to have individual IgE epitope patterns. All epitope mimics were conformational and found to cluster into three different areas of the Ara h 1 molecule. Five epitope motifs were identified by patient IgE, which...

  4. Metabolism of inhaled ethane and pentane by the intact rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, M.S.; Luddent, T.M.; Burk, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of exhaled ethane or pentane is a noninvasive technique for studying in vivo lipid peroxidation. Many past studies have assumed that pentane and ethane are not metabolized. Radiolabeled ( 14 C) ethane and pentane were used to study the disposition of these compounds in intact rats. Rats were placed for 8 h in a closed plexiglass chamber fitted with a system for replenishing chamber atmospheric O 2 . Evolved CO 2 was trapped by recirculating chamber air through 3 N NaOH contained in a vessel external to the chamber. Radiolabeled ethane or pentane was injected into the chamber at the start of each experiment. The percent of 14 C-activity added to the chamber recovered in the CO 2 trap, urine, and chamber air at the end of the experiment (8 h) in the [ 14 C]-ethane (n=5) and [ 14 C]-pentane (n=4) studies are presented. Results indicate that both ethane and pentane are metabolized to CO 2 in the intact rat. Possible changes in ethane and pentane metabolism must be considered if the exhalation rates of these hydrocarbons are to be used as indices of in vivo lipid peroxidation

  5. Surface plasmon resonance sensing: from purified biomolecules to intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wen; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-12

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a well-recognized label-free technique for measuring the binding kinetics between biomolecules since the invention of the first SPR-based immunosensor in 1980s. The most popular and traditional format for SPR analysis is to monitor the real-time optical signals when a solution containing ligand molecules is flowing over a sensor substrate functionalized with purified receptor molecules. In recent years, rapid development of several kinds of SPR imaging techniques have allowed for mapping the dynamic distribution of local mass density within single living cells with high spatial and temporal resolutions and reliable sensitivity. Such capability immediately enabled one to investigate the interaction between important biomolecules and intact cells in a label-free, quantitative, and single cell manner, leading to an exciting new trend of cell-based SPR bioanalysis. In this Trend Article, we first describe the principle and technical features of two types of SPR imaging techniques based on prism and objective, respectively. Then we survey the intact cell-based applications in both fundamental cell biology and drug discovery. We conclude the article with comments and perspectives on the future developments. Graphical abstract Recent developments in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging techniques allow for label-free mapping the mass-distribution within single living cells, leading to great expansions in biomolecular interactions studies from homogeneous substrates functionalized with purified biomolecules to heterogeneous substrates containing individual living cells.

  6. Taxonomic and trait based recolonization dynamics of a riverine fish assemblage following a large scale human mediated disturbance: the red mud disaster in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Eros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the recovery of a fish assemblage following the catastrophic spill of highly alkaline (pH~13 red sludge into a lowland river (i to characterize taxonomic and trait based colonization of fishes in the river in the first three years of the recovery, and (ii to determine which structural and trait based variables best predicted colonization. Species richness showed comparable values to pre-disturbance state less than one year after the spill. We found only moderate changes in the dominance of the most abundant species between pre- and post-disturbance periods, and consistent changes in the relative abundance of some rare species during the post-disturbance period. Frequency of occurrence (% of the fishes in the watershed, and their relative abundance (% proved to be the most important predictor variables in colonization, whereas trait based variables had a less important role. Our study about one of the largest scale and most serious documented fish kill shows that both taxonomic and trait based structure of fish assemblages can regenerate remarkable fast in a modified river and also shows that unfortunate chemical spills provide insights into the assembly of stream fish assemblages.

  7. Combined nattokinase with red yeast rice but not nattokinase alone has potent effects on blood lipids in human subjects with hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nae-Cherng; Chou, Chien-Wen; Chen, Chung-Yin; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Yang, Yi-Chueh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study was to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of orally administrated nattokinase and nattokinase combined with red yeast rice (RYR) extract on blood lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. A total of 47 patients with hyperlipidemia were assigned to one of three groups: 1. nattokinase-mono formula (50 mg/capsule), 2. combined formula of nattokinase with RYR (300 mg of extract/capsule) and 3. placebo. Subjects received a twice daily dose of two capsules for six months. The mono formula showed no effects on blood lipids until month six, while the combined formula ameliorated all of measured lipids starting from month one. In the combined group significant decreases were found with regard to: triglycerides (TG) by 15%, total cholesterol (TC) by 25%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 41%, TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 29.5%, and increases in HDL-C by 7.5%. These changes were sustained until the end of study. After controlling for baseline levels, only the combined group, but not mono group, showed a significant difference (pnattokinase supplementation and shows that the combined formula has relatively more potent effects than the mono formula on lowering of blood lipids, suggesting that combined nattokinase with RYR will be a better neutraceutical for patients with hyperlipidemia than nattokinase alone.

  8. Test-retest repeatability of the pupil light response to blue and red light stimuli in normal human eyes using a novel pupillometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eHerbst

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at 2 selected wavelengths (660 nm and 470 nm, intensity 300 cd/m2 presented continuously for 20 seconds. Pupil responses were recorded in real time before, during and after light exposure. Maximal contraction amplitude and sustained contraction amplitude were calculated. In addition, we quantified the summed pupil response during continuous light stimulation as the total area between a reference line representing baseline pupil size and the line representing actual pupil size over 20 seconds (area under the curve. There was no significant difference in the repeated measure compared to the first test for any of the pupil response parameters. In conclusion, we have developed a novel prototype of color pupillometer which demonstrates good repeatability in evoking and recording the pupillary response to a bright blue and red light stimulus.

  9. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  10. When green and red mycology meet: Impressions from an interdisciplinary forum on virulence mechanisms of phyto- and human-pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yidong; Hube, Bernhard; Kämper, Jörg; Meyer, Vera; Krappmann, Sven

    2017-10-03

    Fungal infections pose a constant threat to plants and humans, but detailed knowledge about pathogenesis, immunity, or virulence is rather scarce. Due to the fact that a certain overlap in the armoury of infection exists between plant- and human-pathogenic fungi, an interdisciplinary forum was held in October 2016 at the Institute for Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene in Erlangen under the organisational umbrella from two special interest groups of German microbial societies. Scientific exchange and intense discussion of this timely topic was fostered by bringing together renowned experts in their respective fields to present their thoughts and recent findings in the course of a plenary lecture and six themed sessions, accompanied by oral and poster contributions of young researchers. By targeting the topic of fungal virulence mechanisms from various angles and in the context of plant and human hosts, some common grounds and exciting perspectives could be deduced during this vibrant scientific event.

  11. Next generation red teaming

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  12. Phase separation of the plasma membrane in human red blood cells as a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulucci, Giuseppe; Cordelli, Ermanno; Rizzi, Alessandro; De Leva, Francesca; Papi, Massimiliano; Ciasca, Gabriele; Samengo, Daniela; Pani, Giovambattista; Pitocco, Dario; Soda, Paolo; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Iannello, Giulio; De Spirito, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC) membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes. Here, through a functional two-photon microscopy approach we retrieved fluidity maps at submicrometric scale in RBC of T1DM patients with and without complications, detecting an altered membrane equilibrium. We found that a phase separation between fluid and rigid domains occurs, triggered by systemic effects on membranes fluidity of glycation and oxidation. The phase separation patterns are different among healthy, T1DM and T1DM with complications patients. Blood cholesterol and LDL content are positively correlated with the extent of the phase separation patterns. To quantify this extent a machine learning approach is employed to develop a Decision-Support-System (DSS) able to recognize different fluidity patterns in RBC. Preliminary analysis shows significant differences(pBlood cells is a potential tool for diagnosis and progression monitoring of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and could allow customization and the selection of medical treatments in T1DM in clinical settings, and enable the early detection of complications.

  13. Radiation-induced adaptive response in the intact mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio

    2009-01-01

    The author and coworkers have revealed that radiation adaptive response (AR) is seen also in the bone marrow of the intact mouse, of which details are described here. First, SPF ICR mice were pre-irradiated (PI) with 0-0.1 Gy of X-ray and after 2 months, subsequently irradiated (SI) with 7.75 Gy. Survival rates at 30 days after SI were about 14% in mice with PI 0-0.025 Gy whereas 40% or more in animals with PI 0.05-0.1 Gy: bone marrow death was found significantly suppressed in this effective PI dose range. The death 2 weeks after SI was found also inhibited at PI 0.3-0.5 Gy. Second, PI doses and interval between PI and SI for acquiring the radio-resistance (RR) were studied and third, the PI 0.3-0.5 Gy with SI 8.0 Gy at 9-17 days later revealed that regional PI of the head (central nervous system) was found unnecessary for RR and of abdomen (systems of hemopoiesis, immunity and digestion), essential. Fourth, strain difference of RR was shown by the fact that RR was observed only in C57BL mouse as well, but neither in BALB/c nor C3H strain. Next, at 12 days after SI 4.25-6.75 Gy (PI 0.5 Gy at 14 days before), mouse spleen cells were subjected to colony formation analysis by counting the endogenous hemopoietic stem cells, which revealed that those cells were increased to about 5 times by PI. Suppression of SI-induced hemorrhage was found in mice with PI by the decreased fecal hemoglobin content. Finally, AR was similarly studied in p53 +/+ and its knockout C57BL mice and was not found in the latter animal, indicating the participation of p53 in AR of the intact mouse. Elucidation of AR mechanisms in the intact animal seems to require somewhat different aspect from that in cells. The results were controvertible to the general concept that radiation risk is proportional to cumulative dose, suggesting that low dose radiation differs from high dose one in biological effect. (K.T.)

  14. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have characterized the transport of [ 3 H]indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration

  15. Simple Genome Editing of Rodent Intact Embryos by Electroporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas system is a powerful tool for genome editing in animals. Recently, new technology has been developed to genetically modify animals without using highly skilled techniques, such as pronuclear microinjection of endonucleases. Technique for animal knockout system by electroporation (TAKE method is a simple and effective technology that produces knockout rats by introducing endonuclease mRNAs into intact embryos using electroporation. Using TAKE method and CRISPR/Cas system, the present study successfully produced knockout and knock-in mice and rats. The mice and rats derived from embryos electroporated with Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN comprised the edited targeted gene as a knockout (67% of mice and 88% of rats or knock-in (both 33%. The TAKE method could be widely used as a powerful tool to produce genetically modified animals by genome editing.

  16. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to (/sup 14/C)dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride.

  17. Selective dansylation of M protein within intact influenza virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.H.; Bennett, J.C.; Compans, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of purified influenza virions to [ 14 C]dansyl chloride resulted in the covalent attachment of the dansyl chromophore to the virion. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the dansyl chromophore was specifically coupled to the internal membrane (M) protein. Purification of the M protein by gel filtration followed by cyanogen bromide cleavage and peptide fractionation revealed that four of six peptide peaks contained dansyl label. Acid hydrolysis of the separated peptide peaks followed by thin-layer chromatography revealed that dansyl label was coupled to lysine residues present in these peptides. The results of these investigations have demonstrated that the M protein molecule is the major viral polypeptide labeled when intact virions are exposed to dansyl chloride

  18. Astrophysics of Red Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2017-12-01

    'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.

  19. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  20. RED-ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye

    2017-01-01

    using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data....... With the availability of RED-ML, it is now possible to conveniently make RNA editing a routine analysis of RNA-seq. We believe this can greatly benefit the RNA editing research community and has profound impact to accelerate our understanding of this intriguing posttranscriptional modification process....

