..., contending that providing such coverage for these accounts promotes moral hazard. Four commenters suggested... withdrawals at any time, whether held by a business, an individual or other type of depositor. Unlike the... for unlimited separate coverage as a noninterest-bearing transaction account. One issue raised during...
Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart
We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...
Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.
Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich
This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...
...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...
...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691
This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.
... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...
Chen, A.; Su, X.
In contrast to insurance companies, regulatory authorities or regulators can obtain only limited information about the companies' value. It hence leads to some effects on the regulation design, which is however often overlooked in the literature. This paper characterizes the limited/imperfect
... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...
... environment of the insurance industry and insurance regulation. In addition, it has revised the way accreditation reviews are performed and scored and has improved training for members of review teams.
Full Text Available In the article the essence of investment insurance company. The role and importance of investment of insurance companies on formation of investment resources in the economy. The essence of the definition of "investment potential of insurance companies" and its relationship with the definition of "financial strength of insurance companies' insurance and potential insurance companies." By analyzing the structure and dynamics of aggregate investment portfolio of insurance organizations of Ukraine in 2008-2015 years defined contribution insurance sector in the formation of investment resources. The problems and prospects of the investment potential of the insurance market of Ukraine. Directions of improvement of state regulation of investment of insurance companies in Ukraine.
Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...
Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G
Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.
D. Schwarcz (Daniel)
textabstractIn recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Expected Utility Theory (EUT) is a remarkably poor theory of how and why individuals purchase insurance. However, the normative implications of this conclusion have remained largely unexplored. This Article takes up this issue. It
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Carlita Ballard, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs... distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of different... of the 2012 booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage...
..., Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... automobiles to distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of... booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage Guide.'' Dealers...
..., Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... automobiles to distribute to prospective customers information that compares differences in insurance costs of... booklet to each dealer that the Department of Energy uses to distribute the ``Gas Mileage Guide.'' Dealers...
textabstractIn recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Expected Utility Theory (EUT) is a remarkably poor theory of how and why individuals purchase insurance. However, the normative implications of this conclusion have remained largely unexplored. This Article takes up this issue. It argues that many observed deviations from EUT are likely the result of mistakes, in the sense that consumers would act differently than they do if they possessed perfect information and cognitive res...
...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...
.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Mazyck, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and... Transportation prescribe regulations requiring passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute to prospective... vehicle dealers to distribute this information to prospective buyers. The House of Representatives...
V. L. Melko
In general, governmental regulation of insurance activity in construction area is implemented in such forms as: the formation of the legal framework, the implementation of insurance supervision and control, the registration and licensing of the insurance. The regulation of the insurance sector is diverse in its nature. Processes of the regulation of the insurance business have to consider a number of diverse interests of both insurers and insurance holders. The effectiveness of the regulation depends on the fullness of consideration of long-term market factors.
Broeders, Dirk; de Jong, Frank; Schotman, Peter
Liabilities of pension funds and life insurers typically have very long times to maturity. The valuation of such liabilities introduces particular challenges as it relies on long term interest rates. As the market for long term interest rates is less liquid, financial institutions and the regulator
Broeders, D.W.G.A.; de Jong, Frank; Schotman, Peter
Liabilities of pension funds and life insurers typically have very long times to maturity. The valuation of such liabilities introduces particular challenges as it relies on long term interest rates. As the market for long term interest rates is less liquid, financial institutions and the regulator
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State regulation of insurance policies. 403.201 Section 403.201 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Medicare Supplemental Policies General Provisions...
Pollitz, K; Tapay, N; Hadley, E; Specht, J
The authors monitored the implementation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) from 1997 to 1999. Regulators in all states and relevant federal agencies were interviewed and applicable laws and regulations studied. The authors found that HIPAA changed legal protections for consumers' health coverage in several ways. They examine how the process of regulating such coverage was affected at the state and federal levels and under an emerging partnership of the two. Despite some early implementation challenges, HIPAA's successes have been significant, although limited by the law's incremental nature.
Umbricht, R.; Zweifel, P.
In this paper we argue that compulsory insurance of nuclear liability should be extended. Most countries have explicit limitations of operators' liability, which also lie at the heart of international conventions. Moreover, there are implicit limitations imposed by operators' inability to pay where unlimited and strict liability applies. These limitations result in static and dynamic inefficiencies because they allow nuclear plant operators to eschew the risk costs of a severe nuclear accident. Extension of compulsory insurance, however, will exacerbate problems of market failure in insurance: National insurance pools have monopolized the business and are expected to exercise market power. Furthermore, their capacity may fall short of required coverage. Bringing in capital market investors can alleviate these problems. Nuclear liability insurance data from Switzerland provides statistical evidence in support of our main points. (authors)
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unlimited exemptions... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION... § 109-38.204-1 Unlimited exemptions. (a)-(f) [Reserved] (g) The Director, Office of Administrative...
The political system in the United States in unique because our forefathers planned it that way. Unfortunately, this uniqueness does not always serve the interest of those who advocate large nuclear-power facilities and fuel-cycle activities involving reprocessing and breeder reactors. The influence of various political systems on the viability of the nuclear-power option is discussed. As it faces the future, the U.S. nuclear community is divided over its most appropriate courses of action. The current administration is supportive in words if not in deeds, but it is ideologically opposed to advocating the conditions needed for a thriving nuclear industry based on large light water reactors. Will the U.S. enter the new century with ''unlimited frontiers'' in many new nuclear plant designs, or will some major shift in public opinion bring back political conditions that are more compatible with large LWR facilities. This is the $64,000 question confronting the nuclear industry, which must be prepared for any eventuality. The best chance for the U.S. to regain worldwide superiority in nuclear power-technology may lie in our ability to make rapid adjustments and to offer new and advanced machines that best fit utility needs and the political conditions of their own time
... data constitute minor modifications to data that are limited rights data or restricted computer... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unlimited rights data. 27... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.404-1 Unlimited rights...
... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025... conducting a Contractor Insurance/Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information (PGI) to the... This final rule relocates requirements for Contractor Insurance/ Pension Review to DFARS 242.7302 from...
... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...
... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025) AGENCY: Defense.../Pension Review from Procedures, Guidance, and Information to the Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement..., February 23, 2006, moved requirements for Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (CIPR) from DFARS 242.7302 to...
W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand); F.T. Schut (Erik)
textabstractIn 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and
This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and ... Potential candidates include China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mali and South ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.
... definition of ``crop year'' by removing the term ``citrus'' and adding the term ``insured'' in its place; 0 v... is planning to replace the category of ``type'' in the actuarial documents with four categories named... category of ``practice'' in the actuarial documents with four categories named ``cropping practice...
... premium rates for ARPI that are sufficient to cover expected losses plus a reasonable reserve. The premium... that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety... establish their insurance guarantees, and compute premium amounts. Whether a producer has 10 acres or 1000...
... authorizes FCIC to waive collection of administrative fees from limited resource farmers. FCIC believes this... recommended that due to lack of records in a new orchard (or transferred orchards) and along with the desire of producers to insure fruit for fresh production, a new eligible producer or a new orchard, should...
... resource farmers. FCIC believes this waiver helps to ensure that small entities are given the same... spacing for the producer to carry out recommended orchard management practices. Comment: A commenter... insurance period (e.g., a planned orchard renovation). Therefore, the producers should be able to timely...
Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J
The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.
Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.
Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing
Comments from the point of view of insurance companies. The plans of the Federal Ministry of the Interior to reform nuclear liability law in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially the intention to abolish the maximum liability limit, were commented upon also from the point of view of the insurance companies at the 6th German Atomic Energy Law Symposium. Reference was made, above all, to the problems which could arise from the fact that insurance companies need broad international backing and, accordingly, harmonization with the liability rules and conditions valid in other countries, in order to cover the high nuclear risks. Another problem to which attention was drawn was the need for evidence in catastrophic cases and the capability to settle cases of damage arising under such conditions. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB [de
Hubert, E.H.; Andersson, C.; Deprimoz, J.; Mayoux, J.C.; Richard, M.; Sartorelli, C.; Nocera, F.
This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA) [fr
Laura Elly Naghi
Full Text Available While the financial markets have to face systemic and systematic risks, especially the insurance industries, the national supervisory authorities intend to implement regulation systems as uniform as possible at regional level and in the same time as conservatory as possible from the point of view of the risks accepted. The present paper intends to accurately analyze the regulation systems of important insurance markets (as tradition or volume of premiums – such as RBC, SST, Solvency II in order to stress the similarities of these models but more important the differences that generated a different rigidity degree of the insurance companies, in other words, a different minimum capital requirement. The paper intends to illustrate the financial and organizational impact of the European model Solvency has on the insurance companies, through its supplemental requirements, introduced by the supervisory authorities as a reaction to the recent financial crises.
Newson, Ainsley J; Tiller, Jane; Keogh, Louise A; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul
Regulating the use of genetic information in insurance is an issue of ongoing international debate. In Australia, providers of life and other mutually rated insurance products can request applicants to disclose all results from any genetic test. Insurers can then use this information to adjust premiums and make policy decisions. The Australian Financial Services Council (FSC; an industry body) developed and maintains the relevant industry standard, which was updated in late 2016. Aims/Objective: To review the 2016 FSC Standard in light of relevant research and determine the legitimacy of the Australian regulatory environment regarding use of genetic information by insurers. We identified five concerns arising from the 2016 FSC Standard: (1) use of results obtained from research; (2) the requirement for an applicant to disclose whether they are "considering" a genetic test; (3) failure to account for genome sequencing and other technology developments; (4) limited evidence regarding adverse selection; and (5) the inappropriateness of industry self-regulation. Industry self-regulation of the use of genetic information by life insurers, combined with a lack of government oversight, is inappropriate and threatens to impede the progress of genomic medicine in Australia. At this critical time, Australia requires closer government oversight of the use of genetic information in insurance. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa
Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Insurance Regulations; Permanent Increase in Standard Coverage Amount; Advertisement of Membership... Procedure Act The FDIC believes that good cause exists for issuing the final rule without providing an... the public interest.'' \\8\\ The FDIC also finds good cause for issuing the final rule without a 30-day...
... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT...
This document contains final and temporary regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act of 2011 and the 3% Withholding Repeal and Job Creation Act. These regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-104579-13) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unlimited time. 73.1710 Section 73.1710 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1710 Unlimited time. Operation is permitted 24 hours a...
Finkelstein, Amy; Poterba, James; Rothschild, Casey
We illustrate how equilibrium screening models can be used to evaluate the economic consequences of insurance market regulation. We calibrate and solve a model of the United Kingdom's compulsory annuity market and examine the impact of gender-based pricing restrictions. We find that the endogenous adjustment of annuity contract menus in response to such restrictions can undo up to half of the redistribution from men to women that would occur with exogenous Social Security-like annuity contracts. Our findings indicate the importance of endogenous contract responses and illustrate the feasibility of employing theoretical insurance market equilibrium models for quantitative policy analysis.
McGuire, Thomas G; Sinaiko, Anna D
Under the newly enacted health reform law, millions of lower- and middle-income Americans will purchase individual or family health insurance through state-based markets for private health insurance called insurance "exchanges," which consolidate and regulate the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The authors consider options for structuring choice and pricing of health insurance in an exchange from the perspective of efficiently and fairly serving persons with mental illness. Exchanges are intended to foster choice and competition. However, certain features-open enrollment, individual choice, and imperfect risk adjusters-create incentives for "adverse selection," especially in providing coverage for persons with mental illness, who have higher overall health care costs. The authors review the experience of persons with mental illness in insurance markets similar to the exchanges, such as the Massachusetts Connector and the Federal Employees Health Benefit Program, and note that competition among health plans for enrollees who are "good risks" can undermine coverage and efficiency. They review the possible approaches for contending with selection-related incentives, such as carving out all or part of mental health benefits, providing reinsurance for some mental health care costs, or their preferred option, running the exchange in the same way that an employer runs its employee benefits and addressing selection and cost control issues by choice of contractor. The authors also consider approaches an exchange could use to promote effective consumer choice, such as passive and active roles for the exchange authority. Regulation will be necessary to establish a foundation for success of the exchanges.
This doctoral thesis presents an analysis of regulated markets especially focusing on the behavior of the actors, the effects of regulatory interventions on market outcome, and the necessity of the regulation itself. With respect to the particular characteristics, three different markets are analyzed: the German market for photovoltaic capacity, the German hospital sector, and the market for health insurance with respect to outpatient care. Chapter two provides an analysis of the German system of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic power with respect to effectiveness and efficiency. To ensure a certain volume of investment in photovoltaic capacity investors receive fixed feed-in tariffs for 20 years for each unit of energy they feed into the grid. This remuneration is reduced according to a certain cut-off scheme for devices which will be installed in the future. In the past view years, an enormous volume of photovoltaic devices has been installed, especially in the weeks before the cut-offs. To analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the German feed-in tariff system, first, the determinants of such investment are analyzed by estimating an Error Correction model. The results of the estimation are used to simulate alternative mechanisms of adjusting the feed-in tariffs and compare them to the current regime in terms of target achievement and social costs. One of the key results is that the current system causes early investments, but does not induce over-investment. Moreover, it is shown that a system of continuously adjusted feed-in tariffs could be more appropriate than the current regime and that the adjustment should be related to the investment costs. In chapter three, the German hospital market which is characterized by regulated treatment fees and several different ownership types is analyzed. This part of the thesis tries to answer the question how the existence of non-profit hospitals influences market outcome and welfare compared to a market where
Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan
Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources
This document contains final regulations on the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, as amended by the Medicare and Medicaid Extenders Act of 2010, the Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011, and the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011. These final regulations affect individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges, sometimes called Marketplaces) and claim the health insurance premium tax credit, and Exchanges that make qualified health plans available to individuals and employers.
Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali
Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nur Faidatun Naimah
Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.
Nur Faidatun Naimah
Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.
van de Ven, W P; Schut, F T
In 1988 the Dutch government launched a proposal for a national health insurance based on regulated competition. The mandatory benefits package should be offered by competing insurers and should cover both non-catastrophic risks (like hospital care, physician services and drugs) and catastrophic risks (like several forms of expensive long-term care). However, there are two arguments to exclude some of the catastrophic risks from the competitive insurance market, at least during the implementation process of the reforms. Firstly, the prospects for a workable system of risk-adjusted payments to the insurers that should take away the incentives for cream skimming are, at least during the next 5 years, more favorable for the non-catastrophic risks than for the catastrophic risks. Secondly, even if a workable system of risk-adjusted payments can be developed, the problem of quality skimping may be relevant for some of the catastrophic risks, but not for non-catastrophic risks. By 'quality skimping' we mean the reduction of the quality of care to a level which is below the minimum level that is acceptable to society. After 5 years of health care reforms in the Netherlands new insights have resulted in a growing support to confine the implementation of the reforms to the non-catastrophic risks. In drawing (and redrawing) the exact boundaries between different regulatory regimes for catastrophic and non-catastrophic risks, the expected benefits of a cost-effective substitution of care have to be weighted against the potential harm caused by cream skimming and quality skimping.
Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Technical and Industrial Education.
Fishing Facts Unlimited, a student conducted enterprise in Technical and Industrial Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale has been a very successful operation, both financially and in providing a community service. The service provided by the enterprise was the production and sales of a 48-page fishing guide to Southern Illinois.…
Australia's private health insurance funds have been prominent participants in the nation's health system for 60 years. Yet there is relatively little public awareness of the distinctive origins of the health funds, the uncharacteristic organisational nature of these commercial enterprises and the peculiarly regulated nature of their industry. The conventional corporate responsibility to shareholders was, until recently, completely irrelevant, and remains marginal to the sector. However, their purported answerability to contributors, styled as 'members', was always doubtful for most health funds. After a long period of remarkable stability in the sector, despite significant shifts in health funding policy, recent years have brought notable changes, with mergers, acquisitions and exits from the industry. The research is based on the detailed study of the private health funds, covering their history, organisational character and industry structure. It argues that the funds have always been divorced from the disciplines of the competitive market and generally have operated complacently within a system of comprehensive regulation and generous subsidy. The prospect of the private health funds enjoying an expanded role under a form of 'social insurance', as suggested by the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission, is not supported.
Full Text Available The emergence and expansion of the recent financial crisis has renewed the question of regulation and supervision of the financial system. Therefore, the question of managing financial risks is becoming increasingly popular and gaining more and more importance. Regulators have in recent years introduced capital standards based on specific sensitivity to risk. Based on defined issues, the starting point is the general hypothesis that the capital adequacy is a key base for measuring the resistance of the banking and insurance sector to market shocks. This paper will present the analytical, synthetic and general scientific methods. The comparative method is used in this paper to highlight the similarities and differences between Solvency II and Basel III and their operational efficiency.
Leandro Adolfo Viltard
Full Text Available The unlimited is a borderless territory where the whole world is inmerse. In this study, it is shown that the unlimited is present in education and, specifically, in the corporate educational arena. Helped by technology and automation, disruptive leaders are challenging the way things are done, the way we think and, in addtion, what we are. After performing a documentation analysis, conclusions are that big problems –as education- need cheap and scaled technology; leadership and organizations must evolve to less human intervention; education and training need a rethought; Eduaction-2-Employment (E2E is key for unemployment; and that new educational structures, delivery methods, pedagogical approaches and advanced Learning Management Systems (LMS are observed proposing huge transformations in the corporate educational arena. This is a qualitative investigation with a not experimental and transversal research design.
Bulanov, S V; Echkina, E Yu; Esirkepov, T Zh; Inovenkov, I N; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Korn, G
The energy of ions accelerated by an intense electromagnetic wave in the radiation pressure dominated regime can be greatly enhanced due to a transverse expansion of a thin target. The expansion decreases the number of accelerated ions in the irradiated region resulting in an increase in the ion energy and in the ion longitudinal velocity. In the relativistic limit, the ions become phase locked with respect to the electromagnetic wave resulting in unlimited ion energy gain.
Full Text Available Financial regulation could be a double edged sword in that despite its major thrust being that to secure the financial sector and bring about financial stability; it might have the unintended consequence of stifling innovation by the sector. We investigate the nexus between financial regulation and innovation by specifically focusing on the insurance industry in South Africa. We demonstrate that there are plethora pieces of legislation that govern the insurance industry in South Africa. As such this has driven the cost of compliance to unsustainable levels thereby curtailing the spending by companies on innovation. We thus would like to caution the policy makers’ that this “heavy-touch” regulatory mode is having a pernicious effect on research and development by the insurance sector. As such we encourage them to embrace the “light-touch” regulatory mode whereby self-regulation and moral suasion are other avenues to be considered.
van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C
If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.
...-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.106 Unlimited exemptions. Unlimited exemptions from inclusion in the fleet... below. Unlimited exemptions do not preclude agencies from requesting fleet management services, if...
Bovino, V R
Most mines substantially underestimate their real potential. The market for coal is global and people consider the problems are caused by uncontrolled production of foreign coal, however part of the problem is productivity, that is the ability to produce tons of coal in a cost-effective way, rather than production. Any operation can deliver unlimited productivity by developing the resource within their employees. This paper discusses the areas where the industry has gone wrong, including bureaucracy, blind faith in price rises, wages, adversaries; tradition, narrow job characteristics, conformance over performance for employees, management, money, self-limitations and benefit plans. It also describes three basic ways of improving productivity. These are positive management practices, employee participation and shared rewards.
Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda; Cardelli, Luca
The ability to map environmental signals onto distinct internal physiological states or programmes is critical for single-celled microbes. A crucial systems dynamics feature underpinning such ability is multistability. While unlimited multistability is known to arise from multi-site phosphorylation...... seen in the signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, a similarly universal mechanism has not been identified in microbial signalling systems. These systems are generally known as two-component systems comprising histidine kinase (HK) receptors and response regulator proteins engaging in phosphotransfer...... further prove that sharing of downstream components allows a system with n multi-domain hybrid HKs to attain 3n steady states. We find that such systems, when sensing distinct signals, can readily implement Boolean logic functions on these signals. Using two experimentally studied examples of two...
Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure. 1625.11 Section 1625.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... within the exemption can lawfully be forced to retire on account of age at age 70 (see paragraph (a)(1...
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We seek to identify the culpability of banks in resource misallocation in Mexico, Thailand and Turkey. Specifically we provide evidence of an agency problem in the government and banking systems of the three countries. Where governments pass laws and regulations consistent with modern capitalism for the purpose of deceiving investors and others, the door is opened to the use of deposit insurance and repeated promises of regulatory reform to transfer wealth from the efficient to the corrupt.
Full Text Available We seek to identify the culpability of banks in resource misallocation in Mexico, Thailand and Turkey. Specifically we provide evidence of an agency problem in the government and banking systems of the three countries. Where governments pass laws and regulations consistent with modern capitalism for the purpose of deceiving investors and others, the door is opened to the use of deposit insurance and repeated promises of regulatory reform to transfer wealth from the efficient to the corrupt.
... planting period may be deemed appropriate and actuarially sound. No change has been made in the final rule... in the table for crops in the Crop Insurance Handbook (CIH). Response: The option for providing a...
..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.106 Unlimited exemptions. The Director, Office of... determination that an unlimited exemption from inclusion of a motor vehicle in a fleet management system is...
Each person desires to attain the highest states of existence after continually muddling with the constraints and temptations of the material world. An inner world of truth, peace, love, enlightenment awaits to be discovered in each one of us , holding endless possibilities for transcendence from the worldly ‘maya’ into the sublime omnipresent ‘paramatma’. Sages across centuries evolved unique ways to assist the ‘indriyas’ to search beyond the obvious and find ways that led to the culmination...
de Valroger, Thibault
We present a protocol enabling two legitimate partners sharing an initial secret to mutually authenticate and to exchange an encryption session key. The opponent is an active Man In The Middle (MITM) with unlimited computation and storage capacities. The resistance to unlimited MITM is obtained through the combined use of Deep Random secrecy, formerly introduced and proved as unconditionally secure against passive opponent for key exchange, and universal hashing techniques. We prove the resis...
lastuti abubakar Gani
Full Text Available Objectives - The development of Islamic insurance in Indonesia contributed to economic growth in 2014. The principle of mutual cooperation and tabarru contract is a characteristic of Islamic insurance. The Opportunity to increase the role of Islamic insurance as an economic entity is done by utilizing various aspects of human resource readiness. Human Resource are required to have a comprehensive understanding of Islamic insurance in order to create compliance with Islamic principles for product and services offered.It can provide legal protection against the Takaful participants. Issues to be examined is how the readiness of the relevant regulatory certification and how Regulatory model certification appropriate human resources in order to develop Islamic insurance in Indonesia. Methods -The method used is a normative juridical that through the efforts of an inventory of rules and descriptive analytical. To obtain the appropriate regulatory models, a legal comparison method is employed.Results - Based on the research results, the regulation of certification is required and should include the human resources, starting from a selling agent to the management as a decision maker. This regulation will push the entire human resources involved in the Islamic insurance industry to has the capacity and capability in providing services to the public, and to ensure and guarantee that the services offered comply with Islamic principles. Association of Islamic Insurance Indonesia was initiated concerning certification provisions, but has not been followed by a strong regulations readiness as a legal basis.Conclusion -Therefore we need a comprehensive regulation and it must be issued by Indonesian Financial Services Authority.
Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.
When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr
Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de
The paper was read at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. It outlines the basic principles of the Paris liability convention and the international development. The author pleads in favour of unlimited liability for hazards on grounds of history, legal policy, legal dogmatics and practice. Moreover he thinks it useful and appropriate because it also improves the protection of the citizens. The same as the federal government the author holds that unlimited liability for hazards is compatible with the maximum damages and the congruity regulations of the Paris and Brussels liability convention. An amendment to the liability convention, though not necessary, would be desirable to make clear that both options - limited and unlimited liability - are open. (HSCH) [de
..., Office of Regulations, at (202) 435-7700. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Deposit... products or services or information otherwise promoting the institution; and (2) Small utilitarian items.... SUMMARY: Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act...
LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.
In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...
Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey
This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
.... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...
Full Text Available Our goal is to differentiate between the legal regime of the limited partnership and that of the unlimited company, by drawing a comparison between civil and special settlement in terms of the following criteria: definition, contributions, capital divisions, the Articles of Association, registration, management control, withdrawal/exclusion of a partner, dissolution/ liquidation. The opinions expressed in the chapter devoted to conclusions are relevant to Romanian and French Law as well.
... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...
Daniel V Meegan
Full Text Available Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.
Meegan, Daniel V
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students' grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed.
Lande, Yechezkel; Seidman, Daniel S; Maman, Ettie; Baum, Micha; Hourvitz, Ariel
Worldwide, IVF is often discontinued before a live birth is achieved due to high costs. Even when partial financial coverage is provided, often medical providers advise treatment discontinuation. In Israel, unlimited IVF is offered free of charge for a couples' first two children. Our objective was to assess the reasons couples discontinue IVF treatments before achieving two children in a completely unlimited cost-free environment. This cohort study included all primary infertile women, reason they ceased treatments. Of the 134 couples included, only 46 ceased IVF treatments without achieving two children, after performing an average of 6.2 IVF cycles to achieve their first birth. The reasons given were: lost hope of success (13), psychological burden (18), divorce (6), medical staff recommendation (5), bureaucratic difficulties (3) and general medical condition (1). The main reasons for "drop out" in our cost-free environment were as follows: psychological burden and lost hope of success. Due to high availability of treatments, medical staff recommendation was a less significant factor in our study.
... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...
Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...
The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators
Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.
Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be
P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)
textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these
The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de
Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.
textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...
The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013: The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address). The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...
The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…
Ellis T. Williams
Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Annual Kennewick, WA, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races, Kennewick, WA AGENCY..., Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races'' also known as the Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races. The safety... power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have...
Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom
Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi
equivalent,' and 'gamble tradeoff' methods were used. We then synthesized a Tobit and an OLS regression analysis to identify and examine the determinants of insurers' decisions on insurability and pricing for flood risk. Furthermore, the data were collected through a questionnaire survey, which was conducted with the assistance from the Non-life Underwriters Society, Taiwan and the Actuarial Institute, Taiwan. After pretesting, questionnaires were mailed to 410 randomly chosen commercial property-and-casualty insurance firms' actuaries and underwriters. The final sample consisted of 179 questionnaires for a 43.8% response rate. 3. Results Results of the questionnaire survey reveal that flood risk tends to be more uninsurable when there is ambiguity regarding the probability of a particular flood event loss. The presence of insurers' risk aversion appears to be robust. Insurers would charge a significantly higher price for a flood insurance policy than normal property insurance. The findings also show that the insurers who perceived higher levels of flood risk, or/and had a company with smaller size or higher financial leverage, would trigger a higher premium for flood insurance. Governmental risk management strategies, such as land-use planning, building codes, flood-hazard zone regulations, also played a prominent role in enhancing insurability and decreasing insurance premium. Therefore, appropriate incentives should be combined with better public risk communication and mitigation strategies to stimulate insurance coverage in reducing flood loss.
Reitsma, S. M. S.
