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Sample records for insurance psychiatric

  1. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  2. Impact of comprehensive insurance parity on follow-up care after psychiatric inpatient treatment in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Neal T; McConnell, K John

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of Oregon's 2007 parity law, which required behavioral health insurance parity, on rates of follow-up care provided within 30 days of psychiatric inpatient care. Data sources were claims (2005-2008) for 737 individuals with inpatient stays for a mental disorder who were continuously enrolled in insurance plans affected by the parity law (intervention group) or in commercial, self-insured plans that were not affected by the law (control group). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to compare rates of follow-up care before and after the parity law between discharges of individuals in the intervention group and the control group and between discharges of individuals in the intervention group who had or had not met preparity quantitative coverage limits during a coverage year. Estimates of the marginal effects of the parity law were adjusted for gender, discharge diagnosis, relationship to policy holder, and calendar quarter of discharge. The study included 353 discharges in the intervention group and 535 discharges in the control group. After the parity law, follow-up rates increased by 11% (p=.042) overall and by 20% for discharges of individuals who had met coverage limits (p=.028). The Oregon parity law was associated with a large increase in the rate of follow-up care, predominantly for discharges of individuals who had met preparity quantitative coverage limits. Given similarities between the law and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, the results may portend a national effect of more comprehensive parity laws.

  3. Risk of suicide according to the level of psychiatric contact in the older people: Analysis of national health insurance databases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shin-Ting; Ng, Yee-Yung; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Suicide in the older people is a serious problem worldwide; however the effect of psychiatric contact on the risk of suicide has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric contact and suicide in the older people in Taiwan. A population-based database was used in this national case-control study. Propensity score matching was used to match older people who did and did not commit suicide from 2010 to 2012 by calendar year, gender, age, and area of residence. The level of psychiatric contact in the preceding year was classified as "no psychiatric contact," "only outpatient psychiatric contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "psychiatric hospital admission". Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables and the risk of suicide. A total of 2528 older people committed suicide from 2010 to 2012, with a crude suicide mortality rate of 3.37/10,000. Compared to those who had no psychiatric contact in the preceding year, the adjusted odds ratios of suicide were 10.15 (95% CI=5.8-17.7) for those who had psychiatric emergency room contact, 6.57 (95% CI=3.7-11.6) for those who had psychiatric hospital admissions, and 3.64 (95% CI=3.0-4.4) for those with only outpatient psychiatric contact. The risk of suicide was higher in those who had depression (OR=3.49, 95% CI=2.2-5.4) and bipolar disorder (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.1-3.6). Patients with cancer were associated with suicide (OR=8.96, 95% CI=5.6-14.4). The positive association with suicide and the level of psychiatric contact in the preceding year in older people indicated that the health personnel need to do a better job in determining possible risk for older people who had psychiatric contact, especially in emergency visit or psychiatric admission. A systematic approach to quality improvement in these settings is both available and necessary. Careful discharge planning and safe transitions of care to outpatient

  4. Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  5. Insurance crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses the effects of financing and technology advances on the availability of insurance for independent power producers operating gas turbines. Combined cycle units which require new materials and processes make it difficult to assess risk. Insurers are denying coverage, or raising prices and deductibles. Many lenders, however, are requiring insurance prior to financing. Some solutions proposed include information sharing by industry participants and insurers and increased risk acceptance by plant owners/operators

  6. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  7. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  8. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Probabilistic insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  10. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  11. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  12. INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Civil code regulates for the first time in the Romanian legislation the intermediation contract, until its entering into force existing multiple situations that lent themselves to this legal operation, but did not benefit of such particular legal rules. Yet, the case law has shown that the situations that arise in the activity of the legal or natural persons are much more complex, this leading, in time, to the reglementation of such particular rules. Such a case is that found in the matter of insurance contracts, the position of the insurance intermediaries being regulated especially by Law no. 32/2000, according to which they represent the natural or legal persons authorized in the conditions of the above mentioned legal document, that perform intermediation activities in the insurance field, in exchange of a remuneration, as well as the intermediaries from the EU member states that perform such an activity on the Romanian territory, in accordance with the freedom in performing services. Therefore, the present paper aims to analyze the conclusion of such insurance contracts and to underline the particular position of the insurance brokers, having the following structure: 1 Introduction; 2 The reglementation of the intermediation contract/brokerage agreement in the Romanian Law; 3 The importance of the intermediaries in the insurance contracts; 4 The conclusion of the insurance contracts; 5 Conclusions.

  13. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  14. A modern history of psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...

  16. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Inflation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1989-01-01

    A contract to insure $1 against inflation is equivalent to a European call option on the consumer price index. When there is no deductible this call option is equivalent to a forward contract on the CPI. Its price is the difference between the prices of a zero coupon real bond and a zero coupon nominal bond, both free of default risk. Provided that the risk-free real rate of interest is positive, the price of such an inflation insurance policy first rises and then falls with time to maturity....

  18. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  19. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch

  20. Export insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions

  1. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  2. Predictors of psychiatric boarding in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misek, Ryan K; DeBarba, Ashley E; Brill, April

    2015-01-01

    The emergency psychiatric care is system is overburdened in the United States. Patients experiencing psychiatric emergencies often require resources not available at the initial treating facility and frequently require transfer to an appropriate psychiatric facility. Boarding of psychiatric patients, defined as a length of stay greater than four hours after medical clearance, is ubiquitous throughout emergency departments (EDs) nationwide. Boarding is recognized as a major cause of ambulance diversions and ED crowding and has a significant adverse impact on healthcare providers, patient satisfaction, and hospital costs. We sought to identify differences between patients who boarded versus patients who did not board, to identify factors amenable to change and identify interventions that could lead to a decrease in overall psychiatric patient length of stay and improve patient care. This study is a retrospective multicenter cohort study of all patients assessed to require inpatient psychiatric hospitalization at two community EDs in Illinois from July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012. We identified 671 patients and collected insurance status, sex, age, time of arrival, time of disposition and time of transfer. There was a statistically significant difference in the insurance status between the cohort of patients boarding in the ED compared to non-boarders prior to inpatient psychiatric admission. Our study identified 95.4% of uninsured patients who were boarded in the ED, compared to 71.8% of Medicare/Medicaid patients and 78.3% of patients with private insurance (χ(2)=50.6, df=2, pboarded significantly longer than Medicare/Medicaid and privately insured patients. Patients with private insurance boarded longer than those with Medicare/Medicaid. Patients transferred to publicly funded facilities had significantly longer ED length of stay than patients transferred to private facilities.

  3. Familiality of Psychiatric Disorders and Risk of Postpartum Psychiatric Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Anna E; Maegbaek, Merete L; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum psychiatric disorders are common and morbid complications of pregnancy. The authors sought to evaluate how family history of psychiatric disorders is associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders in proband mothers with and without a prior psychiatric history by assessing...

  4. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  5. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  6. Predictors of Return to Work for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Private Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…

  7. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  8. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  9. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  10. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  11. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  12. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  13. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  14. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  15. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  16. 24 CFR 266.602 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insured advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Insured... Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.602 Mortgage insurance premium: Insured.... On each anniversary of the initial closing, the HFA shall pay an interim mortgage insurance premium...

  17. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  18. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  19. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  20. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  1. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... surrounding public insurance as a redistributive tool, advancing the idea that public insurance may be a relational egalitarian tool. It then presents a number of relational arguments in favor of the involvement of the state in the provision of specific forms of insurance, arguments that have been overlooked...

  2. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  3. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  4. Nonlife Insurance Pricing:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.

  5. Catastrophic risks and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, J.

    1988-01-01

    This short communication deals with compensation for nuclear damage and compensation for environmental pollution through industrial activities and compress both systems and their insurance coverage [fr

  6. Prescriptions and Insurance Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Healthcare Management, Insurance & Bills, Your Health ResourcesTags: brand name, co-pay, drug, formulary, generic, isurance, medicine, ...

  7. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2003-01-01

    analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health......This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....

  8. The insurance of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of nuclear insurance. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the need for nuclear insurance, nuclear insurance pools, international co-operation, nuclear installations which may be insured, international conventions relating to the liability of operators of nuclear installations, classes of nuclear insurance, nuclear reactor hazards and their assessment, future developments. (U.K.)

  9. Insuring against Health Shocks: Health Insurance and Household Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investme...

  10. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  11. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  12. Eponymous Psychiatric Syndromes Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguy, Ahmed

    2018-02-22

    This report provides an anthology of psychiatric eponyms. Clinically, many of these described syndromes represent valid diagnostic constructs and may accommodate the atypical cases that defy the official diagnostic designation in the current classificatory systems in psychiatry. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  14. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  15. Social health insurance

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    1997-01-01

    This manual provides an overview of social health insurance schemes and looks at the development of health care policies and feasibility issues. It also examines the design of health insurance schemes, health care benefits, financing and costs and considers the operational and strategic information requirements.

  16. Insurance industry guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This is an insurance industry guide for the independent power industry. The directory includes the insurance company's name, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company's area of expertise, products and services, and limitations. The directory is international in scope. Some of the companies specialize in independent power projects

  17. Marketing in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry has traditionally been oriented on sale of its products i.e. at the stage which from the aspect of marketing theory can be characterized as sales phase, phase which proceeds the marketing orientation. However, faced with numerous challenges of modern business environment such as globalization, deregulation and sophisticated information technology insurance companies must change their way of doing business. Competition is becoming fierce as insurance companies are faced with competition not only from insurance industry but also from other competitors, such as banks, that are in position to offer product substitutes for life insurance products. In this new environment information about customers and their education are becoming critical factors. Insurance companies must know their customers what influences their demand for life insurance, what is the amount of their income, what is inflation rate, their expenditures on other goods i.e. opportunity costs, etc. Those are factors that force insurance companies to concentrate more on present and potential buyers and their needs and force them to give their best to satisfy those needs in a way that will produce delighted customers.

  18. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  19. Health insurance for "frontaliers"

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The French government has decided that, with effect from 1 June 2014, persons resident in France but working in Switzerland (hereinafter referred to as “frontaliers”) will no longer be entitled to opt for private French health insurance provision as their sole and principal health insurance.   The right of choice, which was granted by the Bilateral Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons between Switzerland and the European Union and which came into force on 1 June 2002, exempts “frontaliers” from the obligation to become a member of Switzerland’s compulsory health insurance scheme (LAMal) if they can prove that they have equivalent coverage in France, provided by either the French social security system (CMU) or a private French insurance provider. As the latter option of private health insurance as an alternative to membership of LAMal will be revoked under the new French legislation that will come into force on 1 June 2014, current “...

  20. Terrorism Risk Insurance: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webel, Baird

    2005-01-01

    .... Addressing this problem, Congress enacted the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA) to create a temporary program to share future insured terrorism losses with the property-casualty insurance industry and policyholders...

  1. Disposition of Insurance Allotment Payments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    2001-01-01

    .... The request was prompted by action taken by the Florida Department of Insurance against two life insurance companies that had received large numbers of insurance allotments from Service members...

  2. Insurance: Accounting, Regulation, Actuarial Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Tosetti; Thomas Behar; Michel Fromenteau; Stéphane Ménart

    2001-01-01

    We shall be examining the following topics: (i) basic frameworks for accounting and for statutory insurance rules; and (ii) actuarial principles of insurance; for both life and nonlife (i.e. casualty and property) insurance.Section 1 introduces insurance terminology, regarding what an operation must include in order to be an insurance operation (the legal, statistical, financial or economic aspects), and introduces the accounting and regulation frameworks and the two actuarial models of insur...

  3. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  4. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  5. [Tinnitus and psychiatric comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, G

    2015-04-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates more closely to psychological and general health factors than to audiometric parameters. Together with limbic structures in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex forms an internal "noise cancelling system", which normally helps to block out unpleasant sounds, including the tinnitus signal. If this pathway is compromised, chronic tinnitus results. Patients with chronic tinnitus show increased functional connectivity in corticolimbic pathways. Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients who seek help for tinnitus or hyperacusis. Clinicians need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.

  6. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...

  7. Insurability of Terrorism Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbruecker, D.

    2006-01-01

    Until 2001 losses caused by terrorist attacks have been covered under fire policies worldwide with two exceptions: Spain and UK where major and multiple losses caused by ETA and IRA had led to specific insurance solutions. The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre have changed the world in many aspects. This includes the insurance industry, which was compelled to exclude terrorism from coverage and to offer special solutions for extra premium. Nuclear power plants have been repeatedly called targets for terrorists as their destruction could cause a large catastrophe and more victims than the September 2001 attacks. How does the insurance industry respond? (author)

  8. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  9. [THE PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS GUIDE - DSM-5 - INNOVATIONS AND CRITICISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shmuel; Zemishlany, Zvi

    2015-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a guide for diagnosing psychiatric diseases and enables the alignment of psychiatric diagnoses with those of the psychologists, the social workers, the nursing staff and other mental health professionals. In addition, it helps bring cohesion to research, public health policy, education, the field of insurance and compensation and the legal system. After 14 years of hard work, the updated version of the DSM, the DSM-5, was published on May 2013. The current review aims to update the readers on the essence of the DSM and the methods of psychiatric diagnosing and to present the main changes in the field, as expressed in the 5th edition of the guide. In addition to details of those changes we included discussions of the criticisms brought against them. We hope that the review will contribute to broadening the readers' knowledge, broaden exposure and familiarity with the psychiatric lingo and to strengthening the professional ties between psychiatrists and professionals in other, tangential, medical fields.

  10. Insuring against health shocks: Health insurance and household choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the role of public health insurance in mitigating adverse outcomes associated with health shocks. Exploiting the rollout of a universal health insurance program in rural China, I find that total household income and consumption are fully insured against health shocks even without access to health insurance. Household labor supply is an important insurance mechanism against health shocks. Access to health insurance helps households to maintain investment in children's human capital during negative health shocks, which suggests that one benefit of health insurance could arise from reducing the use of costly smoothing mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  12. Group life insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration wishes to inform staff members and fellows having taken out optional life insurance under the group contract signed by CERN that the following changes to the rules and regulations entered into force on 1 January 2013:   The maximum age for an active member has been extended from 65 to 67 years. The beneficiary clause now allows insured persons to designate one or more persons of their choice to be their beneficiary(-ies), either at the time of taking out the insurance or at a later date, in which case the membership/modification form must be updated accordingly. Beneficiaries must be clearly identified (name, first name, date of birth, address).   The membership/modification form is available on the FP website: http://fp.web.cern.ch/helvetia-life-insurance For further information, please contact: Valentina Clavel (Tel. 73904) Peggy Pithioud (Tel. 72736)

  13. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  14. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  15. M. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear insurance and some of the features associated with it, such as the International Conventions and the operation of Atomic Risk Pools, are discussed both in general and with specific reference to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom

  16. Building and Contents Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, William C.

    Insurance coverage of school buildings and contents is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and increases of 50 percent or more in the premium are not uncommon. Methods of reducing premium increases are outlined in this speech. (MLF)

  17. HUD Insured Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Office of Healthcare Programs (OHP), previously known as the Office of Insured Health Care Facilities, is located within the Office of Housing and administers...

  18. Deductibles in health insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriyadis, I.; Öney, Ü. N.

    2009-11-01

    This study is an extension to a simulation study that has been developed to determine ruin probabilities in health insurance. The study concentrates on inpatient and outpatient benefits for customers of varying age bands. Loss distributions are modelled through the Allianz tool pack for different classes of insureds. Premiums at different levels of deductibles are derived in the simulation and ruin probabilities are computed assuming a linear loading on the premium. The increase in the probability of ruin at high levels of the deductible clearly shows the insufficiency of proportional loading in deductible premiums. The PH-transform pricing rule developed by Wang is analyzed as an alternative pricing rule. A simple case, where an insured is assumed to be an exponential utility decision maker while the insurer's pricing rule is a PH-transform is also treated.

  19. Prevention in insurance markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  20. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  1. RISK CORRIDORS AND REINSURANCE IN HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETPLACES: Insurance for Insurers

    OpenAIRE

    LAYTON, TIMOTHY J.; MCGUIRE, THOMAS G.; SINAIKO, ANNA D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to encourage entry and lower prices, most regulated markets for health insurance include policies that seek to reduce the uncertainty faced by insurers. In addition to risk adjustment of premiums paid to plans, the Health Insurance Marketplaces established by the Affordable Care Act implement reinsurance and risk corridors. Reinsurance limits insurer costs associated with specific individuals, while risk corridors protect against aggregate losses. Both tighten the insurer's distribut...

  2. ENDOWMENT LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Sain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper that treats the actuarial model of insurance in case of survival or early death is to show the actuarial methods and methodology for creating a model and an appropriate number of sub-models of the most popular form of life insurance in the world. The paper applies the scientific methodology of the deductive character based on scientific, theoretical knowledge and practical realities. Following the basic theoretical model’s determinants, which are at the beginning of the paper, the basic difference between models further in this paper was carried out according to the character of the premium to be paid. Finally, the financial repercussions of some models are presented at examples in insurance companies. The result of this paper is to show the spectrum of possible forms of capital endowment insurance which can be, without major problems, depending on the financial policy of the company, applied in actual practice. The conclusion of this paper shows the theoretical and the practical reality of this model, life insurance, and its quantitative and qualitative guidelines.

