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Sample records for insulin suppression test

  1. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

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    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yyang@houstonmethodist.org [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  2. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers

  3. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  4. Histidine augments the suppression of hepatic glucose production by central insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Inaba, Yuka; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Asahara, Shun-Ichiro; Matsuda, Tomokazu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maeda, Akifumi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Ota, Tsuguhito; Nakabayashi, Hajime; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kasuga, Masato; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Glucose intolerance in type 2 diabetes is related to enhanced hepatic glucose production (HGP) due to the increased expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. Previously, we revealed that hepatic STAT3 decreases the expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes and suppresses HGP. Here, we show that increased plasma histidine results in hepatic STAT3 activation. Intravenous and intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of histidine-activated hepatic STAT3 reduced G6Pase protein and mRNA levels and augmented HGP suppression by insulin. This suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis by histidine was abolished by hepatic STAT3 deficiency or hepatic Kupffer cell depletion. Inhibition of HGP by histidine was also blocked by ICV administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Therefore, histidine activates hepatic STAT3 and suppresses HGP via central histamine action. Hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation after histidine ICV administration was attenuated in histamine H1 receptor knockout (Hrh1KO) mice but not in neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. Conversely, hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation after insulin ICV administration was attenuated in NIRKO but not in Hrh1KO mice. These findings suggest that central histidine action is independent of central insulin action, while both have additive effects on HGP suppression. Our results indicate that central histidine/histamine-mediated suppression of HGP is a potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, N.; Hermida, P.; Sanchez?Londo?o, A.; Singh, R.; Gradil, C.M.; Uricchio, C.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. Hypothesis We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Animals Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Methods Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1....

  6. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  7. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K

    2017-07-01

    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P glucose and insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects

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    Oku Tsuneyuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2 participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p p Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients.

  9. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  10. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  11. Brain insulin action augments hepatic glycogen synthesis without suppressing glucose production or gluconeogenesis in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan; Smith, Marta S.; Donahue, E. Patrick; Farmer, Ben; Farmer, Tiffany D.; Neal, Doss; Williams, Philip E.; Lautz, Margaret; Mari, Andrea; Cherrington, Alan D.; Edgerton, Dale S.

    2011-01-01

    In rodents, acute brain insulin action reduces blood glucose levels by suppressing the expression of enzymes in the hepatic gluconeogenic pathway, thereby reducing gluconeogenesis and endogenous glucose production (EGP). Whether a similar mechanism is functional in large animals, including humans, is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that in canines, physiologic brain hyperinsulinemia brought about by infusion of insulin into the head arteries (during a pancreatic clamp to maintain basal hepatic insulin and glucagon levels) activated hypothalamic Akt, altered STAT3 signaling in the liver, and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression without altering EGP or gluconeogenesis. Rather, brain hyperinsulinemia slowly caused a modest reduction in net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) that was attributable to increased net hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. This was associated with decreased levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) protein and mRNA and with decreased glycogen synthase phosphorylation, changes that were blocked by hypothalamic PI3K inhibition. Therefore, we conclude that the canine brain senses physiologic elevations in plasma insulin, and that this in turn regulates genetic events in the liver. In the context of basal insulin and glucagon levels at the liver, this input augments hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, reducing NHGO without altering EGP. PMID:21865644

  12. Suppression of the Nuclear Factor Eny2 Increases Insulin Secretion in Poorly Functioning INS-1E Insulinoma Cells

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    P. Dames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eny2, the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sus1 and drosophila E(y2, is a nuclear factor that participates in several steps of gene transcription and in mRNA export. We had previously found that Eny2 expression changes in mouse pancreatic islets during the metabolic adaptation to pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that the protein contributes to the regulation of islet endocrine cell function and tested this hypothesis in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells. Overexpression of Eny2 had no effect but siRNA-mediated knockdown of Eny2 resulted in markedly increased glucose and exendin-4-induced insulin secretion from otherwise poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E cells. Insulin content, cellular viability, and the expression levels of several key components of glucose sensing remained unchanged; however glucose-dependent cellular metabolism was higher after Eny2 knockdown. Suppression of Eny2 enhanced the intracellular incretin signal downstream of cAMP. The use of specific cAMP analogues and pathway inhibitors primarily implicated the PKA and to a lesser extent the EPAC pathway. In summary, we identified a potential link between the nuclear protein Eny2 and insulin secretion. Suppression of Eny2 resulted in increased glucose and incretin-induced insulin release from a poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E subline. Whether these findings extend to other experimental conditions or to in vivo physiology needs to be determined in further studies.

  13. Impaired Insulin Suppression of VLDL-Triglyceride Kinetics in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen B; Grønbæk, Henning; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. The objective of the study was to determine VLDL-TG, glucose, and palmitate kinetics during fasting and hyperinsulinemia in men with (NAFLD+) and without NAFLD (NAFLD−). Twenty-seven nondiabetic, upper-body obese (waist to hip ratio > 0.9, body mass index > 28 kg/m2) men, 18 NAFLD+, and nine NAFLD− determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy were enrolled.14C-labeled VLDL-TG and 3H-labeled glucose and palmitate tracers were applied in combination with indirect calorimetry and breath samples to assess kinetics and substrate oxidations postabsorptively and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Dual-X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging assessed body composition. Liver fat content was greater in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (21.0% vs 3.7%), even though body composition, metabolites (except triglycerides), and insulin were similar in the groups. Insulin suppression of VLDL-TG secretion (P = .0001), oxidation (P = .0003), and concentration (P= .008) as well as percentage decreases were lower in NAFLD+ than NAFLD− men (secretion: 31.9% ± 17.2% vs 64.7% ± 19.9%; oxidation: −9.0% ± 24.7% vs 46.5% ± 36.6%; concentration: 11.9% ± 20.7% vs 56.2% ± 22.9%, all P glucose production was similar in the groups. Compared with endogenous glucose production, the inability of NAFLD+ men to suppress VLDL-TG kinetics to compensate for the increased liver fat content seems to be an early pathophysiological manifestation of male NAFLD+. These data suggest therapeutic targets reducing liver fat content may ameliorate metabolic abnormalities associated with NAFLD and presumably diabetes.

  14. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

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    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  15. Hyperinsulinemia in the physiologic range is not superior to short-term fasting in suppressing insulin secretion in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, A I; Brunani, A; Caumo, A; Scacchi, M; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Dubini, A; Bonadonna, S; Cavagnini, F

    2001-01-01

    The negative-feedback control exerted by plasma insulin on beta-cell insulin release in normal-weight and obese subjects is still a matter of debate. Subjects submitted to a euglycemic insulin clamp undergo a suppression of insulin secretion that is due to both the infused insulin and the 2- to 3-hour fast during the procedure. We elected to elucidate the role of physiologic hyperinsulinemia per se in the insulin negative autofeedback in obese men. Ten men with massive uncomplicated obesity (age, 18 to 37 years; body mass index [BMI], 41 +/- 1.15 kg/m2) and 6 normal-weight healthy men (age, 22 to 30 years; BMI, 22 +/- 0.28 kg/m2) underwent 2 studies in random order: (1) a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp with an insulin infusion rate of 1 mU/kg/min and (2) a control study with saline infusion. Serum C-peptide concentrations were significantly higher in obese versus control subjects at baseline (2.54 +/- 0.178 v 1.63 +/- 0.256 ng/mL, P < .05). Exogenous insulin infusion significantly suppressed serum C-peptide at steady state ([SS] last 30 minutes of insulin or saline infusion) in controls (mean of the last 4 measurements from 120 minutes to 150 minutes, 0.86 +/- 0.306 ng/mL, P < .05 vbaseline) but not in obese patients (2.03 +/- 0.26 ng/mL, nonsignificant [NS] v baseline). During the saline infusion studies, C-peptide levels slightly and similarly declined over time in both groups (2.71 +/- 0.350 at baseline v 2.31 +/- 0.300 ng/mL at SS in obese patients, NS, and 1.96 +/- 0.189 v 1.62 +/- 0.150 ng/mL in controls, NS). This study shows that in obese men hyperinsulinemia within the postprandial range is not superior to a 2.5-hour fast for the suppression of beta-cell activity, suggesting an impairment of the insulin negative autofeedback in this clinical condition.

  16. Severe hypoglycaemia in a person with insulin autoimmune syndrome accompanied by insulin receptor anomaly type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Itoh, M; Hanashita, J; Itoi, T; Matsumoto, T; Ono, Y; Imamura, S; Hayakawa, N; Suzuki, A; Mizutani, Y; Uchigata, Y; Oda, N

    2007-11-01

    A rare case of the insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) accompanied by insulin receptor anomaly is reported. Antibodies to insulin and insulin receptor were determined in the patient with severe hypoglycaemia before and after the treatment with prednisolone. Titers of antibody to insulin and insulin receptors were 73.0% and 41.5%, respectively. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation tests were all negative for the suspicious drugs. Her HLA-DR was DRB1*0403/04051. Following steroid therapy, the formation of antibodies was suppressed and alleviated her symptoms. Scatchard analysis yielded findings specific to polyclonal antibodies. The changes in autoantibodies resulted in alleviation of the hypoglycemic symptoms as a result of steroid therapy.