  1. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  2. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  3. Optimized Planning Target Volume for Intact Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Alvin; Jensen, Lindsay G.; Sun Shuai; Song, William Y.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Zhang Fuquan; Jiang, Steve B.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model interfraction clinical target volume (CTV) variation in patients with intact cervical cancer and design a planning target volume (PTV) that minimizes normal tissue dose while maximizing CTV coverage. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 50 patients undergoing external-beam radiotherapy for intact cervical cancer using daily online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCTs (n = 972) for each patient were rigidly registered to the planning CT. The CTV was delineated on the planning CT (CTV 0 ) and the set of CBCTs ({CTV 1 –CTV 25 }). Manual (n = 98) and automated (n = 668) landmarks were placed over the surface of CTV 0 with reference to defined anatomic structures. Normal vectors were extended from each landmark, and the minimum length required for a given probability of encompassing CTV 1 –CTV 25 was computed. The resulting expansions were used to generate an optimized PTV. Results: The mean (SD; range) normal vector length to ensure 95% coverage was 4.3 mm (2.7 mm; 1–16 mm). The uniform expansion required to ensure 95% probability of CTV coverage was 13 mm. An anisotropic margin of 20 mm anteriorly and posteriorly and 10 mm superiorly, inferiorly, and laterally also would have ensured a 95% probability of CTV coverage. The volume of the 95% optimized PTV (1470 cm 3 ) was significantly lower than both the anisotropic PTV (2220 cm 3 ) and the uniformly expanded PTV (2110 cm 3 ) (p 0 , 5–10 mm along the interfaces of CTV 0 with the bladder and rectum, and 10–14 mm along the anterior surface of CTV 0 at the level of the uterus. Conclusion: Optimizing PTV definition according to surface landmarking resulted in a high probability of CTV coverage with reduced PTV volumes. Our results provide data justifying planning margins to use in practice and clinical trials.

  4. Radioprotective activity of the Piper betle-derived phenolic, allylpyrocatechol against gamma-ray induced hemolysis of human red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    As an oxidative shuttle, human (RBCs) are most susceptible to oxidative damages leading to multiple diseases including haemolytic anemia that is a major public health problem in the developing countries. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from piper betle - allylpyrocatechol (APC) to prevent the alterations in the RBC membrane. The biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to damages in RBC membrane during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress were investigated

  5. The effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on rheological properties of rat, dog, pig and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ferenc; Toth, Eniko; Miszti-Blasius, Kornel; Nemeth, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory investigations often require centrifugation of blood samples for various erythrocyte tests. Although there is a lack of data about the effect of centrifugation at various g force levels on erythrocyte rheological properties. We aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-minute centrifugation at 500, 1000 or 1500 g at 15°C of rat, dog, pig and human venous (K3-EDTA, 1.5 mg/ml) blood samples. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, cell membrane stability, osmotic gradient ektacytometry (osmoscan) and erythrocyte aggregation were determined. Hematological and erythrocyte deformability parameters showed interspecies differences, centrifugation caused no significant alterations. Cell membrane stability for human erythrocytes centrifuged at higher g level showed less decrease in deformability. Osmoscan O min parameter showed slight elevation in dog centrifuged aliquots. Erythrocyte aggregation parameters changed unexpectedly. Rat and dog erythrocyte aggregation indices significantly dropped in centrifuged aliquots. Pig erythrocyte aggregation indices increased significantly after centrifugation. Human erythrocyte aggregation was the most stable one among the investigated species. The used centrifugation protocols caused the largest alterations in erythrocyte aggregation in a controversial way among the investigated species. On the other hand, erythrocyte deformability parameters were stable, cell membrane stability and osmoscan data show minor shifts.

  6. Infra-red laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for rapid prototyping, high yield, human neuronal cell patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raos, B J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Simpson, M C; Doyle, C S; Dickinson, M E; Bunting, A S; Murray, A F; Delivopoulos, E; Graham, E S

    2013-01-01

    Cell patterning commonly employs photolithographic methods for the micro fabrication of structures on silicon chips. These require expensive photo-mask development and complex photolithographic processing. Laser based patterning of cells has been studied in vitro and laser ablation of polymers is an active area of research promising high aspect ratios. This paper disseminates how 800 nm femtosecond infrared (IR) laser radiation can be successfully used to perform laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) whilst 248 nm nanosecond ultra-violet laser radiation produces photo-oxidization of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. In this work, we report the laser ablation methods used and the ablation characteristics of parylene-C for IR pulse fluences. Results follow that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells. We disseminate the variation in yield of patterned hNT astrocytes on parylene-C with laser pulse spacing, pulse number, pulse fluence and parylene-C strip width. The findings demonstrate how laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO 2 substrates can offer an accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning with broad application to multi-electrode arrays, cellular micro-arrays and microfluidics. (paper)

  7. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  8. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864.7100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell...

  10. Artificial Red Cells with Polyhemoglobin Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Y. Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:526-532, 1968. 12. Bunn, H. F., Seal, U. S...and Scott, A. F. The role of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate in mediating hemoglobin function of mammalian red cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences 241:498-519

  11. Why Rudolph's nose is red: Observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ince (Can); A.-M. van Kuijen (Anne-Marijevan); D.M.J. Milstein (Dan); K. Yuruk (Koray); L.P. Folkow (Lars P); W.J. Fokkens (Wytske); A.S. Blix (Arnoldus S)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of

  12. Low-affinity FcγR interactions can decide the fate of novel human IgG-sensitised red blood cells and platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Turner, Craig P; Kirton, Christopher M; Wilkes, Anthony M; Hadley, Andrew G; Ghevaert, Cedric; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    G1Δnab is a mutant human IgG1 constant region with a lower ability to interact with FcγR than the natural IgG constant regions. Radiolabelled RBCs and platelets sensitised with specific G1Δnab Abs were cleared more slowly from human circulation than IgG1-sensitised counterparts. However, non-destructive splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs required investigation and plasma radioactivities now suggest this also occurred for platelets sensitised with an IgG1/G1Δnab mixture. In vitro assays with human cells showed that G1Δnab-sensitised RBCs did not cause FcγRI-mediated monocyte activation, FcγRIIIa-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or macrophage phagocytosis although they did adhere to macrophages. Thus, FcγRII was implicated in the adhesion despite the Δnab mutation reducing the already low-affinity binding to this receptor class. Additional contacts via P-selectin enhance the interaction of sensitised platelets with monocytes and this system provided evidence of FcγRII-dependent activation by G1Δnab. These results emphasise the physiological relevance of low-affinity interactions: It appears that FcγRII interactions of G1Δnab allowed splenic retention of G1Δnab-coated RBCs with inhibitory FcγRIIb binding preventing RBC destruction and that FcγRIIb engagement by G1Δnab on IgG1/G1Δnab-sensitised platelets overcame activation by IgG1. Considering therapeutic blocking Abs, G1Δnab offers lower FcγR binding and a greater bias towards inhibition than IgG2 and IgG4 constant regions. PMID:24285214

  13. Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, bisphenol F and bisphenol AF induce different oxidative stress and damage in human red blood cells (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Cyrkler, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs are widely used in the production of various everyday use products, which leads to a common exposure of humans to these substances. The effect of bisphenols on oxidative stress parameters has not been described in detail in non-nucleated cells, therefore, we have decided to evaluate the impact of BPA and its analogs, i.e. bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with the compounds studied in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 or 24h. It has been found that bisphenols enhanced ROS (including • OH) formation, depleted GSH level, increased lipid peroxidation and changed the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. It has been noted that the strongest alterations in ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were induced by BPAF, which changed CAT and SOD activity even at 0.5μg/ml. It has also been shown that BPA caused the strongest changes in GSH level, while BPS, which is the main BPA substituent in the manufacture did not alter most parameters studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Large Scale Identification and Quantification of Conjugates of Intact and Gut Microbial Bioconversion Products of Polyphenols.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Vos, de C.H.; Bino, R.J.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Ridder, L.O.; Roo, de N.; Jacobs, D.M.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Vervoort, J.

    2013-01-01

    A human diet containing a significant amount of flavonoids, such as present in tea, red wine, apple, and cocoa has been associated with reduced disease risks. After consumption, a part of these flavonoids can be directly absorbed by the small intestine, but the greatest part passages towards the

  15. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Julio A. Landero; Stiner, Cory A.; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ICP-MS to measure metal ion content in biological tissues offers a highly sensitive means to study metal-dependent physiological processes. Here we describe the application of ICP-MS to measure membrane transport of Rb and K ions by the Na,K-ATPase in mouse skeletal muscles and human red blood cells. The ICP-MS method provides greater precision and statistical power than possible with conventional tracer flux methods. The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. PMID:26838181

  16. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  17. Status Report on the High-Throughput Characterization of Complex Intact O-Glycopeptide Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Adam; Klement, Eva; Hunyadi-Gulyas, Eva; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.

    2018-05-01

    A very complex mixture of intact, human N- and O-glycopeptides, enriched from the tryptic digest of urinary proteins of three healthy donors using a two-step lectin affinity enrichment, was analyzed by LC-MS/MS, leading to approximately 45,000 glycopeptide EThcD spectra. Two search engines, Byonic and Protein Prospector, were used for the interpretation of the data, and N- and O-linked glycopeptides were assigned from separate searches. The identification rate was very low in all searches, even when results were combined. Thus, we investigated the reasons why was it so, to help to improve the identification success rate. Focusing on O-linked glycopeptides, we noticed that in EThcD, larger glycan oxonium ions better survive the activation than those in HCD. These fragments, combined with reducing terminal Y ions, provide important information about the glycan(s) present, so we investigated whether filtering the peaklists for glycan oxonium ions indicating the presence of a tetra- or hexasaccharide structure would help to reveal all molecules containing such glycans. Our study showed that intact glycans frequently do not survive even mild supplemental activation, meaning one cannot rely on these oxonium ions exclusively. We found that ETD efficiency is still a limiting factor, and for highly glycosylated peptides, the only information revealed in EThcD was related to the glycan structures. The limited overlap of results delivered by the two search engines draws attention to the fact that automated data interpretation of O-linked glycopeptides is not even close to being solved. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C van der Steen

    Full Text Available Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15 and a matched control group (N = 15 on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo. In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.

  19. Basic Timing Abilities Stay Intact in Patients with Musician's Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273

  20. Intact information sampling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarian, Laura; Trinka, Eugen; Kuchukhidze, Giorgi; Bodner, Thomas; Unterberger, Iris; Luef, Gerhard; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported deficits in decision making under ambiguity for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). It is unknown whether mTLE is also associated with alterations at a predecisional stage. This study aimed to gain insight into predecisional processing of patients with mTLE. We compared performance of patients with mTLE (n = 25) with that of healthy controls (n = 75) on the information sampling task (IST), a task assessing reflection-impulsivity and predecisional information sampling. Patients and healthy controls showed a similar performance pattern in both conditions of the IST as indicated by the amount of information gathered, the degree of uncertainty tolerated, and the number of decision errors made. They both also demonstrated a significant sensitivity to the different reward characteristics of the task. For the patient group, we found no significant effects on performance on the IST of epilepsy lateralization, abnormality side, structural abnormality (hippocampus vs. amygdala), and medication (monotherapy vs. polytherapy). Reflection processes and predecisional information sampling as tested by the IST are intact in mTLE. Patients collect as much information as healthy individuals and adapt their behavior according to the changing reward conditions. Our findings indicate that in well-defined risk situations, where memory demands are sufficiently minimized, patients with mTLE should be able to gather sufficient information, weight risks and benefits, and make advantageous decisions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Assessment of mechanical strain in the intact plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew; Falvey, Eanna; Bryant, Adam L; Bartold, Simon; McCrory, Paul

    2009-09-01

    A method of measuring tri-axial plantar fascia strain that is minimally affected by external compressive force has not previously been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of micro-strain gauges to examine strain in the different axes of the plantar fascia. Two intact limbs from a thawed, fresh-frozen cadaver were dissected, and a combination of five linear and one three-way rosette gauges were attached to the fascia of the foot and ankle. Strain was assessed during two trials, both consisting of an identical controlled, loaded dorsiflexion. An ICC analysis of the results revealed that the majority of gauge placement sites produced reliable measures (ICC>0.75). Strain mapping of the plantar fascia indicates that the majority of the strain is centrally longitudinal, which provides supportive evidence for finite element model analysis. Although micro-strain gauges do possess the limitation of calibration difficulty, they provide a repeatable measure of fascial strain and may provide benefits in situations that require tri-axial assessment or external compression.