With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)
Enthoven, A C
Medical costs are straining public finances. Direct economic regulation will raise costs, retard beneficial innovation and be increasingly burdensome to physicians. As an alternative, I suggest that the government change financial incentives by creating a system of competing health plans in which physicians and consumers can benefit from using resources wisely. Main proposals consist of changed tax laws, Medicare and Medicaid to subsidize individual premium payments by an amount based on financial and predicted medical need, as well as subsidies usable only for premiums in qualified health insurance or delivery plans operating under rules that include periodic open enrollment, community rating by actuarial category, premium rating by market area and a limit on each person's out-of pocket costs. Also, efficient systems should be allowed to pass on the full savings to consumers. Finally, incremental changes should be made in the present system to alter it fundamentally, but gradually and voluntarily. Freedom of choice for consumers and physicians should be preserved.
Full Text Available Dear friends, A recent email from a friend of mine had a quote "If some one says sky is his limit, I will only feel pity for his poor imagination". This was recollected when we were on a discussion about the physical factors which could be manipulated in several of our chemically synthesized concoctions to yield scaffolds for cell culture. Though the manipulation of physical factors such as elasticity have been proven to have a definite control over the stem cell lineage of differentiation in the in vitro culture conditions, various combinations of such physical factors are yet to be tried which might come over with interesting results. However the entity of gravitational force remain something beyond our control and to be explored in depth. We guess the cell culture and stem cell lineage differentiation could be different especially at different gravities as well as at zero gravity. Enormous coordination has to be done to accomplish such experiments because the transition of cells from earth at 37 Deg celsius into space of no gravity in a very short time, when lifted in a space within the chambers in-built within a satellite, further exposure of them to usual expansion atmosphere sans gravity and then the final return back to earth of the expanded cells will have to be automized. This needs the help of space engineers and electro mechanical automations systems which operate through wireless controls still without in any way jeoparding the cells viability and sterility at any point. Such accomplishment may not be impossible, if have will. Now thinking of the statement quoted in the beginning, its true in a sense that limiting ourselves to an area with gravity has become a real limitation and going out into outer space of different grades of gravity is soon going to become an necessity at least for the stem cell researchers! Let not only the space but also the ideas pour in unlimited to explore what we are yet to!! Yours sincerely,The Editorial
Walhof, P.; Dorsman, A.B.; Thibeault, A.
Recently Life Insurance Securitisation practices have been probed in dedicated areas to access the wider capital markets. These developments have shown a rising interest among leading insurers and reinsurers to start building experience with securitisation practices, either for risk transfer,
Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... assumed responsibility. The cost of this insurance to the carrier shall be part of the transportation cost...
Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.
MARIA MIRABELA FLOREA IANC
Full Text Available The insurance companies operating in a competitive and dynamic economic climate, so solvency is a very important problem. The guarantee funds protect policyholders against situations where insurers can not meet its contractual obligations, and supervisors constant attention is how to regulate the insurance business. Overall solvency of insurance companies show that has been achieved relative success in this area due to regulations adopted. Although in recent years the number of insolvency cases increased worrying emphasis on solvency control should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of such cases and the increased safety offered by insurance products.
The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance. This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF. The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll. Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions. More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...
The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de
A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....
Lin, Chih-Wan; Wang, Ching-Huan; Huang, Wei-I; Ke, Wei-Ming; Chao, Pi-Hui; Chen, Wen-Wen; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan
Safety concerns regarding potential life-threatening adverse events associated with codeine have resulted in policy decisions to restrict its use in pediatrics. However, whether these drug safety communications have had an immediate and strong impact on codeine use remains in question. We aimed to investigate the impact of the two implemented safety-related regulations (label changes and reimbursement regulations) on the use of codeine for upper respiratory infection (URI) or cough. A quasi-experimental study was performed using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Quarterly data of codeine prescription rates for URI/cough visits were reported, and an interrupted time series design was used to assess the impact of the safety regulations on the uses of codeine among children with URI/cough visits. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to explore patient and provider characteristics associated with the use of codeine. The safety-related regulations were associated with a significant reduction in codeine prescription rates of -4.24% (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.78 to -3.70), and the relative reduction compared with predicted rates based on preregulation projections was 60.4, 56.6, and 53.2% in the first, second, and third year after the regulations began, respectively. In the postregulation period, physicians specializing in otolaryngology (odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.45-1.49), practicing in district hospitals (OR 6.84, 95% CI 5.82-8.04) or clinics (OR 6.50, 95% CI 5.54-7.62), and practicing in the least urbanized areas (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.55-1.64) were more likely to prescribe codeine to children than their counterparts. Our study provides a successful example of how to effectively reduce the codeine prescriptions in children in the 'real-world' settings, and highlights areas where future effort could be made to improve the safety use of codeine. Future research is warranted to explore whether there was a simultaneous decrease in
... the insurance industry's homeowners policy. FEMA also proposed changes in the coverage. On October 12...: FEMA-2010-0021] RIN 1660-AA70 National Flood Insurance Program, Policy Wording Correction AGENCY... Insurance and Mitigation Administration, Standard Flood Insurance Policy regulations. In order to increase...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery crop insurance provisions. 457.162 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.162 Nursery crop insurance provisions. The Nursery Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2006 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric
Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...
Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William
Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 2201.24 Section 2201.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.24 Insurance. The Borrower of a...
Gomez del Campo, Julian.
The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dunlap, Brian S; Bailes, James R
Childhood obesity is a leading health concern. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited energy diet for weight reduction in elementary school-aged children. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have looked at the effect of this diet on lipid profiles in elementary school-aged children. Therefore, the objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, unlimited energy diet on lipid profiles in obese children 6 to 12 years of age. Overweight children (body mass index >97%) referred to our obesity clinic were treated with a restricted-carbohydrate (unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. Weight, height, body mass index, and fasting lipid profiles were obtained at baseline and at 10 weeks on each patient. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in our study, with a total of 18 patients returning for our 10 week follow-up (67%). The study group included 10 males and 8 females, with an age range of 6 to 12 years. Both total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed a significant reduction; 24.2 (P = 0.018) and 56.9 (P = 0.015) mg/dL, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides in elementary school-aged children after 10 weeks of a restricted-carbohydrate, unlimited protein, and unlimited energy diet. We suggest that this diet may decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese children. Long-term studies will be needed to substantiate these data.
Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.
Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch
These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions
The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...
a case study of Kampala district. ... informants (insurers, insurance regulators as well as enforcers – traffic police officers); and carried out desk review of motor third party insurance ... enormous negative economic impact on individuals, fam-.
... Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... impractical. The NRC is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance... protection requirements and indemnity agreements to increase the primary nuclear liability insurance layer...
It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies
...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SERVICES BETWEEN U.S... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. international insurance transactions. The types of...
... Insurance § 203.256 Insurance of open-end advance. Insurance on an open-end advance will be evidenced by delivery of a certificate stating the amount of the advance, the date of insurance, and the regulations... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance of open-end advance. 203...
Booms, P.; Cheung, D.; Timmers, M. C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Sterk, P. J.
Patients with asthma who have moderate to severe airway hyperresponsiveness often demonstrate progressive, unlimited airway narrowing in response to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli, which is likely to be due to inflammatory changes within the airway wall. It is unknown whether regular therapy
... the election was made, (iii) The office of the district director, or the service center, where the....642(c)-1 Unlimited deduction for amounts paid for a charitable purpose. (a) In general. (1) Any part... election, to a related estate, as defined under § 1.645-1(b), for the amount so paid. (2) In determining...
McCluskey, Martha T
The structure and regulation of the insurance system for financing workers' compensation affects the costs of workers' benefits. Using the example of Maine's insurance market restructuring in response to a crisis of the early 1990s, this commentary explores how changes in insurance regulation might better support the goals of workers' compensation. The commentary analyzes how insurance and its regulation should go beyond correct pricing of risks to questions of how to structure incentives for loss control to include workers' interests as well as the interests of employers and insurers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The livestock insurance is a part of agricultural insurance. This type of insurance is also part of a non-life insurance. The livestock insurance is undeveloped in Serbia. In general, a very small number of farms (5% of total decided for the conclusion of livestock insurance contracts. This paper analyzes the basic characteristics of this type of insurance, and the authors pay attention to the implementation of this type of insurance in other countries. Special attention is paid to the livestock insurance in Mongolia, India, Mexico and Ireland who are defined livestock insurance programs that have contributed to a greater number of contracts concluded in this field. Also, the authors speaking about livestock insurance in some European countries. Finally, the authors criticize the way in which is regulated livestock insurance in Serbia, by proposing a series of measures that should be implemented by the insurance companies and state.
... secure reasonable premium and copayment pricing through multiple tier options to allow enrollees to... program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and... regulations to establish VADIP, a pilot program that would offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled...
by Regulatory Board)a Securities Firm Bankb I Other Firms Not BHC U Permitted :I~( Barik Regulators>. j ..: or SEC)C . ...... _.. Insurance Firm Other BHC...Growth, interest rate, and dividend restrictions, higher capital and/or Insurance premiums, civil money penalties. E J Trlpwire 3: Prbes Capital below
... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.481 Insured loans. Applications...) Constructing and equipping industrial plants for lease to private businesses (not including loans for operating... concurrence prior to approval. B. Applications from private parties for insured loans will not be encouraged...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 232.885 Section 232.885 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claim shall be made in the following manner...
Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...
Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...
The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.
Full Text Available Because great interest in an efficient range of effective medicinal innovations and achievements has arisen, many countries have introduced procedures to regulate the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies into the benefit catalogue of solidly financed health care insurances. With this as a background, this report will describe procedures for the adoption of innovative non-medicinal technologies by solidly financed health care insurances in Germany, England, Australia and Switzerland. This report was commissioned by the German Agency for Health Technology Assessment at the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information.In order to find the relevant literature and information, systematic literature research, a hand search and a written survey were carried out. All the selected documents (chosen according to defined criteria for inclusion and exclusion were qualitatively evaluated, summarized and presented on a chart using a framework developed for this purpose. All the countries in this report require that some innovative non-medicinal technologies undergo evaluation by a central governing body. This evaluation is a prerequisite for adoption into the benefit catalogue. The process of evaluation can differ (e. g. the people and institutions concerned, the division of the synthesis of evidence and overall evaluation, processing the evidence. Similarities do exist, such as the size and composition of the governing bodies or the overreaching criteria according to which institutions must make their recommendations. This is how all the countries examined in this report determine how the benefits and effectiveness of the innovations, as well as their cost-effectiveness, can be chosen as criteria for the evaluation. Furthermore, there are many criteria which differ from country to country (social and ethical aspects, possible effects on the health system, etc. and which are also relevant to an evaluation. The preferred types of
... Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... explain how to allocate prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums to determine the amount of the... Act of 2010. The regulations affect taxpayers who pay prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums...
... Information Reporting of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... regulations that require information reporting by persons who receive mortgage insurance premiums, including... reporting requirements that result from the extension of the treatment of mortgage insurance premiums made...
Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Marta; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds. This self-organization is intriguing, as it occurs thanks to exchange of information only and without any particular rules that could favor the clustering of the gliders (in contrast to the causes well known in literature, like, for example, attractive forces used in the Vicsek-type models or fitness functions used in evolutionary computation).
Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie
The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.
Li, Xiangping; Lan, Tzu-Hsiang; Tien, Chung-Hao; Gu, Min
The interplay between light polarization and matter is the basis of many fundamental physical processes and applications. However, the electromagnetic wave nature of light in free space sets a fundamental limit on the three-dimensional polarization orientation of a light beam. Although a high numerical aperture objective can be used to bend the wavefront of a radially polarized beam to generate the longitudinal polarization state in the focal volume, the arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation of a beam has not been achieved yet. Here we present a novel technique for generating arbitrary three-dimensional polarization orientation by a single optically configured vectorial beam. As a consequence, by applying this technique to gold nanorods, orientation-unlimited polarization encryption with ultra-security is demonstrated. These results represent a new landmark of the orientation-unlimited three-dimensional polarization control of the light-matter interaction.
... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...
Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.
In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...
Bulanov, S. V.; Echkina, E. Yu.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Inovenkov, I. N.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Korn, G.
The energy of the ions accelerated by an intense electromagnetic wave in the radiation pressure dominated regime can be greatly enhanced due to a transverse expansion of a thin target. The expansion decreases the number of accelerated ions in the irradiated region increasing the energy and the longitudinal velocity of remaining ions. In the relativistic limit, the ions become phase-locked with respect to the electromagnetic wave resulting in the unlimited ion energy gain. This effect and the ...
1757 I Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can Be Harmful Even Given Unlimited Computation DTIC5 by flELECTE 5David C. Wilkins and Yong...NUMBERSWOKNI PROGRAM RAT TSWOKUI 61153N RR04206 OC 443g-008 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Sociopathic Knowledge Bases: Correct Knowledge Can be...probabilistic rules are shown to be sociopathic and so this problem is very widespread. Sociopathicity has important consequences for rule induction
Khan, Issa; Rahman, Noor Naemah Binti Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd; Nor, Mohd Roslan Bin Mohd
This study explains the history, current problems, and future possibilities of Islamic insurance (takaful) in Bangladesh. To articulate these issues, the researcher has adopted the qualitative method, and data has been collected through secondary sources i.e. articles, books, and online resources. The study reveals that Islamic insurance in Bangladesh is regulated by the Insurance Act 2010 which is contradictory with Islamic insurance causing numerous problems for Islamic insurance. This study also points out that Islamic insurance is a fast growing industry with huge prospects in Bangladesh. The government should introduce separate regulations for both Islamic and conventional insurance. The research concludes with suggestions for the further development of Islamic insurance in Bangladesh.