  17. Weight loss in obese men by caloric restriction and high-dose diazoxide-mediated insulin suppression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Loves, S.; Sorge, A.A. van; Ruinemans-Koerts, J.; Rijnders, T.; Boer, H. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the concept whether high-dose diazoxide (DZX)-mediated insulin suppression, in combination with moderate caloric restriction and increased physical activity, can establish a weight loss of at least 15% in obese hyperinsulinaemic men. DESIGN: Open, uncontrolled, 6-month pilot

  18. Hypothalamic and Striatal Insulin Action Suppresses Endogenous Glucose Production and May Stimulate Glucose Uptake During Hyperinsulinemia in Lean but Not in Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Gancheva, Sofiya; Roden, Michael; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Preissl, Hubert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal spray application facilitates insulin delivery to the human brain. Although brain insulin modulates peripheral metabolism, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Twenty-one men underwent two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with d-[6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose infusion to measure endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. On two separate days, participants received intranasal insulin or placebo. Insulin spillover into circulation after intranasal insulin application was mimicked by an intravenous insulin bolus on placebo day. On a different day, brain insulin sensitivity was assessed by functional MRI. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) had to be increased more after nasal insulin than after placebo to maintain euglycemia in lean but not in overweight people. The increase in GIRs was associated with regional brain insulin action in hypothalamus and striatum. Suppression of endogenous glucose production by circulating insulin was more pronounced after administration of nasal insulin than after placebo. Furthermore, glucose uptake into tissue tended to be higher after nasal insulin application. No such effects were detected in overweight participants. By increasing insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production and stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, brain insulin may improve glucose metabolism during systemic hyperinsulinemia. Obese people appear to lack these mechanisms. Therefore, brain insulin resistance in obesity may have unfavorable consequences for whole-body glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and

  20. A role for suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis in pathways from weight fluctuations to the insulin resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G

    2005-08-01

    An impressive body of epidemiological evidence suggests that a history of large perturbations in body weight earlier in life, independently of excess weight, is a risk factor for later development of insulin-related complications, namely central obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Such an increased risk has been reported in men and women who in young adulthood experienced weight fluctuations that involved weight recovery after weight loss caused by disease, famine or voluntary 'yoyo' dieting, and is particularly strong when the weight fluctuations occurred much earlier in life and are characterized by catch-up growth after foetal and/or neonatal growth retardation. As the phase of weight recovery/catch-up growth is associated with both hyperinsulinaemia and an accelerated rate for recovering fat mass (i.e. catch-up fat), the questions arise as to whether, why and how processes that regulate catch-up fat might predispose to hyperinsulinaemia and to insulin-related diseases. In addressing these issues, this paper first reviews evidence for the existence of an adipose-specific control of thermogenesis, whose suppression contributes to the phenomenon of catch-up fat during weight recovery/catch-up growth. It subsequently concentrates upon recent findings suggesting that: (i) such suppression of thermogenesis directed at catch-up fat is accompanied by a redistribution of glucose from skeletal muscle to white adipose tissue, and (ii) substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation can operate as a thermogenic effector in skeletal muscle in response to signalling interactions between leptin and insulin - two key 'adiposity' hormones implicated in the peripheral control of substrate metabolism. These new findings are integrated into the proposal that, in its 'evolutionary adaptive' role to spare glucose for rapid rebuilding of the fat stores, suppressed thermogenesis in skeletal muscle - via inhibition of substrate cycling between de novo

  1. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  2. Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun, E-mail: hustzhj@hust.edu.cn; Xu, Gang; Ma, Shuai; Li, Fen; Yuan, Miao; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-11-27

    Catalpol, a bioactive component from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic animal models, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation in mice. Oral administration of catalpol at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks had no effect on body weight of HFD-induced obese mice, but it significantly improved fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was markedly reduced by catalpol. Intriguingly, catalpol also significantly reduced mRNA expressions of M1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, but increased M2 anti-inflammatory gene expressions in adipose tissue. Concurrently, catalpol significantly suppressed the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that catalpol may ameliorate HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways, and thus provide important new insights into the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of catalpol. - Highlights: • Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. • Catalpol reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in HFD-fed mice. • Catalpol regulates M1 and M2 inflammatory gene expression in obese adipose tissue. • Catalpol suppresses the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways in obese adipose tissue.

  3. Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Gang; Ma, Shuai; Li, Fen; Yuan, Miao; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-01-01

    Catalpol, a bioactive component from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic animal models, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation in mice. Oral administration of catalpol at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks had no effect on body weight of HFD-induced obese mice, but it significantly improved fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was markedly reduced by catalpol. Intriguingly, catalpol also significantly reduced mRNA expressions of M1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, but increased M2 anti-inflammatory gene expressions in adipose tissue. Concurrently, catalpol significantly suppressed the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that catalpol may ameliorate HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways, and thus provide important new insights into the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of catalpol. - Highlights: • Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. • Catalpol reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in HFD-fed mice. • Catalpol regulates M1 and M2 inflammatory gene expression in obese adipose tissue. • Catalpol suppresses the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways in obese adipose tissue.

  4. Leptin and insulin up-regulate miR-4443 to suppress NCOA1 and TRAF4, and decrease the invasiveness of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerson, Ari; Yehuda, Hila

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Normal and tumor cells respond to metabolic hormones, such as leptin and insulin. Thus, obesity-associated resistance to these hormones likely leads to changes in gene expression and behavior of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms affected by leptin and insulin signaling in CRC cells remain mostly unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of tumorigenesis-related gene expression in CRC cells by leptin and insulin. To test this hypothesis, miRNA levels in the CRC-derived cell lines HCT-116, HT-29 and DLD-1 were profiled, following leptin and insulin treatment. Candidate miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. Predicted miRNA targets with known roles in cancer, were validated by immunoblots and reporter assays in HCT-116 cells. Transfection of HCT-116 cells with candidate miRNA mimic was used to test in vitro effects on proliferation and invasion. Of ~800 miRNAs profiled, miR-4443 was consistently up-regulated by leptin and insulin in HCT-116 and HT-29, but not in DLD-1, which lacked normal leptin receptor expression. Dose response experiments showed that leptin at 100 ng/ml consistently up-regulated miR-4443 in HCT-116 cells, concomitantly with a significant decrease in cell invasion ability. Transfection with miR-4443 mimic decreased invasion and proliferation of HCT-116 cells. Moreover, leptin and miR-4443 transfection significantly down-regulated endogenous NCOA1 and TRAF4, both predicted targets of miR-4443 with known roles in cancer metastasis. miR-4443 was found to directly regulate TRAF4 and NCOA1, as validated by a reporter assay. The up-regulation of miR-4443 by leptin or insulin was attenuated by the inhibition of MEK1/2. Our findings suggest that miR-4443 acts in a tumor-suppressive manner by down-regulating TRAF4 and NCOA1 downstream of MEK-C/EBP-mediated leptin and insulin signaling, and that insulin and/or leptin resistance (e.g. in obesity) may suppress this pathway

  5. D-sorbose inhibits disaccharidase activity and demonstrates suppressive action on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Murata-Takenoshita, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Shimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Sadako

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop D-sorbose as a new sweetener that could help in preventing lifestyle-related diseases, we investigated the inhibitory effect of D-sorbose on disaccharidase activity, using the brush border membrane vesicles of rat small intestines. The inhibitory effect was compared with that of L-sorbose and other rare sugars, and the small intestinal disaccharidases in rats was compared with that of humans as well. In humans and the small intestines of rats, d-sorbose strongly inhibited sucrase activity and weakly inhibited maltase activity. Inhibition by D-sorbose of sucrase activity was similar to that of L-arabinose, and the K(i) of D-sorbose was 7.5 mM. Inhibition by D-sorbose was very strong in comparison with that of L-sorbose (K(i), 60.8 mM), whereas inhibition of d-tagatose was between that of D-sorbose and L-sorbose. The inhibitory mode of D-sorbose for sucrose and maltase was uncompetitive, and that of L-sorbose was competitive. To determine a suppressive effect on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin via inhibition of sucrase activity, sucrose solution with or without D-sorbose was administered to rats. Increments in the blood levels of glucose and insulin were suppressed significantly after administration of sucrose solution with D-sorbose to rats, in comparison to administration of sucrose solution without D-sorbose. In contrast, the suppressive effect of L-sorbose on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin was very weak. These results suggest that D-sorbose may have an inhibitory effect on disaccharidase activity and could be used as a sweetener to suppress the postprandial elevation of blood levels of glucose and insulin. The use of D-sorbose as a sweetener may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests for the screening of Cushing's syndrome in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa; Kebapcilar, Levent; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Azal, Omer; Ozgurtas, Taner; Corakci, Ahmet; Akgul, Emin Ozgur; Taslipinar, Mine Yavuz; Yazici, Mahmut; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is currently a major public health problem and one of the potential underlying causes of obesity in a minority of patients is Cushing's syndrome (CS). Traditionally, the gold standard screening test for CS is 1 mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. However, it is known that obese subjects have high false positive results with this test. We have therefore compared the 1 mg and 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in obese subjects. Patients whose serum cortisol after ODST was >50 nM underwent and a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST); 24-hour urine cortisol was collected for basal urinary free cortisol (UFC). For positive results after overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test we also performed the overnight 2-mg dexamethasone suppression test. We prospectively evaluated 100 patients (22 men and 78 women, ranging in age from 17 to 73 years with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 who had been referred to our hospital-affiliated endocrine clinic because of simple obesity. Suppression of serum cortisol to suppression. Thyroid function tests, lipid profiles, homocysteine, antithyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, vitamin B12, folate levels, insulin resistance [by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)] and 1.0 mg postdexamethasone (postdex) suppression cortisol levels were measured. We found an 8% false-positive rate in 1 mg overnight test and 2% in 2 mg overnight test (p=0.001). There was no correlation between the cortisol levels after ODST and other parameters. Our results indicate that the 2 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) is more convenient and accurate than 1-mg ODST as a screening test for excluding CS in subjects with simple obesity.