  2. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  3. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Intact unconscious processing of eye contact in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Seymour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of eye gaze is crucial for social interaction, providing essential information about another person’s goals, intentions, and focus of attention. People with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of social cognitive deficits, including abnormalities in eye gaze perception. For instance, patients have shown an increased bias to misjudge averted gaze as being directed toward them. In this study we probed early unconscious mechanisms of gaze processing in schizophrenia using a technique known as continuous flash suppression. Previous research using this technique to render faces with direct and averted gaze initially invisible reveals that direct eye contact gains privileged access to conscious awareness in healthy adults. We found that patients, as with healthy control subjects, showed the same effect: faces with direct eye gaze became visible significantly faster than faces with averted gaze. This suggests that early unconscious processing of eye gaze is intact in schizophrenia and implies that any misjudgments of gaze direction must manifest at a later conscious stage of gaze processing where deficits and/or biases in attributing mental states to gaze and/or beliefs about being watched may play a role.

  5. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  6. Research on intact marine ecosystems: a lost era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowitsch, Michael

    2003-07-01

    It is proposed that a new, fifth era should be added to the four historical phases of marine research identified by Rupert Riedl, specifically an era devoted to studying and ameliorating disturbed marine ecosystems. In an age of global environmental deterioration, many marine ecosystems and organisms are high on the list of threatened entities. This poor status prompts research that would otherwise have been unnecessary and hinders research that would normally have been conducted. I argue that research into intact marine ecosystems is becoming increasingly difficult, and that most of our future insights into marine habitats will stem from knowledge gained by examining various disfunctions of those systems rather than their functions. The new era will therefore differ from past research in its underlying aim, the range of topics studied, the selection and funding of those topics, the validity of its conclusions, and in its urgency. Sea turtles and cetaceans are cited as case studies at the organismic level, shallow-water benthic communities, including coral reefs, at the ecosystem level.

  7. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing [ 3 H]NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism. (Auth.)

  8. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  9. Genetic disruptions of Drosophila Pavlovian learning leave extinction learning intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Dubnau, J

    2010-03-01

    Individuals who experience traumatic events may develop persistent posttraumatic stress disorder. Patients with this disorder are commonly treated with exposure therapy, which has had limited long-term success. In experimental neurobiology, fear extinction is a model for exposure therapy. In this behavioral paradigm, animals are repeatedly exposed in a safe environment to the fearful stimulus, which leads to greatly reduced fear. Studying animal models of extinction already has lead to better therapeutic strategies and development of new candidate drugs. Lack of a powerful genetic model of extinction, however, has limited progress in identifying underlying molecular and genetic factors. In this study, we established a robust behavioral paradigm to study the short-term effect (acquisition) of extinction in Drosophila melanogaster. We focused on the extinction of olfactory aversive 1-day memory with a task that has been the main workhorse for genetics of memory in flies. Using this paradigm, we show that extinction can inhibit each of two genetically distinct forms of consolidated memory. We then used a series of single-gene mutants with known impact on associative learning to examine the effects on extinction. We find that extinction is intact in each of these mutants, suggesting that extinction learning relies on different molecular mechanisms than does Pavlovian learning.

  10. The role of red blood cell deformability and Na,K-ATPase function in selected risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in humans: focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, J; Vrbjar, N

    2016-09-19

    Deformability of red blood cells (RBC) is the ability of RBC to change their shape in order to pass through narrow capillaries in circulation. Deterioration in deformability of RBC contributes to alterations in microcirculatory blood flow and delivery of oxygen to tissues. Several factors are responsible for maintenance of RBC deformability. One of them is the Na,K-ATPase known as crucial enzyme in maintenance of intracellular ionic homeostasis affecting thus regulation of cellular volume and consequently RBC deformability. Decreased deformability of RBC has been found to be the marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors influences rheological properties of the blood. This review summarizes knowledge concerning the RBC deformability in connection with selected risk factors of CVD, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, based exclusively on papers from human studies. We attempted to provide an update on important issues regarding the role of Na,K-ATPase in RBC deformability. In patients suffering from hypertension as well as diabetes mellitus the Na,K-ATPase appears to be responsible for the changes leading to alterations in RBC deformability. The triggering factor for changes of RBC deformability during hypercholesterolemia seems to be the increased content of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes.

  11. A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.

  12. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  13. The intact capture of hypervelocity dust particles using underdense foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Carl R.; Borg, J.; Tanner, William G.; Stevenson, T. J.; Bibring, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    probability of survival for the impacting particle. The primary objectives of the experiment are to (1) Examine the morphology of primary and secondary hypervelocity impact craters. Primary attention will be paid to craters caused by ejecta during hypervelocity impacts of different substrates. (2) Determine the size distribution of ejecta by means of witness plates and collect fragments of ejecta from craters by means of momentum-sensitive mcropore foam. (3) Assess the directionality of the flux by means of penetration-hole alignment of thin films placed above the cells. (4) Capture intact the particles that perforated the thin film and entered the cell. Capture media consisted of both previously flight-tested micropore foams and aerogel. The foams had different latent heats of fusion and, accordingly, will capture particles over a range of momenta. Aerogel was incorporated into the cells to determine the minimum diameter than can be captured intact.

  14. Intensity modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Lutz, W.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. The primary goal was to develop an intensity modulated treatment which would substantially decrease the dose to coronary arteries, lung and contralateral breast while still using a standard tangential beam arrangement. Improved target dose homogeneity, within the limits imposed by opposed fields, was also desired. Since a major goal of the study was the development of a technique which was practical for use on a large population of patients, the design of 'standard' intensity profiles analogous in function to conventional wedges was also investigated. Materials and Methods: Three dimensional treatment planning was performed using both conventional and intensity modulated tangential beams. Plans were developed for both the right and left breast for a range of patient sizes and shapes. For each patient, PTV, lung, heart, origin and peripheral branches of the coronary artery, and contralateral breast were contoured. Optimum tangential beam direction and shape were designed using Beams-Eye-View display and then used for both the conventional and intensity modulated plans. For the conventional plan, the optimum wedge combination and beam weighting were chosen based on the dose distribution in a single transverse plane through the field center. Intensity modulated plans were designed using an algorithm which allows the user to specify the prescribed, maximum and minimum acceptable doses and dose volume constraints for each organ of interest. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and DVHs. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using the intensity modulated plan. Coronary artery dose decreased substantially for patients treated to the left breast. Ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast doses decreased for all patients. For one patient treated to

  15. Hemolysis of human red blood cells induced by the combination of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals: modulation by anaerobiosis, certain antioxidants and oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Sadovnic, M; Varani, J; Tirosh, O; Kohen, R

    1999-08-01

    The objective of the present communication is to describe the role played by combinations between diethydithiocarbamate (DDC) and divalent metals in hemolysis of human RBC. RBC which had been treated with DDC (10-50 microM) were moderately hemolyzed (about 50%) upon the addition of subtoxic amounts of Cu2+ (50 microM). However, a much stronger and a faster hemolysis occurred either if mixtures of RBC-DDC were immediately treated either by Co2+ (50 microM) or by a premixture of Cu2+ and Co2+ (Cu:Co) (50 microM). While Fe2+ and Ni2+, at 50 microM, initiated 30-50% hemolysis when combined with DDC (50 microM), on a molar basis, Cd2+ was at least 50 fold more efficient than any of the other metals in the initiation of hemolysis by DDC. On the other hand, neither Mn2+ nor Zn2+, had any hemolysis-initiating effects. Co2+ was the only metal which totally blocked hemolysis if added to DDC prior to the addition of the other metals. Hemolysis by mixtures of DDC + (Cu:Co) was strongly inhibited by anaerobiosis (flushing with nitrogen gas), by the reducing agents glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine, mercaptosuccinate, ascorbate, TEMPO, and alpha-tocopherol, by the PLA2 inhibitorbromophenacylbromide (BrPACBr), by tetracycline as well as by phosphatidyl choline, cholesterol and by trypan blue. However, TEMPO, BrPACBr and PC were the only agents which inhibited hemolysis induced by DDC: Cd2+ complexes. On the other hand, none of the classical scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) employed e.g dimethylthiourea, catalase, histidine, mannitol, sodium benzoate, nor the metal chelators desferal and phenanthroline, had any appreciable inhibitory effects on hemolysis induced by DDC + (Cu:Co). DDC oxidized by H2O2 lost its capacity to act in concert either with Cu2+ or with Cd2+ to hemolyze RBC. While either heating RBC to temperatures greater than 37 degrees C or exposure of the cells to glucose-oxidase-generated peroxide diminished their susceptibility to hemolysis, exposure to the

  16. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  17. Preferential flow through intact soil cores: Effects of matrix head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, H.W.; Gaber, H.M.; Wraith, J.M.; Huwe, B.; Inskeep, W.P.

    1999-12-01

    Continuous soil pores may act as pathways for preferential flow depending on their size and water status (filled or drained), the latter being largely controlled by the soil matrix head (h). The literature contains a wide range of proposed minimal pore sizes that may contribute to preferential flow. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between h (and corresponding pore sizes) and preferential solute transport in a naturally structured soil. Tracer ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O and pentafluorobenzoic acid, [PFBA]) miscible displacement experiments were performed at several h values in intact soil cores (15-cm diameter, 30-cm length) using an apparatus especially suited to maintain constant h while collecting large effluent volumes. To test for the occurrence of preferential flow, observed breakthrough curves (BTCs) were evaluated for physical nonequilibrium (PNE) using a comparison between fitted local equilibrium (PNE) and PNE models. Fitting results of the observed BTCs indicated absence of PNE in all solute transport experiments at h {le} {minus}10 cm. Experiments at h {ge} {minus}5 cm consistently exhibited PNE conditions, indicating the presence of preferential flow. These results suggest that soil pores with effective radii of 150 {micro}m and smaller (water-filled at h = {minus}10 cm) do not contribute to preferential flow. Observed pore water velocities were not indicative of the presence or absence of preferential flow conditions. Continuous measurements of soil water content ({theta}) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) revealed that at h = {minus}10 cm, <2% of the soil volume had drained.

  18. [Genetic system for maintaining the mitochondrial human genome in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, E P; Deryabina, Yu I; Velyakova, A V; Biryukova, J K; Teplova, V V; Shevelev, A B

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, the possibility of maintaining an intact human mitochondrial genome in a heterologous system in the mitochondria of yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is shown. A method for introducing directional changes into the structure of the mitochondrial human genome replicating in Y. lipolytica by an artificially induced ability of yeast mitochondria for homologous recombination is proposed. A method of introducing and using phenotypic selection markers for the presence or absence of defects in genes tRNA-Lys and tRNA-Leu of the mitochondrial genome is developed. The proposed system can be used to correct harmful mutations of the human mitochondrial genome associated with mitochondrial diseases and for preparative amplification of intact mitochondrial DNA with an adjusted sequence in yeast cells. The applicability of the new system for the correction of mutations in the genes of Lys- and Leu-specific tRNAs of the human mitochondrial genome associated with serious and widespread human mitochondrial diseases such as myoclonic epilepsy with lactic acidosis (MELAS) and myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is shown.