  3. Group Life Insurance

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Administration would like to remind you that staff members and fellows have the possibility to take out a life insurance contract on favourable terms through a Group Life Insurance.   This insurance is provided by the company Helvetia and is available to you on a voluntary basis. The premium, which varies depending on the age and gender of the person insured, is calculated on the basis of the amount of the death benefit chosen by the staff member/fellow and can be purchased in slices of 10,000 CHF.    The contract normally ends at the retirement age (65/67 years) or when the staff member/fellow leaves the Organization. The premium is deducted monthly from the payroll.   Upon retirement, the staff member can opt to maintain his membership under certain conditions.   More information about Group Life Insurance can be found at: Regulations (in French) Table of premiums The Pension Fund Benefit Service &...

  4. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Mirjana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  5. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  6. CURRENT CHANGES ON INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Giorgiana MANGRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The offer of insurance products is about the requirements and needs of the consumer who must always have information regarding: the type of insurance risk covered and the excluded risks, the sum insured, the payment of premiums and their duration. The accurate information of customer requires, from the commencement of contract and throughout its duration, that he or she is aware of the obligations throughout the contractual period. Most of the Romanians are turning their attention to one of the insurance companies found in the top 10 in 2016, supervised by F.S.A. (Financial Supervision Authority, preferring to have a policy of mandatory household and goods insurance, auto liability or life insurance, but are also interested in travel health insurance when going abroad, private health insurance or private pension insurance. Romanians' reluctance regarding the conclusion of an insurance comes from their distrust in insurance companies (see the situations of companies like Astra Insurance, Carpatica Insurance etc., their personal financial situation and the fear that they will not receive protection if the risk is covered but the insured sum is insufficient

  7. American Psychiatric Nurses Association-Transitions in Practice Certificate Program: Bridging the Knowledge Gap in Caring for Psychiatric Patients Within the General Nursing Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susie M; Black, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to publicize an important new Web-based educational program. Recognizing the growing gap in psychiatric-mental health knowledge and the need to better prepare new graduates and nurses transitioning from other service lines into psychiatric inpatient nursing settings, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association developed a 15-hour, modularized curriculum to provide foundational psychiatric-mental health knowledge. This modularized curriculum, called American Psychiatric Nurses Association Transitions in Practice (ATP) focuses on the knowledge and skills to insure the success of nurses new to psychiatric-mental health nursing settings and to improve the overall care for persons with mental health and substance use disorders. The ATP program is also proving to be useful content for nurses in emergency departments, hospitals, and other health settings to improve their care of patients with psychiatric and mental health needs. A summary of the program modules and a toolkit with suggested measures for nurses, patients, and agency outcomes is described. Feedback from participants completing the ATP program within the first 6 months is overwhelmingly positive and holds promise for widespread application across a variety of health care settings.

  8. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  9. Nuclear insurance and indemnity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovan, D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief account is given of insurance protection in the nuclear industry, and the legislation involved. Aspects discussed are: third part liability and the role of government in setting the maximum amount of compensation; the development and concept of channelling the liability exclusively to the operator; the development of nuclear insurance facilities in Europe and the USA; and the emergence in Europe of international agreements on third party liability for protection of neighbouring countries in the event of a major accident. The development of liability law in the USA from the time of the Price Anderson Act of 1957 through subsequent legislation is described. (U.K.)

  10. American nuclear insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear liability insurance covers liability for damages directly caused by the nuclear energy hazard. This coverage includes offsite bodily injury and property damage sustained by members of the general public, and bodily injury to onsite third party personnel. Recent nuclear liability claims allege bodily injury and property damage resulting from releases or radioactive materials to the environmental and occupational radiation worker exposures. Routine reactor operations involving radioactive waste have the potential to result in such claims. The nuclear insurance Pools believe that one way such claims can be minimized is through the implementation of an effective radioactive waste management program

  11. Lectures on insurance models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, S

    2009-01-01

    Insurance has become a necessary aspect of modern society. The mathematical basis of insurance modeling is best expressed in terms of continuous time stochastic processes. This introductory text on actuarial risk theory deals with the Cramer-Lundberg model and the renewal risk model. Their basic structure and properties, including the renewal theorems as well as the corresponding ruin problems, are studied. There is a detailed discussion of heavy tailed distributions, which have become increasingly relevant. The Lundberg risk process with investment in risky asset is also considered. This book will be useful to practitioners in the field and to graduate students interested in this important branch of applied probability.

  12. Counseling as an Insured Benefit: Perspectives from the Insurance Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Wallace C.

    1974-01-01

    Article discusses the feasibility of marriage counseling as an insurance benefit in the future. It is suggested that the physician be used as a marriage counselor in that insurance companies will pay for medical services. (EK)

  13. Migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  16. Disability Insurance and Health Insurance Reform: Evidence from Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Maestas; Kathleen J. Mullen; Alexander Strand

    2014-01-01

    As health insurance becomes available outside of the employment relationship as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the cost of applying for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)–potentially going without health insurance coverage during a waiting period totaling 29 months from disability onset–will decline for many people with employer-sponsored health insurance. At the same time, the value of SSDI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participation will decline for individuals...

  17. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN INSURANCE CASE OF JADRANSKO INSURANCE COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanja Coric; Danijel Bara

    2014-01-01

    Selling insurance products in conditions of today’s modern technological solutions is faced with numerous challenges. Business processes in insurance as well as the results of these business processes are the real interface to policyholders. Modeling and analysis of business process in insurance ensure organizations to focus on the customer and increase the efficiency and quality of work. Managing critical business processes in every single organization, likewise in insurance is a key factor ...

  18. Effects of the 2013 Psychiatric Current Procedural Terminology Codes Revision on Psychotherapy in Psychiatric Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tami L; Olesiuk, William J; Sherman, Laura J; Ali, Mir M; Mutter, Ryan; Teich, Judith L

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the changes to the psychiatric Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes implemented in 2013 were associated with changes in types of services for which psychiatrists billed. Analyses were conducted using paid private insurance claims from a large commercial database. The participant cohort comprised psychiatrists with at least one psychiatry visit reported in the database in each calendar year studied: 2012 (N of visits=778,445), 2013 (N=748,317), and 2014 (N=754,760). The percentage of visits in which psychiatrists billed for psychotherapy declined from 51.4% in 2012 to 42.1% in 2014. The decline held after the analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, plan type, and region. The update to CPT codes resulted in a decrease in visits for which psychiatrists billed for psychotherapy. Further research should explore whether the change in billing corresponds to changes in service delivery.

  19. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  20. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  1. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  2. Insurance: Covering the bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses steps to take to improve the economics and risk profiles for independent power projects. The topics discussed in the article include the results of competition in the power industry, custom packages and the lack of competition among insurers in the power industry, mitigating risk through providing technical information, and developing programs

  3. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (200...

  4. Trends in pension insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shterev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topical for our country problem which is related to the State Social Insurance. It provides a review of the factors having an adverse effect onto the financial state of the Bulgarian pension system. Discussed are the basic parameters related to the economic incentives in connection with the optimal functioning of the pension system

  5. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  6. Business intelligence for insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    IGNATIUK A.

    2016-01-01

    The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  7. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  8. The relationship between length of vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, P; Jackson, T; Kohr, R; Iezzi, T

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational disability, psychiatric illness, life stressors and sociodemographic factors. Information on a variety of variables was obtained from insurance files of 147 subjects who had submitted claims for monetary compensation on grounds of psychiatric symptoms. The majority of subjects received a diagnosis of mood disorder or anxiety disorder. Extended vocational disability was associated with longer duration of psychiatric illness, rating of poorer prognosis by the treating physician, and lower income and occupational levels. Individuals with recent onset of disability reported more stressors than those experiencing extended disability. Although longer duration of psychiatric illness was associated with vocational disability, other variables play an important role in accounting for extended vocational disability.

  9. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  10. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  11. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  12. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  13. Understanding migraine and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Seng, Cynthia D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes recent trends in our understanding of the role of psychiatric disorders in the experience and treatment of migraine, and the role of migraine in the experience and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the majority of studies evaluating psychiatric comorbidity in migraine have focused on depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorders are highly associated with migraine and relevant for prognosis and treatment planning. Comorbid psychiatric disorders may be associated with poorer treatment response for some acute pharmacotherapies; however, people with comorbid migraine and mood or anxiety disorders can achieve large responses to preventive pharmacologic and behavioral therapies. Emerging research is developing and evaluating behavioral treatments designed to manage cooccurring migraine and mood or anxiety disorders. Stigma related to psychiatric disorders has been well characterized, and could exacerbate extant migraine-related stigma. Anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent in people with migraine, although not ubiquitous. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with greater migraine symptoms and disability; however, people with comorbid depression or anxiety are amenable to preventive migraine treatment. Research regarding migraine treatment strategies optimized for people with comorbid psychiatric disorders is critical to advancing care and reducing stigma for this important subpopulation of people with migraine.

  14. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  15. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  17. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during...

  18. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  19. Care systematization in psychiatric nursing within the psychiatric reform context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdes, A; Kantorski, L P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to approach care systematization in psychiatric nursing in two psychiatric disorder patients who attended 'Nossa Casa', São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. Nossa Casa services psychiatric patients in the community, focussing on: (i) permanence in their environment, allowing patients to remain close to their families and social spheres; (ii) integral attendance to meet individual needs; (iii) respecting individual differences; (iv) rehabilitation practices; and (v) social reinsertion. Concepts and assumptions of the psychiatric reform and the Irving's nursing process were used as theoretical-methodological references to elaborate this systematization. A therapeutic project for the psychiatric patient was elaborated, in accordance with the interdisciplinary proposal accepted by Nossa Casa. Interdisciplinary team intervention, guided by a previously discussed common orientation and defined through an individualized therapeutic project, allowed for an effective process of psychosocial rehabilitation. The authors concluded that a therapeutic project based on the mentioned premises leads to consistent, comprehensive, dialectical and ethical assistance in mental health, thereby reinstating the citizenship of psychiatric patients.

  20. Insurance against climate change and flood risk: Insurability and decision processes of insurers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Hung, Jia-Yi

    2016-04-01

    1. Background Major portions of the Asia-Pacific region is facing escalating exposure and vulnerability to climate change and flood-related extremes. This highlights an arduous challenge for public agencies to improve existing risk management strategies. Conventionally, governmental funding was majorly responsible and accountable for disaster loss compensation in the developing countries in Asia, such as Taiwan. This is often criticized as an ineffective and inefficient measure of dealing with flood risk. Flood insurance is one option within the toolkit of risk-sharing arrangement and adaptation strategy to flood risk. However, there are numerous potential barriers for insurance companies to cover flood damage, which would cause the flood risk is regarded as uninsurable. This study thus aims to examine attitudes within the insurers about the viability of flood insurance, the decision-making processes of pricing flood insurance and their determinants, as well as to examine potential solutions to encourage flood insurance. 2. Methods and data Using expected-utility theory, an insurance agent-based decision-making model was developed to examine the insurers' attitudes towards the insurability of flood risk, and to scrutinize the factors that influence their decisions on flood insurance premium-setting. This model particularly focuses on how insurers price insurance when they face either uncertainty or ambiguity about the probability and loss of a particular flood event occurring. This study considers the factors that are expected to affect insures' decisions on underwriting and pricing insurance are their risk perception, attitudes towards flood insurance, governmental measures (e.g., land-use planning, building codes, risk communication), expected probabilities and losses of devastating flooding events, as well as insurance companies' attributes. To elicit insurers' utilities about premium-setting for insurance coverage, the 'certainty equivalent,' 'probability

  1. Modern problems in insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Löf, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book is a compilation of 21 papers presented at the International Cramér Symposium on Insurance Mathematics (ICSIM) held at Stockholm University in June, 2013. The book comprises selected contributions from several large research communities in modern insurance mathematics and its applications. The main topics represented in the book are modern risk theory and its applications, stochastic modelling of insurance business, new mathematical problems in life and non-life insurance, and related topics in applied and financial mathematics. The book is an original and useful source of inspiration and essential reference for a broad spectrum of theoretical and applied researchers, research students and experts from the insurance business. In this way, Modern Problems in Insurance Mathematics will contribute to the development of research and academy–industry co-operation in the area of insurance mathematics and its applications.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for the major psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    Psychotherapy is an effective and often highly cost-effective medical intervention for many serious psychiatric conditions. Psychotherapy can also lead to savings in other medical and societal costs. It is at times the firstline and most important treatment and at other times augments the efficacy of psychotropic medication. Many patients are in need of more prolonged and intensive psychotherapy, including those with personality disorders and those with chronic complex psychiatric conditions often with severe anxiety and depression. Many patients with serious and complex psychiatric illness have experienced severe early life trauma in an atmosphere in which family members or caretakers themselves have serious psychiatric disorders. Children and adolescents with learning disabilities and those with severe psychiatric disorders can also require more than brief treatment. Other diagnostic groups for whom psychotherapy is effective and cost-effective include patients with schizophrenia, anxiety disorders (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, and substance abuse. In addition, psychotherapy for the medically ill with concomitant psychiatric illness often lowers medical costs, improves recovery from medical illness, and at times even prolongs life compared to similar patients not given psychotherapy. While "cost-effective" treatments can yield savings in healthcare costs, disability claims, and other societal costs, "cost-effective" by no means translates to "cheap" but instead describes treatments that are clinically effective and provided at a cost that is considered reasonable given the benefit they provide, even if the treatments increase direct expenses. In the current insurance climate in which Mental Health Parity is the law, insurers nonetheless often use their own non-research and non-clinically based medical necessity guidelines to subvert it and limit access to appropriate psychotherapeutic treatments. Many patients, especially those who need

  3. Financing and insurance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurenge, M.-T.

    1975-01-01

    The author analyses the papers presented at the Paris Conference on the maturity of nuclear energy. It is evident that financing possibilities will be a determinant factor in the rate of development of nuclear power during the years to come. After having evaluated the capital requirements necessitated for the development of nuclear programmes, the parties intervening have examined the means at the disposal of electricity manufacturers to meet these needs (self-financing, recourse to external financing, regrouping, on an international scale of the electricity manufacturers of the setting up of high capacity plants). As concerns the insurance problems, they are becoming more and more involved as nuclear applications, are further diversified and intensified. The parties intervening have discussed new tarification techniques likely to be applied and pointed out the possibilities offered by regrouping or pooling of insurers (Market Pool) which allow for a maximum of risks to be covered without exceeding the means proper to each company concerned [fr

  4. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  5. Life insurance mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gerber, Hans U

    1997-01-01

    This concise introduction to life contingencies, the theory behind the actuarial work around life insurance and pension funds, will appeal to the reader who likes applied mathematics. In addition to model of life contingencies, the theory of compound interest is explained and it is shown how mortality and other rates can be estimated from observations. The probabilistic model is used consistently throughout the book. Numerous exercises (with answers and solutions) have been added, and for this third edition several misprints have been corrected.

  6. Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elklit Ask

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. Methods During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139 in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%. Results Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma for longer periods of time. Only 7% acquired a PTSD diagnosis. The comorbidity of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses were 78%. A number of diagnoses were associated with specific traumas. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported suicidal thoughts in the month prior to intake; thirty-one percent had attempted suicide in the preceding week. Suicidal ideation, self-harming behaviour, and suicide attempts were associated with specific traumas. Conclusion Traumatised patients appear to be under- or misdiagnosed which could have an impact on the efficiency of treatment.

  7. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  8. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  9. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  10. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  11. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  12. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  13. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period. 409.63 Section 409.63 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of...

  14. The Dynamics of Market Insurance, Insurable Assets, and Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    We analyze dynamic interactions between market insurance, the stock of insurable assets and liquid wealth accumulation in a model with non-durable and durable consumption. The stock of the durable is exposed to risk against which households can insure. Since the model does not have a closed form solution we first provide an analytical approximation for the case in which households own abundant liquid wealth. It turns out that precautionary motives still matter because of fluctuations of the p...

  15. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  16. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  17. ETHICS IN THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriletea Marius

    2008-01-01

    The present paper debates the main aspects related to ethics, into an industry that recorded exponential growth in Romania insurance field. A very important role for a good business is enhanced by the ethics. The specialists appreciate that ethics represent a key factor for business success. Obviously, the insurance field into a competition market must follow all the aspects related to ethics. The ethics should be an essential element of every insurance company management. If we talk about et...

  18. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  19. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  20. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... insurance companies and mutual fire insurance companies exclusively issuing either perpetual policies, or...