  7. Effects of intranasal insulin on endogenous glucose production in insulin-resistant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Stahel, Priska; Lewis, Gary F

    2018-03-14

    The effects of intranasal insulin on the regulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) in individuals with insulin resistance were assessed in a single-blind, crossover study. Overweight or obese insulin-resistant men (n = 7; body mass index 35.4 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 , homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance 5.6 ± 1.6) received intranasal spray of either 40 IU insulin lispro or placebo in 2 randomized visits. Acute systemic spillover of intranasal insulin into the circulation was matched with a 30-minute intravenous infusion of insulin lispro in the nasal placebo arm. EGP was assessed under conditions of a pancreatic clamp with a primed, constant infusion of glucose tracer. Under these experimental conditions, compared with placebo, intranasal administration of insulin did not significantly affect plasma glucose concentrations, EGP or glucose disposal in overweight/obese, insulin-resistant men, in contrast to our previous study, in which an equivalent dose of intranasal insulin significantly suppressed EGP in lean, insulin-sensitive men. Insulin resistance is probably associated with impairment in centrally mediated insulin suppression of EGP. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Suppression of Adaptive Immune Cell Activation Does Not Alter Innate Immune Adipose Inflammation or Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Subramanian

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a major contributor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whereas innate immune cells, notably macrophages, contribute to visceral adipose tissue (VAT inflammation and insulin resistance, the role of adaptive immunity is less well defined. To address this critical gap, we used a model in which endogenous activation of T cells was suppressed in obese mice by blocking MyD88-mediated maturation of CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. VAT CD11c+ cells from Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control Myd88fl/fl mice were defective in activating T cells in vitro, and VAT T and B cell activation was markedly reduced in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl obese mice. However, neither macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation nor systemic inflammation were altered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl mice, thereby enabling a focused analysis on adaptive immunity. Unexpectedly, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and the glucose response to glucose and insulin were completely unaltered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control obese mice. Thus, CD11c+ cells activate VAT T and B cells in obese mice, but suppression of this process does not have a discernible effect on macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation or systemic glucose homeostasis.

  9. Blunted suppression of acyl-ghrelin in response to fructose ingestion in obese adolescents: the role of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Name, Michelle; Giannini, Cosimo; Santoro, Nicola; Jastreboff, Ania M; Kubat, Jessica; Li, Fangyong; Kursawe, Romy; Savoye, Mary; Duran, Elvira; Dziura, James; Sinha, Rajita; Sherwin, Robert S; Cline, Gary; Caprio, Sonia

    2015-03-01

    Fructose consumption has risen alongside obesity and diabetes. Gut hormones involved in hunger and satiety (ghrelin and PYY) may respond differently to fructose compared with glucose ingestion. This study evaluated the effects of glucose and fructose ingestion on ghrelin and PYY in lean and obese adolescents with differing insulin sensitivity. Adolescents were divided into lean (n = 14), obese insulin sensitive (n = 12) (OIS), and obese insulin resistant (n = 15) (OIR). In a double-blind, cross-over design, subjects drank 75 g of glucose or fructose in random order, serum was obtained every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Baseline acyl-ghrelin was highest in lean and lowest in OIR (P = 0.02). After glucose ingestion, acyl-ghrelin decreased similarly in lean and OIS but was lower in OIR (vs. lean, P = 0.03). Suppression differences were more pronounced after fructose (lean vs. OIS, P = 0.008, lean vs. OIR, P < 0.001). OIS became significantly hungrier after fructose (P = 0.015). PYY was not significantly different at baseline, varied minimally after glucose, and rose after fructose. Compared with lean, OIS adolescents have impaired acyl-ghrelin responses to fructose but not glucose, whereas OIR adolescents have blunted responses to both. Diminished suppression of acyl-ghrelin in childhood obesity, particularly if accompanied by insulin resistance, may promote hunger and overeating. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Design and clinical pilot testing of the model-based dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Thomas F; Chase, J Geoffrey; McAuley, Kirsten A; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Docherty, Paul D; Berkeley, Juliet E; Williams, Sheila M; Hann, Christopher E; Mann, Jim I

    2010-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant risk factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This article presents pilot study results of the dynamic insulin sensitivity and secretion test (DISST), a high-resolution, low-intensity test to diagnose insulin sensitivity (IS) and characterize pancreatic insulin secretion in response to a (small) glucose challenge. This pilot study examines the effect of glucose and insulin dose on the DISST, and tests its repeatability. DISST tests were performed on 16 subjects randomly allocated to low (5 g glucose, 0.5 U insulin), medium (10 g glucose, 1 U insulin) and high dose (20 g glucose, 2 U insulin) protocols. Two or three tests were performed on each subject a few days apart. Average variability in IS between low and medium dose was 10.3% (p=.50) and between medium and high dose 6.0% (p=.87). Geometric mean variability between tests was 6.0% (multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) 4.9%). Geometric mean variability in first phase endogenous insulin response was 6.8% (MSD 2.2%). Results were most consistent in subjects with low IS. These findings suggest that DISST may be an easily performed dynamic test to quantify IS with high resolution, especially among those with reduced IS. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Suppression in growth hormone during overeating ameliorates the increase in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2012-11-15

    Previously, we reported that overeating for only a few days markedly suppressed the secretion of growth hormone (GH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of this reduction in GH concentration on key metabolic adaptations that occur during 2 wk of overeating. Nine nonobese, healthy adults were admitted to the hospital for 2 wk, during which time they ate ∼4,000 kcal/day (70 kcal·kg fat-free mass(-1)·day(-1); 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein), and their plasma GH concentration was allowed to decline naturally (control). An additional eight subjects underwent the same overeating intervention and received exogenous GH treatment (GHT) administered in four daily injections to mimic physiological GH secretion throughout the 2-wk overeating period. We measured plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in the fasting and postprandial state as well as fasting lipolytic rate, proteolytic rate, and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) using stable-isotope tracer methods. GHT prevented the fall in plasma GH concentration, maintaining plasma GH concentration at baseline levels (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml), which increased fasting and postprandial assessments of insulin resistance (P overeating also blunted the increase in systemic proteolysis (P overeating. In conclusion, our main findings suggest that the suppression in GH secretion that naturally occurs during the early stages of overeating may help attenuate the insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that typically accompany overeating.

  12. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S; Nakayama, H; Sasaki, T; Watanabe, T; Aoki, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). 2. Dept. of Medicine; Saito, N [Sapporo Railway Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Medicine

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies.

  13. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Nakayama, H.; Sasaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Aoki, S.; Saito, N.

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies. (orig.) [de

  14. Glycated albumin suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion by impairing glucose metabolism in rat pancreatic β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycated albumin (GA is an Amadori product used as a marker of hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of GA on insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Methods Islets were collected from male Wistar rats by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in the presence of non-glycated human albumin (HA and GA was measured under three different glucose concentrations, 3 mM (G3, 7 mM (G7, and 15 mM (G15, with various stimulators. Insulin secretion was measured with antagonists of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS, and the expression of iNOS-mRNA was investigated by real-time PCR. Results Insulin secretion in the presence of HA and GA was 20.9 ± 3.9 and 21.6 ± 5.5 μU/3 islets/h for G3 (P = 0.920, and 154 ± 9.3 and 126.1 ± 7.3 μU/3 islets/h (P = 0.046, for G15, respectively. High extracellular potassium and 10 mM tolbutamide abrogated the inhibition of insulin secretion by GA. Glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, methylpyruvate, GLP-1, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, did not abrogate the inhibition. Real-time PCR showed that GA did not induce iNOS-mRNA expression. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase, aminoguanidine, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not abrogate the inhibition of insulin secretion. Conclusion GA suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells through impairment of intracellular glucose metabolism.