  19. Differences in School Behavior and Achievement between Children from Intact, Reconstituted, and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Darin R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed differences in school behavior and achievement among students (n=530) in grades six through nine from intact, reconstituted, and single-parent families. Students from intact, two-parent families had fewer absences and tardies, higher grade point averages, and fewer negative and more positive teacher behavioral ratings than did those from…

  20. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  1. Liver polyribosome distribution in intact and adrenalectomized rats exposed to. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatvin, M B; Abdel-Halim, M N [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology)

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism(s) by which gamma radiation influences liver polyribosome distribution was studied in groups of intact and adrenalectomized male rats. A shift from light to heavy aggregates occurred in the polyribosomes of both intact and adrenalectomized rats after they were exposed to gamma rays. In irradiated adrenalectomized rats, however, the shift to heavier aggregates was not as great as that which occurred in irradiated adrenal-intact animals. Subcutaneous injection of cortisone acetate (10 mg/100 g body weight) also altered the liver polyribosome patterns of both intact and adrenalectomized rats within 8 hours of its administration. The shift which occurred following cortisone administration, however, was less striking than that seen after irradiation only. Thus, although adrenal glucocorticoids contribute to the radiation-indu ied shift in liver polyribosomes in adrenal-intact rats, other factors appear to be involved, since the shift is also obtained in adrenalectomized animals.

  2. Intact and Implanted Femur Behavior During Walking and Jogging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papathanasopoulou, V

    2001-01-01

    ... not only at a single moment in time, but during the complete range of motion. In this study, a three-dimensional dynamic finite element model of the human femur during the gait cycle is developed...

  3. Androgens increase lws opsin expression and red sensitivity in male three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ta Shao

    Full Text Available Optomotor studies have shown that three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are more sensitive to red during summer than winter, which may be related to the need to detect the red breeding colour of males. This study aimed to determine whether this change of red light sensitivity is specifically related to reproductive physiology. The mRNA levels of opsin genes were examined in the retinae of sexually mature and immature fish, as well as in sham-operated males, castrated control males, or castrated males implanted with androgen 11-ketoandrostenedione (11 KA, maintained under stimulatory (L16:D8 or inhibitory (L8:D16 photoperiods. In both sexes, red-sensitive opsin gene (lws mRNA levels were higher in sexually mature than in immature fish. Under L16:D8, lws mRNA levels were higher in intact than in castrated males, and were up-regulated by 11 KA treatment in castrated males. Moreover, electroretinogram data confirmed that sexual maturation resulted in higher relative red spectral sensitivity. Mature males under L16:D8 were more sensitive to red light than males under L8:D16. Red light sensitivity under L16:D8 was diminished by castration, but increased by 11 KA treatment. Thus, in sexually mature male sticklebacks, androgen is a key factor in enhancing sensitivity to red light via regulation of opsin gene expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that sex hormones can regulate spectral vision sensitivity.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma C max of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  5. Endogenous spatial attention: evidence for intact functioning in adults with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Michael A.; Behrmann, Marlene; Egan, Ryan; Minshew, Nancy J.; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Lay Abstract Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted. Focusing on a certain location of the visual scene (visual spatial attention) enables the prioritization of some aspects of information while ignoring others. Rapid manipulation of the attention field (i.e., the location and spread of visual spatial attention) is a critical aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has produced inconsistent results. In a series of three experiments, we evaluated claims in the literature that individuals with ASD exhibit a deficit in voluntarily controlling the deployment and size of the spatial attention field. We measured how well participants perform a visual discrimination task (accuracy) and how quickly they do so (reaction time), with and without spatial uncertainty (i.e., the lack of predictability concerning the spatial position of the upcoming stimulus). We found that high–functioning adults with autism exhibited slower reactions times overall with spatial uncertainty, but the effects of attention on performance accuracies and reaction times were indistinguishable between individuals with autism and typically developing individuals, in all three experiments. These results provide evidence of intact endogenous spatial attention function in high–functioning adults with ASD, suggesting that atypical endogenous spatial attention cannot be a latent characteristic of autism in general. Scientific Abstract Rapid manipulation of the attention field (i.e., the location and spread of visual spatial attention) is a critical aspect of human cognition, and previous research on spatial attention in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has produced inconsistent results. In a series of three psychophysical experiments, we evaluated claims in the literature that individuals with ASD exhibit a deficit in voluntarily controlling the

  6. Intact fetal ovarian cord formation promotes mouse oocyte survival and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pera Renee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female reproductive potential, or the ability to propagate life, is limited in mammals with the majority of oocytes lost before birth. In mice, surviving perinatal oocytes are enclosed in ovarian follicles for subsequent oocyte development and function in the adult. Before birth, fetal germ cells of both sexes develop in clusters, or germline cysts, in the undifferentiated gonad. Upon sex determination of the fetal gonad, germ cell cysts become organized into testicular or ovarian cord-like structures and begin to interact with gonadal somatic cells. Although germline cysts and testicular cords are required for spermatogenesis, the role of cyst and ovarian cord formation in mammalian oocyte development and female fertility has not been determined. Results Here, we examine whether intact fetal ovarian germ and somatic cell cord structures are required for oocyte development using mouse gonad re-aggregation and transplantation to disrupt gonadal organization. We observed that germ cells from disrupted female gonad prior to embryonic day e13.5 completed prophase I of meiosis but did not survive following transplantation. Furthermore, re-aggregated ovaries from e13.5 to e15.5 developed with a reduced number of oocytes. Oocyte loss occurred before follicle formation and was associated with an absence of ovarian cord structure and ovary disorganization. However, disrupted ovaries from e16.5 or later were resistant to the re-aggregation impairment and supported robust oocyte survival and development in follicles. Conclusions Thus, we demonstrate a critical window of oocyte development from e13.5 to e16.5 in the intact fetal mouse ovary, corresponding to the establishment of ovarian cord structure, which promotes oocyte interaction with neighboring ovarian somatic granulosa cells before birth and imparts oocytes with competence to survive and develop in follicles. Because germline cyst and ovarian cord structures are conserved in the

  7. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  8. Red alder potential in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Brackley; David Nicholls; Mike Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, red alder has established itself as a commercially important species in the Pacific Northwest. Once considered a weed species, red alder now commands respect within many markets, including furniture, architectural millwork, and other secondary manufactured products. Although red alder's natural range extends to southeast Alaska, an...

  9. Intensity-modulated tangential beam irradiation of the intact breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.; Hunt, M.; Chui, C.; Spirou, S.; Forster, K.; Lee, H.; Yahalom, J.; Kutcher, G.J.; McCormick, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential benefits of intensity modulated tangential beams in the irradiation of the intact breast. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed on five left and five right breasts using standard wedged and intensity modulated (IM) tangential beams. Optimal beam parameters were chosen using beams-eye-view display. For the standard plans, the optimal wedge angles were chosen based on dose distributions in the central plane calculated without inhomogeneity corrections, according to our standard protocol. Intensity-modulated plans were generated using an inverse planning algorithm and a standard set of target and critical structure optimization criteria. Plans were compared using multiple dose distributions and dose volume histograms for the planning target volume (PTV), ipsilateral lung, coronary arteries, and contralateral breast. Results: Significant improvements in the doses to critical structures were achieved using intensity modulation. Compared with a standard-wedged plan prescribed to 46 Gy, the dose from the IM plan encompassing 20% of the coronary artery region decreased by 25% (from 36 to 27 Gy) for patients treated to the left breast; the mean dose to the contralateral breast decreased by 42% (from 1.2 to 0.7 Gy); the ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 30% (from 10% to 7%); the volume of surrounding soft tissue receiving more than 46 Gy decreased by 31% (from 48% to 33%). Dose homogeneity within the target volume improved greatest in the superior and inferior regions of the breast (approximately 8%), although some decrease in the medial and lateral high-dose regions (approximately 4%) was also observed. Conclusion: Intensity modulation with a standard tangential beam arrangement significantly reduces the dose to the coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, contralateral breast, and surrounding soft tissues. Improvements in dose homogeneity throughout the target volume can also be

  10. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  11. Red giants seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.

    2013-11-01

    The space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler are indiscreet. With their asteroseismic programs, they tell us what is hidden deep inside the stars. Waves excited just below the stellar surface travel throughout the stellar interior and unveil many secrets: how old is the star, how big, how massive, how fast (or slow) its core is dancing. This paper intends to paparazze the red giants according to the seismic pictures we have from their interiors.

  12. Multiplicar la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología comunicacional nos ha conducido precipitadamente a una existencia completamente nueva. En la carrera por crear una sociedad sustentable, una "red de redes mundiales" de computadoras personales que puedan ofrecer la primera esperanza real de acelerar ampliamente las comunicaciones. Las redes computacionales no solo sirven como un sistema de comunicación interactivo, rápido sino también como una herramienta de investigación de poderes insospechados.

  13. Lógicas para la red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia HUERTAS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tim Berners-Lee y sus colegas del World Wide Web Consortium (W3C llamaron «Semantic Web» al que sería el siguiente estadio de desarrollo de la red (inevitablemente traducido al castellano como Web Semántica. La idea detrás de esta evolución de la red es extender con metadatos y reglas lógicas la red basada en el lenguaje html, con el objetivo de que la infraestructura resultante permita a las máquinas entender los datos de la red de la misma forma que los entendemos los humanos. Así, añadir lógica a la red permitiría a los ordenadores tomar decisiones, hacer inferencias y responder preguntas. En este texto se pretende revisar las lógicas que han sido propuestas para permitir esta nueva web inteligente y repasar las cuestiones teóricas y pragmáticas más importantes de la corta pero intensa historia de las lógicas para la red.ABSTRACT: Tim Berners-Lee and their colleagues of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C called «Semantic Web» the next development of the Web. The idea behind this evolution of the Web is to extend the present network based on the HTML language with metadata and logical rules, with the aim of the resulting infrastructure allowing machines to understand Web data in the same way that human beings understand them. Thus, adding logic to the Web would allow the computers to take decisions, to do inferences and to answer questions. In this paper it is intended to revise the logics that have been suggested to allow this new intelligent Web and to revise the most important theoretical and pragmatic questions of the short but intense history of logics for the Web.

  14. Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Michael K; Jork, Christine; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Weber-Schehl, Marijke; Brixner, Veronika; Busch, Michael P; Geusendam, Geert; Gubbe, Knut; Mahnhardt, Christina; Mayr-Wohlfart, Uschi; Pichl, Lutz; Roth, W Kurt; Schmidt, Michael; Seifried, Erhard; Wright, David J

    2008-08-01

    The risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is predominantly attributable to donations given during the early stage of infection when diagnostic tests may fail. In 1997, nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-testing was introduced at the German Red Cross (GRC) blood donor services to reduce this diagnostic window period (WP). A total of 31,524,571 blood donations collected from 1997 through 2005 were screened by minipool NAT, predominantly with pool sizes of 96 donations. These donations cover approximately 80 percent of all the blood collected in Germany during that period. Based on these data, the WP risk in the GRC blood donor population was estimated by using a state-of-the-art mathematic model. During the observation period, 23 HCV, 7 HIV-1, and 43 HBV NAT-only-positive donations were detected. On the basis of these data and estimated pre-NAT infectious WPs, the residual risk per unit transfused was estimated at 1 in 10.88 million for HCV (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.51-19.72 million), 1 in 4.30 million for HIV-1 (95% CI, 2.39-21.37 million), and 1 in 360,000 for HBV (95% CI, 0.19-3.36 million). Based on observed cases of breakthrough infections, the risk of transfusion-related infections may be even lower. The risk of a blood recipient becoming infected with HCV, HIV-1, or HBV has reached an extremely low level. Introduction of individual donation testing for HCV and HIV-1 would have a marginal effect on interception of WP donations.