  2. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  3. Insurance premiums and insurance coverage of near-poor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D; Cunningham, Peter; Kenney, Genevieve; Dubay, Lisa

    States increasingly are using premiums for near-poor children in their public insurance programs (Medicaid/SCHIP) to limit private insurance crowd-out and constrain program costs. Using national data from four rounds of the Community Tracking Study Household Surveys spanning the seven years from 1996 to 2003, this study estimates a multinomial logistic regression model examining how public and private insurance premiums affect insurance coverage outcomes (Medicaid/SCHIP coverage, private coverage, and no coverage). Higher public premiums are significantly associated with a lower probability of public coverage and higher probabilities of private coverage and uninsurance; higher private premiums are significantly related to a lower probability of private coverage and higher probabilities of public coverage and uninsurance. The results imply that uninsurance rates will rise if both public and private premiums increase, and suggest that states that impose or increase public insurance premiums for near-poor children will succeed in discouraging crowd-out of private insurance, but at the expense of higher rates of uninsurance. Sustained increases in private insurance premiums will continue to create enrollment pressures on state insurance programs for children.

  4. 78 FR 52780 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 85 (as of June 2013) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  5. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY... Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 82 (as of April, 2012) private sector property insurers sell... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  6. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  7. HIAA's The Business of Insurance: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anita; Lynch, Margaret E.

    This booklet is intended to help students gain a broad understanding of the meaning, characteristics, organization, products, and functions of the insurance industry. The following topics are discussed: the concept of and need for insurance; basic principles of insurance (risk assessment, insurability and insurable interest, determination of…

  8. Mitigation Index Insurance for Developing Countries: Insure the Loss or Insure the Signal?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiting; Miranda, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional agricultural index insurance indemnifies based on the observed value of a specified variable, such as rainfall, that is correlated with agricultural production losses. Typically, indemnities are paid to the policyholder after the losses have been experienced. This paper explores alternate timing for index insurance payouts. In particular, we explore the potential benefits of what we call “mitigation index insurance” in which the payouts of the insurance contract arrive before los...

  9. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  10. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... insurance industry traces its roots back to England, where, in 1696, the first mutual fire insurer was... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 380 RIN 3064-AD89 Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

  11. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  12. Your Insurance Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet provides some practical guidelines for determining total insurance needs, examining options, and comparing costs. It discusses how to fit insurance costs into an overall financial plan, the necessity of adequate liability coverage, and the importance of keeping policies up to date. The next four sections highlight the basic types of…

  13. A RANGELAND GRASSHOPPER INSURANCE PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Skold, Melvin D.; Davis, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of benefits and costs from controlling rangeland grasshoppers on public grazing lands poses problems of economic efficiency and distributional equity. Public grasshopper control programs operate like public disaster assistance. However, grasshopper infestations are an insurable risk. This article proposes a rangeland grasshopper insurance program which reduces the economic inefficiencies and distributional inequities of the existing program.

  14. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  15. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 13 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 13 Insurance. Article 9 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract sets forth the Contractor's liabilities and obligations with... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance. Sec. 13 Section 13 Shipping MARITIME...

  17. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  18. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  19. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  20. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance [[Page 7768

  1. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  2. Insurance and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act is discussed, which establishes procedures for insuring nuclear facilities (including nuclear power plants). The act was enacted with the dual purpose of protecting the public and encouraging the development of a private nuclear energy industry. Criticisms that can generally be grouped into four categories regarding the Act are presented, the most controversial aspect being that should an accident occur, the aggregate liability of the reactor operator, the NRC, or any others who might be at fault is limited to $560 million. Lawsuits for amounts in excess of $560 million are prohibited. The 1975 renewal of the Price-Anderson Act does provide that damages in excess of the $560 million prompt Congress to review the particular incident and take action to protect the public from the consequences of a disaster of such magnitude

  3. Psychiatric Services • In Matabeleland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-04

    May 4, 1974 ... To provide some basis for planning psychiatric services in Matabeleland, a ... medicine. and at the same time up-grade mental health services.' Tn the .... We present a survey of some of the changes in a population of African ...

  4. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.

  5. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  6. Management of Current Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, François; David, Michel; Norton, Joanna; Bourrel, Gérard; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyse the experience of family physicians in managing current psychiatric disorders to obtain a better understanding of the underlying reasons of under-detection and inadequate prescribing identified in studies. Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Sample of 15 practicing family physicians, recruited by telephone from a precedent cohort (Sesame1) with a maximum variation: sex, age, single or group practice, urban or rural. Qualitative method is inspired by the completed grounded theory of a verbatim semiopragmatic analysis from 2 experts in this approach. Results: Family physicians found that current psychiatric disorders were related to psychological symptoms in reaction to life events. Their role was to make patients aware of a psychiatric symptom rather than establish a diagnosis. Their management responsibility was considered in contrasting ways: it was claimed or endured. They defined their position as facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations, while assuring a complementary psychotherapeutic approach. Prescribing medication was not a priority for them. Conclusions: The identified under-detection is essentially due to inherent frontline conditions and complexity of clinical forms. The family physician role, facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations while assuring a support psychotherapy is the main result of this study. More studies should be conducted to define more accurately the clinical reality, management and course of current psychiatric disorders in primary care.

  7. Imperfect Tests and Natural Insurance Monopolies

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a housing insurance market in which buildings have different damage probabilities. Insurers use imperfect tests to find out about buildings’ damage types. The insurance market is a natural monopoly. If more than one insurer is active, high risk house owners continue to apply to insurers until they are eventually assigned to a low-risk class. First we show that the natural insurance monopoly need not be sustainable. Then we show that in the equilibrium industry structure t...

  8. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  9. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  10. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... in Psychiatrry, Department of Behavioural Sciences,University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria,. M. K. Jimba ... Psychiatric diagnosis was based .... The second stage: Clinical psychiatric interview was.

  11. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hovens, J.E.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. METHODS: Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  12. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  13. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-24

    May 24, 2018 ... psychiatric disorders, including other anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders ... psychiatric comorbidities present among adults at a tertiary ..... clinical files as well as unclear handwriting and missing.

  14. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,

  15. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  16. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  17. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Romanos, M; Pfennig, A; Leopold, K; Meurer, M

    2009-10-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common dermatological condition that causes significant problems in everyday life and high levels of illness-related stress in substantial proportions of patients. The extent to which adult AE is associated with clinically relevant psychiatric morbidity is unclear. To investigate the association between adult AE and major psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders. Case-control study utilizing the GKV database Saxony, an interdisciplinary administrative outpatient database from Germany. All patients documented as having AE at least twice within the study period (2003-2004) (n = 3769, mean age 44 years) were individually matched by age and sex to 3769 controls without AE. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship of AE with affective, stress-related, behaviour and schizophrenic disorders, considering sociodemographic characteristics, consulting behaviour and allergic comorbidities as potential confounding factors. Eczema was independently associated with affective [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.79], stress-related (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.77), behaviour (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.23) and schizophrenic disorders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.22-3.71). For each psychiatric condition the likelihood of being affected significantly increased with each physician visit due to AE, suggesting that the risk of psychiatric comorbidity increases with the severity of AE. This study indicates psychiatric comorbidity of adults with AE. Collaboration between dermatologists and mental health specialists may optimize medical care for a significant subgroup of patients with AE.

  19. An investigation into onshore captive insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME Le Roux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provided by captive insurers is one of various forms of risk financing.  The nature and main types of captive insurance companies are discussed.  This is followed by the results of an empirical study that focused on South African onshore captive insurance companies.  The objectives in establishing and operating a captive insurer, the factors which determine the decision of the parent company to establish and operate a captive insurer and the future and usefulness of insurance provided by captive insurers are some of the aspects that are addressed.

  20. Continuity of pharmaceutical care for psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah-Koolmees, Heshu

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diseases are common. The effective treatment of a psychiatric disease, its (somatic) side effects and any concurrent somatic diseases is important for the patient’s overall health and wellbeing. The studies conducted in psychiatric patients generally focus on the continuation of

  1. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Psychiatric services. To qualify for physician fee schedule payment for psychiatric services furnished under...

  2. The insurance of climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauthier, Alice

    2015-06-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme assesses that the cost of adaptation to climate change could reach 150 billions dollars per year by 2025-2030 and 500 billions dollars by 2050. This raises the issues of financing of adaptation measures, and of compensations in case of natural disaster, and insurance companies here seem to have a major role to play. However, the modification of the climatic risk puts the viability of conventional insurance mechanisms into question again. While discussing these issues, the author outlines that a sustainable insurance against these evolving risks may threaten insurance companies to go to bankrupt, but also all their policyholders who are, for most of them, unable to cope by themselves with the consequences of an extreme climatic event. The author also discusses related aspects such as risk modelling, risk mutualization, a securing of insurance companies based on the financial market, the implementation of public-private partnership, and ways to insure climate anomalies. She also comments the commitment of the insurance sector in adaptation and mitigation policies

  3. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard in disab...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings.......We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...

  4. Environmental pollution risk and insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fragnelli, Vito; Marina, Maria Erminia

    2002-01-01

    We consider environmental risks that are evaluated too much heavy for a single insurance company, but they can be insured by n companies which a premium is assigned to.This is precisely the Italian scenario where a pool of companies co-insures these risks.Under a game theoretic approach we start by analyzing how they should split the risk and the premium in order to be better off. Under suitable hypotheses, there exists an optimal decomposition of the risk, that allow us to define a cooperati...

  5. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  6. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  7. Insurance billing and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms.

  8. 7 CFR 3560.105 - Insurance and taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Windstorm Coverage. (ii) Earthquake Coverage. (iii) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. (3) For... the coverage amount. (v) Sinkhole Insurance or Mine Subsidence Insurance. The deductible for sinkhole.... (10) Deductible amounts (excluding flood, windstorm, earthquake and sinkhole insurance or mine...

  9. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  10. Environmental insurance: research information support

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  11. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  12. Pricing of temperature index insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Mohd Imran Che Taib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study pricing of weather insurance contracts based on temperature indices. Three different pricing methods are analysed: the classical burn approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. We take the data from Malaysia as our empirical case. Our results show that there is a significant difference between the burn and index pricing approaches on one hand, and the temperature modelling method on the other. The latter approach is pricing the insurance contract using a seasonal autoregressive time series model for daily temperature variations, and thus provides a precise probabilistic model for the fine structure of temperature evolution. We complement our pricing analysis by an investigation of the profit/loss distribution from the contract, in the perspective of both the insured and the insurer.

  13. HUD Insured Multifamily Properties (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA insured Multifamily Housing portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  14. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  15. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  16. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  17. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  18. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  19. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  20. 78 FR 71476 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... The final regulations clarify that these benefits constitute health insurance when they are offered by... insurance. Limited Scope Dental and Vision Benefits The proposed regulations defined health insurance to... revising the definition of health insurance to exclude limited scope dental and vision benefits (sometimes...

  1. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  2. THE ROLE OF REINSURANCE IN INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies carry out risk spreading through the co-insurance and reinsurance mechanism, consisting of the participation of more companies in the provision of high-value assets. Reinsurance is a form of insurance whereby an insurance organization can transfer to another reinsurer, partly or fully, its payment obligations arising from the insurance contracts that it has concluded. In the reinsurance ratios, the insurance companies appear in a double position - giving other insurance companies some of the risks assumed under direct insurance, being reinsured, but receiving different risks to reinsurance, acquiring the quality of reinsurers. Reinsurance intends to satisfy some multiple needs of the direct insurer and can provide means to counteract the risks associated with the fluctuations in compensation costs, the reinsurer will contribute to the payment of compensations on behalf of the reinsurer. Life insurance has characteristics that influence reinsurance: the average life of the insurance, the insurance is concluded for a fixed amount insured, the capital accumulation. In life reinsurance, almost all reinsurance arrangements are proportional agreements, and the largest share have the "surplus" agreements. Reinsurance plays an important role because it fulfills the following functions: it confers capacity, creates stability, helps to consolidate financial strength. The adjustment of the client portfolio in terms of the changes of reinsurance agreement, required by the reinsurer, can only be done by concluding the insurance contracts. In life insurance, reinsurance contracts contain provisions that meet the need of the insurer to have long-term protection.

  3. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... NHTSA's regulation requiring motor vehicle insurers to submit information on the number of thefts and recoveries of insured vehicles and actions taken by the insurer to deter or reduce motor vehicle theft. NHTSA..., which requires insurers to submit information about the make, model, and year of all vehicle thefts, the...

  4. 24 CFR 266.612 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his or her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit...

  5. 24 CFR 207.259 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 207.259 Section... Contract of Insurance § 207.259 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Upon either an assignment of the... of mortgage. If the mortgage is assigned to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall be paid in...

  6. 24 CFR 241.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 241.805 Section... Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  7. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education... § 682.505 Insurance premium. (a) General. The Secretary charges the lender an insurance premium for each Federal GSL Program loan that is guaranteed, except that no insurance premium is charged on a Federal...

  8. 24 CFR 220.804 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 220.804 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.804 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The lender, upon the initial endorsement of the loan for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner...

  9. Social insurance for health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1997-06-01

    Implementation of social insurance for financing health services has yielded different patterns depending on a country's economic level and its government's political ideology. By the late 19th century, thousands of small sickness funds operated in Europe, and in 1883 Germany's Chancellor Bismarck led the enactment of a law mandating enrollment by low-income workers. Other countries followed, with France completing Western European coverage in 1928. The Russian Revolution in 1917 led to a National Health Service covering everyone from general revenues by 1937. New Zealand legislated universal population coverage in 1939. After World War II, Scandinavian countries extended coverage to everyone and Britain introduced its National Health Service covering everyone with comprehensive care and financed by general revenues in 1948. Outside of Europe Japan adopted health insurance in 1922, covering everyone in 1946. Chile was the first developing country to enact statutory health insurance in 1924 for industrial workers, with extension to all low-income people with its "Servicio Nacional de Salud" in 1952. India covered 3.5 percent of its large population with the Employees' State Insurance Corporation in 1948, and China after its 1949 revolution developed four types of health insurance for designated groups of workers and dependents. Sub-Saharan African countries took limited health insurance actions in the late 1960s and 1970s. By 1980, some 85 countries had enacted social security programs to finance or deliver health services or both.

  10. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Role of nuclear insurance in US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardes, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Private insurance companies developed means to provide first-tier nuclear coverage to operators of power plants and other nuclear facilities; US Government initially provided second tier. US insurance companies chose 'pooling' technique as means to provide large amounts of insurance capacity by spreading the risk over a number of insurance companies. Classic example of nuclear risk that presents low frequency, high severity loss potential. Insurers usually spread their risk over a large, fairly stable premium base, as with automobile insurance. The American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and its roles are introduced in this article

  12. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  13. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  14. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  15. 41 CFR 60-741.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. 60-741.25 Section 60-741.25 Public Contracts and Property Management... Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service...

  16. 24 CFR 266.600 - Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium... MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 266.600 Mortgage insurance premium: Insurance upon completion. (a) Initial premium. For projects insured upon completion, on...

  17. Predictors of psychiatric boarding in the pediatric emergency department: implications for emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharff, Elizabeth A; Ginnis, Katherine B; Ross, Abigail M; Blood, Emily A

    2011-06-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and require psychiatric hospitalization may wait in the ED or be admitted to a medical service because there are no available inpatient psychiatric beds. These patients are psychiatric "boarders." This study describes the extent of the boarder problem in a large, urban pediatric ED, compares characteristics of psychiatrically hospitalized patients with boarders, and compares predictors of boarding in 2 ED patient cohorts. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2007-2008. The main outcome measure was placement into a psychiatric facility or boarding. Predictors of boarding in the present analysis were compared with predictors from a similar study conducted in the same ED in 1999-2000. Of 461 ED patient encounters requiring psychiatric admission, 157 (34.1%) boarded. Mean and median boarding duration for the sample were 22.7(SD, 8.08) and 21.18 hours, respectively. Univariate generalized estimating equations demonstrated increased boarding odds for patients carrying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnoses of autism, mental retardation, and/or developmental delay (P = 0.01), presenting during the weekend (P = 0.03) or presenting during months without school vacation (P = 0.02). Suicidal ideation (SI) significantly predicted boarding status, with increased likelihood of boarding for severe SI (P = 0.02). Age, race, insurance status, and homicidal ideation did not significantly predict boarding in the 2007-2008 patient cohort, although they did in the earlier study. Systemic factors and SI predicted boarding status in both cohorts. Suicidal patients continue to board. Limits within the system, including timing of ED presentation and a dearth of specialized services, still exist, elevating the risk of boarding for some populations. Implications for pediatric ED psychiatric care delivery are discussed.