  15. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  16. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  18. Central infusion of leptin improves insulin resistance and suppresses beta-cell function, but not beta-cell mass, primarily through the sympathetic nervous system in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ahn, Il Sung; Kim, Da Sol

    2010-06-05

    We investigated whether hypothalamic leptin alters beta-cell function and mass directly via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or indirectly as the result of altered insulin resistant states. The 90% pancreatectomized male Sprague Dawley rats had sympathectomy into the pancreas by applying phenol into the descending aorta (SNSX) or its sham operation (Sham). Each group was divided into two sections, receiving either leptin at 300ng/kgbw/h or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) via intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion for 3h as a short-term study. After finishing the infusion study, ICV leptin (3mug/kg bw/day) or ICV aCSF (control) was infused in rats fed 30 energy % fat diets by osmotic pump for 4weeks. At the end of the long-term study, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet morphometry were analyzed. Acute ICV leptin administration in Sham rats, but not in SNSX rats, suppressed the first- and second-phase insulin secretion at hyperglycemic clamp by about 48% compared to the control. Regardless of SNSX, the 4-week administration of ICV leptin improved glucose tolerance during oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin sensitivity at hyperglycemic clamp, compared to the control, while it suppressed second-phase insulin secretion in Sham rats but not in SNSX rats. However, the pancreatic beta-cell area and mass were not affected by leptin and SNSX, though ICV leptin decreased individual beta-cell size and concomitantly increased beta-cell apoptosis in Sham rats. Leptin directly decreases insulin secretion capacity mainly through the activation of SNS without modulating pancreatic beta-cell mass.

  19. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Leptin-Receptor Deficient and Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through Suppression of ER Stress and Chronic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huansheng; Huang, Hu; Yun, Xinxu; Kim, Do-sung; Yue, Yinan; Wu, Hongju; Sutter, Alton; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Adams, David B.; Kim, Young-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and steatosis in the liver, and eventually leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which administration of bilirubin, a powerful antioxidant, reduces hyperglycemia and ameliorates obesity in leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) and diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse models. db/db or DIO mice were injected with bilirubin or vehicle ip. Blood glucose and body weight were measured. Activation of insulin-signaling pathways, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and ER stress markers were measured in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of mice. Bilirubin administration significantly reduced hyperglycemia and increased insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Bilirubin treatment increased protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and suppressed expression of ER stress markers, including the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein, X box binding protein (XBP-1), and activating transcription factor 4 in db/db mice. In DIO mice, bilirubin treatment significantly reduced body weight and increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, bilirubin suppressed macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in adipose tissue. In liver and adipose tissue of DIO mice, bilirubin ameliorated hepatic steatosis and reduced expression of GRP78 and C/EBP homologous protein. These results demonstrate that bilirubin administration improves hyperglycemia and obesity by increasing insulin sensitivity in both genetically engineered and DIO mice models. Bilirubin or bilirubin-increasing drugs might be useful as an insulin sensitizer for the treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes based on its profound anti-ER stress and antiinflammatory properties. PMID

  20. Insulin resistance in obesity can be reliably identified from fasting plasma insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, K W; Gilijamse, P W; Koopman, K E; de Weijer, B A; Brands, M; Kootte, R S; Romijn, J A; Ackermans, M T; Nieuwdorp, M; Soeters, M R; Serlie, M J

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the major contributor to cardiometabolic complications of obesity. We aimed to (1) establish cutoff points for insulin resistance from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (EHCs), (2) identify insulin-resistant obese subjects and (3) predict insulin resistance from routinely measured variables. We assembled data from non-obese (n=112) and obese (n=100) men who underwent two-step EHCs using [6,6-(2)H2]glucose as tracer (insulin infusion dose 20 and 60 mU m(-2) min(-1), respectively). Reference ranges for hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were calculated from healthy non-obese men. Based on these reference values, obese men with preserved insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance were identified. Cutoff points for insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance rate (Rd) were 46.5% and 37.3 μmol kg(-)(1) min(-)(1), respectively. Most obese men (78%) had EGP suppression within the reference range, whereas only 12% of obese men had Rd within the reference range. Obese men with Rd obese men in age, body mass index (BMI), body composition, fasting glucose or cholesterol, but did have higher fasting insulin (110±49 vs 63±29 pmol l(-1), Pobese men could be identified with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (75%) from fasting insulin >74 pmol l(-1). Most obese men have hepatic insulin sensitivity within the range of non-obese controls, but below-normal peripheral insulin sensitivity, that is, insulin resistance. Fasting insulin (>74 pmol l(-1) with current insulin immunoassay) may be used for identification of insulin-resistant (or metabolically unhealthy) obese men in research and clinical settings.

  1. Exogenous insulin antibody syndrome (EIAS): a clinical syndrome associated with insulin antibodies induced by exogenous insulin in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolei; Chen, Fengling

    2018-01-01

    Insulin has been used for diabetes therapy and has achieved significant therapeutic effect. In recent years, the use of purified and recombinant human insulin preparations has markedly reduced, but not completely suppressed, the incidence of insulin antibodies (IAs). IAs induced by exogenous insulin in diabetic patients is associated with clinical events, which is named exogenous insulin antibody syndrome (EIAS). The present review is based on our research and summarizes the characterization of IAs, the factors affecting IA development, the clinical significance of IAs and the treatments for EIAS. © 2018 The authors.

  2. Role of insulin in the hyperandrogenemia of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Carpentier, André

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effect of reducing insulin secretion on hyperandrogenemia in lean normoinsulinemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normal metabolic insulin sensitivity. Transversal assessment at baseline and prospective follow-up of lean PCOS group after 8 days of diazoxide, which reduces insulin secretion, and 1 month of leuprolide, which suppresses LH. Clinical research center of an academic hospital. Nine lean women (body mass index PCOS and normal insulin levels, as well as 17 lean healthy women. Lean PCOS women were reassessed after 8 days of diazoxide and after 1 month of leuprolide, which suppresses LH. Androgen levels and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (metabolic insulin sensitivity), determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (M-value). Mean M-value of lean PCOS women (48.5 micromol/kg.min) was similar to lean control subjects (52.9 micromol/kg.min). They also had comparable anthropometric measures, lipids, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The LH did not change significantly after diazoxide, but was almost suppressed after leuprolide in the PCOS group. Androstenedione decreased significantly after diazoxide and even more after leuprolide. However, free T significantly decreased only after diazoxide in lean PCOS women. Diazoxide also increased SHBG significantly in this group. In women with typical PCOS and normal insulin levels and metabolic insulin sensitivity, reducing insulin secretion significantly decreased androgen and increased SHBG levels. These results suggest that insulin contributes to hyperandrogenemia even in PCOS women with normal metabolic insulin sensitivity, which might be due to increased sensitivity of their androgenic insulin pathway.

  3. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  4. Exogenous insulin antibody syndrome (EIAS: a clinical syndrome associated with insulin antibodies induced by exogenous insulin in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin has been used for diabetes therapy and has achieved significant therapeutic effect. In recent years, the use of purified and recombinant human insulin preparations has markedly reduced, but not completely suppressed, the incidence of insulin antibodies (IAs. IAs induced by exogenous insulin in diabetic patients is associated with clinical events, which is named exogenous insulin antibody syndrome (EIAS. The present review is based on our research and summarizes the characterization of IAs, the factors affecting IA development, the clinical significance of IAs and the treatments for EIAS.

  5. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    . These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes...... described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance....... Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin...

  6. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Overexpression enhances Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydow, Karsten; Mondon, Carl E.; Schrader, Joerg; Konishi, Hakuoh; Cooke, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may modulate insulin-induced uptake of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that a reduction in endogenous ADMA would increase NO synthesis and thereby enhance insulin sensitivity. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis we employed a transgenic mouse in which we overexpressed human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH-I). The DDAH-I mice had lower plasma ADMA at all ages (22–70 weeks) by comparison to wild-type (WT) littermates. With a glucose challenge, WT mice showed a prompt increase in ADMA, whereas DDAH-I mice had a blunted response. Furthermore, DDAH-I mice had a blunted increase in plasma insulin and glucose levels after glucose challenge, with a 50% reduction in the insulin resistence index, consistent with enhanced sensitivity to insulin. In liver, we observed an increased Akt phosphorylation in the DDAH-I mice after i.p. glucose challenge. Incubation of skeletal muscle from WT mice ex vivo with ADMA (2μM) markedly suppressed insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in fast-twitch but not slow-twitch muscle. Conclusions These findings suggest that the endogenous NOS inhibitor ADMA reduces insulin sensitivity, consistent with previous observations that NO plays a role in insulin sensitivity. PMID:18239148

  7. Application of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin release test in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Ma Yongxiu; Duan Wenruo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin release test (IRT) in understanding the extent of damage to ability of reducing blood sugar in different types of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in selection of treatment plan and adjustment of using drugs. OGTT, IRT and determination of IGF-I level of 67 normal subjects and 217 DM patients were performed. The result was analyzed comparatively. The level of IGF-I was negatively correlated with the level of fasting blood sugar, and positively correlated with the level of fasting insulin. Our conclusions are: There are two ways of reducing blood sugar: one is by insulin, and the other is by IGF-I. IRT can reflect the former better, and IGF-I the latter. The combination of these two is of significant value in diagnosis and treatment of DM