Dr. Nabeel Farhan Al Shatanawi
Full Text Available The insured, in some cases the conclusion of more than a decade of insurance against risk of fire to more than insurance companies, so as to increase the total amount of insurance cover for the value of the money of the insured, what is the extent of commitment by all insurance companies to pay compensation when the risk of fire? This study sheds light on the position of the Jordanian legislature to demonstrate the shortcomings and imperfections in the drawback of legislative texts the issue of multiple insurance contracts from the fire, and realized the need to restore the Jordanian legislature consideration of this legislative regulation in terms of the need to distinguish between the insurer and the good faith and bad faith in the case of multiple insurance contracts and their impact on the right to obtain compensation when the danger, and the provisions of the commitment of the insured to notify the insurance company in multiple insurance contracts.
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional
One popular explanation for this low rate of employee coverage is the presence of numerous state regulations which mandate that group health insurance plans must include certain benefits. By raising the minimum costs of providing any health insurance coverage, these mandated benefits make it impossible for firms which would have desired to offer minimal health insurance at a low cost to do so. I use data on insurance coverage among employees in small firms to investigate whether this problem ...
The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AO42 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance Information Access AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations governing...
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its regulations...
Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for...
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services... regulations published July 19, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered... plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of those...
... insurance premiums. 236.252 Section 236.252 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... insurance premiums. All of the provisions of § 207.252 of this chapter governing the first, second, and third mortgage insurance premiums shall apply to mortgages insured under this subpart, except: (a) Where...
Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren
How do we become creative individuals, by ourselves and with others? How do we increase innovation in our work or study environments? How do we learn to think in unlimited ways? The answers to these questions can be found in this book, which presents new methods for enhancing our own and others......, cultural or professional backgrounds. Using a newly developed scientific theory combined with three practical and thoroughly tested methods, scholars Christian Byrge and Søren Hansen demonstrate how to increase our possibilities for creative thinking in both our academic, professional and private lives...
Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...
Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is taking direct final action to amend its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Specifically, this rule will add language to clarify the limited preemptive effect of certain criteria in the VADIP regulations.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for insurance costs. 9904.416 Section 9904.416 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416 Accounting for insurance costs. ...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9611] RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit...
Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.
need to take foreign insurance experience and change their own operating models, in particular: to improve the mechanism of state regulation of the activity of insurance companies; to adapt the insurance legislation to the world standards; to implement the latest insurance technologies and the latest standards of service quality in this area, etc.
Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves
Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked...
Li, Xiaoxue; Ye, Jinqi
This study examines how regulations in private health insurance markets affect coverage of public insurance. We focus on mental health parity laws, which mandate private health insurance to provide equal coverage for mental and physical health services. The implementation of mental health parity laws may improve a quality dimension of private health insurance but at increased costs. We graphically develop a conceptual framework and then empirically examine whether the regulations shift individuals from private to public insurance. We exploit state-by-year variation in policy implementation in 1999-2008 and focus on a sample of veterans, who have better access to public insurance than non-veterans. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we find that the parity laws reduce employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage by 2.1% points. The drop in ESI is largely offset by enrollment gains in public insurance, namely through the Veterans Affairs (VA) benefit and Medicaid/Medicare programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 3028.307 Section 3028.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Insurance 3028.307 Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...
Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.
He, Haijun; Shao, Liyang; Qian, Heng; Zhang, Xinpu; Liang, Jiawei; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan
A novel demodulation method for Sagnac loop interferometer based sensor has been proposed and demonstrated, by unwrapping the phase changes with birefringence interrogation. A temperature sensor based on Sagnac loop interferometer has been used to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Several tests with 40 °C temperature range have been accomplished with a great linearity of 0.9996 in full range. The proposed scheme is universal for all Sagnac loop interferometer based sensors and it has unlimited linear measurable range which overwhelming the conventional demodulation method with peak/dip tracing. Furthermore, the influence of the wavelength sampling interval and wavelength span on the demodulation error has been discussed in this work. The proposed interrogation method has a great significance for Sagnac loop interferometer sensor and it might greatly enhance the availability of this type of sensors in practical application.
Einziger, R.E.; Knecht, R.L.; Cantley, D.A.; Cook, J.A.
Thus far the tests are inconclusive as to whether breached LWR fuel can be stored at 230 0 C for long periods of time in air without fuel oxidation and dispersion. There is every indication, as expected, that there is no oxidation problem in an inert atmosphere. Only one of four defects exposed to unlimited air gave any indication of fuel oxidation. It has been suggested that this might be an incubation effect and continued operation would result in oxidation occurring at all four defects. As yet the destructive examination of the BWR rod has not been completed, so it is not possible to determine if cladding splitting was due to an anomoly in this test rod or something that can be expected in LWR rods in general. Thus far there is no indication of respirable particle dispersal even if fuel oxidation does occur
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel variable stiffness mechanism is presented, which is capable of achieving an output stiffness with infinite range and an unlimited output motion, i.e., the mechanism output is completely decoupled from the rotor motion, in the zero stiffness configuration. The mechanism makes use of leaf springs, which are engaged at different positions by means of two movable supports, to realize the variable output stiffness. The Euler–Bernoulli leaf spring model is derived and validated through experimental data. By shaping the leaf springs, it is shown that the stiffness characteristic of the mechanism can be changed to fulfill different application requirements. Alternative designs can achieve the same behavior with only one leaf spring and one movable support pin.
Full Text Available Solvency II Directive represents a new framework of unique solvency regulation of insurance and reinsurance companies in the European Union. Although it has not yet been implemented in national legislations, it can be concluded, based on the directive wording and conducted quantitative studies, that it will have implications on agricultural producers since they are the users of insurance services. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyse the implications of the new directive to agricultural producers since they are the insureds and the main actors of agribusiness. Firstly, the paper gives an overview of the basic features of the new regulatory framework and then it points at the issues and the needs for intensive application of Directive in order to improve the insurance business in Serbia. The process will direct the settlement of major claims, the ones that are typical of catastrophic risks in agriculture, towards the insurance, while the expectations from the government will be directed towards the regulation of the setting and economic measures (development and investment subsidies, cooperative movement. In addition, the paper points at the demands of the new regulation and analyses the implications of the new regulation regarding the settlement of claims resulting from major flood since it represents the example that proves the basic postulate.
Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository...: Consumer Protection for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance. OMB Number: 1550-0106. Regulation..., Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Office of Thrift Supervision to prescribe joint consumer...
Darooneh, Amir H.
We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.
This short communication deals with compensation for nuclear damage and compensation for environmental pollution through industrial activities and compress both systems and their insurance coverage [fr
... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Healthcare Management, Insurance & Bills, Your Health ResourcesTags: brand name, co-pay, drug, formulary, generic, isurance, medicine, ...
Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H
analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health......This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....
A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)
L. V. Martseniuk
Full Text Available Purpose. The insurance market of Ukraine is still interesting for foreign investors. However, there is a range of negative factors. They are: 1 the old regulatory framework, public access and transparency of the insurance market for population; 2 low profitability of certain types of insurance; 3 low competitiveness of the insurance companies in comparison with commercial banks in attraction drive of free funds of legal entities and individuals; 4 insufficient state regulation and control does not allow the insurance market to develop effectively. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to analyze and identify the causes that hinder the development of insurance business in Ukraine, as well as to determine the directions of insurance market development. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the article determines the total number of insurance companies, composes the gross payment rating of the largest of them, presents the dynamics of net insurance premiums for basic insurance. This analysis allows you to identify problematic issues and activities of the insurance market. Findings. The analysis of the article revealed a number of factors that prevent successful development of insurance in Ukraine. The authors suggest priority areas for improving the situation in the insurance market. It was found that the main tasks of the development of insurance are: 1 legal framework reform; 2 improving competitiveness, investment attractiveness of the insurance companies; 3 development of modern infrastructure of the insurance market; 4 expanding the range of services and their compliance with international standards; 5 personnel development; 6 improvement of insurance activity licensing; 7 building of culture and public trust. At the same time the increase in the population solvency, economic and political stability in the country will contribute to the stabilization and intensive development of the insurance market. Originality. The article firstly
Full Text Available Financial stability of agricultural producers the most effective method to stimulate the development of agricultural insurance, which is part of the insurance premium compensation to agricultural producers for insurance contracts and regulation of insurance state. Government support of agricultural producers with their property insurance provides in a many developed countries (USA, Canada, Spain, etc., through which achieved a high level of insurance in the agricultural sector of the economy. In Ukraine agricultural insurance also carried out with government support, but its development is characterized by slow pace. Problems of development of agricultural insurance and solutions determine the relevance of the study of this problem. Agriculture is the key to food security. Insurance system should provide financial support to rural producers. That damage the agricultural sector affect not only the interests of the producers and the state in general, there is a need to create a basis for substantial government support for agriculture. Considerable support can be carried out through government subsidies producers or insurers in insurance operations.
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...
..., and the banks would have to provide a legal opinion explaining how the measure eliminates the...\\ \\2\\ See FDIC Advisory Opinion 96-6, Letter of Assistant General Counsel Alan J. Kaplan (Mar. 5, 1996...
It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)
International Labour Office. Geneva
This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.
This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects
Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.
Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela
This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...
The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance. The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...
.... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...
.... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...
... Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... interim final regulations published July 23, 2010 with respect to group health plans and health insurance..., group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The text of...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan... contracts of insurance. The temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health insurance coverage. The IRS is issuing the temporary...
Nichols, L M; Blumberg, L J
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 has been praised and criticized for asserting federal authority to regulate health insurance. We review the history of federalism and insurance regulation and find that HIPAA is less of a departure from traditional federal authority than it is an application of existing tools to meet evolving health policy goals. This interpretation could clarify future health policy debates about appropriate federal and state responsibilities. We also report on the insurance environments and the HIPAA implementation choices of thirteen states. We conclude with criteria for judging the success of HIPAA and the evolving federal/state partnership in health insurance regulation.
Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...
... Health Plan Standards and Compliance Assistance, Employee Benefits Security Administration, Room N-5653... employee benefit plans to be insurance companies in order to regulate them under insurance laws.) \\6\\ As a... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security...
... ensure adequate computer, audit and accounting systems, internal risk management controls, and has... Section 362.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF... risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund. Applications for consent should be filed in accordance with § 303...
The research investigates the impact of pricing of risk on the profitability of Nigeria insurance market and also the relationship between operation expenses and profitability of the non-life insurance market in Nigeria. Results show that economy, competition and government regulation have effect on pricing of risk. Also, it was ...
Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)
textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk
Full Text Available The article focus on insurance broker profession in connection with second part of professions deregulations. It briefly presents modifications in polish law in this domain. Next part concerns the insurance brokers market dynamics analysis. The results shows permanent increase in brokers quantity in spite of existing regulations. Presented paper makes start point to following analysis.
... type designated in the actuarial documents. The price elections you choose for each type must have the... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.169 Mint crop insurance... produces new mint plants at its tips or nodes. Type. A category of mint identified as a type in the Special...
... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage..., or a mixture thereof, or other species as shown in the Actuarial Documents. Harvest—Removal of forage... different price elections by type, in which case you may select one price election for each forage type...
... types, in the county for which a premium rate is provided by the actuarial documents: (a) In which you... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance... avoirdupois. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type in the Special Provisions...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial insurance endorsement. 220.801 Section 220.801 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... AREAS Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.801 Initial...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of insurable interest annuity... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Elections at the Time of Retirement § 831.613 Election of insurable interest annuity. (a) At the time of retirement, an employee or Member in...
Poos, Bradley W.
Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri is one of the oldest schools west of the Mississippi and the first public high school built in Kansas City. Kansas City's magnet plan resulted in Central High School being rebuilt as the Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, a school that was designed to offer students an…
... the gross income of the estate for 1972, and N University receives $100,000 from the estate in such... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES... unlimited charitable contributions deduction. (a) Income in respect of a decedent. For purposes of §§ 1.642...
Einziger, R.E.; Cook, J.A.
A five-year whole rod test was initiated to investigate the long-term stability of spent fuel rods under a variety of possible dry storage conditions. Both PWR and BWR rods were included in the test. The first interim examination was conducted after three months of testing to determine if there was any degradation in those defected rods stored in an unlimited air atmosphere. Visual observations, diametral measurements and radiographic smears were used to assess the degree of cladding deformation and particulate dispersal. The PWR rod showed no measurable change from the pre-test condition. The two original artificial defects had not changed in appearance and there was no diametral growth of the cladding. One of the defects in BWR rod showed significant deformation. There was approximately 10% cladding strain at the defect site and a small axial crack had formed. The fuel in the defect did not appear to be friable. The second defect showed no visible change and no cladding strain. Following examination, the test was continued at 230 0 C. Another interim examination is planned during the summer of 1983. This paper discusses the details and meaning of the data from the first interim examination
Bandini, G.; Caira, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.