  18. Pre-typhoon socioeconomic status factors predict post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms in a Vietnamese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C; Trapp, Stephen K; Berenz, Erin C; Bigdeli, Tim Bernard; Acierno, Ron; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to natural disasters has been associated with increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. Evidence indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) may be important for understanding post-disaster psychiatric distress; however, studies of SES-relevant factors in non-Western, disaster-exposed samples are lacking. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the role of pre-typhoon SES-relevant factors in relation to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms among Vietnamese individuals exposed to Typhoon Xangsane. In 2006, Typhoon Xangsane disrupted a mental health needs assessment in Vietnam in which the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), and the Demographic and Health Surveys Wealth Index, a measure of SES created for use in low-income countries, were administered pre-typhoon. The SRQ-20 was re-administered post-typhoon. Results of a linear mixed model indicated that the covariates of older age, female sex, and higher levels of pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms. Analysis of SES indicators revealed that owning fewer consumer goods, having lower quality of household services, and having attained less education were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon symptoms, above and beyond the covariates, whereas quality of the household build, employment status, and insurance status were not related to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms. Even after controlling for demographic characteristics and pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms, certain SES factors uniquely predicted post-typhoon psychiatric distress. These SES characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals in developing countries who are in need of early intervention following disaster exposure.

  19. INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN ERITREA - ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rena, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    The industrial revolution led to the birth of different types of insurance systems. Insurance business emerged and developed in Eritrea during the Italian period. The insurance industry in Eritrea has been huge profits from its inception in 1992. In spite of the consistent profits by the insurance, the Government privatised it recently due the policy and revenue requirements. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the background of the insurance and it evolution and development. This pap...

  20. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  1. Suicide with psychiatric diagnosis and without utilization of psychiatric service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Paul WC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been focused on the study of suicides among those who have received help from healthcare providers. However, little is known about the profiles of suicide deceased who had psychiatric illnesses but made no contact with psychiatric services prior to their death. Behavioural model of health service use is applied to identify factors associated with the utilization of psychiatric service among the suicide deceased. Methods With respect to completed suicide cases, who were diagnosed with a mental disorder, a comparison study was made between those who had (contact group; n = 52; 43.7% and those who had not made any contact (non-contact group; n = 67; 56.3% with a psychiatrist during the final six months prior to death. A sample of 119 deceased cases aged between 15 and 59 with at least one psychiatric diagnosis assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID I were selected from a psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong. Results The contact and non-contact group could be well distinguished from each other by "predisposing" variables: age group & gender, and most of the "enabling", and "need" variables tested in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis has found four factors are statistically significantly associated with non-contact suicide deceased: (i having non-psychotic disorders (OR = 13.5, 95% CI:2.9-62.9, (ii unmanageable debts (OR = 10.5, CI:2.4-45.3, (iii being full/partially/self employed at the time of death (OR = 10.0, CI:1.6-64.1 and (iv having higher levels of social problem-solving ability (SPSI (OR = 2.0, CI:1.1-3.6. Conclusion The non-contact group was clearly different from the contact group and actually comprised a larger proportion of the suicide population that they could hardly be reached by usual individual-based suicide prevention efforts. For this reason, both universal and strategic suicide prevention measures need to be developed specifically in non

  2. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  3. Forecasting Fire Insurance Loss Ratio in Misr Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek TAHA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss ratio is one of the most important indicator that has many strategic decisions applications, such as pricing, underwriting, investment, reinsurance and reserving decisions. It serves as an early warning of financial solvency of insurance companies and it can be judged on the strength of the financial position of these companies. The aim of this study is to identify the reliable time series-forecasting model to forecast loss ratio estimates of fire segment in Misr insurance company. Box-Jenkins Analysis is applied on actual reported loss ratios data for Misr insurance company for the period 1980/1981– 2013/2014. The study concludes that the best forecasting model is ARMA(1,1.

  4. 77 FR 25349 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ..., the first mutual fire insurer was established. The first American mutual insurance company, the Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, was founded in 1752.\\3\\ \\3\\ The...

  5. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  6. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), (90 as of June 1, 2010) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  7. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...] National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of... Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement), 87 (as of July 1, 2011) private sector property... Financial Assistance/ Subsidy Arrangement (Arrangement) to notify private insurance companies (Companies...

  8. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691

  9. The effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Jaclyn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Ellis, Terri; Daniel, Marlon G

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the medical records of 177 women who met the eligibility criteria. Data collected included demographic details, primary and secondary diagnoses, date of last menstrual period (LMP), medication adherence, psychiatric hospitalization length of stay, previous psychiatric admissions (including those related to menstruation), discharge referrals, and readmissions. The majority of women were admitted for major depression, were single, Caucasian, and had a mean age of 34. A disproportionate percentage (37%) of women had their LMP within 5 days of psychiatric hospitalization (p = 0.0006). The overall average length of stay was 4.37 days, and 48.3% had a previous psychiatric admission. Medication adherence was routinely not documented (77.4%). Psychiatric hospitalizations for women are significantly greater within 5 days of their LMP. Nursing education and improved documentation are warranted to decrease the potential for readmission. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Encopresis: a guide for psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2009-10-01

    Encopresis is an elimination disorder that involves symptoms of fecal incontinence in children. It affects an estimated 1.5% to 7.5% of children ages 6 to 12 and accounts for approximately 3% to 6% of psychiatric referrals. The etiology of encopresis is thought to be related to physiologic problems such as constipation; however, it is also a psychiatric diagnosis and anecdotally may have some association with psychiatric problems. Publications on this association and publications directed toward psychiatric nurses are limited. Encopresis is typically treated with nutritional and medical management along with behavioral modification. Psychiatric nurses working with patients who have encopresis in inpatient settings will have unique concerns and challenges. This article gives an overview of published literature from the past 10 years on the etiology and treatment of encopresis. Specific suggestions for inpatient psychiatric nurses based on published literature and the author's professional experience are provided.

  11. [The state and health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrave, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the State and the health insurance passes through an institutional and financial crisis, leading the government to decide a new governance of the health care system and of the health insurance. The onset of the institutional crisis is the consequence of the confusion of the roles played by the State and the social partners. The social democracy installed by the French plan in 1945 and the autonomy of management of the health insurance established by the 1967 ordinances have failed. The administration parity (union and MEDEF) flew into pieces. The State had to step in by failing. The light is put on the financial crisis by the evolution of ONDAM (National Objective of the Health Insurance Expenses) which appears in the yearly law financing Social Security. The drift of the real expenses as compared to the passed ONDAM bill is constant and worsening. The question of reform includes the link between social democracy to be restored (social partners) and political democracy (Parliament and Government) to establish a contractual democracy. The Government made the announcement of an ONDAM sincere and medically oriented, based on tools agreed upon by all parties. The region could become a regulating step involving a regional health council. An accounting magistrate would be needed to consider not only the legal aspect but to include economic fallouts of health insurance. The role and the missions of the Social Security Accounting Committee should be reinforced.

  12. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  13. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  14. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  15. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system. This multifaceted role requires the continuous education of modern psychiatrists, but above all a broad, substantial and comprehensive training regime in the initial stage of their professional career, that is to say during specialization. Training in Psychiatry, as indeed has happened in all other medical specialties, has evolved considerably in recent decades, both in the content of education due to scientific advances in the fields of neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, psychopharmacology, epidemiology and psychiatric nosology, and also because of advances in the educational process itself. Simple apprenticeship next to an experienced clinician, despite its importance in the clinical training of young psychiatrists, is no longer sufficient to meet the increased demands of the modern role of psychiatrists, resulting in the creation of educational programs defined by setting and pursuing minimum, though comprehensive educational objectives. This development has created the global need to develop organizations intended to supervise training programs. These organizations have various forms worldwide. In the European Union, the competent supervising body for medical specialties is the UEMS (European Union of Medical Specialities) and particularly in the case of the psychiatric

  16. Insurance Salespeople's Attitudes towards Collusion: The Case of Taiwan’s Car Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Ming Tseng; Wen-Pin Su

    2014-01-01

    Insurance researchers believe that the increase in insurance fraud may be associated with the unethical decisions made by some insurance salespeople. However, to date, research that has empirically investigated the link between insurance salespeople and collusion is scant. Using the car insurance industry in Taiwan as an example, this paper explores the impact of the opportunity to obtain the fraudulent claim and that of the size of actual loss on car insurance salespeople's attitudes towards...

  17. Changing patterns of psychiatric inpatient care for children and adolescents in general hospitals, 1988-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottick, K J; McAlpine, D D; Andelman, R B

    2000-08-01

    The authors examine patterns in utilization of psychiatric inpatient services by children and adolescents in general hospitals during 1988-1995. National Hospital Discharge Survey data were used to describe utilization patterns for children and adolescents with primary psychiatric diagnoses in general hospitals from 1988 to 1995. During the study period, there was a 36% increase in hospital discharges and a 44% decline in mean length of stay, resulting in a 23% decline in the number of bed-days, from more than 3 million to about 2.5 million. The number of nonpsychotic major depressive disorders increased significantly. Discharges from public hospitals have declined, and those from proprietary hospitals have risen. Concurrently, the role of private insurance declined and the role of Medicaid increased. During the period of study, the mean and median length of stay declined most for children and adolescents who were hospitalized in private facilities and those covered by private insurance. Across the United States, the mean length of stay declined significantly; this decline was almost 60% in the West. Discharges also declined in the West, in contrast to the Midwest and the South, where they significantly increased. Increased numbers of discharges and decreased length of stay may reflect evolving market forces and characteristics of hospitals. Further penetration by managed care into the public insurance system or modifications in existing Medicaid policy could have a profound impact on the availability of inpatient resources.

  18. Pet insurance--essential option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!

  19. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  20. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  1. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  2. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-06-01

    American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services.

  3. Psychiatric rehabilitation education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham; Eastwood, Diane

    2013-06-01

    As part of a rapidly spreading reform toward recovery-oriented services, mental health care systems are adopting Psychiatric/Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR). Accordingly, PSR education and training programs are now available and accessible. Although psychiatrists and sometimes other physicians (such as family physicians) provide important services to people with serious mental illnesses and may, therefore, need knowledge and skill in PSR, it seems that the medical profession has been slow to participate in PSR education. Based on our experience working in Canada as academic psychiatrists who are also Certified Psychiatric Rehabilitation Practitioners (CPRPs), we offer descriptions of several Canadian initiatives that involve physicians in PSR education. Multiple frameworks guide PSR education for physicians. First, guidance is provided by published PSR principles, such as the importance of self-determination (www.psrrpscanada.ca). Second, guidance is provided by adult education (andragogy) principles, emphasizing the importance of addressing attitudes in addition to knowledge and skills (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011). Third, guidance in Canada is provided by Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) principles, which delineate the multiple roles of physicians beyond that of medical expert (Frank, 2005) and have recently been adopted in Australia (Boyce, Spratt, Davies, & McEvoy, 2011). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  5. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  6. Pricing general insurance with constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Emms, P.

    2006-01-01

    Deterministic control theory is used to find the optimal premium strategy for an insurer in order to maximise a given objective. The optimal strategy can be loss-leading depending on the model parameters, which may result in negative premium values. In such circumstances, it is optimal to capture as much of the market as possible before making a profit towards the end of the time horizon. In reality, the amount by which an insurer can lower premiums is constrained by borrowing restrictions an...

  7. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  8. [Increased financial risks for health insurers: a challenge for providers of mental health care in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daansen, P J; van Schilt, J

    2014-01-01

    As from 2014 Dutch health insurance companies will bear the full financial risk for their clients in mental health care. Over the next years the existing risk settlement shared between insurance companies will gradually be brought to a close. Municipalities and the Ministry of Justice are already responsible for or will soon become responsible for financing health care for adolescents, patients with severe psychiatric disorders and forensic psychiatric patients. As a result, the health insurance companies are beginning to impose ever stricter conditions regarding the care 'product' they are 'buying'. To study the possible consequences, for mental health care institutions, of the increased risk to be borne by health care insurers. Use was made of relevant marketing literature and literature relating to mental health care. Studies of Dutch mental health care literature indicate that in the future the purchasing procedure will no longer consider the immediate treatment outcome as the sole performance indicator but will also take into account additional factors such as long-term improvements in patients' health, customer satisfaction and degree of patient participation, patient empowerment and autonomy. In formulating the details of their health products and business strategies, health care providers will now have to take into account not only the efficacy of the treatment they provide but also the purchasing policy and strategy of the health insurance companies.

  9. Understanding psychiatric nursing care with nonsuicidal self-harming patients in acute psychiatric admission units: the views of psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Aine; Gijbels, Harry

    2006-08-01

    Self-harm in the absence of suicidal intent is an underexplored area in psychiatric nursing research. This article reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric admission units in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self-harm but who are not considered suicidal. Semistructured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes, some of which will be presented and discussed in this article, namely, the participants' understanding of self-harm, their approach to care, and factors in the acute psychiatric admission setting, which impacted on their care. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  10. Exploring health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social

  11. Psychiatric and Medical Conditions in Transition-Aged Individuals With ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davignon, Meghan N; Qian, Yinge; Massolo, Maria; Croen, Lisa A

    2018-04-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions and an increased use of health care services. There is limited information about the prevalence of psychiatric and medical conditions in adolescents and young adults with ASD. Our objective was to describe the frequency of medical and psychiatric conditions in a large population of diverse, insured transition-aged individuals with ASD. Participants included Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were enrolled from 2013 to 2015 and who were 14 to 25 years old. Individuals with ASD ( n = 4123) were compared with peers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( n = 20 615), diabetes mellitus ( n = 2156), and typical controls with neither condition ( n = 20 615). Over one-third (34%) of individuals with ASD had a co-occurring psychiatric condition; the most commonly reported medical conditions included infections (42%), obesity (25%), neurologic conditions (18%), allergy and/or immunologic conditions (16%), musculoskeletal conditions (15%), and gastrointestinal (11%) conditions. After controlling for sex, age, race, and duration of Kaiser Permanente Northern California membership, most psychiatric conditions were significantly more common in the ASD group than in each comparison group, and most medical conditions were significantly more common in the ASD group than in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typical control groups but were similar to or significantly less common than the diabetes mellitus group. Although more research is needed to identify factors contributing to this excess burden of disease, there is a pressing need for all clinicians to approach ASD as a chronic health condition requiring regular follow-up and routine screening and treatment of medical and psychiatric issues. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is understood that construction projects usually have in force several simultaneous contractual ... business witlloct suficient cover of insurance. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the needs and .... D: Risks associated with the Technical aspects of the project. E: Risks associated with Acts of Man. F: Design risks.

  13. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  14. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  15. INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS ANDPRACTICES OF ETHIOPIA'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of good practice to be used as a design aid by engineers. ..... an ethical and professipnal atmosphere. It is also essential for the local ..... If your answer is no, please write the reason/sf or not purchasing insurance policies? 10. What types of ...

  16. Insurance and the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.P.R. da.

    1981-01-01

    The insurance is presented as a way to offer the guarantees to the reparing of the nuclear energy damages, enphasizing the adoption of the associations and pools system in Brazil, since the coverings envolved are very high. (A.L.) [pt

  17. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  18. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  19. Health Insurance Marketplace Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A set of seven (7) public use files containing information on health insurance issuers participating in the Health Insurance Marketplace and certified qualified...

  20. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    S V Martynenko

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  1. Healthcare.gov Insurance Finder Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This tool will help you find the health insurance best suited to your needs, whether its private insurance for individuals, families, and small businesses, or public...

  2. Modelling in life insurance a management perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Ragnar; Planchet, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on life insurance and pensions, this book addresses various aspects of modelling in modern insurance: insurance liabilities; asset-liability management; securitization, hedging, and investment strategies. With contributions from internationally renowned academics in actuarial science, finance, and management science and key people in major life insurance and reinsurance companies, there is expert coverage of a wide range of topics, for example: models in life insurance and their roles in decision making; an account of the contemporary history of insurance and life insurance mathematics; choice, calibration, and evaluation of models; documentation and quality checks of data; new insurance regulations and accounting rules; cash flow projection models; economic scenario generators; model uncertainty and model risk; model-based decision-making at line management level; models and behaviour of stakeholders. With author profiles ranging from highly specialized model builders to decision makers at chief ex...

  3. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  4. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  5. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the...

  6. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum...

  7. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a...

  8. Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act created the new Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) program to make health insurance available to Americans denied coverage by...

  9. Evaluating the Welfare of Index Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Ng, Jia Min

    affects both the demand for the product and the welfare of individuals making take-up decisions. We study the impact of basis risk on insurance take-up and on expected welfare in a laboratory experiment with an insurance frame. We measure the expected welfare of index insurance to individuals while......Index insurance was conceived to be a product that would simplify the claim settlement process and make it more objective, reducing transaction costs and moral hazard. However, index insurance also exposes the insured to basis risk, which arises because there can be a mismatch between the index...... risks that are different from preferences exhibited for their actuarially-equivalent counterparts. We study the potential link between index insurance demand and attitudes towards compound risks. We test the hypothesis that the compound risk nature of index insurance induced by basis risk negatively...