  8. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  9. Radioimmunoassay test system for detection of anti-insulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudko, N.V.; Piven', N.V.; Ibragimova, G.V.; Kasatkin, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radiodiagnostic test system has been developed and commercial kit for radioimmunoassay of anti-insulin antibodies in human blood serum created. Clinical trials of the kit in patients (150 diabetics with types 1 and 2 condition) and normal subjects (n=100) demonstrated the possibility of using this kit for the detection of preclinical forms of diabetes and for distinguishing groups at risk of diabetes among children and adults, for the detection of insulin resistance, for the differential diagnosis of diabetes, and for monitoring the efficacy of insulin therapy. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Evaluation of fasting plasma insulin concentration as an estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic individuals: comparison with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Okeke, QueenDenise; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose disposal varies severalfold in apparently healthy individuals, and approximately one-third of the most insulin resistant of these individuals is at increased risk to develop various adverse clinical syndromes. Since direct measurements of insulin sensitivity are not practical in a clinical setting, several surrogate estimates of insulin action have been proposed, including fasting plasma insulin (FPI) concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculated by a formula employing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and FPI concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare FPI as an estimate of insulin-mediated glucose disposal with values generated by HOMA-IR in 758 apparently healthy nondiabetic individuals. Measurements were made of FPG, FPI, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test. FPI and HOMA-IR were highly correlated (r = 0.98, P HOMA-IR (r = 0.64). Furthermore, the relationship between FPI and TG (r = 0.35) and HDL-C (r = -0.40) was comparable to that between HOMA-IR and TG (r = 0.39) and HDL-C (r = -0.41). In conclusion, FPI and HOMA-IR are highly correlated in nondiabetic individuals, with each estimate accounting for ~40% of the variability (variance) in a direct measure of insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Calculation of HOMA-IR does not provide a better surrogate estimate of insulin action, or of its associated dyslipidemia, than measurement of FPI.

  11. Juvenile hormone and insulin suppress lipolysis between periods of lactation during tsetse fly pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Aaron A; Benoit, Joshua B; Michalkova, Veronika; Mireji, Paul; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Moulton, John K; Wilson, Thomas G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-06-15

    Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods. The dry period occurs over the course of oogenesis and embryogenesis, while the lactation period spans intrauterine larvigenesis. Genes involved in the JH and IIS pathways were upregulated during dry periods, correlating with lipid accumulation between bouts of lactation. RNAi suppression of Forkhead Box Sub Group O (FOXO) expression impaired lipolysis during tsetse lactation and reduced fecundity. Similar reduction of the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant (Met), but not its paralog germ cell expressed (gce), reduced lipid accumulation during dry periods, indicating functional divergence between Met and gce during tsetse reproduction. Reduced lipid levels following Met knockdown led to impaired fecundity due to inadequate fat reserves at the initiation of milk production. Both the application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene and injection of insulin into lactating females increased stored lipids by suppressing lipolysis and reduced transcripts of lactation-specific genes, leading to elevated rates of larval abortion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to address the molecular physiology of JH and IIS in a viviparous insect, and specifically to provide a role for JH signaling through Met in the regulation of lipid metabolism during insect lactation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Glucose Tolerance Tests to Model Insulin Secretion and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies described in this paper is to develop theoretically and to validate experimentally mathematical compartment models which can be used to predict plasma insulin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, the C-peptide levels in the plasma were measured as part of routine glucose tolerance tests in order to estimate the prehepatic insulin secretion rates. In the case of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM, a radioactive labelled insulin was used to measure the absorption rate of insulin after a subcutaneous injection of insulin. Both models gave close fits between theoretical estimates and experimental data, and, unlike other models, it is not necessary to seed these models with initial estimates.

  13. Xylitol prevents NEFA-induced insulin resistance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P.; Kehlenbrink, S.; Hu, M.; Zhang, K.; Gutierrez-Juarez, R.; Koppaka, S.; El-Maghrabi, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Increased NEFA levels, characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus, contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. While NEFA-induced insulin resistance was formerly attributed to decreased glycolysis, it is likely that glucose transport is the rate-limiting defect. Recently, the plant-derived sugar alcohol xylitol has been shown to have favourable metabolic effects in various animal models. Furthermore, its derivative xylulose 5-phosphate may prevent NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis. We therefore examined whether and how xylitol might prevent NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Methods We examined the ability of xylitol to prevent NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Sustained ~1.5-fold elevations in NEFA levels were induced with Intralipid/heparin infusions during 5 h euglycaemic–hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies in 24 conscious non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, with or without infusion of xylitol. Results Intralipid infusion reduced peripheral glucose uptake by ~25%, predominantly through suppression of glycogen synthesis. Co-infusion of xylitol prevented the NEFA-induced decreases in both glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Although glycolysis was increased by xylitol infusion alone, there was minimal NEFA-induced suppression of glycolysis, which was not affected by co-infusion of xylitol. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that xylitol prevented NEFA-induced insulin resistance, with favourable effects on glycogen synthesis accompanying the improved insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This suggests that this pentose sweetener has beneficial insulin-sensitising effects. PMID:22460760

  14. Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test in the Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfahanian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the cause of Cushing's Syndrome (CS is one of the most challenging processes in clinical endocrinology. The long high dose dexamethasone suppression test (standard test is costly and need an extended inpatient stay. In this study we want to show the clinical utility of the overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST for differential diagnosis of CS in a referral center. Retrospectively from 2002-2005 we selected the patients of endocrinology ward in Imam hospital who were admitted with the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome and had 8 mg DST (modified test along with classic DST. In modified test a decrease in an 8 AM serum cortisol level of 50% or more is thought to indicate suppression and we compared the results of modified test with standard test. This test had been done on 42 patients: 10 male (23% and 32 female (76%. The mean age of patients was 31.39 (15-63, 32 with proven pituitary Cushing's disease, 7 with primary adrnal tumors and 3 with ectopic ACTH syndrome. The standard test according to 50% suppression of UFC had 90.62% sensitivity, and according to 90% suppression had 43.75% sensitivity. The sensitivity of this test was 71.85% for serum cortisol suppression. The modified test (8 mg overnight DST had 78% sensitivity. All of these tests had 100% specificity for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease. The positive predictive vale (PPV of all of these tests was 100%. The negative predictive value (NPV of modified test for the diagnosis of Cushing's disease was 58.82%. In standard test the NPV of serum cortisol was 52.6%, UFC 50% had 76.9% NPV and UFC 90% had 35.7% NPV. The results of serum cortisol suppression in modified test is better than standard test. Although 50% suppression of UFC in standard test had greater sensitivity than modified test, collecting of urine is difficult, time consuming and needing hospitalization, so we advice modified test that is much simpler and more convenient instead of standard test in the first

  15. Increased plasma ghrelin suppresses insulin release in wethers fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Sato, K; Kato, S; Yonezawa, T; Kobayashi, Y; Ohtani, Y; Ohwada, S; Aso, H; Yamaguchi, T; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide that promotes an increase of food intake and stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin secretion is regulated by nutritional status and nutrients. Although a high-protein (HP) diet increases plasma ghrelin secretion in mammals, the mechanisms and the roles of the elevated ghrelin concentrations due to a HP diet have not been fully established. To clarify the roles of elevated acylated ghrelin upon intake of a HP diet, we investigated the regulation of ghrelin concentrations in plasma and tissues in wethers fed with either the HP diet or the control (CNT) diet for 14 days, and examined the action of the elevated plasma ghrelin by using a ghrelin-receptor antagonist. The HP diet gradually increased the plasma acylated-ghrelin concentrations, but the CNT diet did not. Although the GH concentrations did not vary significantly across the groups, an injection of ghrelin-receptor antagonist enhanced insulin levels in circulation in the HP diet group. In the fundus region of the stomach, the ghrelin levels did not differ between the HP and CNT diet groups, whereas ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in the group fed with HP diet than those of the CNT diet group were. These results indicate that the HP diet elevated the plasma ghrelin levels by increasing its synthesis; this elevation strongly suppresses the appearance of insulin in the circulation of wethers, but it is not involved in GH secretion. Overall, our findings indicate a role of endogenous ghrelin action in secretion of insulin, which acts as a regulator after the consumption of a HP diet. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Methods for quantifying adipose tissue insulin resistance in overweight/obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, K W; van Galen, K A; Gilijamse, P W; Hartstra, A V; de Groot, P F; van der Valk, F M; Ackermans, M T; Nieuwdorp, M; Romijn, J A; Serlie, M J

    2017-08-01

    Insulin resistance of adipose tissue is an important feature of obesity-related metabolic disease. However, assessment of lipolysis in humans requires labor-intensive and expensive methods, and there is limited validation of simplified measurement methods. We aimed to validate simplified methods for the quantification of adipose tissue insulin resistance against the assessment of insulin sensitivity of lipolysis suppression during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. We assessed the insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis by tracer-dilution of [1,1,2,3,3- 2 H 5 ]glycerol during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies in 125 overweight or obese adults (85 men, 40 women; age 50±11 years; body mass index 38±7 kg m -2 ). Seven indices of adipose tissue insulin resistance were validated against the reference measurement method. Low-dose insulin infusion resulted in suppression of the glycerol rate of appearance ranging from 4% (most resistant) to 85% (most sensitive), indicating a good range of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in the study population. The reference method correlated with (1) insulin-mediated suppression of plasma glycerol concentrations (r=0.960, PInsulin Resistance (Adipo-IR) index (fasting plasma insulin-NEFA product; r=-0.526, Pinsulin-glycerol product (r=-0.467, PInsulin Resistance Index (fasting plasma insulin-basal lipolysis product; r=0.460, PInsulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI)-NEFA index (r=0.621, Pinsulin resistance (area under the curve ⩾0.801, Pinsulin sensitivity (that is, the antilipolytic action of insulin) can be reliably quantified in overweight and obese humans by simplified index methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the Adipo-IR index and the fasting plasma insulin-glycerol product, combined with their simplicity and acceptable agreement, suggest that these may be most useful in clinical practice.