  15. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first......-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  16. Revisiting the Red Effect on Attractiveness and Sexual Receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard S. Peperkoorn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Color-in-context theory is the first theoretical framework for understanding color effects in human mate preferences, arguing that red clothing enhances attractiveness ratings. Here we present three empirical studies failing to support this prediction. We aimed to extend the current literature by differentiating color effects by temporal context (short-term vs. long-term mating. Experiment 1 involved Dutch participants rating a woman in red, white, and black on (sexual attractiveness. Experiment 2 replicated the first experiment with an American sample. In the final experiment, we aimed to replicate a study that did find evidence of a red effect, using a substantially larger sample size. The results from each of the three studies (totaling N = 830 men fail to support the red effect. We discuss the implications of our results and avenues for future research on red effects and attractiveness.

  17. Freeze-Dried Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    period in the liquid state. 2. The levels of glycolytic intermediates (ATP, adenosine 5’triphosphate; 2,3-DPG 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate ) in rehydrated...8217 diphosphate, ADP; adenosine 5 monophosphate, AMP; 2,3- diphosphoglycerate . 2.3-DPG and lactate: (2) measurement of cell indices (mean cell volume (MCV), mean...monophosphate: 2,3-DPG. 2.3- diphosphoglycerate : MCV. Mean Cell Volume: MCH, Mean Cell Hemoglobin: MCHC, Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentrations. ** Lactate levels

  18. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-de...

  19. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  20. Different Stationary Phase Selectivities and Morphologies for Intact Protein Separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astefanei, A.; Dapic, I.; Camenzuli, M.

    The central dogma of biology proposed that one gene encodes for one protein. We now know that this does not reflect reality. The human body has approximately 20,000 protein-encoding genes; each of these genes can encode more than one protein. Proteins expressed from a single gene can vary in terms

  1. Bone marrow dosimetry in rats using direct tissue counting after injection of radio-iodinated intact monoclonal antibodies or F(ab')2 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Chalandon, Y.; Pelegrin, A.; Hardman, N.; Mach, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Normal rats were injected intravenously with 131I- and 125I-labeled intact murine and chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibodies directed against carcinoembryonic antigen or with the corresponding F(ab')2 fragments. At different times after injection, individual animals were killed and radioactivity of blood and major organs, including bones and bone marrow, was determined. Ratios comparing radioactivity concentration in different tissues with that of bone marrow were calculated and found to remain stable during several effective half-lives of the antibodies. Mean bone marrow radioactivity was 35% (range, 29%-40%) of that of blood and 126% (range, 108%-147%) of that of liver after injection of intact Mabs or F(ab')2 fragments. In nude rats bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts producing carcinoembryonic antigen, relative bone marrow radioactivity was slightly lower than that in normal rats

  2. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liposomes and lipid disks traverse the BBB and BBTB as intact forms as revealed by two-step Förster resonance energy transfer imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongcheng Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB and the blood–brain tumor barrier (BBTB prevent drug and nano-drug delivery systems from entering the brain. However, ligand-mediated nano-drug delivery systems have significantly enhanced the therapeutic treatment of glioma. In this study we investigated the mechanism especially the integrity of liposomes and lipid disks while traversing the BBB and BBTB both in vitro and in vivo. Fluorophores (DiO, DiI and DiD were loaded into liposomes and lipid disks to form Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET nano-drug delivery systems. Using brain capillary endothelial cells as a BBB model, we show that liposomes and disks are present in the cytoplasm as their intact forms and traverse the BBB with a ratio of 0.68‰ and 1.67‰, respectively. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as BBTB model, liposomes and disks remained intact and traversed the BBTB with a ratio of 2.31‰ and 8.32‰ at 3 h. Ex vivo imaging and immunohistochemical results revealed that liposomes and disks could traverse the BBB and BBTB in vivo as intact forms. In conclusion, these observations explain in part the mechanism by which nano-drug delivery systems increase the therapeutic treatment of glioma. KEY WORDS: Liposomes, Disks, Intact form, BBB, BBTB, FRET

  4. DNA synthesis in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes of intact and hepatectomized young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, A; Inda, A M; Errecalde, A L

    2015-01-01

    DNA synthesis of hepatocytes in two areas of Intact and Hepatectomized young mice liver along a circadian period was studied. DNA synthesis was significantly different at all analyzed time points in Intact and Hepatectomized animals. Differences between periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were found in hepatectomized animals at 04/42 and 08/46 hr of day/hour post-hepatectomy. DNAs peak in periportal hepatocytes regenerating liver occurs 4 hr earlier than in perivenous hepatocytes, probably reflecting their shorter G1 phase. Besides, daily mean values of regenerating livers were higher than those observed in Intact animals, as a consequence of surgical removal.

  5. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. PMID:29084143

  6. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Siga Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  7. Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Laura Siga; Almeida, Eduardo Dytz; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Garavaglia, Juliano; Marcadenti, Aline

    2017-10-30

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF.

  8. Plasticity in intact A delta- and C-fibers contributes to cold hypersensitivity in neuropathic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, G; Zhou, S; Kochukov, M Y; Westlund, K N; Carlton, S M

    2007-11-30

    Cold hypersensitivity is a common sensory abnormality accompanying peripheral neuropathies and is difficult to treat. Progress has been made in understanding peripheral mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain but little is known concerning peripheral mechanisms of cold hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of uninjured primary afferents to the cold hypersensitivity that develops in neuropathic rats. Rats with a lumbar 5 (L5) and L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL, Chung model) but not sham, developed mechanical allodynia, evidenced by decreased paw withdrawal thresholds and increased magnitude of response to von Frey stimulation. Cold hypersensitivity also developed in SNL but not sham rats, evidenced by enhanced nociceptive behaviors induced by placement on a cold plate (6 degrees C) or application of icilin (a transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8)/transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) receptor agonist) to nerve-injured hind paws. Single fiber recordings demonstrated that the mean conduction velocities of intact L4 cutaneous A delta- and C-fibers were not different between naive and SNL rats; however, mechanical thresholds of the A delta- but not the C-fibers were significantly decreased in SNL compared with naive. There was a higher prevalence of C-mechanoheat-cold (CMHC) fibers in SNL compared with naive, but the overall percentage of cold-sensitive C-fibers was not significantly increased compared with naive. This was in contrast to the numerous changes in A delta-fibers: the percentage of L4 cold sensitive A delta-, but not C-fibers, was significantly increased, the percentage of L4 icilin-sensitive A delta-, but not C-fibers, was significantly increased, the icilin-induced activity of L4 A delta-, but not C-fibers, was significantly increased. Icilin-induced activity was blocked by the TRPA1 antagonist Ruthenium Red. The results indicate plasticity in both A delta- and C-uninjured fibers, but A delta fibers appear to provide a

  9. The color red distorts time perception for men, but not for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-07-31

    We investigated the effect of the color red on time perception using a temporal bisection task with human adults. The results showed that the perceived duration of a red screen was longer than was that of a blue screen. However, the results reflected sex differences; men, but not women, overestimated the duration of the red screen. Additionally, the reaction times to a red screen were faster than those to a blue screen, and we found a significant correlation between reaction time and the tendency to overestimate the duration of a red screen. Participants who reacted quickly to a red screen overestimated its duration. These results are discussed within the context of recent studies indicating that the color red exerts certain special psychological effects on human behavior.

  10. Impaired spontaneous anthropomorphizing despite intact perception and social knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Andrea S.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Humans spontaneously imbue the world with social meaning: we see not only emotions and intentional behaviors in humans and other animals, but also anger in the movements of thunderstorms and willful sabotage in crashing computers. Converging evidence supports a role for the amygdala, a collection of nuclei in the temporal lobe, in processing emotionally and socially relevant information. Here, we report that a patient with bilateral amygdala damage described a film of animated shapes (normally seen as full of social content) in entirely asocial, geometric terms, despite otherwise normal visual perception. Control tasks showed that the impairment did not result from a global inability to describe social stimuli or a bias in language use, nor was a similar impairment observed in eight comparison subjects with damage to orbitofrontal cortex. This finding extends the role of the amygdala to the social attributions we make even to stimuli that are not explicitly social and, in so doing, suggests that the human capacity for anthropomorphizing draws on some of the same neural systems as do basic emotional responses. PMID:15123799

  11. RedNemo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Erten, Cesim

    2017-01-01

    is their erroneous nature; they contain false-positive interactions and usually many more false-negatives. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed for network reconstruction based on topology, where given an input PPI network the goal is to reconstruct the network by identifying false...... material including source code, useful scripts, experimental data and the results are available at http://webprs.khas.edu.tr/∼cesim/Red Nemo. tar.gz CONTACT: cesim@khas.edu.tr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online....

  12. Deep Red (Profondo Rosso)

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Wednesday 29 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber    Deep Red (Profondo Rosso) Directed by Dario Argento (Italy, 1975) 126 minutes A psychic who can read minds picks up the thoughts of a murderer in the audience and soon becomes a victim. An English pianist gets involved in solving the murders, but finds many of his avenues of inquiry cut off by new murders, and he begins to wonder how the murderer can track his movements so closely. Original version Italian; English subtitles

  13. Red DirCom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce países congregados de manera activa, a través de una plataforma de encuentro donde se comparten conocimiento y experiencias en la gestión estratégica de la comunicación en las organizaciones. La red reconoce en el DirCom una figura clave del desarrollo corporativo en el nuevo contexto de los negocios, impulsa la exigencia ética a través de la formación y consolida la proyección profesional para posicionar la gestión integral del DirCom en Iberoamérica.

  14. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. Toward best practices in data processing and analysis for intact biotherapeutics by MS in quantitative bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, John F; Kehler, Jonathan R; Karlinsey, Molly Z; Summerfield, Scott G

    2017-12-01

    Typically, quantitation of biotherapeutics from biological matrices by LC-MS is based on a surrogate peptide approach to determine molecule concentration. Recent efforts have focused on quantitation of the intact protein molecules or larger mass subunits of monoclonal antibodies. To date, there has been limited guidance for large or intact protein mass quantitation for quantitative bioanalysis. Intact- and subunit-level analyses of biotherapeutics from biological matrices are performed at 12-25 kDa mass range with quantitation data presented. Linearity, bias and other metrics are presented along with recommendations made on the viability of existing quantitation approaches. This communication is intended to start a discussion around intact protein data analysis and processing, recognizing that other published contributions will be required.

  16. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-04

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  17. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H

    2001-07-01

    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.

  18. Listening to Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinazo Mtshemla

    Full Text Available Following a distinction John Mowitt draws between hearing (and phonics, and listening (and sonics, this article argues that the dominant notion of listening to sound was determined by the disciplinary framework of South African history and by the deployment of a cinematic documentary apparatus, both of which have served to disable the act of listening. The conditions of this hearing, and a deafness to a reduced or bracketed listening (Chion via Schaeffer that would enable us to think the post in post-apartheid differently, is thus at the centre of our concerns here. We stage a series of screenings of expected possible soundtracks for Simon Gush's film and installation Red, simultaneously tracking the ways that sound - and particularly music and dialogue - can be shown to hold a certain way of thinking both the political history of South Africa and the politics of South African history. We conclude by listening more closely to hiss and murmur in the soundtrack to Red and suggest this has major implications for considering ways of thinking and knowing.

  19. Superolateral Dislocation of Intact Mandibular Condyle: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Saikrishna, Degala; Shyam Sundar, S.; Mamata, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Anteromedial fracture dislocation of the mandibular condyle is common but a superolateral dislocation of an intact condyle is quite rare. This type of dislocation is often misdiagnosed or completely overlooked and hence inadequately addressed. We report a case of a 41-year-old male patient who experienced superolateral dislocation of the intact condyle with symphysis fracture and panfacial fracture following a road-traffic accident, and review of literature of superolateral dislocations from ...