  10. The Normative Foundations of (Social) Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    Insurance mechanisms are prevalent in industrialized societies, in both public and private sectors. Insurance is offered for various risks ranging from fire to accident. They also constitute the core of the modern welfare state (public health insurance, unemployment benefits and public pensions......). The analysis of (public) insurance has however remained marginal in political theory because insurance is often perceived as a simple tool for pursuing equality, i.e. a tool without any moral significance proper. This text proposes an alternative view by drawing a continuum between insurance as a technology......, which is the common interpretation in economics, and insurance as a social practice, which characterizes social theory. The goal is to underline how the technology of insurance alters social practices by, for instance, promoting equal standing or transforming the paradigm of individual responsibility...

  11. Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated comorbid medical conditions in a regional referral hospital. NSZ Tema, ABR Janse van Rensburg. Abstract. Background. Psychiatrists are often called upon to evaluate patients with a medical condition and psychiatric symptoms, either as a complication thereof or ...

  12. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  13. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  14. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: The study is a ...

  15. Psychiatric service users' experiences of emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Jensen, Lotte Groth

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increased clinical and political attention towards integrating general and psychiatric emergency departments (ED). However, research into psychiatric service users’ experiences regarding general EDs is limited. Aim: To identify and summarize current, qualitative evidence rega...... the discomfort. Overall, the results of this review speak in favour of integrated EDs where service users’ needs are more likely to be recognized and accommodated....

  16. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  17. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  18. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  19. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  20. Triage in psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæbye, Ditte; Høegh, Erica Bernt; Knop, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check...

  1. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation’s largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  2. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  3. Diffusion formation and psychiatric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Kulikovski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle behind diffusion is Brownian motion. The diffusion parameters obtained in a clinical association provide information on the spatial distribution of water molecule mobility and, therefore, evidence of the morphological integrity of the white and grey matters of the brain. In recent years functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could contribute to obtaining a detailed understanding of the cortical and subcortical cerebral networks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations can demonstrate the extent of anisotropy and the fiber pathways in so-called parametric images. For example, in Alzheimer's disease DTI reveals a reduced structural connectivity between the posterior cingulum and the hippocampus. This article shows examples of the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  4. Molecular pathways towards psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    The observed fibrillar-neuronal organization of the cerebral cortex suggests that in the aetiology of certain psychiatric disorders the genomic response of the neuron to the challenge presented by stress or insults at various stages of development, is to set off a programmed chain of molecular events (or ''pathways''), as demonstrated in previous genetic studies. The understanding of these pathways is important in order to enhance our ability to influence these illnesses, and are hypothesized to be initiated by a nucleolar mechanism for inducing abnormal synthesis of the nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis is used to approach tentatively the still open question regarding the pathogenesis of mental retardation (MR) and senile dementia (SD). (author). 25 refs

  5. The Complexity of E-Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GAVRILETEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance and increasing role of Internet in nowadays business area are officially recognized. No matter the industry a company is operating in, the distribution channels include direct sales through Internet. Following this idea, also the insurance companies decided to sell their insurance policy online. In this paper we analyze the advantages of Internet for insurance companies, the threats and the actual situation for Romanian insurers

  6. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  7. Medical Progress and Supplementary Private Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner Leidl

    2003-01-01

    In many welfare states, tightening financial constraints suggest excluding some medical services, including new ones, from social security coverage. This may create opportunities for private health insurance. This study analyses the performance of supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) in markets for excluded services in terms of population covered, risk selection and insurer profits. Using a utility-based simulation model, the insurance market is described as a composite of sub-market...

  8. Financial Planning and the Life Insurance Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Puelz

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the effects of fee-for-service personal financial planning on the decision making of a profit-maximizing life insurance general agent are examined. Three refutable propositions are developed which implicate the movements of the general agent who must adjust to a new optimal profit-maximizing allocation of financial planning, personal insurance sales, and agent insurance sales when there is a change in one of the fee or commission rate parameters. It is demonstrated that insur...

  9. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  10. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  11. 76 FR 20298 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers; Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than...

  12. 76 FR 41138 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... passenger motor vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss... information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating rules used by the insurer to establish... companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of...

  13. 75 FR 34966 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... the agency. Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any...

  14. 41 CFR 60-300.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... VETERANS, AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  15. 41 CFR 60-250.25 - Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Health insurance, life... SEPARATED VETERANS, AND OTHER PROTECTED VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.25 Health insurance, life insurance and other benefit plans. (a) An insurer, hospital, or medical service company, health...

  16. VIDEOCARE: Decentralised psychiatric emergency care through videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trondsen Marianne V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today the availability of specialists is limited for psychiatric patients in rural areas, especially during psychiatric emergencies. To overcome this challenge, the University Hospital of North Norway has implemented a new decentralised on-call system in psychiatric emergencies, by which psychiatrists are accessible by videoconference 24/7. In September 2011, the new on-call system was established in clinical practice for patients and health staff at three regional psychiatric centres in Northern Norway. Although a wide variety of therapies have been successfully delivered by videoconference, there is limited research on the use of videoconferenced consultations with patients in psychiatric emergencies. The aim of this study is to explore the use of videoconference in psychiatric emergencies based on the implementation of this first Norwegian tele-psychiatric service in emergency care. Methods/design The research project is an exploratory case study of a new videoconference service in operation. By applying in-depth interviews with patients, specialists and local health-care staff, we will identify factors that facilitate and hinder use of videoconferencing in psychiatric emergencies, and explore how videoconferenced consultations matter for patients, professional practice and cooperation between levels in psychiatric care. By using an on-going project as the site of research, the case is especially well-suited for generating reliable and valid empirical data. Discussion Results from the study will be of importance for understanding of how videoconferencing may support proper treatment and high-quality health care services in rural areas for patients in psychiatric emergencies.

  17. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelici, C.

    1980-03-01

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr

  18. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  19. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... assumed responsibility. The cost of this insurance to the carrier shall be part of the transportation cost...

  20. Global loss diversification in the insurance sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheremet, O.; Lucas, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the possibility for international diversification of catastrophe risk by the insurance sector. Adopting the argument that large insurance losses may be a 'globalizing factor' for the industry, we study the dependence of geographically distant insurance markets via equity returns. In

  1. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  2. 7 CFR 1427.166 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 1427.166 Section 1427.166 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.166 Insurance. The seed cotton must be insured at the full loan value against loss or damage by fire. ...

  3. Statistical tools for non-life insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.

    2008-01-01

    Within the actuarial profession a major challenge can be found in the construction of a fair tariff structure. In light of the heterogeneity within, for instance, a car insurance portfolio, an insurance company should not apply the same premium for all insured risks. Otherwise the so-called concept

  4. Consumer price sensitivity in Dutch health insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Dijk (Machiel); M. Pomp (Marc); R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); T. Laske-Aldershof (Trea); F.T. Schut (Erik); W. de Boer (Willem); A. Boo (Anne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: To estimate the price sensitivity of consumer choice of health insurance firm. Method: Using paneldata of the flows of insured betweenpairs of Dutch sickness funds during the period 1993-2002, we estimate the sensitivity of these flows to differences in insurance premium. Results:

  5. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with NHPRC funds as provided to property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  7. 24 CFR 200.100 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commitment for insured advances, initial endorsement of the credit instrument shall occur before... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 200.100... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and...

  8. 24 CFR 241.1245 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.1245... Rights and Obligations § 241.1245 Insurance endorsement. (a) Endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the equity loan or acquisition loan by endorsing the original credit instrument and...

  9. 24 CFR 241.570 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.570... § 241.570 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his/her insurance of the mortgage by endorsing the original credit instrument and identifying the section of the Act...

  10. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  11. Entrepreneurial Moral Hazard in Income Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejrnaes, Mette; Hochguertel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We study risk behavior of Danish self-employed entrepreneurs, whose income risk may be driven by both exogenous factors and effort choice (moral hazard). Partial insurance is available through voluntary unemployment insurance (UI). Additional incentives to sign insurance contracts stem from a

  12. 24 CFR 241.885 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 241.885 Section... § 241.885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claims shall be made in the following... acceptable assignment of the note and security instrument to the Commissioner, the insurance benefits shall...

  13. 78 FR 14034 - Health Insurance Providers Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Health Insurance Providers Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... insurance for United States health risks. This fee is imposed by section 9010 of the Patient Protection and... insurance for United States health risks. DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received by June 3...

  14. Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy…

  15. 3 CFR - State Children's Health Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Children's Health Insurance Program... Insurance Program Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) encourages States to provide health coverage for uninsured children in families...

  16. Stochastic Cooperative Games in Insurance and Reinsurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Borm, P.E.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows how problems in `non life'-insurance and `non life'-reinsurance can be modelled simultaneously as cooperative games with stochastic payoffs.Pareto optimal allocations of the risks faced by the insurers and the insureds are determined.It is shown that the core of the corresponding

  17. 17 CFR 256.924 - Property insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... insurance premiums to protect the service company against losses and damages to owned or leased property... covered, and the applicable premiums. Any dividends distributed by mutual insurance companies shall be credited to the accounts to which the insurance premiums were charged. ...

  18. How to Shop for Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health insurance kicks in. As a general rule, insurance plans with low premiums have high deductibles, and plans with high premiums ... other plans due to hardship. This type of insurance can have low premiums but very high deductibles. Plans generally cover less ...

  19. 24 CFR 203.443 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premium. 203.443 Section... premium. All of the provisions of §§ 203.260 through 203.269 1 concerning mortgage insurance premiums... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE...

  20. 24 CFR 232.805 - Insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance premiums. 232.805 Section... FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.805 Insurance premiums. (a) First premium. The... insurance premium equal to one percent of the original face amount of the note. (b) Second premium. The...

  1. On a Stochastic Model in Insurance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insurance mathematics today is considered a part of applied probability theory. Main objectives are modelling of claims that arrive in an insurance business, and decide how premiums are to be charged to avoid ruin of the insurance company. GENERAL I ARTICLE various results and the heuristics can be appreciated.

  2. Transparency, trust and security: An evaluation of the insurer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transparency in insurance law attaches to the rights and duties of the parties, the ... protection principles as envisaged by South African insurance legislation. ... an insurance contract, the insurer's duty to speak is not based on a general ...

  3. METHODICAL BASES OF MANAGEMENT OF INSURANCE PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdechna Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the considerable arsenal of developments in the issues of assessing the management of the insurance portfolio remains unresolved. In order to detail, specify and further systematize the indicators for the indicated evaluation, the publications of scientists are analyzed. The purpose of the study is to analyze existing methods by which it is possible to formulate and manage the insurance portfolio in order to achieve its balance, which will contribute to ensuring the financial reliability of the insurance company. Results. The description of the essence of the concept of “management of insurance portfolio”, as the application of actuarial methods and techniques to the combination of various insurance risks offered for insurance or are already part of the insurance portfolio, allowing to adjust the size and structure of the portfolio in order to ensure its financial stability, achievement the maximum level of income of an insurance organization, preservation of the value of its equity and financial security of insurance liabilities. It is determined that the main methods by which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed is the selection of risks; reinsurance operations that ensure diversification of risks; formation and placement of insurance reserves, which form the financial basis of insurance activities. The method of managing an insurance portfolio, which can be both active and passive, is considered. Conclusions. It is determined that the insurance portfolio is the basis on which all the activities of the insurer are based and which determines its financial stability. The combination of methods and technologies applied to the insurance portfolio is a management method that can be both active and passive and has a number of specific methods through which the insurer’s insurance portfolio can be formed and managed. It is substantiated that each insurance company aims to form an efficient and

  4. SERVICE QUALITY MEASUREMENT AND DEMAND FOR INSURANCE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY FROM NIGERIAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass, OlufemiAdebowale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insurance provides financial protection to the insured, though; its acceptance by Nigerian insuring public is still low. This can sharply be traced to low awareness of insurance service. More importantly, quality of service to the few who embraced it had been low. Therefore, insuring public perceives insurance service as defective because customers’ expectations are not met. The objective of this research is to find out whether application of service quality measurement will drive demand for insurance products. Hypothesis was tested to find out whether SERVQUAL measurement is not significantly related to demand for insurance products in Nigeria. The study adopts descriptive research design; hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship between application of SERVQUAL measurement and demand for insurance. It is recommended that insurance companies operating in Nigeria should adopt SERVQUAL measurement which will further increase customer retention and loyalty.

  5. Health Insurance for Cancer Care in Asia: Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pongpak Pittayapan

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees? health insurance. There are many differences be...

  6. Do self-insurance and disability insurance prevent consumption loss on disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Steffan G. Ball; Hamish W. Low

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show the extent to which public insurance and self-insurance mitigate the cost of health shocks that limit the ability to work. We use consumption data from the UK to estimate the insurance provided by the government disability programme and account for the effectiveness of alternative self-insurance mechanisms. Individuals with a work-limiting health condition, but in receipt of disability insurance, have 7 percent lower consumption than those without such a condition. Self-...

  7. THE IMPACT OF COOPERATION BETWEEN INSURERS AND BANKS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Prikazyuk; Ganna Oliynik

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights how the cooperation of insurance companies and banks affects the insurance system. Defined the concept of bancassurance, provided a brief description of the main bancassurance models in the context of their impact on the insurance system. Defined the main benefits and risks that accompany cooperation of insurance companies and banks within different models of association. It is noted that despite the generally accepted benefits of cooperation between insurers and banks,...

  8. Simulation Of Premi Calculation Claims Insurance Base On Web; Case Study PT. Sinarmas Insurance Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Rohendi, Keukeu; Putra, Ilham Eka

    2016-01-01

    Sinarmas currently has several insurance services featured. To perform its function as a good insurance company is need for reform in terms of services in the process of calculating insurance premiums of insurance carried by marketing to use a calculator which interferes with the activities of marketing activities, slow printing insurance policies, automobile claims process that requires the customer to come to the office ASM, slow printing of Work Order (SPK) and the difficulty recap custome...

  9. MARKETING OF INSURANCE PRODUCTS BY THE NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED, RAJAPALAYAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. H. Christy Cynthia; Dr. T. Jebasheela; V. Maheswari

    2017-01-01

    Insurance is a way of reducing uncertainty of occurrence of an event. Insurance is an investment. Its basic purpose is to derive plans to counteract the financial consequences of unfavorable events. Insurance is a social device for eliminating or reducing the cost to society to certain types of risks. Insurance is essentially a co-operative endeavor. It is the function of the insurance to protect the few against the heavy financial impact of anticipated misfortunes by spreading losses among m...

  10. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, Jan J.; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change heaith insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  11. Life Insurance Basics: A Self-Help Workbook for Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    This booklet provides consumers with an overview of information about life insurance. Chapter 1, "Why Life Insurance?" outlines the primary purposes of life insurance coverage and presents basic facts about the Canadian life insurance industry. Chapter 2, "Do I Need Life Insurance?" discusses life insurance coverage at specific…

  12. Consumer choice of social health insurance in managed competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To promote managed competition in Dutch health insurance, the insured are now able to change health insurers. They can choose a health insurer with a low flat-rate premium, the best supplementary insurance and/or the best service. As we do not know why people prefer one health insurer to

  13. Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.

  14. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  15. SOLVENCY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MIRABELA FLOREA IANC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The insurance companies operating in a competitive and dynamic economic climate, so solvency is a very important problem. The guarantee funds protect policyholders against situations where insurers can not meet its contractual obligations, and supervisors constant attention is how to regulate the insurance business. Overall solvency of insurance companies show that has been achieved relative success in this area due to regulations adopted. Although in recent years the number of insolvency cases increased worrying emphasis on solvency control should lead to a reduction in the occurrence of such cases and the increased safety offered by insurance products.

  16. Risk assessment and nuclear insurance: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Olding, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the nascent years of commercial nuclear power, the insurance industry expressed confidence in the safety of nuclear operations by committing unprecedented insurance capacity to nuclear risks. As the nuclear industry has developed, it has compiled an enviable safety record. The initial confidence of the insurance industry has thus been justified and an ever-increasing portion of the financial liability associated with nuclear operations has been accepted by the world-wide insurance markets. This increasing acceptance and understanding of nuclear risks by the insurance industry has resulted in significantly reduced rates and large premium refunds for nuclear operators

  17. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  19. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2009-12-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with 'expert' classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how 'Schneiderian' symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured.

  20. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  1. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  2. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  3. Considerations on Albanian Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Sharku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector is an important sector of the economy all over the world. Life insurance provides the economy and the individuals as well, a variety of fundamental financial services.Regardless the importance it has all around the world, life insurance market in Albania is still underdeveloped comparing not only to the Western European countries, but to the region countries as well. The comparative analysis of insurance market is carried out by means of two indexes: insurance density and penetration index. The life insurance market in Albania is facing several problems which will be further explained in the paper, together with some recommendations to be taken in account by Albanian insurance companies and the Albanian government as well.

  4. Dental insurance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G; Divya, K T

    2014-12-01

    To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately.

  5. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  6. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...... patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...