  17. Chronic suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 in beta-cells impairs insulin secretion via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Joseph, Jamie W; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C; Sherry, A Dean; Newgard, Christopher B

    2008-05-23

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.

  18. Chronic Suppression of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 in β-Cells Impairs Insulin Secretion via Inhibition of Glucose Rather Than Lipid Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Joseph, Jamie W.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C.; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60–80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to β-cells suppressed [14C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy. PMID:18381287

  19. PKB/Akt phosphorylation of ERRγ contributes to insulin-mediated inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Hynx, Debby; Wang, Yanning; Yang, Keum-Jin; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kim, Kyung Seok; Yoo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Lee, In-Kyu; Chae, Ho-Zoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Biddinger, Sudha B; Hemmings, Brian A; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance, a major contributor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, leads to increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) owing to an impaired ability of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a major transcriptional regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. In this study, we investigated insulin-dependent post-translational modifications (PTMs) altering the transcriptional activity of ERRγ for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. We examined insulin-dependent phosphorylation and subcellular localisation of ERRγ in cultured cells and in the liver of C57/BL6, leptin receptor-deficient (db/db), liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) and protein kinase B (PKB) β-deficient (Pkbβ (-/-)) mice. To demonstrate the role of ERRγ in the inhibitory action of insulin on hepatic gluconeogenesis, we carried out an insulin tolerance test in C57/BL6 mice expressing wild-type or phosphorylation-deficient mutant ERRγ. We demonstrated that insulin suppressed the transcriptional activity of ERRγ by promoting PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation of ERRγ at S179 and by eliciting translocation of ERRγ from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through interaction with 14-3-3, impairing its ability to promote hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, db/db, LIRKO and Pkbβ (-/-) mice displayed enhanced ERRγ transcriptional activity due to a block in PKBβ-mediated ERRγ phosphorylation during refeeding. Finally, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant ERRγ S179A was resistant to the inhibitory action of insulin on HGP. These results suggest that ERRγ is a major contributor to insulin action in maintaining hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  20. C-Peptide, Baseline and Postprandial Insulin Resistance after a Carbohydrate-Rich Test Meal - Evidence for an Increased Insulin Clearance in PCOS Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Erdmann, J; Ohnolz, F; Berg, F D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study ( L ifestyle I ntervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [ PCOS ]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The results were compared with those of a eumenorrhoeic control group who all had corresponding BMI values and corresponding ages. Methods and Patients 41 PCOS patients (without diabetes) and 68 controls received a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal (260 kcal, 62 % carbohydrates, 32 % fat, 6 % proteins) in order to generate a submaximal insulin and glucose stimulation. The values were determined at baseline and postprandial after 60, 120 and 180 minutes. In addition, the corresponding C-peptide levels were recorded. Results In the PCOS patients (n = 41), the insulin secretion test after a standardised test meal showed almost identical baseline and postprandial insulin levels when compared with those of the age- and BMI-matched eumenorrhoeic controls (n = 68). In the PCOS patients, the baseline and postprandial glucose levels were significantly elevated (92.88 ± 10.28 [PCOS] vs. 85.07 ± 9.42 mg/dL [controls]; p PCOS patients formally exhibit a higher fasting insulin resistance than controls. In spite of the higher stimulated C-peptide levels, the insulin levels did not increase more strongly with increasing glucose levels than in controls which may be indicative of a higher insulin clearance in PCOS patients.

  1. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  2. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies of insulin resistance in congenital generalized lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvik, O; Vestergaard, H; Trygstad, O

    1996-01-01

    suppressed lipid oxidation in the controls. It is concluded that patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy may present severe insulin resistance with regard to hepatic glucose production as well as muscle glycogen synthesis and lipid oxidation. The results suggest a postreceptor defect in the action......, immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels. The patients had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, and the rate of total glucose disposal was severely impaired, primarily due to a decreased non-oxidative glucose metabolism. In the patient studied with muscle biopsy, the expected activation of glycogen synthase by insulin did...... not occur. In both patients there was severely increased hepatic glucose output in the basal state, suggesting a failure of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. During insulin infusion a substantially elevated rate of lipid oxidation remained in the patients, in contrast to the almost completely...

  4. Suppression of Ghrelin Exacerbates HFCS-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Lin, Ligen; Yue, Jing; Wu, Chia-Shan; Guo, Cathy A; Wang, Ruitao; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Devaraj, Sridevi; Murano, Peter; Chen, Zheng; Sun, Yuxiang

    2017-06-19

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is widely used as sweetener in processed foods and soft drinks in the United States, largely substituting sucrose (SUC). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes obesity and insulin resistance; ghrelin responds differently to HFCS and SUC ingestion. Here we investigated the roles of ghrelin in HFCS- and SUC-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. To mimic soft drinks, 10-week-old male wild-type (WT) and ghrelin knockout ( Ghrelin -/- ) mice were subjected to ad lib. regular chow diet supplemented with either water (RD), 8% HFCS (HFCS), or 10% sucrose (SUC). We found that SUC-feeding induced more robust increases in body weight and body fat than HFCS-feeding. Comparing to SUC-fed mice, HFCS-fed mice showed lower body weight but higher circulating glucose and insulin levels. Interestingly, we also found that ghrelin deletion exacerbates HFCS-induced adiposity and inflammation in adipose tissues, as well as whole-body insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that HFCS and SUC have differential effects on lipid metabolism: while sucrose promotes obesogenesis, HFCS primarily enhances inflammation and insulin resistance, and ghrelin confers protective effects for these metabolic dysfunctions.

  5. Suppression of Ghrelin Exacerbates HFCS-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is widely used as sweetener in processed foods and soft drinks in the United States, largely substituting sucrose (SUC. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes obesity and insulin resistance; ghrelin responds differently to HFCS and SUC ingestion. Here we investigated the roles of ghrelin in HFCS- and SUC-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. To mimic soft drinks, 10-week-old male wild-type (WT and ghrelin knockout (Ghrelin−/− mice were subjected to ad lib. regular chow diet supplemented with either water (RD, 8% HFCS (HFCS, or 10% sucrose (SUC. We found that SUC-feeding induced more robust increases in body weight and body fat than HFCS-feeding. Comparing to SUC-fed mice, HFCS-fed mice showed lower body weight but higher circulating glucose and insulin levels. Interestingly, we also found that ghrelin deletion exacerbates HFCS-induced adiposity and inflammation in adipose tissues, as well as whole-body insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that HFCS and SUC have differential effects on lipid metabolism: while sucrose promotes obesogenesis, HFCS primarily enhances inflammation and insulin resistance, and ghrelin confers protective effects for these metabolic dysfunctions.

  6. Autophagy downregulation contributes to insulin resistance mediated injury in insulin receptor knockout podocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether autophagy activity is altered in insulin resistant podocytes and whether autophagy could be a therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy (DN. Here we used shRNA transfection to knockdown the insulin receptor (IR gene in cultured human immortalized podocytes as an in vitro insulin resistant model. Autophagy related proteins LC3, Beclin, and p62 as well as nephrin, a podocyte injury marker, were assessed using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Our results show that autophagy is suppressed when podocytes lose insulin sensitivity and that treatment of rapamycin, an mTOR specific inhibitor, could attenuate insulin resistance induced podocytes injury via autophagy activation. The present study deepens our understanding of the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of DN.