  20. Impulse radar scanning of intact salt at the Avery Island Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1980-05-01

    A series of experiments was run in the Avery Island Mine to evaluate the capability of an impulse radar to locate anomalies and simulated waste targets in intact dome salt. Voids in salt were difficult to detect. On the positive side, metal targets and simulated waste (glass) were easily located in intact salt. Radar scanning at ranges of greater than 25 meters and short-range resolution of target positions to within a few centimeters were achieved

  1. Prediction of valid acidity in intact apples with Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping

    2005-01-01

    To develop nondestructive acidity prediction for intact Fuji apples, the potential of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method with fiber optics in interactance mode was investigated. Interactance in the 800 nm to 2619 nm region was measured for intact apples, harvested from early to late maturity stages. Spectral data were analyzed by two multivariate calibration techniques including partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods. A total of 120 Fuji appl...

  2. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  3. Risks for Conduct Disorder Symptoms Associated with Parental Alcoholism in Stepfather Families versus Intact Families from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael; Gardner, Charles O.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is not known if the prevalence of parental psychiatric disorders is higher in stepfather than intact families, or if parental alcoholism is differentially associated with risk for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in stepfather families versus intact families. Method: The sample comprised 839 girls and 741 boys from 792 intact families…

  4. Combination Efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and Curcuma wenyujin at Different Stages of Tumor Progression in an Imageable Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model of Metastatic Human Ovarian Cancer Expressing Red Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Tang, Decai; Dai, Jianguo; Liu, Min; Wu, Mianhua; Sun, Y U; Yang, Zhijian; Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Guo, Xiuxia

    2015-06-01

    The present study determined the efficacy of extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Curcuma wenyujin (CW), a traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture, at different tumor stages of an orthotopic nude mouse model of human ovarian cancer expressing red fluorescent protein. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with cisplatinum (CDDP), AM, CW, or a combination of AM and CW in each of three tumor stages, using the same regimen. Group 1 received saline as negative control. Group 2 received CDDP i.p. as positive control with a dose of 2 mg/kg, every three days. Group 3 received AM daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 9120 mg/kg. Group 4 received CW daily via oral gavage, at a dose of 4560 mg/kg. Groups 5, 6 and 7 received combinations of AM and CW daily via oral gavage at low (AM, 2280 mg/kg; CW, 1140 mg/kg), medium (AM, 4560 mg/kg; CW 2280 mg/kg), and high (AM, 9120 mg/kg; CW, 4560 mg/kg) doses. The expression of angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2), and by polymerase chain reaction for MMP-2, FGF-2 and Bcl-2. CDDP, AM, and its combination with CW-induced significant growth inhibition of Stage I tumors. Strong efficacy of the combination of AM and CW at high dose was observed. Monotherapy with CDDP, AM, CW, and the combination treatments did not significantly inhibit Stage II and III tumors. The expression of MMP-2, VEGF, FGF-2, and Cox-2 was significantly reduced in Stage I tumors treated with AM, CW, and their combination, suggesting a possible role of these angiogenesis- and apoptosis-related genes in the observed efficacy of the agents tested. This study is the first report on the efficacy of anticancer agents at different stages of ovarian cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. As the tumor progressed, it became treatment

  5. Investigation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Sequential Microplate-Based Respiration Measurements from Intact and Permeabilized Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Measurement of oxygen consumption from intact neurons enables evaluation of mitochondrial bioenergetics under conditions that are more physiologically realistic compared to isolated mitochondria. However, mechanistic analysis of mitochondrial function in cells is complicated by changing energy demands and lack of substrate control. Here we describe a technique for sequentially measuring respiration from intact and saponin-permeabilized cortical neurons on single microplates. This technique allows control of substrates to individual electron transport chain complexes following permeabilization, as well as side-by-side comparisons to intact cells. To illustrate the utility of the technique, we demonstrate that inhibition of respiration by the drug KB-R7943 in intact neurons is relieved by delivery of the complex II substrate succinate, but not by complex I substrates, via acute saponin permeabilization. In contrast, methyl succinate, a putative cell permeable complex II substrate, failed to rescue respiration in intact neurons and was a poor complex II substrate in permeabilized cells. Sequential measurements of intact and permeabilized cell respiration should be particularly useful for evaluating indirect mitochondrial toxicity due to drugs or cellular signaling events which cannot be readily studied using isolated mitochondria. PMID:22496810

  6. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Christina T.; Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B.; Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles; Jetten, Anton M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway

  7. Development of a stable cell line with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis for screening environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Christina T., E-mail: teng1@niehs.nih.gov [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Beames, Burton; Alex Merrick, B. [DNTP, BioMolecular Screening Branch, Division, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Martin, Negin; Romeo, Charles [DIR, Viral Core Lab, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Jetten, Anton M. [DIR Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • We developed a stable cell line with intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis. • The ERRα repressor, XCT790, down regulates this pathway. • Phytoestrogen, genisten stimulates this pathway. - Abstract: The estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) play critical roles in the control of several physiological functions, including the regulation of genes involved in energy homeostasis. However, little is known about the ability of environmental chemicals to disrupt or modulate this important bioenergetics pathway in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based assay system with an intact PGC-1α/ERRα axis that could be used as a screening assay for detecting such chemicals. To this end, we successfully generated several stable cell lines expressing PGC-1α and showed that the reporter driven by the native ERRα hormone response unit (AAB-Luc) is active in these cell lines and that the activation is PGC-1α-dependent. Furthermore, we show that this activation can be blocked by the ERRα selective inverse agonist, XCT790. In addition, we find that genistein and bisphenol A further stimulate the reporter activity, while kaempferol has minimal effect. These cell lines will be useful for identifying environmental chemicals that modulate this important pathway.

  8. Red Teaming: Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longbine, David F

    2008-01-01

    .... Key aspects of the Army red teaming definition are its emphasis on independent thinking, challenging organizational thinking, incorporating alternative perspectives, and incorporating alternative analysis...

  9. The Relationship of Temperature to Strength and Power Production in Intact Human Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    newton- meters (Nm). The use of the Cybex II isokinetic device has been similarly described by Thorstensson et al. (1976). The peak torque value, or the... isokinetic testing device at four lever arm speeds (0,60,180 and 300*/sec).Maximal knee exter- sions at the different lever arm speeds were evaluated for...Each subject was tested on the Cybex II isokinetic testing device at four lever arm speeds (0,60,180 and $Osec).Maximal knee exten- sions at the

  10. Red wine: A drink to your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T.S. Mohamed; Basha, S. Darbar

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity are still high in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury leading to myocardial infarction is one of the most frequent causes of the death in humans. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for CVD. From the literature collection, it has been identified that moderate consumption of red wine helps in preventing CVD through several mechanisms, including increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma levels, decreasing platelet aggregation, by antioxidant effects, and by restoration of endothelial function. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence that suggests that red wine possesses a diverse range of biological actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of CVD. PMID:21264180

  11. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  12. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  13. Screening hypochromism (sieve effect) in red blood cells: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi Naqvi, K

    2014-04-01

    Multiwavelength UV-visible spectroscopy, Kramers-Kronig analysis, and several other experimental and theoretical tools have been applied over the last several decades to fathom absorption and scattering of light by suspensions of micron-sized pigmented particles, including red blood cells, but a satisfactory quantitative analysis of the difference between the absorption spectra of suspension of intact and lysed red blood cells is still lacking. It is stressed that such a comparison is meaningful only if the pertinent spectra are free from, or have been corrected for, scattering losses, and it is shown that Duysens' theory can, whereas that of Vekshin cannot, account satisfactorily for the observed hypochromism of suspensions of red blood cells.

  14. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  15. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  16. Skeleton decay in red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2013-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a common tree species throughout the eastern United States and the Great Plains. Although “cedar” is in the common name, the scientifc name shows a botanical kinship to the juniper species of the American southwest. Red cedar can survive and thrive within a broad range of soil conditions, seasonal...

  17. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  18. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shao

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s. Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  19. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Yi; Wei, Xiaohua; Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Huang, Yuhui; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei; Liu, Juxiu; Meng, Ze; Wang, Chunlin; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Shizhong; Tang, Xu-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible.

  20. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J

    2002-07-01

    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  1. Intact mirror mechanisms for automatic facial emotions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Otte, Ellen; Adigüzel, Kübra; Firk, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Koch, Iring; Konrad, Kerstin

    2017-02-01

    It has been suggested that an early deficit in the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is an important feature of autism. Recent findings related to simple hand and finger movements do not support a general dysfunction of the MNS in autism. Studies investigating facial actions (e.g., emotional expressions) have been more consistent, however, mostly relied on passive observation tasks. We used a new variant of a compatibility task for the assessment of automatic facial mimicry responses that allowed for simultaneous control of attention to facial stimuli. We used facial electromyography in 18 children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 18 typically developing controls (TDCs). We observed a robust compatibility effect in ASD, that is, the execution of a facial expression was facilitated if a congruent facial expression was observed. Time course analysis of RT distributions and comparison to a classic compatibility task (symbolic Simon task) revealed that the facial compatibility effect appeared early and increased with time, suggesting fast and sustained activation of motor codes during observation of facial expressions. We observed a negative correlation of the compatibility effect with age across participants and in ASD, and a positive correlation between self-rated empathy and congruency for smiling faces in TDC but not in ASD. This pattern of results suggests that basic motor mimicry is intact in ASD, but is not associated with complex social cognitive abilities such as emotion understanding and empathy. Autism Res 2017, 10: 298-310. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An intact action-perception coupling depends on the integrity of the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Sultan, Fahad; Mueller, Oliver M; Goericke, Sophia L; Ilg, Winfried; Timmann, Dagmar

    2014-05-07

    It is widely accepted that action and perception in humans functionally interact on multiple levels. Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. We addressed this question studying patients with focal cerebellar lesions in a virtual-reality paradigm measuring the effect of action execution on action perception presenting self-generated movements as point lights. We measured the visual sensitivity to the point light stimuli based on signal detection theory. Compared with healthy controls cerebellar patients showed no beneficial influence of action execution on perception indicating deficits in APC. Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. Ipsilateral cerebellar motor representations are thought to support the somatosensory state estimate of ongoing movements, whereas the ventral dentate and the contralateral posterior cerebellum likely support sensorimotor integration in the cerebellar-parietal loops. Both the correct somatosensory as well as the multisensory state representations are vital for an intact APC.