  7. Cyberbullying: implications for the psychiatric nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...... of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  9. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Myths and realities of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)

  11. Cyber Insurance - Managing Cyber Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    disaster response plans, how employees and others access data systems, and at a minimum, the antivirus and anti- malware software used by the business, the...a policy for insuring data stored in the cloud.[5] Typically, businesses that install or ser- vice software or networks or provide IT consulting for...security, and privacy. Errors and omissions covers claims related to performance of services such as software development or consulting services

  12. Explicit Versus Implicit Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Kniesner; James P. Z‎iliak

    2001-01-01

    October 2001 (Revised from July 2001). Abstract: By supplementing income explicitly through payments or implicitly through taxes collected, income-based taxes and transfers make disposable income less variable. Because disposable income determines consumption, policies that smooth disposable income also create welfare improving consumption insurance. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics we find that annual consumption variation is reduced by almost 20 percent due to explicit and ...

  13. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  14. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  15. Pensions as Retirement Income Insurance.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodie, Zvi

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops the view that employer-sponsored pension plans are best understood as retirement income insurance for employees and from that perspective addresses a number of questions regarding the reasons for their existence, their design, and their funding and investment policies. The most important of these questions are: - Why do employers provide pension plans for their employees and why is participation usually mandatory? - Why is the defined benefit form of pension plan the domin...

  16. 77 FR 22691 - Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... 1545-BK59 Fees on Health Insurance Policies and Self-Insured Plans for the Patient-Centered Outcomes... certain health insurance policies and plan sponsors of certain self-insured health plans to fund the... health insurance policies) or R. Lisa Mojiri-Azad at (202) 622-6080 (regarding self- insured health...

  17. Life insurance theory actuarial perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F Etienne

    1997-01-01

    This book is different from all other books on Life Insurance by at least one of the following characteristics 1-4. 1. The treatment of life insurances at three different levels: time-capital, present value and price level. We call time-capital any distribution of a capital over time: (*) is the time-capital with amounts Cl, ~, ... , C at moments Tl, T , ..• , T resp. N 2 N For instance, let (x) be a life at instant 0 with future lifetime X. Then the whole oO oO life insurance A is the time-capital (I,X). The whole life annuity ä is the x x time-capital (1,0) + (1,1) + (1,2) + ... + (I,'X), where 'X is the integer part ofX. The present value at 0 of time-capital (*) is the random variable T1 T TN Cl V + ~ v , + ... + CNV . (**) In particular, the present value ofA 00 and ä 00 is x x 0 0 2 A = ~ and ä = 1 + v + v + ... + v'X resp. x x The price (or premium) of a time-capital is the expectation of its present value. In particular, the price ofA 00 and äx 00 is x 2 A = E(~) and ä = E(I + v + v + ... + v'X...

  18. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, W.G.; Laruelle, M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  19. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. FENOMENOLOGY STUDY: THE GOVERMENT POLICY TO GIVING PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE IN A POOR SOCIETY WHO HAVE A MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achir Yani S. Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited of government’s budget for psychiatric patients has contributed to the expenses should be paid from out of pocket of the poor patients. The purpose of this research was to describe the Government policy on health social security insurance for the poor people experiencing psychiatric problems in DKI Jakarta. Method: Qualitative research method was used with phenomenology approach to identify and describe the themes relevant to government public policy in providing health insurance for poor people with mental health problems. An in-depth interview and focus group discussion were used to collect data from different informants: service user, healthcare provider, local government policy maker. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Result: The study revealed the following themes: from user perspective (understanding of psychiatric disorder, social security network/JPKM, right and obligation, the advantage and barrier for receiving services, expectation from care provider, social support and expected future direction; from the perspective of healthcare provider (understanding of social security network/JPKM, types of provided health services, recording and reporting, referral system, cost, and the criteria of poor people, from local government and health office perspective (understanding of JPKM for poor family, scope of work, working procedure, recording and reporting, cost, accountability, poor people criteria, the relationship between central Government policy with local government policy. Discussion: The finding of this study recommend the need for leveling socialization of JPKM, the budget transparences, improving the healthcare providers’ knowledge on the mental health psychiatric problems and its needs.

  1. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. 1035. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy ... watersrand, as well as with the Department of Psychiatry, .... Is the response to therapy different in the three groups? 6. .... epilepsy in the occupational and the social spheres and.

  2. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders, A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among Residents of a ... mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children ... gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of ...

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial stressors ... were present for 98.1% of patients and 36.9% had multiple anxiety disorders. ... and the comorbidity of anxiety and personality disorders should receive further attention.

  6. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  7. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  8. Inpatient Psychiatric Prospective Payment System (IPF PPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains case level data for inpatient psychiatric stays and is derived from 2011 MEDPAR data file and the latest available provider specific file. The...

  9. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, A L; Nielsen, L P; Poulsen, B K

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric PatientsSoerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3......, Aalborg; Denmark OBJECTIVES: Prescribing for adult psychiatric patients is often highly complex due to the nature of psychiatric conditions, but also due to somatic comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prevalence and types of potential inappropriate prescribing (PIP), asses...... the severity of potential clinical consequences and identify possible predictive factors of PIP.METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective study of PIP using medication reviews. Patients who were admitted during a 4 month period (August 2013 - November 2013) to a psychiatric university hospital were...

  10. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... the 27-year follow-up period. In 1985, 20.7% of the visits ended up without any referrals, compared with 4.8% in 2012. The rate of acute admissions into a psychiatric ward was 60.8% in 2012 compared with 35.65% in 1985. CONCLUSION: The extension of the psychiatric outpatients' facilities since 1985 has...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  11. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients Soerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3......, Aalborg; Denmark OBJECTIVES: Prescribing for adult psychiatric patients is often highly complex due to the nature of psychiatric conditions, but also due to somatic comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prevalence and types of potential inappropriate prescribing (PIP), asses...... the severity of potential clinical consequences and identify possible predictive factors of PIP. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective study of PIP using medication reviews. Patients who were admitted during a 4 month period (August 2013 - November 2013) to a psychiatric university hospital were...

  12. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  13. Implications of Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Yonkers KA, Otto MW, et al; Influence of psychiatric comor- bidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia , and panic...phys- ical and social functioning, a diminished likelihood of recov- ery, and increased rates of attempted and completed suicide compared with those... RV , Ravelli A, van Zessen G; Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and

  14. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  15. Hyperhidrosis-psychiatric Study and Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Pradhan

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven patients suffering from hyperhidrosis were psychiatrically studied. Seven of them were given behaviour therapy. Majority of the patients had -an unhappy childhood and long - standing and continuing psychological stress. None of them had obvious, coexisting psychiatric condition.. Thus, hyperhidrosis was the sole, expression of their psychological conflicts. Of the 7 patients treated 71% showed improvement with relaxation and systemic desentiziation which,was maintained for a_ period of at least 6 months.

  16. [Initiating psychiatric care for young, isolated foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestelandt, Laure; Touhami, Fatima; Radjack, Rahmeth; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan

    The various traumatic events experienced by young isolated foreigners can weaken them psychologically and cause psychiatric decompensation. A qualitative study, carried out by the Maison de Solenn and the Avicenne hospital, aimed to provide better understanding of the conditions for initiating psychiatric care with these adolescents. The different results show that this type of care for these young migrants must be cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  18. Nuclear liability insurance in the United States: an insurer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quattrocchi, J.

    2000-01-01

    By the mid-1950's the United States recognised that it was in the interest to promote commercial development of nuclear energy. But the uncertainties of the technology and the potential for severe accidents were clear obstacles to commercial development. Exposure to potentially serious uninsured liability inhibited the private sector. These impediments led Congress to enact the Price-Anderson Act in 1957. The Act had several purposes: the first was to encourage private development of nuclear power; the second was to establish a legal framework for handling potential liability claims; and the third was to provide a ready source of funds to compensate injured victims of a nuclear accident. Insurers chose the pooling technique by creating in the US the American Nuclear Insurers. ANI acts as a managing agent for its members insurance companies. The accident of three Miles Island occurred on 28 March 1979 and with came the claims experience in US. The 1988 amendments to the Price-Anderson Act directed the President to establish a Commission for the purpose of developing a means to assure full compensation of victims of a catastrophic nuclear accident that exceeds the limitation on aggregate public liability, or currently just over US$ 9.7 billion. The Presidential Commission issued its report in August 1990, in which it reached a number of conclusions and offered a number of recommendations.The US Congress has not acted on the Commission's report, but may revisit its recommendations as debate begins this year (1999) or next on the renewal of the Price-Anderson Act. (N.C.)

  19. HEALTH INSURANCE RULES OF THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003

  20. Health Insurance Rules of the CERN Health Insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    A new document which groups together the general principles, the contributions, benefits, reimbursement procedures and other information making up the Rules of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme has been established. It was approved by the Director-General on 7th July 2000 and is being distributed to all contributing members of the Scheme. It has been dispatched by internal mail to members of the personnel and by postal mail to pensioners. These Rules will enter into force on 1st September 2000. Please make sure that you have received your copy. Should this not be the case, an additional copy may be obtained by telephoning 78003.

  1. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  2. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a recipient...

  3. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric... recipient's need for care in the hospital; and appropriate professional personnel must make a psychiatric...

  4. PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY IN PATIENTS WITH OPIOID DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab Kattukulathil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opioid dependence is a major public health problem in Kerala. Presence of psychiatric disorder among opioid dependent patients worsens the scenario. To date no attempts have been made to analyse the magnitude and pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS We assessed 30 patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of opioid dependence syndrome for the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders using structured clinical interview for DSM IV Axis 1 disorder (SCID-1. Patients with opioid withdrawal state, delirium and acute medical emergencies were excluded. RESULTS 56.7% of our subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder was the most common one (n=7, 23.3%. Prevalence of other disorders were generalised anxiety disorder (n=6, 20%, bipolar affective disorder (n=3, 10% and schizophrenia (n=1, 3.3%. CONCLUSION Comorbid Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in opioid dependence. There is a need for further large sample studies in the areas of comorbidities and in the integrated strategies for the identification and management of both opioid dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  5. Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Górniak, Eliza; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is the term used to describe a set of symptoms associated with hypercortisolism, which in most cases is caused by hypophysial microadenoma over-secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone. This endocrine disorder is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The most important include mood disorders, psychotic disorders, cognitive dysfunctions and anxiety disorders. The aim of this article was to review the prevalence, symptoms and consequences of psychiatric disorders in the course of Cushing's syndrome. We therefore performed a literature search using the following keywords: Cushing's syndrome and psychosis, Cushing's syndrome and mental disorders, Cushing's syndrome and depression, Cushing's syndrome and anxiety. The most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity of Cushing's syndrome is depression. Psychiatric manifestations can precede the onset of full-blown Cushing's syndrome and therefore be misdiagnosed. Despite the fact that treatment of the underlying endocrine disease in most cases alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the loss of brain volume persists. It is important to be alert to the symptoms of hypercortisolism in psychiatric patients to avoid misdiagnosis and enable them receiving adequate treatment.

  6. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity. Results: Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%, females (78.0%, married (76% and housewives (56.0%. Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%. Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1 was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%, followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2 (18% and depressive episode (F32 (14%. In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited. Conclusion: The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively.

  8. [Psychiatric readmissions: individual and organizational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, Laurent; Amariei, Alina; Flament, Clara; Dumesnil, Chloé

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric readmission often constitutes a criterion to assess the effects of various therapies, as well as the impact of organizational changes in the healthcare system. It is used to characterize relapse or decompensation. The purpose of this study was to determine readmission rates and identify individual and organizational factors associated with significant variations in these rates. Adult psychiatric readmissions were identified from the full-time hospital stays registered in psychiatric wards in 2011-2012 in the Nord and Pas-de-Calais departments of France, available in the medical the RimP psychiatric admission database. Readmission rates for various follow-up periods after discharge were measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. Approximately 30,000 adults were hospitalized full-time in psychiatric units of the region during the study period. The 24-month readmission rate was 51.6% (95%CI: 50.8-52.3%). The Cox model showed that a diagnosis of schizophrenia (F2 - HR = 1.72 - 95%CI: 1.61-1.84 - p Psychiatric readmission is a very frequent event and is linked to organizational as well as individual factors.

  9. Dropping out of outpatient psychiatric treatment: a preliminary report of a 2-year follow-up of 1500 psychiatric outpatients in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Habibolah; Rezaie, Leeba; de Jong, Desiree M

    2013-01-01

    Outpatient psychiatric treatment provides both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for a large portion of psychiatric patients. Dropping out, or early termination of treatment, may be considered a common barrier to outpatient's psychiatric treatment. There are limited studies on this issue in Iran. The current study aimed to examine rates, predictors and reasons of dropping out of an outpatient psychiatric treatment. In this 6-month cohort study, 1500 outpatients who visited 10 psychiatrist's offices in the Iranian city of Kermanshah were recruited and followed for 2 years (2009-2011) for recommended treatments including admission to hospital, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and a combination of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Characteristics of patients who dropped out of the current study were collected, and reasons for dropping out were collected via phone or in person interview. Dropouts were prevalent in prescribed treatments. Pretreatment (primary) dropout rates in psychotherapy treatment were 4 times greater than dropout rates in pharmacotherapy treatment (80% and 20%, respectively). There were significance differences between dropouts and non-dropouts of pharmacotherapy with respect to patient characteristics; younger age, male gender, low level of education, unemployment, lack of insurance, new cases and divorce were more prevalent among dropouts (Preasons for dropping out included overslept and too ill to attend treatment and fear of becoming addicted to prescribed psychotropic medication (30% and 18%, respectively). Lack of confidence in therapist ability and lack of confidence in the efficacy of the treatment were more prevalent in patients who dropped out of psychotherapy (Preasons for dropping out and strategies to reduce rates of dropouts is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    resolve the thorny issue of the relation between psychiatric diagnosis and functional impairment. PMID:22294998

  11. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  12. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  13. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  15. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  16. Health insurance--a challenge in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswala, R G

    2004-01-01

    In India, indemnity health insurance started about 3 decades ago. Mediclaim was the most popular product. Indian insurers and multinational companies have not been enthusiastic about starting health insurance in spite of the availability of a good market because health insurers have historically incurred losses. Losses have been caused by poor administration. Because it is a small portion of their total businesses, insurers have never tried sincerely to improve deficiencies or taken special interest. Hospital management and medical specialists have the spirit of entrepreneurship and are prepared to learn quickly and follow managed care principles, though they are not currently practiced in India. Actuarial data from the health insurance industry is sparse, but data from alternative sources will be helpful for starting managed healthcare. In my opinion, if properly administered, a "limited" managed care product with appropriate precautions and premium levels will be successful and profitable and will compete with present indemnity products in India.

  17. Private health insurance and access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The health insurance business in India has seen a growth of over 25% per annum in the last few years with the expansion of the private health insurance sector. The premium incomes of health insurance have crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark with the share of private companies increasing to over 41%. This is despite the fact that from the perspective of patients, health insurance is not a good deal, especially when they need it most. This raises a number of ethical issues regarding how the health insurance business runs and how medical practice adjusts to it for profiteering. This article uses the personal experience of the author to argue that health insurance in an unregulated environment can only lead to unethical practices, further victimising the patient. Further, publicly financed healthcare which operates in an environment regulating both public and private healthcare provisioning is the only way to assure access to ethical and equitable healthcare to people.

  18. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... portfolio theory that assumes Subjective Expected Utility theory; however, it provides hints to a possible solution of the under-diversification puzzle of households. I also identify conditions under which more risk or ambiguity aversion decreases the demand for coinsurance. Additionally, I show...... a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....

  19. Service use, charge, and access to mental healthcare in a private Kenyan inpatient setting: the effects of insurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pattison de Menil

    Full Text Available The gap in Kenya between need and treatment for mental disorders is wide, and private providers are increasingly offering services, funded in part by private health insurance (PHI. Chiromo, a 30-bed psychiatric hospital in Nairobi, forms part of one of the largest private psychiatric providers in East Africa. The study evaluated the effects of insurance on service use and charge, questioning implications on access to care. Data derive from invoices for 455 sequential patients, including 12-month follow-up. Multi-linear and binary logistic regressions explored the effect of PHI on readmission, cumulative length of stay, and treatment charge. Patients were 66.4% male with a mean age of 36.8 years. Half were employed in the formal sector. 70% were admitted involuntarily. Diagnoses were: substance use disorder 31.6%; serious mental disorder 49.5%; common mental disorder 7%; comorbid 7%; other 4.9%. In addition to daily psychiatric consultations, two-thirds received individual counselling or group therapy; half received lab tests or scans; and 16.2% received ECT. Most took a psychiatric medicine. Half of those on antipsychotics were given only brands. Insurance paid in full for 28.8% of patients. Mean length of stay was 11.8 days and, in 12 months, 16.7 days (median 10.6. 22.2% were readmitted within 12 months. Patients with PHI stayed 36% longer than those paying out-of-pocket and had 2.5 times higher odds of readmission. Mean annual charge per patient was Int$ 4,262 (median Int$ 2,821. Insurers were charged 71% more than those paying out-of-pocket--driven by higher fees and longer stays. Chiromo delivers acute psychiatric care each year to approximately 450 people, to quality and human rights standards higher than its public counterpart, but at considerably higher cost. With more efficient delivery and wider insurance coverage, Chiromo might expand from its occupancy of 56.6% to reach a larger population in need.