The MARS nuclear plant is equipped with a 600 MWth PWR type nuclear steam supply system, with completely innovative engineered core safeguards. The most relevant innovative safety system of this plant is its Emergency Core Cooling System, which is completely passive (with only one non static component). The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) of the MARS reactor is natural-circulation, passive-type, and its intervention follows a core flow decrease, whatever was the cause. The operation of the system is based on a cascade of three fluid systems, functionally interfacing through heat exchangers; the first fluid system is connected to the reactor vessel and the last one includes an atmospheric-pressure condenser, cooled by external air. The infinite thermal capacity of the final heat sink provides the system an unlimited autonomy. The capability and operability of the system are based on its integrity and on the integrity of the primary coolant boundary (both of them are permanently enclosed in a pressurized containment; 100% redundancy is also foreseen) and on the operation of only one non static component (a check valve), with 400% redundancy. In the paper, all main thermal hydraulic transients occurring as a consequence of postulated accidents are analysed, to verify the capability of the passive-type ECCS to intervene always in time, without causing undue conditions of reduced coolability of the core (DNB, etc.), and to verify its capability to guarantee a long-term (indefinite) coolability of the core without the need of any external intervention. (author)
White, Alex L; Runeson, Erik; Palmer, John; Ernst, Zachary R; Boynton, Geoffrey M
Performance in many visual tasks is impaired when observers attempt to divide spatial attention across multiple visual field locations. Correspondingly, neuronal response magnitudes in visual cortex are often reduced during divided compared with focused spatial attention. This suggests that early visual cortex is the site of capacity limits, where finite processing resources must be divided among attended stimuli. However, behavioral research demonstrates that not all visual tasks suffer such capacity limits: The costs of divided attention are minimal when the task and stimulus are simple, such as when searching for a target defined by orientation or contrast. To date, however, every neuroimaging study of divided attention has used more complex tasks and found large reductions in response magnitude. We bridged that gap by using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure responses in the human visual cortex during simple feature detection. The first experiment used a visual search task: Observers detected a low-contrast Gabor patch within one or four potentially relevant locations. The second experiment used a dual-task design, in which observers made independent judgments of Gabor presence in patches of dynamic noise at two locations. In both experiments, blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the retinotopic cortex were significantly lower for ignored than attended stimuli. However, when observers divided attention between multiple stimuli, BOLD signals were not reliably reduced and behavioral performance was unimpaired. These results suggest that processing of simple features in early visual cortex has unlimited capacity.
Li, Li; Zhang, Ziang; Yu, Miao; Song, Zhengxun; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Dapeng; Zhao, Le; Peng, Kuiqing
Although the nanoscale world can already be observed at a diffraction-unlimited resolution using far-field optical microscopy, to make the step from microscopy to lithography still requires a suitable photoresist material system. In this letter, we consider the threshold to be a region with a width characterized by the extreme feature size obtained using a Gaussian beam spot. By narrowing such a region through improvement of the threshold sensitization to intensity in a high-threshold material system, the minimal feature size becomes smaller. By using platinum as the negative photoresist, we demonstrate that high-threshold lithography can be used to fabricate nanowire arrays with a scalable resolution along the axial direction of the linewidth from the micro- to the nanoscale using a nanosecond-pulsed laser source with a wavelength λ 0 = 1064 nm. The minimal feature size is only several nanometers (sub λ 0 /100). Compared with conventional polymer resist lithography, the advantages of high-threshold lithography are sharper pinpoints of laser intensity triggering the threshold response and also higher robustness allowing for large area exposure by a less-expensive nanosecond-pulsed laser
Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...
Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)
This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.
Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T
For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional logics perspective, we analyze how private health insurers tried to reconcile the tension between a competitive insurance market pressuring for selective underwriting and actuarially fair premiums (the insurance logic), and an upcoming welfare state pressuring for universal access and socially fair premiums (the welfare state logic). Based on primary sources and the extant historiography, we distinguish six periods in which the balance between both logics changed significantly. We identify various strategies employed by private insurers to reconcile the competing logics. Some of these were temporarily successful, but required measures that were incompatible with the idea of free entrepreneurship and consumer choice. We conclude that universal access can only be achieved in a competitive individual private health insurance market if this market is effectively regulated and mandatory cross-subsidies are effectively enforced. The Dutch case demonstrates that achieving universal access in a competitive private health insurance market is institutionally complex and requires broad political and societal support.
Full Text Available The role and importance of supply chain management, has faced with many challenges and problems. Although a comprehensive model of supply chain issues, has not been explained, we have to indicate that issues such as reviewing the theoretical foundations of information systems, marketing, financial management, logistical and organizational relations have been considered by many researchers. The objective of supply chain management is to improve various activities and components to increase overall supply chain system benefits. In order to achieve the overall objectives, many contradictions may occur between the components and different levels of supply chain and the contradictions that these disorders over time, result in decreased strength and competitiveness of the supply chain. Such conflicts, like marketing costs (advertising, pricing and inventory can occur during the supply chain life cycle. A Game Theory approach with respect to property is the appropriate tool for collaboration in the supply chain. This tool is used for collaborative making in any kind of supply chain such as cooperative supply chain and non-cooperative supply chain. In the present study and assuming a lack of cooperation between different levels of a supply chain, a dynamic game with complete information has been generated. In addition identifying appropriate leaders of various levels of the supply chain is considered. Non-Cooperative dynamic game mode (Stackelberg Game, for each of the three levels of supply chain including retailers, suppliers and manufacturers are modeled. Depending on the bargaining power and its position in the market, any level of supply chain can make a leader of the following rule. In the present study, the equilibrium model to play Stackelberg game may be led by a leader or leading players and ultimately identifying and modeling the appropriate unlimited three level supply chain are determined.
Hoi, Herbert; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta
Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially nesting European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster). We aimed to determine whether this unconsumed food is an indicator of unlimited food supply, the result of mistakes during food transfer between parents and chicks or foraging selectivity of chicks. Therefore, we investigated the amount of dropped food for each nest in relation to reproductive performance and parameters reflecting parental quality. Our data suggest that parents carry more food to the nest than chicks can eat and, hence, food is not limited. This assumption is supported by the facts that there is a positive relationship between dropped food found in a nest and the number of fledglings, nestling age, and chick health condition and that the amount of dropped food is independent of colony size. There is variation in the amount of dropped food within colonies, suggesting that parent foraging efficiency may also be an important determinant. Pairs nesting in the center of a colony performed better than those nesting on the edge, which supports the assumption that quality differences between parents are important as well. However, dropped food cannot be used as an indicator of local food availability as (1) within-colony variation in dropped food is larger than between colony variation and, (2) the average amount of dropped food is not related to colony size.
Pauly, Mark V
This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.
Mark V. Pauly
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.
Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom
Freese, William C.
Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...
Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.
This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.
... insurance (Defense Base Act). 752.228-3 Section 752.228-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Clauses 752.228-3 Worker's compensation insurance (Defense Base Act). As prescribed in 728.309, the... contracting officer. (a) The Contractor agrees to procure Defense Base Act (DBA) insurance pursuant to the...
... Insurance (Defense Base Act). 52.228-3 Section 52.228-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.228-3 Workers' Compensation Insurance (Defense Base Act). As prescribed in 28.309(a), insert the following clause: Workers' Compensation Insurance (Defense Base Act) (APR 1984) The Contractor...
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing of insured notes outstanding with investors. 1901.508 Section 1901.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Ownership and Insured Notes § 1901.508 Servicing of insured notes outstanding with investors. The Director...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund. 213.275 Section 213.275 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund. The Cooperative Management Housing Insurance...
... insurance premiums. 255.6 Section 255.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... PROJECTS § 255.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of 24 CFR 251.6 shall..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...
... insurance premiums. 251.6 Section 251.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING PROJECTS § 251.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the... affected lenders, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...
... insurance premiums. 252.6 Section 252.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and..., AND BOARD AND CARE HOMES § 252.6 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. The provisions of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT...
... supplementary medical insurance premiums will be applied toward payment of such premiums, and the balance of the... medical insurance plan. 255.9 Section 255.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... supplementary medical insurance plan. Where recovery of the overpayment is by setoff as provided for in § 255.6...
... Administration (FHA) Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Multifamily Housing Programs, Health Care Facilities and... mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for FHA Multifamily Housing, Health Care Facilities, and Hospital... mortgage insurance regulation at 24 CFR 207.254 provides as follows: Notice of future premium changes will...
... insurance premiums. 207.252e Section 207.252e Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Premiums § 207.252e Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner... mortgagees, that mortgage insurance premiums be remitted electronically. [63 FR 1303, Jan. 8, 1998] ...
... Facilities, and Hospital Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 AGENCY: Office of the... with HUD regulations, this Notice announces the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Multifamily, Healthcare Facilities, and Hospital mortgage insurance programs that have...
... Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY...: In accordance with HUD regulations, this notice announces changes of the mortgage insurance premiums... mortgage. The mortgage insurance premiums to be in effect for FHA firm commitments issued or reissued in FY...
... Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic Payment § 203.260 Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of mortgage insurance premium (periodic MIP). 203.260 Section 203.260 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...
... insurance premiums. 266.610 Section 266.610 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.610 Method of payment of mortgage insurance premiums. In the cases that the Commissioner deems appropriate, the...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Insurance premium payments... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 2132.770 Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve. Insurance premium payments and a special contingency reserve are made...
Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN
This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...
Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.
... to the interim final regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance... dates. These interim final regulations generally apply to group health plans and group health insurance... from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...
... submit views on: 1. Systemic risk regulation with respect to insurance; 2. Capital standards and the... risk; 3. Consumer protection for insurance products and practices, including gaps in State regulation... general creditor claims; iii. In the case of life insurance companies, on the loss of the special status...
This thesis evaluates whether the duty of utmost good faith (the cornerstone of insurance contracts) is effectively regulated and in tum, observed by insurers and insureds alike in Malaysia. This is researched by evaluating the adequacy of the Insurance Act 1996 (Malaysia) and the Takaful Act 1984 (Malaysia), along with the supporting infrastructure and measures introduced by the Malaysian government in providing for the adherence to the duty of utmost good faith throughout the various stages...
Ellis, Randall P; Albert Ma, Ching-To
Because less healthy employees value health insurance more than the healthy ones, when health insurance is newly offered job turnover rates for healthier employees decline less than turnover rates for the less healthy. We call this adverse job turnover, and it implies that a firm's expected health costs will increase when health insurance is first offered. Health insurance premiums may fail to adjust sufficiently fast because state regulations restrict annual premium changes, or insurers are reluctant to change premiums rapidly. Even with premiums set at the long run expected costs, some firms may be charged premiums higher than their current expected costs and choose not to offer insurance. High administrative costs at small firms exacerbate this dynamic selection problem. Using 1998-1999 MEDSTAT MarketScan and 1997 Employer Health Insurance Survey data, we find that expected employee health expenditures at firms that offer insurance have lower within-firm and higher between-firm variance than at firms that do not. Turnover rates are systematically higher in industries in which firms are less likely to offer insurance. Simulations of the offer decision capturing between-firm health-cost heterogeneity and expected turnover rates match the observed pattern across firm sizes well. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick
The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.
Full Text Available Marine insurance business in Indonesia such as marine hull and machinery insurance and cargo insurance are subject to applicable laws and practices in the United Kingdom. Although Indonesia already has marine insurance law which is regulated in Wetboek van Koophandel, in fact, this busisness subject to English Law and Practice. The choice of law are listed in the insurance policy. Submission of the law and practice in UK raises the issue for the parties in the insurance contract, between Insurer and Insured. Although the principle of contract is a law for those who make it, but in practice there is a problem. The problem is especially when there is a dispute between Insurer and Insured. When disputes occur, each party has a different opinion regarding which country's laws may be applied to resolve disputes between Insurance Companies and Policyholders (the proper law of the contract, the applicable law. When referring to the provisions contained in the marine insurance policy which is a contract of the parties, it should be settled under the legal system and practice of law which is in force in the United Kingdom, because the choice of law is written in the contract. However, the problem arises again, whether the choice of law in the insurance contract can be applied, if the insurance company as a legal entity is established under Indonesian law and domiciled in Indonesia, as well as the policy holders who are Indonesian. On the basis of such matters, this paper intended to elaborate the principles of international civil law in Indonesia regarding the choice of law in the contract and is also associated with the personal status of the insurance company, the personal status of the policyholder who are Indonesian, as well as the consequences of the choice of law listed in marine hull and machinery insurance or cargo insurance and national laws which can be applied to marine insurance disputes occurring in Indonesia. Keywords : Marine Insurance
Obadović Mirjana M.
Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.
Ravi SS Toor
Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.
Madalina Giorgiana MANGRA
Full Text Available The offer of insurance products is about the requirements and needs of the consumer who must always have information regarding: the type of insurance risk covered and the excluded risks, the sum insured, the payment of premiums and their duration. The accurate information of customer requires, from the commencement of contract and throughout its duration, that he or she is aware of the obligations throughout the contractual period. Most of the Romanians are turning their attention to one of the insurance companies found in the top 10 in 2016, supervised by F.S.A. (Financial Supervision Authority, preferring to have a policy of mandatory household and goods insurance, auto liability or life insurance, but are also interested in travel health insurance when going abroad, private health insurance or private pension insurance. Romanians' reluctance regarding the conclusion of an insurance comes from their distrust in insurance companies (see the situations of companies like Astra Insurance, Carpatica Insurance etc., their personal financial situation and the fear that they will not receive protection if the risk is covered but the insured sum is insufficient
Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de
A brief account is given of insurance protection in the nuclear industry, and the legislation involved. Aspects discussed are: third part liability and the role of government in setting the maximum amount of compensation; the development and concept of channelling the liability exclusively to the operator; the development of nuclear insurance facilities in Europe and the USA; and the emergence in Europe of international agreements on third party liability for protection of neighbouring countries in the event of a major accident. The development of liability law in the USA from the time of the Price Anderson Act of 1957 through subsequent legislation is described. (U.K.)
Nuclear liability insurance covers liability for damages directly caused by the nuclear energy hazard. This coverage includes offsite bodily injury and property damage sustained by members of the general public, and bodily injury to onsite third party personnel. Recent nuclear liability claims allege bodily injury and property damage resulting from releases or radioactive materials to the environmental and occupational radiation worker exposures. Routine reactor operations involving radioactive waste have the potential to result in such claims. The nuclear insurance Pools believe that one way such claims can be minimized is through the implementation of an effective radioactive waste management program
Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.
Fulton, Wallace C.
Article discusses the feasibility of marriage counseling as an insurance benefit in the future. It is suggested that the physician be used as a marriage counselor in that insurance companies will pay for medical services. (EK)
Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand
As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...
Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara
Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...
Kane, E J
The thrift institution deposit insurance mess is rooted in defects in political and bureaucratic accountability. Under existing incentives, covering up evidence of poor regulatory performance and relaxing binding capital requirements are rational governmental responses to widespread industry insolvency. Similarly, aggressive industry risk taking is a rational response by thrift managers to regulatory forbearances. Far from acknowledging these incentive defects, the Bush plan for cleaning up the mess adopts theories that spotlight other causes: specifically, poor thrift management and the deregulation of thrift institution activities and of deposit interest rates. To end the mess, politicians and regulators must jettison these comfortable theories and surrender discretion that permits them to finesse the need to budget for governmental financial commitments.
O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene
Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...
This article addresses steps to take to improve the economics and risk profiles for independent power projects. The topics discussed in the article include the results of competition in the power industry, custom packages and the lack of competition among insurers in the power industry, mitigating risk through providing technical information, and developing programs
Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch
Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...
Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system
FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA
Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.
The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.
Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.
van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina
The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.
Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of the role and tasks of the insurance policy in modern conditions. Insurance is defined as a system of policy measures authorities and business entities to use the tools of insurance and financial resources of insurers in order to effectively manage risks and ensure the implementation of the goals and objectives of socio-economic development of the country (region and business entities. Allocated to the insurance policy of the state, the corporate sector, households and insurance (reinsurance companies. The economic, social and informational categories of state regulation in the insurance industry, underlined the need to reform the insurance market taking into account the influence of external and internal threats. Define the objectives and principles of the strategy of reforming the system of state regulation of the insurance market of Ukraine. Proposed priorities for the development of the insurance market on the basis of deregulation and simplification of the regulatory environment, improvement of activity control and efficiency of state supervision, protecting the interests of insurance consumers and restore confidence in the insurance market.
Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.
This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)
Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.
We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 228.307 Section 228.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....307 Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...
A method is described for the production of fuel and diesel oils free of sediments and with unlimited miscibility by their recovery from substances poor in hydrogen, such as tars of fossil carbon, from lignite, from peat, from schist oils, from wood, or tar oils of corresponding extracts, poorly hydrogenated carbohydrates and the like, characterized by the fact that these substances are being subjected without mixing with selective solvents to a chemical purification and then immediately subjected to a redistillation and the obtained distillates being cut with hydrogen-rich oils to obtain normal diesel oils.
Ohkubo, Hiroo; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei
This is an extension of the Suzuki model (base model) on optimal transition from resource-limited energy (oil) to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource. The finite length of plant life, fuel cost, technological progress factor of advanced energy and the upper limit upon annual consumption rate of oil are taken into account for such an extension. The difference in optimal solutions obtained from extended and base models is shown by an application of the maximum principle. The implication of advanced energy R and D andenergy conservation effort is also discussed. (author)
Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 428.307 Section 428.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-reimbursement contracts. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 1028.307 Section 1028.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE...-reimbursement contracts. ...
The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)
Youssef I. Kouatly; Iskander S. Hamwi
This study focuses on basic federal antitrust principles and their potential impact on property and liability insurance ratemaking. The authors believe that, in view of the growing debate around the issue of repeal or amendment of the McCarran Act, it has become necessary to focus more fully on the impact of such a potential change in the antitrust exemption accorded the business of insurance under the Act. In addition to ratemaking technicalities, state legislatures and regulators should be ...
... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...
Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph
Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...
Full Text Available The main problem of mandatory pension insurance system is lack of monetary resources on payment of pensions. One of the key mechanisms of ensuring of financial stability of the system is indexation insurance pensions, so long as through indexation it is possible to regulate the stream of monetary resources of both budget of pension fund and federal budget's transfer payments.Objectives. The aim of this work is to form a suggestion upon settlement of indexation of insurance pension for ensuring of financial stability of the pension system.Methodology. Writing the article applied methods used in economic studies: analysis, analytical, comparative, induction.Results. The author finds the basic problems of existent mechanism of indexation of pensions and gives suggestions about development of indexation mechanism.Conclusions and Relevance. New approach can be easily applicable in any macroeconomic and demographic terms and allow to manage federal budget expenditures inclusive of its resource possibilities.
This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.
The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned [fr
Gerber, Hans U
This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.
Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio
Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N≥4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states
Oldani, Graziano; Peloso, Andrea; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Meier, Raphael; Toso, Christian
Blastocyst complementation refers to the injection of cells into a blastocyst. The technology allows for the creation of chimeric animals, which have the potential to be used as an unlimited source of organ donors. Pluripotent stem cells could be generated from a patient in need of a transplantation and injected into a large animal blastocyst (potentially of a pig), leading to the creation of organ(s) allowing immunosuppression-free transplantation. Various chimera combinations have already been generated, but one of the most recent steps leads to the creation of human-pig chimeras, which could be studied at an embryo stage. Although still far from clinical reality, the potential application is almost unlimited. The present review illustrates the historical steps of intra- and interspecific blastocyst complementation in rodents and large animals, specifically looking at its potential for generation of organ grafts. We also speculate on how it could change transplant indications, on its economic impact, and on the linked ethical concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 328.311 Section 328.311 Federal... Insurance 328.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...
... regulations authorizing the exemption of group health plans and group health insurance coverage sponsored by... plans and group health insurance issuers on April 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Turner... addition, information from HHS on private health insurance for consumers can be found on the CMS Web site...
... Minimum Value of Eligible Employer-Sponsored Plans and Other Rules Regarding the Health Insurance Premium.... SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit... who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the...
... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under... Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage...
... 26 CFR Part 1 The $500,000 Deduction Limitation for Remuneration Provided by Certain Health Insurance... limitation for remuneration provided by certain health insurance providers under section 162(m)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). These regulations affect health insurance providers that pay such...
... Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in...
Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.
Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)
We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...
on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...
The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...
Bazuev, G V; Shvejkin, G P [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Khimii
Formation of unlimited series of solid solutions of substitution Lasub(1-x)Ysub(x)TiOsub(3) (1) with the structure of rhombic perovskite (sp. gr. Pbnm) is established using X-ray diffraction. With the increase of yttrium content in 1 a distortion of perovskite structure is intensified with the decrease of parameters a and c, increase of parameter b and decrease of unit cell volume V take place. Anomalies on the cirves, expressing the dependences b=f(x) and V=f(rsub(Lnsub(3+))sup(3)) in the limits 1 are connected with considerable distortion of oxygen octahedrons TiO/sub 6/ of LnTiO/sub 3/, where Ln-Sm, Gd and Y.
Miyazaki, Hideki T; Kasaya, Takeshi; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi
An environmental cell with a 50-nm-thick cathodoluminescent window was attached to a scanning electron microscope, and diffraction-unlimited near-field optical imaging of unstained living human lung epithelial cells in liquid was demonstrated. Electrons with energies as low as 0.8 - 1.2 kV are sufficiently blocked by the window without damaging the specimens, and form a sub-wavelength-sized illumination light source. A super-resolved optical image of the specimen adhered to the opposite window surface was acquired by a photomultiplier tube placed below. The cells after the observation were proved to stay alive. The image was formed by enhanced dipole radiation or energy transfer, and features as small as 62 nm were resolved.
V. I. Poplyko
Full Text Available Insurance market plays an important role in the economic development and has a special significance in the countries with economy of the transition period. In spite of its positive influence exerted on the development of national economy the level of insurance service spreading is still rather low. The paper considers main results of the activity of the Belarusian insurance organizations. Usage of statistic evaluation methods makes it possible to break them in separate groups. The conducted analysis of organizations’ financial flows (receipts, payments and profits for the period of 2005–2007 testifies to their dynamic development. Economic management subjects of non-state ownership take leading positions in this matter.Further growth of commercial insurance market greatly depends on the government efficiency to regulate the given sphere of activity. Removal of existing negative factors including creation of equal competitive conditions for all participants of the market, its demonopolization, will favor its development.
... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...
Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul
Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information ...
Istrate Costin; Badea Dumitru
The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring con...
This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.
Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa
States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...
Rosen, Anita; Lynch, Margaret E.
This booklet is intended to help students gain a broad understanding of the meaning, characteristics, organization, products, and functions of the insurance industry. The following topics are discussed: the concept of and need for insurance; basic principles of insurance (risk assessment, insurability and insurable interest, determination of…
Li, Yiting; Miranda, Mario J.
Conventional agricultural index insurance indemnifies based on the observed value of a specified variable, such as rainfall, that is correlated with agricultural production losses. Typically, indemnities are paid to the policyholder after the losses have been experienced. This paper explores alternate timing for index insurance payouts. In particular, we explore the potential benefits of what we call “mitigation index insurance” in which the payouts of the insurance contract arrive before los...
insurance legislation. The insurer's duty to disclose is in the last instance also derived from the common law duty not to make misrepresentations by commission or omission. When negotiating an insurance contract, the insurer's duty to speak is not based on a general requirement of bona fides, but is recognised as an ex lege duty due to the involuntary reliance of the prospective insured on information supplied by insurers in the market. A lack of transparency should lead to the insurer's accountability. A failure to disclose material information or a disclosure of false information that goes to the root of the matter and that induces the prospective policyholder to buy the insurance product is recognised as an actionable misrepresentation. Statutory provisions do not diminish the common-law duty not to make misrepresentations, but provide details of the nature and extent of the information duty to provide clarity and legal certainty in the determination of the standards of transparency required in law. In addition, statutes provide for enforcement actions by regulators, orders that could affect the licence of the insurer and provide for punishable offences and penalties. In terms of common law, a misrepresentation by omission or commission renders the insurance contract wholly or in part voidable. The policyholder may decide to rescind the contract and claim restitution. He may also, in conjunction with rescission, or as an alternative when deciding to maintain the contract, claim delictual damages or even constitutional damages when judged by a court of law as appropriate relief. Statutory remedies include a monetary award by the Insurance Ombud. Even though such an award is capped at R800 000, it is submitted that it is preferred to a civil law damages claim.
... insurance industry traces its roots back to England, where, in 1696, the first mutual fire insurer was... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD89 Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...
Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Keiler, Margreth
The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information for flood risk research. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial to evaluate the potential of the different databases for scientific analysis. Even though the flood insurance system modalities are mainly regulated on cantonal level there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents in Switzerland. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. Thus the different datasets of the flood insurance companies would allow a very comprehensive data analysis. Moreover, insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. However, scientists face a wide range of the opportunities and challenges when using insurance data for flood research. The origin of flood insurance data implies that they are not generated for research but for business management. The presentation will highlighted pro and
Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C
In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the
Baran, Nancy H., Ed.
This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…
Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.
The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.
Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael
The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...
The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.
... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...
Marius Dan GAVRILETEA
Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.
... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...
... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...
... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768
...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...
The Price-Anderson Act is discussed, which establishes procedures for insuring nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants). The act was enacted with the dual purpose of protecting the public and encouraging the development of a private nuclear energy industry. Criticisms that can generally be grouped into four categories regarding the Act are presented, the most controversial aspect being that should an accident occur, the aggregate liability of the reactor operator, the NRC, or any others who might be at fault is limited to $560 million. Lawsuits for amounts in excess of $560 million are prohibited. The 1975 renewal of the Price-Anderson Act does provide that damages in excess of the $560 million prompt Congress to review the particular incident and take action to protect the public from the consequences of a disaster of such magnitude
Kristoff, Iris; Cramer, Ryan; Leichliter, Jami S
Young adults may not seek sensitive health services when confidentiality cannot be ensured. To better understand the policy environment for insured dependent confidentiality, we systematically assessed legal requirements for health insurance plan communications using WestlawNext to create a jurisdiction-level data set of health insurance plan communication regulations as of March 2013. Two jurisdictions require plan communications be sent to a policyholder, 22 require plan communications to be sent to an insured, and 36 give insurers discretion to send plan communications to the policyholder or insured. Six jurisdictions prohibit disclosure, and 3 allow a patient to request nondisclosure of certain patient information. Our findings suggest that in many states, health insurers are given considerable discretion in determining to whom plan communications containing sensitive health information are sent. Future research could use this framework to analyze the association between state laws concerning insured dependent confidentiality and public health outcomes and related sensitive services.
This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...
Full Text Available External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
This booklet discusses the potential importance to states of long-term care insurance, describes general policy characteristics, and summarizes state actions to both regulate and promote long-term care insurance. It is intended as a resource for legislators and others involved in long-term care financing and public policy formulation. Long-term…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998) (a...
... insurance coverage-cost reimbursement. 1352.228-71 Section 1352.228-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-71 Deductibles under required insurance coverage—cost reimbursement. As... Coverage—Cost Reimbursement (APR 2010) (a) The contractor is required to present evidence of the amount of...
Zhang, Hongliang; Qiu, Aichao
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector. PMID:29039781
... to leasing? 714.7 Section 714.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.7 What are the insurance requirements applicable to leasing? (a) You must maintain a contingent liability insurance policy with an endorsement for leasing or be named as...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...
... mortgage insurance eligibility requirements and contract rights and obligations can be found at 24 CFR part... contract rights and obligations of mortgagees participating in FHA multifamily insurance programs and using...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would amend HUD's regulations covering the contract rights and...
Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth
The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information on physical flood vulnerability. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial for using the full potential of the different databases for research on flood vulnerability. Insurance against floods in Switzerland is a federal system, the modalities are manly regulated on cantonal level. However there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. High penetration and the fact that the compensations represent a large share of the direct, tangible losses of the individual policy holders make the databases of the flood insurance companies a comprehensive and therefore valuable data source for flood vulnerability research. Insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. Spatial referenced insurance data can be used for many aspects of
ME Le Roux
Full Text Available Insurance provided by captive insurers is one of various forms of risk financing. The nature and main types of captive insurance companies are discussed. This is followed by the results of an empirical study that focused on South African onshore captive insurance companies. The objectives in establishing and operating a captive insurer, the factors which determine the decision of the parent company to establish and operate a captive insurer and the future and usefulness of insurance provided by captive insurers are some of the aspects that are addressed.