  3. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Wei, X.; Wu, Y.; Huang, Y.; Yan, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.; Meng, Z.; Wang, C.; Chu, G.; Liu, S.; Tang, X.; Liu, Xiuying

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  5. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F. [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 m

  6. Direct glycan structure determination of intact N-linked glycopeptides by low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry and predicted spectral library searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Pei-Jing; Hu, Yingwei; Lam, Henry

    2016-08-31

    Intact glycopeptide MS analysis to reveal site-specific protein glycosylation is an important frontier of proteomics. However, computational tools for analyzing MS/MS spectra of intact glycopeptides are still limited and not well-integrated into existing workflows. In this work, a new computational tool which combines the spectral library building/searching tool, SpectraST (Lam et al. Nat. Methods2008, 5, 873-875), and the glycopeptide fragmentation prediction tool, MassAnalyzer (Zhang et al. Anal. Chem.2010, 82, 10194-10202) for intact glycopeptide analysis has been developed. Specifically, this tool enables the determination of the glycan structure directly from low-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra of intact glycopeptides. Given a list of possible glycopeptide sequences as input, a sample-specific spectral library of MassAnalyzer-predicted spectra is built using SpectraST. Glycan identification from CID spectra is achieved by spectral library searching against this library, in which both m/z and intensity information of the possible fragmentation ions are taken into consideration for improved accuracy. We validated our method using a standard glycoprotein, human transferrin, and evaluated its potential to be used in site-specific glycosylation profiling of glycoprotein datasets from LC-MS/MS. In addition, we further applied our method to reveal, for the first time, the site-specific N-glycosylation profile of recombinant human acetylcholinesterase expressed in HEK293 cells. For maximum usability, SpectraST is developed as part of the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), a freely available and open-source software suite for MS data analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-etching adhesive on intact enamel, with and without pre-etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarasa, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chaitra, N L; Swarna, Y M

    2012-05-01

    Bond strengths of composite resin to enamel using self-etch adhesive (SEA) Clearfil SE bond system on intact enamel and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid were compared. The objective was to determine if the pre-etching would increase the bond strengths of the SEA systems to intact enamel and to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on bond formation of self-etch adhesives on intact enamel. Labial surfaces of 40 caries free permanent upper central and lateral incisors were cleaned, sectioned of their roots. All specimens were mounted on acrylic block and divided randomly into four groups. In two groups the application of self-etch adhesive, Clearfil SE bond was carried as per manufacturer's instructions, composite cylinders were built, whereas in the other two groups, 37% phosphoric acid etching was done before the application of self-etching adhesives. Then the resin tags were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and shear bond strength was measured using Instron universal testing machine. When phosphoric acid was used, there was significant increase in the depth of penetration of resin tags and in the Shear Bond Strength of composite to enamel. The results indicate that out of both treatment groups, pre-etching the intact enamel with 37% phosphoric acid resulted in formation of longer resin tags and higher depth of penetration of resin tags of the Clearfil SE bond, and attaining higher bond strength of the Clearfil SE bond to intact enamel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Internal magnesium, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and the regulation of the steady-state volume of human red blood cells by the Na/K/2Cl cotransport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study is concerned with the relationship between the Na/K/Cl cotransport system and the steady-state volume (MCV) of red blood cells. Cotransport rate was determined in unfractionated and density- separated red cells of different MCV from different donors to see whether cotransport differences contribute to the difference in the distribution of MCVs. Cotransport, studied in cells at their original MCVs, was determined as the bumetanide (10 microM)-sensitive 22Na efflux in the presence of ouabain (50 microM) after adjusting cellular Na (Nai) and Ki to achieve near maximal transport rates. This condition was chosen to rule out MCV-related differences in Nai and Ki that might contribute to differences in the net chemical driving force for cotransport. We found that in both unfractionated and density-separated red cells the cotransport rate was inversely correlated with MCV. MCV was correlated directly with red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), whereas total red cell Mg was only slightly elevated in cells with high MCV. Thus intracellular free Mg (Mgifree) is evidently lower in red cells with high 2,3-DPG (i.e., high MCV) and vice versa. Results from flux measurements at their original MCVs, after altering Mgifree with the ionophore A23187, indicated a high Mgi sensitivity of cotransport: depletion of Mgifree inhibited and an elevation of Mgifree increased the cotransport rate. The apparent K0.5 for Mgifree was approximately 0.4 mM. Maximizing Mgifree at optimum Nai and Ki minimized the differences in cotransport rates among the different donors. It is concluded that the relative cotransport rate is regulated for cells in the steady state at their original cell volume, not by the number of copies of the cotransporter but by differences in Mgifree. The interindividual differences in Mgifree, determined primarily by differences in the 2,3-DPG content, are responsible for the differences in the relative cotransport activity that results in an inverse relationship

  9. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  10. A single-blind, dose escalation, phase I study of high-fluence light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) on human skin: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Derek; Kraeva, Ekaterina; Wun, Ted; Isseroff, R. Rivkah; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin fibrosis is involved in a variety of pathologic conditions ranging from scar formation secondary to surgery or trauma to immune-mediated processes. Skin fibrosis is a significant international health problem with an estimated incidence of greater than 100 million people affected per year worldwide with few effective treatment options available. Preliminary in vitro data generated by our research group suggests that red light can function as a stand-alone treatment for skin fib...

  11. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) for Titanium Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gözde Alkan; Claudia Schier; Lars Gronen; Srecko Stopic; Bernd Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical...

  12. Spontaneous and light-induced photon emission from intact brains of chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦珠; 于文斗; 孙彤

    1997-01-01

    Photon emission (PE) and light-induced photon emission(LPE) of intact brains isolated from chick embryos have been measured by using the single photon counting device. Experimental results showed that the intensi-ty level of photon emission was detected to be higher from intact brain than from the medium in which the brain was immerged during measuring, and the emission intensity was related to the developmental stages, the healthy situation of the measured embryos, and the freshness of isolated brains as well. After white light illumination, a short-life de-layed emission from intact brains was observed, and its relaxation behavior followed a hyperbolic rather than an expo-nential law. According to the hypothesis of biophoton emission originating from a delocalized coherent electromagnetic field and Frohlich’s idea of coherent long-range interactions in biological systems, discussions were made on the signifi-cance of photon emission in studying cell communication, biological regulation, living system’

  13. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.; Seitz, R.R.

    1991-07-01

    Concrete barriers will play a critical role in the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive wastes. Over time the barriers will degrade, and in many cases, the fundamental processes controlling performance of the barriers will be different for intact and degraded conditions. This document examines factors controlling fluid flow through intact and degraded concrete disposal facilities. Simplified models are presented fro predicting build up of fluid above a vault; fluid flow through and around intact vaults, through flaws in coatings/liners applied to a vault, and through cracks in a concrete vault; and the influence of different backfill materials around the outside of the vault. Example calculations are presented to illustrate the parameters and processes that influence fluid flow. 46 refs., 49 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  15. Neural activation differences in amputees during imitation of intact versus amputee movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Cusack

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mirror neuron system has been attributed with increased activation in motor-related cortical areas upon viewing of another’s actions. Recent work suggests that limb movements that are similar and dissimilar in appearance to that of the viewer equivalently activate the mirror neuron system. It is unclear if this result can be observed in the action encoding areas in amputees who use prosthetic devices. Intact subjects and upper extremity amputee prosthesis users were recruited to view video demonstrations of tools being used by an intact actor and a prosthetic device user. All subjects were asked to pantomime the movements seen in the video while recording electroencephalography. Intact subjects showed equivalent left parietofrontal activity during imitation after watching the intact or prosthetic arm. Likewise, when prosthesis users imitated prosthesis demonstrations, typical left parietofrontal activation was observed during planning. When prosthesis users imitated intact actors, a new pattern was revealed which showed greater bilateral parietal and occipital activity during movement planning (p<0.001. This change may be required for prosthesis users to imitate movements in which the limb states between the observed and the observer do not match. The finding that prosthesis users imitating other prosthesis users showed typical left parietofrontal activation suggests that these subjects engage normal planning related activity when they are able to imitate a limb matching their own. This result has significant implications on rehabilitation, as standard therapy involves training with an intact occupational therapist, which could necessitate atypical planning mechanisms in amputees when learning to use their prosthesis.

  16. Losing a jewel—Rapid declines in Myanmar’s intact forests from 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Ned; Khaing, Thiri; Thein, Zaw Min; Aung, Kyaw Moe; Aung, Kyaw Htet; Phyo, Paing; Tun, Ye Lin; Oo, Aung Htat; Neil, Anthony; Thu, Win Myo; Songer, Melissa; Huang, Qiongyu; Connette, Grant; Leimgruber, Peter

    2017-01-01

    New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests. Yet, little is known about the past and current condition of these forests and how fast they are declining. We mapped forest cover in Myanmar through a consortium of international organizations and environmental non-governmental groups, using freely-available public domain data and open source software tools. We used Landsat satellite imagery to assess the condition and spatial distribution of Myanmar’s intact and degraded forests with special focus on changes in intact forest between 2002 and 2014. We found that forests cover 42,365,729 ha or 63% of Myanmar, making it one of the most forested countries in the region. However, severe logging, expanding plantations, and degradation pose increasing threats. Only 38% of the country’s forests can be considered intact with canopy cover >80%. Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally and we identified 9 townships as forest conversion hotspots. We also delineated 13 large (>100,000 ha) and contiguous intact forest landscapes, which are dispersed across Myanmar. The Northern Forest Complex supports four of these landscapes, totaling over 6.1 million ha of intact forest, followed by the Southern Forest Complex with three landscapes, comprising 1.5 million ha. These remaining contiguous forest landscape should have high priority for protection. Our project demonstrates how open source data and software can be used to develop and share critical information on forests when such data are not readily available elsewhere. We provide all data, code, and outputs freely via the internet at (for scripts: https://bitbucket.org/rsbiodiv/; for the data: http://geonode.themimu.info/layers/geonode%3Amyan_lvl2_smoothed_dec2015_resamp) PMID:28520726

  17. Isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites in intact cells and particlefree supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehnfeldt, J.L.; Winge, P.

    1975-01-01

    With an enzyme degradative technique, isotope inequilibrium of glucose metabolites was demonstrated in intact cells and particle-free supernatants of Ehrlich ascites tumor using I- 14 C-glucose as tracer. Inequilibrium was found between glucose and glucose-6-phosphate, glucose and fructose-6-phosphate, glucose and 6-phosphogluconate, while glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were found to be in near equilibrium within the incubation time investigated. Glucose and lactate were found to be in near equilibrium after 8 min in intact cells. Calculations based on the equilibrium levels found, showed that these inequilibria could not be explained by the effects of the pentose cycle. (U.S.)

  18. Boron-11 MRI and MRS of intact animals infused with a boron neutron capture agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Davis, M.; Bendel, P.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the delivery of boron-containing drugs to a targeted lesion. Currently, the verification and quantification of in vivo boron content is a difficult problem. Boron-11 spectroscopy was utilized to confirm the presence of a dimeric sulfhydryl dodecaborane BNCT agent contained in an intact animal. Spectroscopy experiments revealed that the decay time of transverse magnetization of the boron-11 spins was less than 1 ms which precluded the use of a 2DFT imaging protocol. A back-projection protocol was developed and utilized to generate the first boron-11 image of a BNCT agent in the liver of an intact Fisher 344 rat

  19. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  20. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  1. "Congo" red: out of Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, D P

    2001-02-01

    Congo red is the essential histologic stain for demonstrating the presence of amyloidosis in fixed tissues. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been written about why the stain is named "Congo." To understand the etymology and history of the Congo red histologic stain. Primary sources were consulted extensively, including 19th-century corporate documents, newspapers, legal briefs, patents, memoirs, and scientific papers. Sources were obtained from multiple university libraries and German corporate archives. To Europeans in 1885, the word Congo evoked exotic images of far-off central Africa known as The Dark Continent. The African Congo was also a political flashpoint during the Age of Colonialism. "Congo" red was introduced in Berlin in 1885 as the first of the economically lucrative direct textile dyes. A patent on Congo red was filed by the AGFA Corporation of Berlin 3 weeks after the conclusion of the well-publicized Berlin West Africa Conference. During these important diplomatic talks, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck presided over a discussion of free trade issues in the Congo River basin. A challenge to AGFA's Congo red patent led to a precedent-setting decision in intellectual property law. The Congo red stain was named "Congo" for marketing purposes by a German textile dyestuff company in 1885, reflecting geopolitical current events of that time.

  2. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus.