  20. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  1. SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY OF INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂRĂCINE MIHAELA SIMONA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of corporate social responsibility has increased significantly nowadays. The studies conducted have shown that consumers are increasingly no longer interested only in buying good quality and reliable products, but they are also interested whether they were produced in a socially responsible manner. In the recent years investors have increasingly realised that investing in social responsibility regarding the social and environmental areas, greatly contributes to the growth of the internal and external image of management. This paper aims at presenting a number of interesting issues related to social responsibility manifested by the insurance companies.

  2. Nuclear safety and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitz, A.

    1983-01-01

    To an extent, public opinion is against Koeberg, inspite of the fact that Escom, Koeberg's prospective licensee, are liable for damages caused in the event of an accident, that they carry public liability insurance bought in the market place to the maximum of ten million rand, and if that is not enough the government will take over responsibility for the rest. A question is put that if this kind of protection carries on, won't there always be a minority of the public who will find nuclear power socially, psychologically and politically unacceptable

  3. Nuclear insurance in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the world outside the former Soviet Union, insurance industries in their respective domestic markets have pooled their resources so as to provide a secure and cost-effective conduit for the transaction of insurance business on behalf of the nuclear industry. These are the so-called nuclear pools. This paper explains the four main principles behind nuclear liability insurance and discusses their application to Central Europe and in particular to the problems facing the nuclear industry in Eastern Europe. (author)

  4. Insurance loss coverage under restricted risk classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust

    2017-01-01

    Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...

  5. Limits of insurability; Grenzen der Versicherbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, Michael [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Companies of the energy industry are facing risks which only insufficiently can be covered with classical insurance solutions. In particular, further developments and new technologies confront operators of power stations with challenges to attain a sufficient insurance protection. By means of a comprehensive risk management and insurance management tailor-made, convincing solutions and concepts are possible. The contribution under consideration exemplary presents some selected topics.

  6. Communications Centre Model in Insurance Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Bara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a communications centre model in an insurance company that essentially has two objectives. The first objective is focused on providing quality support with the sales process thereby creating a strategic advantage over the competition while the second objective is focused on improving the link between internal organizational units whose behaviour can often render decision-making at all levels difficult. The function of sales is fundamental for an insurance company. Whether an insurance company will fulfil its basic function, which is transfer of risk from the insured party to the insurer who agrees tonreimburse incidental damages to the damaged party and distribute them among all members of the risk group on the principles of reciprocity and solidarity, depends on successful sales and billing (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999. For an insurance company to operate successfully in a demanding market, it is necessary to meet the needs of potential clients who then must be at the centre of all the activities of the insurer. A satisfied policy holder, who is respected by the insurer as a partner, is a guarantee that the sales of insurance services will be successful and that the insured party will come back to the same insurance company. In the era of globalization and all-pervading new technologies and modes of communication, policy holders need to be able to communicate with insurance company employees. Quality communication is a good foundation for a sales conversation. A fast flow of all types of information within an organisation using a single communication module makes decision-making at all levels quicker and easier.

  7. Application of Actuarial Modelling in Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2011-01-01

    In insurance industry, the financial stability of insurance companies represents an issue of vital importance. In order to maintain the financial stability and meet minimum regulatory requirements, actuaries apply actuarial modeling. Modeling has been at the center of actuarial science and of all the sciences from the beginning of their journey. In insurance industry, actuarial modeling creates a framework that allows actuaries to identify, understand, quantify and manage a wide range of risk...

  8. A Hierarchical Agency Model of Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Carroll; Shino Takayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchical agency model of deposit insurance. The main purpose is to undertake a game theoretic analysis of the consequences of deposit insurance schemes and their effects on monitoring incentives for banks. Using this simple framework, we analyze both risk- independent and risk-dependent premium schemes along with reserve requirement constraints. The results provide policymakers with not only a better understanding of the effects of deposit insurance on welfare and th...

  9. Worker Sorting, Taxes and Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Lang; Hong Kang

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which firms hire heterogeneous workers but must offer all workers insurance benefits under similar terms. In equilibrium, some firms offer free health insurance, some require an employee premium payment and some do not offer insurance. Making the employee contribution pre-tax lowers the cost to workers of a given employee premium and encourages more firms to charge. This increases the offer rate, lowers the take-up rate, increases (decreases) coverage among high (low) de...

  10. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  11. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  12. INSURANCE AND THE CORPORATE COST OF CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to provide some support to the thesis that insurance may reduce the cost of capital in a company by influencing both the cost of capital components and the need for rising capital. The problem is here perceived from two perspectives – the classical concept related to the weighted average cost of capital (WACC and a novel concept related to the risk-based capital structure model with the total average cost of capital (TACC. The paper explains the idea of insurance as a retrospective (post-loss risk financing tool and the risk transfer mechanism upon it. As the risk financing tool insurance reduces the need for the balance-sheet capital in a company and thus the financial distress costs. Also, insurance may reduce the level of operating risk and thus influences the required returns of the capital providers. These observations allow emphasising the impact of insurance on the WACC. However, according to the novel concept of the risk-based capital structure, insurance (as a risk financing tool represents an off-balance sheet capital component. As a consequence, it extends the volume of total capital. The presented conceptual model, based on the TACC concept, indicates that large volume of insurance (the insurance sum and its relatively low cost (the insurance premium gives the possibility to the significant reduction of the cost of capital on average. The concluding remarks discuss some dilemmas over the utility of the TACC concept.

  13. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy......Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...

  14. Congressional Statistics: Disability Insurance for December 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — While Social Security is best known for providing retirement benefits, the program also provides Disability Insurance (DI) protection to workers and their families...

  15. ECONOMIC AND MANAGERIAL APPROACH OF HEALTH INSURANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.

  16. Entrepreneurial Moral Hazard in Income Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Hochguertel, Stefan

    We study risk behavior of Danish self-employed entrepreneurs, whose income risk may be driven by both exogenous factors and effort choice (moral hazard). Partial insurance is available through voluntary unemployment insurance (UI). Additional incentives to sign insurance contracts stem from a UI......-embedded, government-subsidized early retirement (ER) program, giving benefits that are unrelated to business risk. Indeed, we argue that the self-employeds' incentives to insure themselves stem from the ER plan rather than from the UI cover. We show how to use a policy reform to identify moral hazard in observed...

  17. MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sabirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  18. Competitive Cyber-Insurance and Internet Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Nikhil; Schwartz, Galina; Felegyhazi, Mark; Walrand, Jean

    This paper investigates how competitive cyber-insurers affect network security and welfare of the networked society. In our model, a user's probability to incur damage (from being attacked) depends on both his security and the network security, with the latter taken by individual users as given. First, we consider cyberinsurers who cannot observe (and thus, affect) individual user security. This asymmetric information causes moral hazard. Then, for most parameters, no equilibrium exists: the insurance market is missing. Even if an equilibrium exists, the insurance contract covers only a minor fraction of the damage; network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Second, we consider insurers with perfect information about their users' security. Here, user security is perfectly enforceable (zero cost); each insurance contract stipulates the required user security. The unique equilibrium contract covers the entire user damage. Still, for most parameters, network security worsens relative to the no-insurance equilibrium. Although cyber-insurance improves user welfare, in general, competitive cyber-insurers fail to improve network security.

  19. Willingness to Pay for Insurance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.

    We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... possible states of nature, where all uncertainty is realized in the initial period and any loss incurred by an accident is subtracted from initial wealth. The estimated willingness to pay is based on annual claims and should thus be considered as an annual premium. Since there is some uncertainty about...... of the insurance claims....

  20. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with ‘expert’ classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how ‘Schneiderian’ symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured. PMID:19368761

  1. Timing of psychiatric consultations - The impact of social vulnerability and level of psychiatric dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Huyse, FJ; Ruinemans, GMF; Stiefel, FC; Lyons, JS; Slaets, JPJ

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the timing of patient referrals to a psychiatric consultation-liaison service in relation to the patient's social vulnerability and level of psychiatric dysfunction. One hundred consecutive patients were assessed with the INTERMED, a method to document biopsychosocial and health

  2. Joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives in German psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenbach, Katrin; Falkai, Peter; Weber-Reich, Traudel; Simon, Alfred

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the attitude of German psychiatrists in leading positions towards joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives. This topic was examined by contacting 473 medical directors of German psychiatric hospitals and departments. They were asked to complete a questionnaire developed by us. That form contained questions about the incidence and acceptance of joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives and previous experiences with them. 108 medical directors of psychiatric hospitals and departments responded (response rate: 22.8%). Their answers demonstrate that in their hospitals these documents are rarely used. Among the respondents, joint crisis plans are more accepted than psychiatric advance directives. There is a certain uncertainty when dealing with these instruments. Our main conclusion is that German psychiatry needs an intensified discussion on the use of instruments for patients to constitute procedures for future critical psychiatric events. For this purpose it will be helpful to collect more empirical data. Furthermore, the proposal of joint crisis plans in psychiatric hospitals and departments should be discussed as well as the possibility of consulting an expert during the preparation of a psychiatric advance directive.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in opioid dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Toobaee, Shahin; Kharras, Mohammad; Radmehr, Mohammad

    2003-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common among substance dependants. The objectives of this study were to assess the rate of neurotic disorders among opioid addicts, and reassess the rate of those neurotic disorders two weeks after complete detoxification of the patients. Data were gathered from 500 (496 men and 4 women) opioid dependants, using DSM-IV criteria. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) was used to measure free-floating anxiety, depression, phobia, obsession, hysteria and somatization. Four hundred and ninety-six (99.2%) of the subjects were men of whom the majority (65.2%) were married, 26.4% single and the others were divorced or separated. Three hundred and thirty-four (66.8%) were in age range of 20 to 39 years. Of the subjects 154 (30.8) were self-employed, 116 (23.2%) were factory workers, 100 (20%) unemployed, 64 (12.8%) employees and 32 (6.4%) retailers. The majority, 322 (64.4%), reported elementary and high school as their level of education and only 20 (4%) were illiterate. The means for neurotic disorders (using the MHQ) before and two weeks after detoxification were 10.12 and 9.98 for anxiety, 7.54 and 7.41 for phobia, 10.10 and 9.76 for depression, 11.11 and 11.05 for obsession, 8.47 and 8.49 for hysteria and 9.82 and 9.46 for somatization, respectively. The mean difference was significant only for depression. Present findings indicated that the rate of neurotic disorders in opioid dependants is high and (except for depression) was not significantly different before detoxification and two weeks after detoxification. Opium was found to be the most prevalent form of opioid used. Also it can be concluded that during the last years some demographic characteristics of Iranian opioid addicts in this sample have changed. Cultural attitudes toward substance use quite likely affect the pattern of substance use. These findings can be considered when planning preventive and therapeutic programs.

  4. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  5. Effectiveness of insurance risk management under crisis conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Goncharenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.

  6. Directions of improving information system of insurance company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigorodova, G. N.; Mustafina, A. A.; Alyakina, D. P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a study of the information technologies impact on the insurance industry development. At present, any business, especially business in the field of financial intermediation, can count on maintaining its positions only as a technology company. For the insurance business it is now especially important. Other segments of the financial market - the stock and credit market - are actively developing and applying IT-technologies. The insurance business at present is getting opportunities for a technological breakthrough. There is a growing demand for traditional insurance products - property insurance, motor insurance, health insurance. There is a rapidly growing demand for life insurance and insurance against cyber risks. To implement insurance protection in new conditions, the insurance company should actively use information systems. The article presents a possible variant of systematization of the insurer's business processes within the information system of the insurance company.

  7. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  8. 76 FR 77455 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion.'' Copies of comments received will be available...) (slayer's rule ``is undoubtedly an implicit provision of the Servicemen's Group Life Insurance Act of 1965...

  9. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  10. 77 FR 28343 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... vehicle insurers that are required to file reports on their motor vehicle theft loss experiences. An... vehicles not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers of motor vehicles, other than any... than any governmental entity) used for rental or lease whose vehicles are not covered by theft...

  11. 75 FR 54041 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    .... Each insurer's report includes information about thefts and recoveries of motor vehicles, the rating... state and; (3) Rental and leasing companies with a fleet of 20 or more vehicles not covered by theft...) used for rental or lease whose vehicles are not covered by theft insurance policies issued by insurers...

  12. Insurance payment process for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Pensions and Savings group handles three types of payment into and out of Fluor Daniel Hanford related to insurance benefits: Premium payment to insurance company; Application of employee insurance withholding against insurance costs; Remittance of insurance claims, and administrative fees. General approach in making and recording the remittance is by forwarding payment information to Accounts Payable Master.

  13. 48 CFR 28.308 - Self-insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.308 Self-insurance. (a) When it is anticipated that 50 percent or... risks, limits of coverage, assignments of safety and loss control, and legal service responsibilities... projected average loss; and (10) A disclosure of all captive insurance company and re-insurance agreements...

  14. 46 CFR 308.300 - Insured amount-application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.300 Insured amount—application. An applicant for Second Seamen's war risk insurance shall not state the amount of insurance desired, which shall be as provided in...

  15. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  16. Miles, speed, and technology: Traffic safety under oligopolistic insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dementieva, M.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    We study road safety when insurance companies have market power, and can influence drivers' behavior via insurance premiums. We obtain first- and second-best premiums for different insurance market structures. The insurance program consists of an insurance premium, and marginal dependencies of that

  17. 42 CFR 60.14 - The insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The insurance premium. 60.14 Section 60.14 Public... LOAN PROGRAM The Loan § 60.14 The insurance premium. (a) General. (1) The Secretary insures each lender... lender an insurance premium. The insurance premium is due to the Secretary on the date of disbursement of...

  18. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  19. Who's boarding in the psychiatric emergency service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Pasic, Jagoda

    2014-09-01

    When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a "boarder." The psychiatric emergency service (PES) has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student's t-tests and multivariate regression. 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7%) resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients.

  20. Receptor study of psychiatric disorders using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1992-01-01

    Recent receptor studies of psychiatric disorders using PET have been focused on the change in the number of D 2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. One study confirmed an increase in D 2 receptors, while another study denied it. Although there were some differences in the approaches of the two groups, the reason for the discrepancy is not clear yet. Looking to psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, our recent study revealed a possible role of dopamine D 1 receptors in bipolar mood disorders. However, some problems must be resolved for further receptor studies with PET. For example, our recent study shows that desipamine decreases the in vivo binding of dopramine D 1 and D 2 receptors whereas these is no effect on dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in vitro. Additionally significant methodological problems lie in the method of evaluation of the non-specific binding and the effect of endogenous neurotransmitters. Moreover, difficulties in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and ethical problems in psychiatric research are critical factors in receptor studies with PET in psychiatric disorders. (author)

  1. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  2. THE MODEL OF INTERACTION BETWEEN INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES AND INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ASSURANCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kudriavska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the model of interaction between insurance intermediaries and insurance companies in the assurance of sustainable development of the insurance market. The methodology is based on the new studies and books. It is underlined the importance of potency and effectiveness of this model, its influence on the insurance market stability. It is analysed the European experience and specific of Ukrainian insurance market. The main ways for improving its model and ways of its practical realization are characterized. Results. The problems that exist in the broker market in general are connected with an ineffective state policy. In particular, we can say about the absence of many laws, acts, resolutions, which explain what a broker have to do in case of different problems with insurance companies, another brokers and clients. At the same time, the problem of distrust to national brokers exists. It provokes a decline of the demand for their services and so on. However, it is possible to solve these problems. Practical implications. For this, it is necessary to do some acts. The first one is to implement resolutions that regulate relationships between insurance brokers and insurance companies, clearly regulate the model of its interaction. This model affects the stability of the insurance market in general. The second is to find methods of solving problems of the increase in insurance culture of the population (for example, by the way of advertisement. The third one is to solve problems connected with the appearance of foreign brokers in the insurance market of Ukraine. Actually, the Ukrainian market of insurance brokers is not developed enough. That is why it needs big changes and reforms. Value/originality. Among alternatives of the strategic development of insurance, the method of quick liberalization and gradual development is distinguished. According to the liberal way, it is possible to transfer to the

  3. Attitudes towards evaluation of psychiatric disability claims: a survey of Swiss stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandelmaier, Stefan; Leibold, Andrea; Fischer, Katrin; Mager, Ralph; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Bachmann, Monica Susanne; Kedzia, Sarah; Busse, Jason Walter; Guyatt, Gordon Henry; Jeger, Joerg; Marelli, Renato; De Boer, Wout Ernst Lodewijk; Kunz, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, evaluation of work capacity in individuals with mental disorders has come under criticism. We surveyed stakeholders about their concerns and expectations of the current claim process. We conducted a nationwide online survey among five stakeholder groups. We asked 37 questions addressing the claim process and the evaluation of work capacity, the maximum acceptable disagreement in judgments on work capacity, and its documentation. Response rate among 704 stakeholders (95 plaintiff lawyers, 285 treating psychiatrists, 129 expert psychiatrists evaluating work capacity, 64 social judges, 131 insurers) varied between 71% and 29%. Of the lawyers, 92% were dissatisfied with the current claim process, as were psychiatrists (73%) and experts (64%), whereas the majority of judges (72%) and insurers (81%) were satisfied. Stakeholders agreed in their concerns, such as the lack of a transparent relationship between the experts' findings and their conclusions regarding work capacity, medical evaluations inappropriately addressing legal issues, and the experts' delay in finalising the report. Findings mirror the characteristics that stakeholders consider important for an optimal work capacity evaluation. For a scenario where two experts evaluate the same claimant, stakeholders considered an inter-rater difference of 10%‒20% in work capacity at maximum acceptable. Plaintiff lawyers, treating psychiatrists and experts perceive major problems in work capacity evaluation of psychiatric claims whereas judges and insurers see the process more positively. Efforts to improve the process should include clarifying the basis on which judgments are made, restricting judgments to areas of expertise, and ensuring prompt submission of evaluations.