Yee, Tracy; Christianson, Jon B; Ginsburg, Paul B
Over the past decade, large employers increasingly have bypassed traditional health insurance for their workers, opting instead to assume the financial risk of enrollees' medical care through self-insurance. Because self-insurance arrangements may offer advantages--such as lower costs, exemption from most state insurance regulation and greater flexibility in benefit design--they are especially attractive to large firms with enough employees to spread risk adequately to avoid the financial fallout from potentially catastrophic medical costs of some employees. Recently, with rising health care costs and changing market dynamics, more small firms--100 or fewer workers--are interested in self-insuring health benefits, according to a new qualitative study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Self-insured firms typically use a third-party administrator (TPA) to process medical claims and provide access to provider networks. Firms also often purchase stop-loss insurance to cover medical costs exceeding a predefined amount. Increasingly competitive markets for TPA services and stop-loss insurance are making self-insurance attractive to more employers. The 2010 national health reform law imposes new requirements and taxes on health insurance that may spur more small firms to consider self-insurance. In turn, if more small firms opt to self-insure, certain health reform goals, such as strengthening consumer protections and making the small-group health insurance market more viable, may be undermined. Specifically, adverse selection--attracting sicker-than-average people--is a potential issue for the insurance exchanges created by reform.
Ekaterina S. Anyanova
Full Text Available Objective to research the features of maritime insurance from the viewpoint of fighting piracy at international level and to define the ways to improve the legal norms in this sphere. Methods dialectic method of cognition and private scientific research methods formallegal systemicstructural sociallegal comparativelegal statistical. Results basing on the analysis of normative legal acts regulating the relations in the sphere of maritime insurance as one of the ways to struggle against piracy the insufficiency of unified insurance norms at internationallegal level is revealed features of modern piracy are identified as well as the dependence of the insurance cost on the piratesrsquo activity the state of legal protection of the shipownerrsquos interests in case of piratesrsquo attacks at international routes a conclusion is made that the difficulties with the ldquopiracyrdquo notion do not hinder its fullfledged research in international law the drawbacks of the piracy concept in international law are reflected the insurance legal norms are studied as well as the drawbacks in insufficient unification and stronger protection of shipowners in case of ransom payments especially in RF. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article the internationallegal features of maritime piracy are viewed as one of the measures of struggle against piracy. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in practical scientific and educational activity when dealing with the issues of maritime insurance of piracy risks.
Full Text Available Summary: Principles of European Insurance Contract Law (PEICL provides for a set of principles, definitions and model rules exclusively addressing general law for insurance contract. This work has been preformed within greater project for the creation of Common frame of reference on European contract law initiated by the Commission in 2003. PEICL is essentially designed to perform two basic functions. It would improve the quality of the EU acquis in the area of contract law, remove differences and achieve higher degree of divergences between contract laws of the Member states, and even help the national legislators when enacting legislation or Courts with the possible interpretation of the acquis. On the other hand PEICL could be adopted as an optional instrument, thus offering the common platform for contracting in the area of insurance law on the EU level. Possible Optional instrument would exist parallel with, rather instead of, national insurance contract laws. European Parliament resolution of 2011 on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses and corresponding Green Paper of 2010 show positive tendency towards optional instrument in the legal form of Regulation. This would suit the requirements of the insurance sector. However, there are numerous signals showing adversely. For that reason this paper analyses the development and the status of Principles of European Insurance Contract Law particularly the status and perspectives of Principles within the project for the creation of European contract law.
Dafny, Leemore S
Research shows consolidation in the private health insurance industry leads to premium increases, even though insurers with larger local market shares generally obtain lower prices from health care providers. Additional research is needed to understand how to protect against harms and unlock benefits from scale. Data on enrollment, premiums, and costs of commercial health insurance--by insurer, plan, customer segment, and local market--would help us understand whether, when, and for whom consolidation is harmful or beneficial. Such transparency is common where there is a strong public interest and substantial public regulation, both of which characterize this vital sector.
The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 760.7 Section 760.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... designated loan that the building or mobile home and any personal property securing the designated loan is...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop insurance requirement. 1405.6 Section 1405.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... sentence, if the total expected liability under the catastrophic risk protection endorsement is equal to or...
Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch
We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...
Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia
We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...
M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)
textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax
M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)
textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of
M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)
textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border
textabstractIn this article, the author seeks to illustrate, through examples dealing with cross-border business losses, what the result would be if Member States were to subject non-resident taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption method.
Pelkonen, M. (Minna)
Abstract This Master’s Thesis explores the gameplay and imagery offered to players in a town called Bruma in the PC version of the Massively Multiplayer Online Roleplaying Game (MMORPG) The Elder Scrolls Online: Tamriel Unlimited by Zenimax Online Studios. The game was originally released in 2014 under the name The Elder Scrolls Online. The thesis main...
textabstractThe author, in this article, examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption with regard to how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of currency exchange results.
textabstractIn this article, the author examines, through examples, the effects of Member States subjecting taxpayers to unlimited income taxation whilst granting double tax relief under a Netherlands-style tax exemption from the perspective of how such an approach would affect the cross-border taxation of intra-firm transactions.
Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)
For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)
do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F
Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters.
The movie theatre has largely been unchanged since its very start. Still people are sitting in front of a large white screen looking at images projected from a traditional film projector. However, as movie and movie making becomes increasingly digitized and a vast array of distributed media...... is available, new forms of cinematic experience are emerging. This presentation aims to inspire to new ideas by giving a brief introduction to recent international research in new cinematic forms taking a few examples from the MIT Media Lab in Boston - from interactive cinema to media fabrics - and The Future...... is the computer sports performance "Otopia" developed at Performance-design at The Roskilde University just north of Copenhagen for the annual Roskilde Festival. The presentation ends with an outline of possible projects in the future discussing the promises of the merger of genres as computer games and film...
Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the
Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.
Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.
A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists
Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.
Tiller, Jane; Otlowski, Margaret; Lacaze, Paul
Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.
Full Text Available Under current Australian regulation, life insurance companies can require applicants to disclose all genetic test results, including results from research or direct-to-consumer tests. Life insurers can then use this genetic information in underwriting and policy decisions for mutually rated products, including life, permanent disability, and total income protection insurance. Over the past decade, many countries have implemented moratoria or legislative bans on the use of genetic information by life insurers. The Australian government, by contrast, has not reviewed regulation since 2005 when it failed to ensure implementation of recommendations made by the Australian Law Reform Commission. In that time, the Australian life insurance industry has been left to self-regulate its use of genetic information. As a result, insurance fears in Australia now are leading to deterred uptake of genetic testing by at-risk individuals and deterred participation in medical research, both of which have been documented. As the potential for genomic medicine grows, public trust and engagement are critical for successful implementation. Concerns around life insurance may become a barrier to the development of genomic health care, research, and public health initiatives in Australia, and the issue should be publicly addressed. We argue a moratorium on the use of genetic information by life insurers should be enacted while appropriate longer term policy is determined and implemented.
...) Windstorm Coverage. (ii) Earthquake Coverage. (iii) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. (3) For... the coverage amount. (v) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. The deductible for sinkhole.... (10) Deductible amounts (excluding flood, windstorm, earthquake and sinkhole insurance or mine...
Rykova Valentina V.
he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...
Che Mohd Imran Che Taib
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...
From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de
Full Text Available Insurance companies carry out risk spreading through the co-insurance and reinsurance mechanism, consisting of the participation of more companies in the provision of high-value assets. Reinsurance is a form of insurance whereby an insurance organization can transfer to another reinsurer, partly or fully, its payment obligations arising from the insurance contracts that it has concluded. In the reinsurance ratios, the insurance companies appear in a double position - giving other insurance companies some of the risks assumed under direct insurance, being reinsured, but receiving different risks to reinsurance, acquiring the quality of reinsurers. Reinsurance intends to satisfy some multiple needs of the direct insurer and can provide means to counteract the risks associated with the fluctuations in compensation costs, the reinsurer will contribute to the payment of compensations on behalf of the reinsurer. Life insurance has characteristics that influence reinsurance: the average life of the insurance, the insurance is concluded for a fixed amount insured, the capital accumulation. In life reinsurance, almost all reinsurance arrangements are proportional agreements, and the largest share have the "surplus" agreements. Reinsurance plays an important role because it fulfills the following functions: it confers capacity, creates stability, helps to consolidate financial strength. The adjustment of the client portfolio in terms of the changes of reinsurance agreement, required by the reinsurer, can only be done by concluding the insurance contracts. In life insurance, reinsurance contracts contain provisions that meet the need of the insurer to have long-term protection.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his or her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... Contract of Insurance § 207.259 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Upon either an assignment of the... of mortgage. If the mortgage is assigned to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall be paid in...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...
State child health; revisions to the regulations implementing the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Interim final rule with comment period; revisions, delay of effective date, and technical amendments to final rule.
Title XXI authorizes the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to assist State efforts to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. On January 11, 2001 we published a final rule in the Federal Register to implement SCHIP that has not gone into effect. This interim final rule further delays the effective date, revises certain provisions and solicits public comment, and makes technical corrections and clarifications to the January 2001 final rule based on further review of the comments received and applicable law. Only the provisions set forth in this document have changed. All other provisions set forth in the January 2001 final rule will be implemented without change.
Roemer, M I
Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.
By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de
By rescuing an obscure and almost forgotten parliamentary controversy in Chile, this article shows how private property and solidarity cohabit in health insurance. To do so, it follows both pragmatist sociology, where controversies are seen as situations in which social formations are questioned....... And, by analysing a parliamentary controversy regarding insurance, it complements recent work that is starting to study how finance commodities are enacted not only in traditional market encounters but also in a varied array of collateral sites, including courts, social policy and regulation...
Private insurance companies developed means to provide first-tier nuclear coverage to operators of power plants and other nuclear facilities; US Government initially provided second tier. US insurance companies chose 'pooling' technique as means to provide large amounts of insurance capacity by spreading the risk over a number of insurance companies. Classic example of nuclear risk that presents low frequency, high severity loss potential. Insurers usually spread their risk over a large, fairly stable premium base, as with automobile insurance. The American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and its roles are introduced in this article
Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...
The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This pap...
Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...
Wallace, Karen; Fairhall, Emma A.; Charlton, Keith A.; Wright, Matthew C.
Hepatocytes are the preparation of choice for Toxicological research in vitro. However, despite the fact that hepatocytes proliferate in vivo during liver regeneration, they are resistant to proliferation in vitro, do not tolerate sub-culture and tend to enter a de-differentiation program that results in a loss of hepatic function. These limitations have resulted in the search for expandable rodent and human cells capable of being directed to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. Research with stem cells suggests that it may be possible to provide the research community with hepatocytes in vitro although to date, significant challenges remain, notably generating a sufficiently pure population of hepatocytes with a quantitative functionality comparable with hepatocytes. This paper reviews work with the AR42J-B-13 (B-13) cell line. The B-13 cell was cloned from the rodent AR42J pancreatic cell line, express genes associated with pancreatic acinar cells and readily proliferates in simple culture media. When exposed to glucocorticoid, 75-85% of the cells trans-differentiate into hepatocyte-like (B-13/H) cells functioning at a level quantitatively similar to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes (with the remaining cells retaining the B-13 phenotype). Trans-differentiation of pancreatic acinar cells also appears to occur in vivo in rats treated with glucocorticoid; in mice with elevated circulating glucocorticoid and in humans treated for long periods with glucocorticoid. The B-13 response to glucocorticoid therefore appears to be related to a real pathophysiological response of a pancreatic cell to glucocorticoid. An understanding of how this process occurs and if it can be generated or engineered in human cells would result in a cell line with the ability to generate an unlimited supply of functional human hepatocytes in a cost effective manner.
Castano, Ramon; Zambrano, Andres
Reducing the impact of insurance market failures with regulations such as community-rated premiums, standardized benefit packages and open enrolment, yield limited effect because they create room for selection bias. The Colombian social health insurance system started a market approach in 1993 expecting to improve performance of preexisting monopolistic insurance funds by exposing them to competition by new entrants. This paper tests the hypothesis that market failures would lead to biased selection favoring new entrants. Two household surveys are analyzed using Self-Reported Health Status and the presence of chronic conditions as prospective indicators of individual risk. Biased selection is found to take place, leading to adverse selection among incumbents, and favorable selection among new entrants. This pattern is absent in 1997 but is evident in 2003. Given that the two incumbents analyzed are public organizations, the fiscal implications of the findings in terms of government bailouts, are analyzed.
Bartholdy, Jan; Justesen, Lene Gilje
This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set...... of regulations. The ownership structure in savings banks implies that they have no incentive to increase risk after the implementation of a deposit insurance scheme whereas commercial banks have. Also, at the time of introduction, Denmark had high capital requirements and a strict closure policy. Using...... a difference-in-difference framework we show that commercial banks did not increase their risk compared to savings banks when deposit insurance was introduced. The results also hold for large commercial banks, indicating that the systemic risk did not increase either. Thus for a system with high capital...
In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.
Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.
..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...
Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S
The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.
Lu-Ming Tseng; Wen-Pin Su
Insurance researchers believe that the increase in insurance fraud may be associated with the unethical decisions made by some insurance salespeople. However, to date, research that has empirically investigated the link between insurance salespeople and collusion is scant. Using the car insurance industry in Taiwan as an example, this paper explores the impact of the opportunity to obtain the fraudulent claim and that of the size of actual loss on car insurance salespeople's attitudes towards...