  7. Insulin induces a shift in lipid and primary carbon metabolites in a model of fasting-induced insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Keedrian I.; La Frano, Michael R.; Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Viscarra, Jose A.; Newman, John W.; Fiehn, Oliver; Crocker, Daniel E.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged fasting in northern elephant seals (NES) is characterized by a reliance on lipid metabolism, conservation of protein, and reduced plasma insulin. During early fasting, glucose infusion previously reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA); however, during late-fasting, it induced an atypical elevation in FFA despite comparable increases in insulin during both periods suggestive of a dynamic shift in tissue responsiveness to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Objective To better assess the contribution of insulin to this fasting-associated shift in substrate metabolism. Methods We compared the responses of plasma metabolites (amino acids (AA), FFA, endocannabinoids (EC), and primary carbon metabolites (PCM)) to an insulin infusion (65 mU/kg) in early- and late-fasted NES pups (n = 5/group). Plasma samples were collected prior to infusion (T0) and at 10, 30, 60, and 120 min post-infusion, and underwent untargeted and targeted metabolomics analyses utilizing a variety of GC-MS and LC-MS technologies. Results In early fasting, the majority (72%) of metabolite trajectories return to baseline levels within 2 h, but not in late fasting indicative of an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin. In late-fasting, increases in FFA and ketone pools, coupled with decreases in AA and PCM, indicate a shift toward lipolysis, beta-oxidation, ketone metabolism, and decreased protein catabolism. Conversely, insulin increased PCM AUC in late fasting suggesting that gluconeogenic pathways are activated. Insulin also decreased FFA AUC between early and late fasting suggesting that insulin suppresses triglyceride hydrolysis. Conclusion Naturally adapted tolerance to prolonged fasting in these mammals is likely accomplished by suppressing insulin levels and activity, providing novel insight on the evolution of insulin during a condition of temporary, reversible insulin resistance. PMID:28757815

  8. Loss of ABHD15 Impairs the Anti-lipolytic Action of Insulin by Altering PDE3B Stability and Contributes to Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenmin; Pessentheiner, Ariane R; Hofer, Dina C; Amor, Melina; Schreiber, Renate; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Eichmann, Thomas O; Walenta, Evelyn; Itariu, Bianca; Prager, Gerhard; Hackl, Hubert; Stulnig, Thomas; Kratky, Dagmar; Rülicke, Thomas; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G

    2018-05-15

    Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis. In vitro data reveal that ABHD15 associates with and stabilizes phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B). Accordingly, PDE3B expression is decreased in the WAT of Abhd15-KO mice, mechanistically explaining increased protein kinase A (PKA) activity, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation, and undiminished FA release upon insulin signaling. Ultimately, Abhd15-KO mice develop insulin resistance. Notably, ABHD15 expression is decreased in humans with obesity and diabetes compared to humans with obesity and normal glucose tolerance, identifying ABHD15 as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinqiu; Lei Ming

    2001-01-01

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  10. Inhibition of myostatin in mice improves insulin sensitivity via irisin-mediated cross talk between muscle and adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangling; Dong, Yanjun; Dong, Yanlan; Chen, Fang; Mitch, William E; Zhang, Liping

    2016-03-01

    In mice, a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, insulin resistance and myostatin production. We tested whether inhibition of myostatin in mice can reverse these HFD-induced abnormalities. C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks including the final 4 weeks some mice were treated with an anti-myostatin peptibody. Body composition, the respiratory exchange ratio plus glucose and insulin tolerance tests were examined. Myostatin knock down in C2C12 cells was performed using small hairpin RNA lentivirus. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells were cultured to measure their responses to conditioned media from C2C12 cells lacking myostatin, or to recombinant myostatin or irisin. Isolated peritoneal macrophages were treated with myostatin or irisin to determine whether myostatin or irisin induce inflammatory mechanisms. In HFD-fed mice, peptibody treatment stimulated muscle growth and improved insulin resistance. The improved glucose and insulin tolerances were confirmed when we found increased muscle expression of p-Akt and the glucose transporter, Glut4. In HFD-fed mice, the peptibody suppressed macrophage infiltration and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in both the muscle and adipocytes. Inhibition of myostatin caused the conversion of white (WAT) to brown adipose tissue, whereas stimulating fatty acid oxidation and increasing energy expenditure. The related mechanism is a muscle-to-fat cross talk mediated by irisin. Myostatin inhibition increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α expression and irisin production in the muscle. Irisin then stimulated WAT browning. Irisin also suppresses inflammation and stimulates macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 types. These results uncover a metabolic pathway from an increase in myostatin that suppresses irisin leading to the activation of inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance. Thus, myostatin is a potential therapeutic target to treat insulin resistance of type II diabetes as well

  11. Tribbles 3 inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation and function by suppressing insulin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ha-Won; Choi, Ran Hee; McClellan, Jamie L. [Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Piroli, Gerardo G.; Frizzell, Norma [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology & Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J. [Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Koh, Ho-Jin, E-mail: kohh@mailbox.sc.edu [Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adult humans have substantial amounts of functioning brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since BAT has been implicated as an anti-obese and anti-diabetic tissue, it is important to understand the signaling molecules that regulate BAT function. There has been a link between insulin signaling and BAT metabolism as deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function. Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is a pseudo kinase that has been shown to regulate metabolism and insulin signaling in multiple tissues but the role of TRB3 in BAT has not been studied. In this study, we found that TRB3 expression was present in BAT and overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes impaired differentiation and decreased expression of BAT markers. Furthermore, TRB3 overexpression resulted in significantly lower oxygen consumption rates for basal and proton leakage, indicating decreased BAT activity. Based on previous studies showing that deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function, we assessed insulin signaling in brown preadipocytes and BAT in vivo. Overexpression of TRB3 in cells impaired insulin-stimulated IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation, whereas TRB3KO mice displayed improved IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation. Finally, deletion of IRS1 abolished the function of TRB3 to regulate BAT differentiation and metabolism. These data demonstrate that TRB3 inhibits insulin signaling in BAT, resulting in impaired differentiation and function. - Highlights: • TRB3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and its expression is increased during differentiation. • Overexpression of TRB3 inhibits differentiation and its activity. • Overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes inhibits insulin signaling. • TRB3KO mice displays improved insulin signaling in brown adipose tissue. • Insulin signaling is required for the effects of TRB3 to regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and

  12. Tribbles 3 inhibits brown adipocyte differentiation and function by suppressing insulin signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ha-Won; Choi, Ran Hee; McClellan, Jamie L.; Piroli, Gerardo G.; Frizzell, Norma; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Koh, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that adult humans have substantial amounts of functioning brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since BAT has been implicated as an anti-obese and anti-diabetic tissue, it is important to understand the signaling molecules that regulate BAT function. There has been a link between insulin signaling and BAT metabolism as deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function. Tribbles 3 (TRB3) is a pseudo kinase that has been shown to regulate metabolism and insulin signaling in multiple tissues but the role of TRB3 in BAT has not been studied. In this study, we found that TRB3 expression was present in BAT and overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes impaired differentiation and decreased expression of BAT markers. Furthermore, TRB3 overexpression resulted in significantly lower oxygen consumption rates for basal and proton leakage, indicating decreased BAT activity. Based on previous studies showing that deletion or pharmaceutical inhibition of insulin signaling impairs BAT differentiation and function, we assessed insulin signaling in brown preadipocytes and BAT in vivo. Overexpression of TRB3 in cells impaired insulin-stimulated IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation, whereas TRB3KO mice displayed improved IRS1 and Akt phosphorylation. Finally, deletion of IRS1 abolished the function of TRB3 to regulate BAT differentiation and metabolism. These data demonstrate that TRB3 inhibits insulin signaling in BAT, resulting in impaired differentiation and function. - Highlights: • TRB3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and its expression is increased during differentiation. • Overexpression of TRB3 inhibits differentiation and its activity. • Overexpression of TRB3 in brown preadipocytes inhibits insulin signaling. • TRB3KO mice displays improved insulin signaling in brown adipose tissue. • Insulin signaling is required for the effects of TRB3 to regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and

  13. Measurement of insulin and C-peptide excitatory test levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the function of islet β cells in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), serum insulin and C-peptide (C-P) excitatory test levels were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay in 41 patients with GDM and 30 normal pregnant controls. The results showed that there were significant difference in insulin and C-peptide excitatory test levels between normal pregnancy for 32-40 weeks and patients with GDM (P < 0.001). The secretory peak of insulin occurred at 60 min in normal pregnancy, while at 120 min in patients with GDM, and the recovery postponed in patients with GDM. The peak time for C-P was just as same as that of insulin, but the peak error for C-P between normal pregnant controls and patients with GDM was more larger than that for insulin and it recovered more slowly. It suggested that majority of islet β cells in patients with GDM were good enough for response to islet resistance factors and big stress from pregnancy, and also suggested a relation between pregnancy and islet β cells function

  14. A rapid radioimmunoassay for insulin suitable for testing pancreatic tissue prior to transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, W.; Kohnert, K.-D.; Hahn, H.-J.; Ziegler, M.; Lorenz, D.

    1984-01-01

    One way of diabetes mellitus treatment is the transplantation of insulin-producing tissue. As islet or pancreas transplantation has made progress, testing of the tissue for its vitality, insulin content and insulin secretory response prior to transplantation became necessary. Apart from problems of rejection of allografted tissue, improvement of the patients metabolic control partly depends on the insulin content of the tissue transplanted. It was the aim of the present work to establish a radioimmunoassay which ensures rapid determination of immunoreactive insulin concentrations (IRI) either intracellularly-stored or released upon stimulation of human pancreas or islet with glucose, and to demonstrate the useful application of this assay for the assessment of transplantable tissue. (Auth.)