  3. 75 FR 9323 - American Red Cross Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... rebuilding former adversaries after World War II, to combating HIV/AIDS in Africa, to saving lives after the... Nation's leadership relies upon our citizens who are motivated to act by our common humanity. This month... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim March 2010 as American Red Cross Month. I...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  5. CHRISTMAS 2012: RESEARCH Why Rudolph's nose is red: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can; van Kuijen, Anne-Marije; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Yürük, Koray; Folkow, Lars P.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Blix, Arnoldus S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of a highly

  6. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with

  7. Red tattoos, ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Serup, Jørgen; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2017-11-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and red tattoos may be associated with increased risk of skin cancer due to potential carcinogens in tattoo inks. This combination has not been studied previously. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac hairless mice (n=99) were tattooed on their back with a popular red tattoo ink. This often used ink is banned for use on humans because of high content of the potential carcinogen 2-anisidine. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. All UV-irradiated mice developed SCCs. The time to the onset of the first and second tumor was identical in the red-tattooed group compared with the control group (182 vs 186 days and 196 vs 203 days, P=ns). Statistically, the third tumor appeared slightly faster in the red-tattooed group than in the controls (214 vs 224 days, P=.043). For the second and third tumor, the growth rate was faster in the red-tattooed group compared with the control (31 vs 49 days, P=.009 and 30 vs 38 days, P=.036). In conclusion, no spontaneous cancers were observed in skin tattooed with a red ink containing 2-anisidine. However, red tattoos exposed to UVR showed faster tumor onset regarding the third tumor, and faster growth rate of the second and third tumor indicating red ink acts as a cocarcinogen with UVR. The cocarcinogenic effect was weak and may not be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fertility, pregnancy, and delivery after biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, Willem; Pieper, Petronella G.; Roos-Hesselink, Jollen W.; Zoon, Nicole; Voors, Adrlaan A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Ebels, Tjark; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study to investigate fertility, pregnancy, and delivery in women with biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). Using a nationwide registry (CONCOR), 37 patients with pulmonary atresia were identified, 6 of whom (aged 21 to 34

  9. Fertility, pregnancy, and delivery after biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, W.; Pieper, P.G.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Zoon, N.; Voors, A.A.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vliegen, H.W.; Sollie, K.M.; Ebels, T.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study to investigate fertility, pregnancy, and delivery in women with biventricular repair for pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). Using a nationwide registry (CONCOR), 37 patients with pulmonary atresia were identified, 6 of whom (aged 21 to 34

  10. Family Conflict and Children's Self-Concepts: A Comparison of Intact and Single-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Helen J.; Raschke, Vernon J.

    1979-01-01

    Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and self-reports for family structure and family conflict, no significant differences in self-concept scores of children from intact, single-parent, reconstituted, or other types of families were found. Self-concept scores were significantly lower for children reporting…

  11. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  12. 46 CFR 173.020 - Intact stability standards: Counterballasted and non-counterballasted vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.020 Intact stability standards... vessel that is not equipped to counter-ballast while lifting must be shown by design calculations to... and crane radius. (b) Each vessel must have a righting arm curve with the following characteristics...

  13. 46 CFR 173.025 - Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.025 Additional intact stability standards: Counterballasted vessels. (a) Each vessel equipped to counterballast while lifting must be shown... loading and operation and at each combination of hook load and crane radius. (b) When doing the...

  14. Detection of intact megadalton protein assemblies of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van W.J.H.; Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Versluis, C.; Heck, A.

    2000-01-01

    Well-resolved ion signals of intact large protein assemblies, with molecular masses extending above one million Dalton, have been detected and mass analyzed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with an uncertainty in mass of <0.2&Eth;The mass spectral data seem to reflect known

  15. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents with intact cognitive function in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sophia H; Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Ting, Yeh-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2018-03-25

    The investigators aimed to explore the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among older residents with intact cognitive function in nursing homes in Taiwan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational research design was used. A convenience sample of 178 older residents without cognitive impairment was recruited from 36 nursing homes in Southern Taiwan. The questionnaires included demographic data; the Barthel Index, which assesses the ability to perform activities of daily living; and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form. Among older residents in nursing homes with intact cognitive function, 39.3% had depressive symptoms. Age, religion, previous living status, previous working status, being totally dependent in physical function, and being severely dependent in physical function were significant predictors of depressive symptoms among cognitively intact older residents. The findings highlight the critical mental healthcare issues among older residents with intact cognitive function in nursing homes. Practical strategies for preventing the occurrence of depressive symptoms and caring for those who have depressive symptoms should be developed, especially for younger or dependent older residents or residents who have never been employed, have no religious beliefs, or have lived alone before they moved into an institution. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Proceedings of the international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted/intact systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-03-01

    The international workshop on mechanistic understanding of radionuclide migration in compacted / intact systems was held at ENTRY, JAEA, Tokai on 21st - 23rd January, 2009. This workshop was hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) as part of the project on the mechanistic model/database development for radionuclide sorption and diffusion behavior in compacted / intact systems. The overall goal of the project is to develop the mechanistic model / database for a consistent understanding and prediction of migration parameters and its uncertainties for performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The objective of the workshop is to integrate the state-of-the-art of mechanistic sorption and diffusion model in compacted / intact systems, especially in bentonite / clay systems, and discuss the JAEA's mechanistic approaches and future challenges, especially the following discussions points; 1) What's the status and difficulties for mechanistic model/database development? 2) What's the status and difficulties for applicability of mechanistic model to the compacted/intact system? 3) What's the status and difficulties for obtaining evidences for mechanistic model? 4) What's the status and difficulties for standardization of experimental methodology for batch sorption and diffusion? 5) What's the uncertainties of transport parameters in radionuclides migration analysis due to a lack of understanding/experimental methodologies, and how do we derive them? This report includes workshop program, overview and materials of each presentation, summary of discussions. (author)

  17. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided.

  18. Collagen fibril size and crimp morphology in ruptured and intact Achilles tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S P; Qvortrup, K; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2002-01-01

    tendons. Crimp angle did not display any region-specific differences, or any difference between the rupture and intact tendons. In conclusion, these data suggest that although crimp morphology is unchanged there appears to be a site-specific loss of larger fibrils in the core and periphery of the Achilles...

  19. Single guard cell recordings in intact plants : light-induced hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Steinmeyer, R; Staal, M; Hedrich, R

    Guard cells are electrically isolated from other plant cells and therefore offer the unique possibility to conduct current- and voltage-clamp recordings on single cells in an intact plant. Guard cells in their natural environment were impaled with double-barreled electrodes and found to exhibit

  20. Mechanisms of blood pressure changes following renal irradiation of intact, adrenalectomized and adrenal regenerating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the differences in changes in systolic arterial blood pressure following renal x-irradiation (1100 R) in adrenal-intact, adrenalectomized, and adrenal-regenerating rats and the roles of the kidneys and of the adrenal glands in the blood pressure changes

  1. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who

  2. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, E.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized

  3. Predictors of Attachment Security in Preschool Children from Intact and Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Hira; Murray, Ann D.

    2005-01-01

    The authors selected 58 mother-child dyads from divorced and intact families to participate in a study on the impact of divorce on preschoolers' attachment security. The authors explored pathways that lead to security of attachment. They found that mothers from divorced families were younger, had lower income levels, and had lower levels of…

  4. Aboveground biomass variability across intact and degraded forests in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Longo; Michael Keller; Maiza N. dos-Santos; Veronika Leitold; Ekena R. Pinagé; Alessandro Baccini; Sassan Saatchi; Euler M. Nogueira; Mateus Batistella; Douglas C. Morton

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation rates have declined in the Brazilian Amazon since 2005, yet degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation has continued in frontier forests. In this study we quantified the aboveground carbon density (ACD) in intact and degraded forests using the largest data set of integrated forest inventory plots (n = 359) and airborne lidar data (18,000 ha)...

  5. Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest landscapes : A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H.; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest

  6. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunycz John D

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335 were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7% was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1% was significantly different (P = 0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120

  7. Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  9. Impact of location of CaCO3 precipitation on the development of intact anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.; Ramaekers, H.; Wiechers, J.; Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Lettinga, G.

    2000-01-01

    The development of intact anaerobic granular sludge was studied in UASB reactors under varying conditions of CaCO3 precipitation and biomass yield. Varying precipitating quantities were obtained using different calcium concentrations in the influent and different biomass yields were obtained by

  10. Biotransformation of the citrus flavone tangeretin in rats. Identification of metabolites with intact flavane nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.E.; Breinholt, V.; Cornett, C.

    2000-01-01

    were separated and identified by HPLC and the structures elucidated by LC/MS and H-1 NMR. Ten new, major metabolites with intact flavonoid structure were identified. The metabolites identified were either demethylated or hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound and metabolic changes were found...

  11. Automated setup for characterization of intact histone tails in Suz12-/- stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Hansen, Thomas Aarup

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of heritable changes that occur without modifying the DNA sequence. Histone proteins are crucial components of epigenetic mechanisms and regulation, since they are fundamental for chromatin structure. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is already an integrated...... developed a high-resolving and automated LC-MS/MS setup to characterize intact histone tails (middle-down strategy)...

  12. Assessment of characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock using results from triaxial tests

    OpenAIRE

    Muralha, J.; Lamas, L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents contributions to the statistical study of the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown strength criteria, in order to assess the characteristic failure envelopes for intact rock, based on the results of several sets of triaxial tests performed by LNEC. 10p DBB/NMMR

  13. Predicting water-holding capacity of intact chicken broiler breast fillets with Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of using visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact chicken broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was assessed in this study. Boneless and skinless chicken fillets (214 in total) were procured from a commercial processing plant ...

  14. Conservation experiments applying radiation-curable impregnating agents to intact and artifically decayed wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.; Slais, E.

    1983-02-01

    Conservation experiments have been performed applying 10 selected impregnating agents to intact and chemically as well as biologically decayed wood samples. The quality of the radiation-curable impregnating agents could be valued by determination of the monomer uptake, the alteration of dimensions and volume and the deformation of the samples. The results are to be discussed. (Author) [de

  15. The Fate of Dissolved Creosote Compounds in an Intact Fratured Clay Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Kim; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Asger

    1995-01-01

    The fate of 16 different organics typical for creosote was studied under aerobic conditions in a large intact fractured clay column experiment. Some of the organics (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, phenol, and o-cresol) were transported at the same rate as bromide through the fractured clay, whereas ...

  16. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  17. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  18. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  19. Silvical characteristics of red maple (Acer rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik; Harry W. Yawney

    1961-01-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is also known as Carolina red maple, scarlet maple, soft maple, swamp maple, water maple, and white maple. Taxonomists recognize several varieties of red maple. The most common is Drummond red maple (Acer rubrum var. drummondii (Hook, & Arn.) Sarg.).

  20. Genistein Stimulates Jejunum Chloride Secretion via an Akt-Mediated Pathway in Intact Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Leung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We have previously shown that daily subcutaneous injections with the naturally occurring phytoestrogen genistein (600 mg genistein/kg body weight/day, 600G results in a significantly increased basal intestinal chloride, Cl-, secretion (Isc, a measure of transepithelial secretion in intact C57BL/6J female mice after 1-week of treatment, compared to controls (DMSO vehicle injected. Removal of endogenous estrogen via ovariectomy (OVX had no effect on the 600G-mediated increase in basal Isc. Methods: Given the estrogen-like characteristics of genistein, we compared the effects of daily estradiol (E2 injections (10 mg E2/kg body weight/day, 10E2 on basal Isc in intact and OVX mice. In intact mice, 10E2 was without effect on basal Isc, however, in OVX mice, 10E2 significantly increased basal Isc (mimicked 600G. The goal of the current study was to characterize the intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mediating 600G- or 10E2-stimulated increases in basal Isc in intact female or OVX mice. Results: We measured total protein expression in isolated segments of jejunum using western blot from the following six groups of mice; intact or OVX with; 600G, 10E2 or control. The proteins of interest were: Akt, p-Akt, p-PDK1, p-PTEN, p-c-Raf, p-GSK-3β, rap-1 and ERK1/2. All blots were normalized to GAPDH levels (n = 6-18/group. Conclusion: These data suggest that the presence of the endogenous sex steroid, estrogen, modifies the intracellular signaling pathway required to mediate Cl- secretion when the intestine is exposed to exogenous 600G or E2. These studies may have relevance for designing pharmacological tools for women with intestinal chloride secretory dysfunctions.