Veselinović Janko P.
Full Text Available The contract of insurance of crops and yields against drought is based on the risk of decrease of precipitation in comparison with an earlier relevant period. The authors analysed the specificities of the case of draught risk, but also other regulations characteristic of this contractual relationship, both from the economic and the legal point of view. The paper also treats the position of contractual parties in this contractual relationship, partly arising from the monopolising position of the insuring organisation. That part also analyses the contract freedom that is endangered due to unequal positions of contractual parties. Special attention is paid to legal sources, especially the general and special conditions of insurance organisations, seeing as they are the main source of law, as there is a lack of legal regulation of this field. The number of Serbian insurance organisations that offer this type of insurance is extremely low, as well as the percentage of insurance against this risk. The authors analyse the reasons for which this type of insurance is underdeveloped in Serbia, as well as the consequences of such a state to a safe agricultural production. The paper also covers the topic of the role of legislators and the state in general, in terms of regulation of certain elements of this contractual relation, but also in terms of state incentives that would contribute to a higher percentage of insured agricultural areas. This would reduce the uncertainty and the damage suffered by agricultural producers due to increasing weather fluctuations. Taking into account the inadequate legal and economic tradition, education in this field would represent a significant contribution to the development of this kind of insurance. The authors analyse the difference between the contracts of insurance of crops and yields against drought and the weather derivative contracts, which can be traded on the stock market.
Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.
Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies
Lu Cun Heng
It is described that the calculating formula and surveying result is found on the basis of the stacking principle of gamma ray and the feature of hexagonal surface source when the limited surface source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate the aerial survey instrument on the ground, and that it is found in the light of the exchanged principle of the gamma ray when the single point source replaces the unlimited surface source to calibrate aerial surveying instrument in the air. Meanwhile through the theoretical analysis, the receiving rate of the crystal bottom and side surfaces is calculated when aerial surveying instrument receives gamma ray. The mathematical expression of the gamma ray decaying following height according to the Jinge function regularity is got. According to this regularity, the absorbing coefficient that air absorbs the gamma ray and the detective efficiency coefficient of the crystal is calculated based on the ground and air measuring value of the bottom surface receiving cou...
Full Text Available The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring consumer protection. The responsible authority at EU level with the implementation of the new solvency regime is EIOPA - European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority, which dealt in previous periods of testing the European market insurance through organizing quantitative impact studies (last exercise - QIS5, organized in 2011. The main standards derived from Solvency II and also the new IFRS accounting provisions, intended to increase the transparency of risk management and investment, in order to pricing insurance products and profitability of the different classes of insurance rates. Solvency II brings both challenges and opportunities for companies, changing the concept of building protection programs for insured and generating additional concerns about capital requirements in the determination of own funds (basic, auxiliary and surplus that can be used to meet this requirement. Also estimate realistic and prudent risk assumed by insurance contracts concluded transposed to the insurance companies by recording every technical reserves represent a very important element in order to establish an optimal balance of financial resources. Given the significant overlap between IFRS and Solvency II, insurers will have to improve disclosure requirements of additional information and adjust planning and forecasting. All these measures will increase the efficiency of financial management, a series of operational measures and by providing documented and tested
Gomez del Campo, J.
Nuclear Liability Insurance (NLI), emerged as a safety mechanism and product to respond to a great risk. because of the compulsory nature of international and national regulations, it has become a compulsory contract. Nuclear risk coverage pools are founded as groups of insurers and reinsures, without legal entity, which cooperate and pool their resources to deal with these great risks. In spain Atomic Pool has been renamed ESPANUCLEAR, administered by and Economic Interest Grouping called Nuclear risk Insurers. (Author)
Stowe, J D
As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!
A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums
Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna
Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...
Deterministic control theory is used to find the optimal premium strategy for an insurer in order to maximise a given objective. The optimal strategy can be loss-leading depending on the model parameters, which may result in negative premium values. In such circumstances, it is optimal to capture as much of the market as possible before making a profit towards the end of the time horizon. In reality, the amount by which an insurer can lower premiums is constrained by borrowing restrictions an...
Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud
It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social
Ionina M. B.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of liability insurance of the people who build houses on their own, in connection with the entry into force in January 1, 2014 of the Amendments to the Law № 214-FZ of 30.12.2004 "On Participation in the shared construction of multi apartment buildings and other real estate objects and on Amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation. The author analyzes all the alternative designs for developers concerning their responsibility to shareholders, paying attention to the problems which have the persons interested in this matter. Besides, one can mention a number of issues not regulated enough by changes in legislation
A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635
It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.
Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph
We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...
Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live
of good practice to be used as a design aid by engineers. ..... an ethical and professipnal atmosphere. It is also essential for the local ..... If your answer is no, please write the reason/sf or not purchasing insurance policies? 10. What types of ...
Costa, M.P.R. da.
The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt
Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar
The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...
Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...
S V Martynenko
This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...
... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...
... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...
... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...
... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...
... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min
affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...
Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions......). The analysis of (public) insurance has however remained marginal in political theory because insurance is often perceived as a simple tool for pursuing equality, i.e. a tool without any moral significance proper. This text proposes an alternative view by drawing a continuum between insurance as a technology......, which is the common interpretation in economics, and insurance as a social practice, which characterizes social theory. The goal is to underline how the technology of insurance alters social practices by, for instance, promoting equal standing or transforming the paradigm of individual responsibility...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 228.311 Section 228.311 Federal... liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 1828.311 Section 1828.311... insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. 3028.311 Section 3028.311... contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement contracts. ...
Full Text Available The importance and increasing role of Internet in nowadays business area are officially recognized. No matter the industry a company is operating in, the distribution channels include direct sales through Internet. Following this idea, also the insurance companies decided to sell their insurance policy online. In this paper we analyze the advantages of Internet for insurance companies, the threats and the actual situation for Romanian insurers
Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....
In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...
In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...
... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the State Route 56 swing bridge across Boudreaux... the operating schedule for the swing span bridge across Boudreaux Canal, mile 0.1, at Chauvin..., elevation 3 feet Mean Sea Level in the closed-to-navigation position and unlimited in the open-to-navigation...
... unlimited in the open-to-navigation position. No alternate routes are available. Due to the limited number... between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. 11. Energy Effects We have analyzed this proposed rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...
... provides unlimited vertical clearance and 119 feet of horizontal clearance in the open-to- navigation.... 12. Energy Effects We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined that it is not a...
... high tide in the closed position and unlimited in the open position. The current operating schedule for... Indian tribes. Energy Effects This proposed rule is not a ``significant energy action'' under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or...
... closed-to-navigation position and unlimited in the open-to-navigation position. No alternate routes are... Indian tribes. 12. Energy Effects We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have determined that...
... vertical clearance of the Swing Bridge is 26 feet above mean high tide in the closed position and unlimited... Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy Effects We have analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13211, Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use. We have...
Rowlands, D.; Devlin, R.A.
This paper investigated the potential role of the insurance industry in enhancing the protection of critical energy infrastructure (CEI). This analysis was conducted in the context of increased concerns about deliberate acts of sabotage related to terrorist activities. A theoretical insurance market analysis was applied to a CEI scenario in order to examine the effects that insurance might have on the vulnerability of the system and subsequent remediation activities. Classical insurance market structures were examined, and problems associated with adverse selection, moral hazards and the role of government were identified. Issues concerning incentive effects induced by insurance were reviewed, as well as issues concerning the interdependence between different operators of the CEI system. An updated literature review was also provided. Results of the study suggested that corporate losses to CEI owners may be far less than the social cost of energy disruption, which in turn provides a reasonable rationale for government as opposed to private intervention. In terms of remediation, the immediate impact of a crippled CEI would overwhelm any private organization, and response would need to be coordinated through public structures. Terrorism insurance, while available, provides relatively large deductibles, as insurance companies are unwilling to accept the risks of moderate damage that may arise. There does not appear to be any evidence that private insurers will be able to provide significant relief from terrorist attacks, and it is unlikely that a private insurance market for terrorism will emerge. An absence of information regarding terrorist activities constrains both insurance purchasers from choosing the best mix of risk management tools, as well as insurance companies seeking to establish the appropriate pricing and conditions for different contracts. It was concluded that governments should support CEI firms in their own efforts to understand the threats; aid in
... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than...
... passenger motor vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss... information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating rules used by the insurer to establish... companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of...
... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...
The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...
Sheremet, O.; Lucas, A.
We study the possibility for international diversification of catastrophe risk by the insurance sector. Adopting the argument that large insurance losses may be a 'globalizing factor' for the industry, we study the dependence of geographically distant insurance markets via equity returns. In
Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The seed cotton must be insured at the full loan value against loss or damage by fire. ...
Within the actuarial profession a major challenge can be found in the construction of a fair tariff structure. In light of the heterogeneity within, for instance, a car insurance portfolio, an insurance company should not apply the same premium for all insured risks. Otherwise the so-called concept
M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)
textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:
... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...
....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...
... a commitment for insured advances, initial endorsement of the credit instrument shall occur before... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 200.100... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.1245... Rights and Obligations § 241.1245 Insurance endorsement. (a) Endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the equity loan or acquisition loan by endorsing the original credit instrument and...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.570... § 241.570 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his/her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit instrument and identifying the section of the Act...
Ejrnaes, Mette; Hochguertel, Stefan
We study risk behavior of Danish self-employed entrepreneurs, whose income risk may be driven by both exogenous factors and effort choice (moral hazard). Partial insurance is available through voluntary unemployment insurance (UI). Additional incentives to sign insurance contracts stem from a
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 241.885 Section... § 241.885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claims shall be made in the following... acceptable assignment of the note and security instrument to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall...
... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...
Szilagyi, Peter G.
Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...
Suijs, J.P.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Borm, P.E.M.
This paper shows how problems in `non life'-insurance and `non life'-reinsurance can be modelled simultaneously as cooperative games with stochastic payoffs.Pareto optimal allocations of the risks faced by the insurers and the insureds are determined.It is shown that the core of the corresponding
... insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased property... covered, and the applicable premiums. Any dividends distributed by mutual insurance companies shall be credited to the accounts to which the insurance premiums were charged. ...
... health insurance kicks in. As a general rule, insurance plans with low premiums have high deductibles, and plans with high premiums ... other plans due to hardship. This type of insurance can have low premiums but very high deductibles. Plans generally cover less ...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... premium. All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.269 1 concerning mortgage insurance premiums... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...
Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.
Transparency in insurance law attaches to the rights and duties of the parties, the ... protection principles as envisaged by South African insurance legislation. ... an insurance contract, the insurer's duty to speak is not based on a general ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the considerable arsenal of developments in the issues of assessing the management of the insurance portfolio remains unresolved. In order to detail, specify and further systematize the indicators for the indicated evaluation, the publications of scientists are analyzed. The purpose of the study is to analyze existing methods by which it is possible to formulate and manage the insurance portfolio in order to achieve its balance, which will contribute to ensuring the financial reliability of the insurance company. Results. The description of the essence of the concept of “management of insurance portfolio”, as the application of actuarial methods and techniques to the combination of various insurance risks offered for insurance or are already part of the insurance portfolio, allowing to adjust the size and structure of the portfolio in order to ensure its financial stability, achievement the maximum level of income of an insurance organization, preservation of the value of its equity and financial security of insurance liabilities. It is determined that the main methods by which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed is the selection of risks; reinsurance operations that ensure diversification of risks; formation and placement of insurance reserves, which form the financial basis of insurance activities. The method of managing an insurance portfolio, which can be both active and passive, is considered. Conclusions. It is determined that the insurance portfolio is the basis on which all the activities of the insurer are based and which determines its financial stability. The combination of methods and technologies applied to the insurance portfolio is a management method that can be both active and passive and has a number of specific methods through which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed. It is substantiated that each insurance company aims to form an efficient and
Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.
Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees? health insurance. There are many differences be...
Steffan G. Ball; Hamish W. Low
In this paper we show the extent to which public insurance and self-insurance mitigate the cost of health shocks that limit the ability to work. We use consumption data from the UK to estimate the insurance provided by the government disability programme and account for the effectiveness of alternative self-insurance mechanisms. Individuals with a work-limiting health condition, but in receipt of disability insurance, have 7 percent lower consumption than those without such a condition. Self-...
Nataliya Prikazyuk; Ganna Oliynik
The article highlights how the cooperation of insurance companies and banks affects the insurance system. Defined the concept of bancassurance, provided a brief description of the main bancassurance models in the context of their impact on the insurance system. Defined the main benefits and risks that accompany cooperation of insurance companies and banks within different models of association. It is noted that despite the generally accepted benefits of cooperation between insurers and banks,...
Rohendi, Keukeu; Putra, Ilham Eka
Sinarmas currently has several insurance services featured. To perform its function as a good insurance company is need for reform in terms of services in the process of calculating insurance premiums of insurance carried by marketing to use a calculator which interferes with the activities of marketing activities, slow printing insurance policies, automobile claims process that requires the customer to come to the office ASM, slow printing of Work Order (SPK) and the difficulty recap custome...
Dr. H. Christy Cynthia; Dr. T. Jebasheela; V. Maheswari
Insurance is a way of reducing uncertainty of occurrence of an event. Insurance is an investment. Its basic purpose is to derive plans to counteract the financial consequences of unfavorable events. Insurance is a social device for eliminating or reducing the cost to society to certain types of risks. Insurance is essentially a co-operative endeavor. It is the function of the insurance to protect the few against the heavy financial impact of anticipated misfortunes by spreading losses among m...
Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.
Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.
This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…
Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.