  4. Supplementary insurance as a switching cost for basic health insurance: Empirical results from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria

    2017-10-01

    Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies operating on the basis of premium deposits; taxable years... fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies, and mutual fire or flood insurance companies...

  6. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  7. THE ROLE OF THE WORLD INSURANCE MARKET INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Sholoiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to define a role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Tasks of the study are the next: to consider the dynamics of development of the world insurance market from 2012 to 2016; to define groups of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; to characterize elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Methodology. These tasks are done because of using such methods as: grouping of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; a collection of information about elements of the world insurance market infrastructure; generalization to define role and significance of elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. Results. World insurance premiums were increasing and decreasing from 2012 to 2016 and did not exceed 6.3% of Gross Domestic Product. Lots of factors influence global insurance premium volume as an indicator of the development of world insurance market. One of them is an activity of the elements of the world insurance market infrastructure. It is necessary to divide them into some groups: A International insurance associations (associations of organizations connected with insurance but members of such associations do not provide insurance services – International Association of Insurance Supervisors, International Association of Insurance Fraud Agencies, Global Federation of Insurance Associations, International Insurance Foundation; B International associations of insurers (includes associations of insurers and other organizations in a certain area of insurance – International Association of Deposit Insurers, International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, International Association of Agricultural Production Insurers, International Group of P&I Clubs, International Union of Aerospace Insurers, International Union of Marine Insurance, International Association of Engineering Insurers; C International associations of insurance experts

  8. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.

  9. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  10. Wireless physiological monitoring system for psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademeyer, A J; Blanckenberg, M M; Scheffer, C

    2009-01-01

    Patients in psychiatric hospitals that are sedated or secluded are at risk of death or injury if they are not continuously monitored. Some psychiatric patients are restless and aggressive, and hence the monitoring device should be robust and must transmit the data wirelessly. Two devices, a glove that measures oxygen saturation and a dorsally-mounted device that measures heart rate, skin temperature and respiratory rate were designed and tested. Both devices connect to one central monitoring station using two separate Bluetooth connections, ensuring a completely wireless setup. A Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for signal processing and monitoring of the vital signs of the psychiatric patient. Detection algorithms were implemented to detect ECG arrhythmias such as premature ventricular contraction and atrial fibrillation. The prototypes were manufactured and tested in a laboratory setting on healthy volunteers.

  11. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  12. Substance use among Danish psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj

    2018-01-01

    a questionnaire regarding their use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. The questionnaire was based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), supplemented by questions regarding use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The results were compared with those uses in the general population. Results: In total...... equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients......’ AUDIT scores compared to the general population. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a substantial and problematic use of tobacco and illicit drugs among Danish psychiatric patients, greater than in the general population....

  13. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...

  14. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  15. Insure Thyself: A Look at Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Annual double-digit increases in health insurance premiums may be the reality for school districts and private-sector employers for the foreseeable future. The author presents several factors that account for this unwelcome possibility. One cost-saving alternative for districts is to self-insure employees and assume the risks. Districts are…

  16. Nuclear insurance in the future Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Stein, J.

    1991-01-01

    Summarizing, it is prognosticated that nuclear insurance practice will not drastically change on account of the Internal Market. This assumption is based on the unanimous estimation of the nuclear energy risk by the international insurance industry, as is documented by their traditional good cooperation in pools. (orig.) [de

  17. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... secure reasonable premium and copayment pricing through multiple tier options to allow enrollees to... program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and... regulations to establish VADIP, a pilot program that would offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled...

  18. 7 CFR 2201.24 - Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance. 2201.24 Section 2201.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.24 Insurance. The Borrower of a...

  19. Deposit Insurance: A Strategy for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    by Regulatory Board)a Securities Firm Bankb I Other Firms Not BHC U Permitted :I~( Barik Regulators>. j ..: or SEC)C . ...... _.. Insurance Firm Other BHC...Growth, interest rate, and dividend restrictions, higher capital and/or Insurance premiums, civil money penalties. E J Trlpwire 3: Prbes Capital below

  20. 7 CFR 1980.481 - Insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.481 Insured loans. Applications...) Constructing and equipping industrial plants for lease to private businesses (not including loans for operating... concurrence prior to approval. B. Applications from private parties for insured loans will not be encouraged...

  1. Insurance risk with variable number of policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, I.J.B.F.; Kulkarni, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we consider an insurance company selling life insurance policies. New policies are sold at random points in time, and each policy stays active for an exponential amount of time with rate µ, during which the policyholder pays premiums continuously at rate r. When the policy expires,

  2. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  3. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients...

  4. Situational Context of Insurance in Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Martynenko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how globalization resolves problems, which are motivated in a new way by modern situational context of social-insurance, how the 'insurance cocoon' of civilization leads to narrowing of conflict space in the world politics.

  5. The Multiplication Effect of Legal Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since

  6. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  7. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section 120.170 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance...

  8. MARKET INSURANCE AND RISKS IN THIS FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Catrina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The insurance market can be considered a market where all sorts of anomalies can be encountered or a current acquisition for a situation considered to be certain or relative future, depending on the type of insurance. For the most part, assurance is based on a premise, a hypothesis that is generally based on several factors of influence. Generally, the most important factors in making such a decision are generated by the human-sensitive factor or the economicprotective. Therefore, by joining the insurance market and purchasing any kind of insurance, we must also take into account the risks that arise from these products. Generally, most people perceive these insurance policies in different areas as a future guarantee without considering additional elements that can highlight risk elements that may alter the expected outcome of the acquirer. An important element to mitigate these risks would be the implementation and use of internal control over the supply chain, control that would make a difference between an activity under normal, predictable and legal conditions and a random activity with many elements of risk that can cause major damage to those involved, and to the insurer and the insured. Through this paper, the author aimed to highlight the importance of internal control in insurance companies, as well as the consequences of the lack of internal control within these societies

  9. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided for property owned by the recipient. Federally-owned property need not be insured unless required by the terms and conditions of the award. ...

  10. Determinants of health insurance and hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yamada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper empirically examines how the decision to purchase private insurance and hospitalization are made based on household income, socio-demographic factors, and private health insurance factors in both Japan and the USA. Using these two data-sets, we found some similarities and dissimilarities between Japan and the United States. As income of households rises, households have a positive effect on purchasing health insurance as a normal good. Another similarity between the two countries is seen in the income effect on risk of hospitalization, which is negative for both Japanese and US cases. For dissimilarity, the insurance premium effect on risk of hospitalization is positive for the Japanese case, while negative for the US case. Since the Japanese insurance data had variables such as payments per day of hospitalization if household gets hospitalized, insurance payments upon death of an insured person, and annuity payments at maturity, we tested to see if these characteristics affect the risk of hospitalization for households; we do not eliminate a possibility of adverse selection. For the US pure health issuance characteristics, an increase in premium of health insurance policies cause individuals to substitute more health capital investment which causes lower risk of hospitalization.

  11. Economic and Managerial Approach of Health Insurances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela BOBOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.

  12. 19 CFR 351.520 - Export insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.520 Export insurance. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of export insurance, a benefit exists if the premium rates charged are inadequate to...

  13. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  14. Catastrophic risk : Social influences on insurance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Michal; Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    We study behavioral patterns of insurance demand for low-probability large-loss events (catastrophic losses). Individual patterns of belief formation and risk attitude that were suggested in the behavioral decisions literature emerge robustly in the current set of insurance choices. However, social

  15. Transport insurance of unirradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Special conditions must be taken into account in transport insurance for nuclear materials even if the nuclear risk involved is negligible, as in shipments of unirradiated nuclear fuels. The shipwreck of the 'Mont Louis' has raised a number of open points which must be solved pragmatically within the framework of transport insurance. Some proposals are outlined in the article. (orig.) [de

  16. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  17. 24 CFR 232.885 - Insurance benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance benefits. 232.885 Section 232.885 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....885 Insurance benefits. (a) Method of payment. Payment of claim shall be made in the following manner...

  18. Visualization tools for insurance risk processes

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Burnecki; Rafal Weron

    2006-01-01

    This chapter develops on risk processes which, perhaps, are most suitable for computer visualization of all insurance objects. At the same time, risk processes are basic instruments for any non-life actuary – they are vital for calculating the amount of loss that an insurance company may incur.

  19. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  20. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... financial institutions in cooperation with minority- and women-owned financial institutions and low-income... Financial Assets Transferred by an Insured Depository Institution: The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...: Market Risk: The OCC, Board and the FDIC proposed revisions to the market risk capital rule to enhance...

  1. Probability numeracy and health insurance purchase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillingh, Rik; Kooreman, Peter; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on the role of probability numeracy in health insurance purchase. Our regression results, based on rich survey panel data, indicate that the expenditure on two out of three measures of health insurance first rises with probability numeracy and then falls again.

  2. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  3. Insuring Life : Value, Security and Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book is a contribution to the scholarly engagement with the wider problem of governing through risk and the politics of uncertainty. It takes life insurance as an empirical site from which to ask: what is the kind of governance created through insurance an instance of, and how does it

  4. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  5. Sociodemographic and medical characteristics of involuntary psychiatric inpatients--retrospective study of five-year experience with Croatian Act on Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkonjak, Jelena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze sociodemographic and medical characteristics of involuntary psychiatric inpatients treated during the five-year period of implementation of the Croatian Act on Mental Health. Data on involuntarily hospitalized patients according to the Croatian Act on Mental Health were singled out from the pool of inpatients treated at University Department of Psychiatry, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital from January 1, 1998 till December 31, 2002. Data were collected from medical records. Patients were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision criteria. The prevalence of involuntary hospitalization was 2%, including a comparative number of male and female patients. Most patients had secondary school, were living alone, were unmarried, widowed or divorced, and did not work at the time of hospitalization; however, most patients had some kind of health insurance. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis in involuntary psychiatric inpatients. In conclusion, scientific evaluation of involuntary hospitalization poses a major problem because of the many different factors that can influence the prevalence of involuntary hospitalization. Some of this factors are type of institution (psychiatric hospital or psychiatry department at a general hospital), organization of psychiatric care in the region, psychiatric morbidity and dynamics of changes in psychiatric morbidity in a specific region, public opinion about people with mental disorders, legal provisions on this very sensitive topic, etc.

  6. Regulated Medicare Advantage And Marketplace Individual Health Insurance Markets Rely On Insurer Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Two important individual health insurance markets-Medicare Advantage and the Marketplaces-are tightly regulated but rely on competition among insurers to supply and price health insurance products. Many local health insurance markets have little competition, which increases prices to consumers. Furthermore, both markets are highly subsidized in ways that can exacerbate the impact of market power-that is, the ability to set price above cost-on health insurance prices. Policy makers need to foster robust competition in both sectors and avoid designing subsidies that make the market-power problem worse. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Zachar, P; Craver, C

    2011-06-01

    This essay explores four answers to the question 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?' Essentialist kinds are classes whose members share an essence from which their defining features arise. Although elegant and appropriate for some physical (e.g. atomic elements) and medical (e.g. Mendelian disorders) phenomena, this model is inappropriate for psychiatric disorders, which are multi-factorial and 'fuzzy'. Socially constructed kinds are classes whose members are defined by the cultural context in which they arise. This model excludes the importance of shared physiological mechanisms by which the same disorder could be identified across different cultures. Advocates of practical kinds put off metaphysical questions about 'reality' and focus on defining classes that are useful. Practical kinds models for psychiatric disorders, implicit in the DSM nosologies, do not require that diagnoses be grounded in shared causal processes. If psychiatry seeks to tie disorders to etiology and underlying mechanisms, a model first proposed for biological species, mechanistic property cluster (MPC) kinds, can provide a useful framework. MPC kinds are defined not in terms of essences but in terms of complex, mutually reinforcing networks of causal mechanisms. We argue that psychiatric disorders are objectively grounded features of the causal structure of the mind/brain. MPC kinds are fuzzy sets defined by mechanisms at multiple levels that act and interact to produce the key features of the kind. Like species, psychiatric disorders are populations with central paradigmatic and more marginal members. The MPC view is the best current answer to 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?'

  9. Two Cases Of Multiple Sclerosis Accompanying Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Şengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific bacground: It has been reported that; Multiple Sclerosis (MS may be presented with many psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, mania and psychosis. MS cases, presented with psychiatric symptoms were also reported. Cases: Two MS cases, diagnosed as psychotic and bipolar disorder respectively, were reported in this paper. Both of the cases were responded to the steroid treatment, and neurological and psychiatric examinations were found to be normal after one month. CONCLUSION: MS cases might be presented with psychiatric complaints and symptoms except neurological ones. We conclude that; psychiatric evaluation as well as the neurological evaluation is important in the MS cases presented with psychiatric symptoms

  10. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  11. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  12. Optimal non-linear health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A

    1997-06-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.

  13. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMerchant, C. [Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  14. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMerchant, C.

    2015-01-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  15. Premium Forecasting of AN Insurance Company:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, the total number of insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence of a crossover premium pc below which the company is operating at a loss. Above pc, we also give a detailed statistical analysis of the company's financial status and obtain the predicted profit along with the corresponding risk as well as ruin probability in terms of premium. Furthermore we obtain the optimal premium popt which maximizes the company's profit.

  16. The insurance refund request: a legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollman, S O

    1998-12-01

    When an insurance payment is made erroneously to a healthcare provider and no contract between the insurer and provider addresses the issue of refunding such payments, the law relating to restitution generally applies. Restitution does not apply, however, to three exceptions that the courts have used to refuse claims by insurers for refunds of overpayments: the innocent third-party creditor exception, whereby the healthcare provider cannot be unjustly enriched by the overpayment, cannot have induced the mistaken payment, and cannot have known beforehand that the insurer was not obligated to pay; the material change in position exception, whereby the healthcare provider in good faith accepts an overpayment and so does not pursue other means of payment; and the assumption of the risk exception, which occurs when the insurer pays a claim without having complete information about it.

  17. Features of insurance evolution in the Internet expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Polchanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of the development of insurance in the Internet expansion. Increasing the number of mobile subscribers, Internet users and social networking, as well as owners of smartphones changes the decision-making process on insurance, marketing of insurance services, the mechanism of interaction between participants of insurance relations. As a result, insurance companies and intermediaries should adjust strategies and innovate to maintain their competitive advantage. The research examined the functioning of the foreign experience of P2P insurance (for example «Friendsurance», microinsurance using mobile payment instruments (for example «Kilimo Salama», cyber-risks insurance (for example «AIG», and the possibility of using digital currencies in insurance in particular Bitcoin. According to the results of investigation the question asked to clarify a number of basic insurance terms, including money payment, the order of payment of insurance premiums, the insurance event and risk, the insurance intermediary.

  18. 77 FR 30377 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax... categories of immigrants described in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act. One...

  19. Insuring Care: Paperwork, Insurance Rules, and Clinical Labor at a U.S. Transgender Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Marieke

    2017-12-01

    What is a clinician to do when people needing medical care do not have access to consistent or sufficient health insurance coverage and cannot pay for care privately? Analyzing ethnographically how clinicians at a university-based transgender clinic in the United States responded to this challenge, I examine the U.S. health insurance system, insurance paperwork, and administrative procedures that shape transgender care delivery. To buffer the impact of the system's failure to provide sufficient health insurance coverage for transgender care, clinicians blended administrative routines with psychological therapy, counseled people's minds and finances, and leveraged the prestige of their clinic in attempts to create space for gender nonconforming embodiments in gender conservative insurance policies. My analysis demonstrates that in a market-based health insurance system with multiple payers and gender binary insurance rules, health care may be unaffordable, or remain financially challenging, even for transgender people with health insurance. Moreover, insurance carriers' "reliance" on clinicians' insurance-related labor is problematic as it exacerbates existing insurance barriers to the accessibility and affordability of transgender care and obscures the workings of a financial payment model that prioritizes economic expediency over gender nonconforming health.

  20. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.