  15. Comparison of the clonidine test with the insulin tolerance test in the evaluation of patients with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty one patients aged 2.9 to 17.5 years, with heights from 1.3 to 85 standard deviations below the mean for age and sex, are studied. Two GH provocative tests are done: (1) insulin tolerance test (ITT): intravenous regular insulin 0.1 U/kg body weight; (2) clonidine test (CLOT): oral clonidine 0.0375 mg/m 2 surface area. Serum GH is measured by a radioimmunoassay method developed in the laboratory and calibrated against a reference preparation provided by the National Institutes of Health. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Insulin resistance and delayed clearance of peptide hormones in cirrhotic rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, T.P.; Drake, S.; Solomon, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Clearance of porcine insulin, glucagon, and human growth hormone was measured in intact perfused cirrhotic and normal rat livers. Binding and degradation of 125 I-insulin by hepatocytes isolated from cirrhotic and normal livers were also studied. The half-lives (t/sub 1/2/) of immunoreactive insulin and glucagon were 14.0 +/- 3.1 and 9.6 +/- 2.1 min in normal livers and 26.0 +/- 6.1 and 25.0 +/- 7.1 min in cirrhotic livers. Insulin binding and degradation by hepatocytes from control and cirrhotic livers showed no significant differences. Intraportal insulin infusion in perfusion studies suppressed glucagon-stimulated increases in glucose output from control livers but failed to suppress glucose production by cirrhotic livers, suggesting the presence of hepatic insulin resistance in cirrhosis. Impaired clearance of insulin and glucagon by the intact cirrhotic liver and normal binding and degradation of insulin by isolated hepatocytes suggest that factors such as intrahepatic fibrosis and shunting and postbinding defects may be responsible for the impaired hormone clearance and hepatic insulin resistance

  17. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Insulin during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    Blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured during oral glucose tolerance test in 15 thyrotoxic patients and 8 normal controls, to study the glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results;1) In thyrotoxicosis, there is noticed late rise and late fall of plasma IRI during oral glucose tolerance test, like as phenomenon of mild diabetes mellitus. 2) When the thyrotoxic patients were divided into normal and abnormal responsive groups after the level of blood glucose by Wilkerson Criteria, no significant difference in plasma IRI levels were noticed between two groups. 3) This result may be interpreted as relative deficiency of insulin secretion from panaceas and suggest genetically related defects.

  18. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-10-01

    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P 1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  19. An audit of the insulin-tolerance test in 255 patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Svendsen, Ole L; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    The insulin-tolerance test (ITT) is currently considered to be the gold standard for evaluating adults suspected of GH deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to determine factors that may influence nadir blood glucose (BG) when using a mean insulin dose of 0.1 IU/kg body weight. Furthermore...

  20. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  1. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, RJ; de Faber, JTHN

    Purpose: The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is a negative modulator of glucagon secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Elettra; Mannino, Gaia C.; Fatta, Concetta Di; Fuoco, Anastasia; Spiga, Rosangela; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon secretion involves a combination of paracrine, autocrine, hormonal, and autonomic neural mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes often presents impaired glucagon suppression by insulin and glucose. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) has elevated homology with insulin, and regulates pancreatic ?-cells insulin secretion. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share considerable structure homology and function. We hypothesized the existence of a mechanism linking the inhibition of ?-cells glucagon secretion...

  3. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the emergent trend towards diagnosis in younger patients and the progressive nature of this disease, many more patients than before now require insulin to maintain glycaemic control. However, there is a degree of inertia among...... physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose......, compared with insulin, the antihyperglycaemic efficacy of GLP-1RAs is limited. The combination of a GLP-1RA and insulin might thus be highly effective for optimal glucose control, ameliorating the adverse effects typically associated with insulin. Data from clinical studies support the therapeutic...

  5. Loss of PPAR gamma in immune cells impairs the ability of abscisic acid to improve insulin sensitivity by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Ferrer, Gerardo; Casagran, Oriol; Wankhade, Umesh; Noble, Alexis M; Eizirik, Decio L; Ortis, Fernanda; Cnop, Miriam; Liu, Dongmin; Si, Hongwei; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural phytohormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist that significantly improves insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Although it has become clear that obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), the phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the mechanisms by which insulin-sensitizing compounds modulate their infiltration remain unknown. We used a loss-of-function approach to investigate whether ABA ameliorates insulin resistance through a mechanism dependent on immune cell PPARgamma. We characterized two phenotypically distinct ATM subsets in db/db mice based on their surface expression of F4/80. F4/80(hi) ATMs were more abundant and expressed greater concentrations of chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 and CCR5 when compared to F4/80(lo) ATMs. ABA significantly decreased CCR2(+) F4/80(hi) infiltration into WAT and suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in WAT and plasma. Furthermore, the deficiency of PPARgamma in immune cells, including macrophages, impaired the ability of ABA to suppress the infiltration of F4/80(hi) ATMs into WAT, to repress WAT MCP-1 expression and to improve glucose tolerance. We provide molecular evidence in vivo demonstrating that ABA improves insulin sensitivity and obesity-related inflammation by inhibiting MCP-1 expression and F4/80(hi) ATM infiltration through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  6. Trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Chikako; Arai, Norie; Mizote, Akiko; Kohno, Keizo; Iwaki, Kanso; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ushio, Simpei; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-12-01

    Trehalose has been shown to evoke lower insulin secretion than glucose in oral saccharide tolerance tests in humans. Given this hypoinsulinemic effect of trehalose, we hypothesized that trehalose suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy by reducing storage of triglyceride and mitigates insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were fed an HFD and given drinking water containing 2.5% saccharide (glucose [Glc], trehalose [Tre], maltose [Mal], high-fructose corn syrup, or fructose [Fru]) ad libitum. After 7 weeks of HFD and saccharide intake, fasting serum insulin levels in the Tre/HFD group were significantly lower than in the Mal/HFD and Glc/HFD groups (P fructose corn syrup/HFD, or Fru/HFD group. Analysis of gene expression in mesenteric adipocytes showed that no statistically significant difference in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed between the Tre/HFD group and the distilled water/standard diet group, whereas a significant increase in the MCP-1 mRNA expression was observed in the Glc/HFD, Mal/HFD, Fru/HFD, and distilled water/HFD groups. Thus, our data indicate that trehalose prevents adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigates insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by reducing insulin secretion and down-regulating mRNA expression of MCP-1. These findings further suggest that trehalose is a functional saccharide that mitigates insulin resistance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; O’Hare, James; Diggs-Andrews, Kelly; Schweiger, Martina; Cheng, Bob; Lindtner, Claudia; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Vempati, Prashant; Su, Kai; Dighe, Shveta; Milsom, Thomas; Puchowicz, Michelle; Scheja, Ludger; Zechner, Rudolf; Fisher, Simon J.; Previs, Stephen F.; Buettner, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, and inactivates hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl) and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and in particular hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality. PMID:21284985

  8. Prepubertal exposure to arsenic(III) suppresses circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) delaying sexual maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Michael P; Saca, James C; Hamilton, Alina; Solano, Rene F; Rivera, Jesse R; Whitehouse-Innis, Wendy; Parsons, Jason G; Dearth, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a prevalent environmental toxin readily accessible for human consumption and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. However, it is not known what impact As has on female sexual maturation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of prepubertal exposure on mammary gland development and pubertal onset in female rats. Results showed that prepubertal exposure to 10 mg/kg of arsenite (As(III)) delayed vaginal opening (VO) and prepubertal mammary gland maturation. We determined that As accumulates in the liver, disrupts hepatocyte function and suppresses serum levels of the puberty related hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in prepubertal animals. Overall, this is the first study to show that prepubertal exposure to As(III) acts peripherally to suppress circulating levels of IGF-1 resulting in delayed sexual maturation. Furthermore, this study identifies a critical window of increased susceptibility to As(III) that may have a lasting impact on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Angiotensin II receptor blocker ameliorates stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoharu Hayashi

    Full Text Available A strong causal link exists between psychological stress and insulin resistance as well with hypertension. Meanwhile, stress-related responses play critical roles in glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. As clinical trials suggest that angiotensin-receptor blocker delays the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients, we investigated the effects of irbesartan on stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day irbesartan. The plasma concentrations of lipid and proinflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6] were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation in inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT was observed with CD11b-positive cell counts and mRNA expressions of CD68 and F4/80 using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods respectively. The mRNA levels of angiotensinogen, proinflammatory cytokines shown above, and adiponectin in WAT were also assessed with RT-PCR method. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests, and mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in WAT. Restraint stress increased monocyte accumulation, plasma free fatty acids, expression of angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, and reduced adiponectin. Irbesartan reduced stress-induced monocyte accumulation in WAT in a dose dependent manner. Irbesartan treatment also suppressed induction of adipose angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines in WAT and blood, and reversed changes in adiponectin expression. Notably, irbesartan suppressed stress-induced reduction in adipose tissue weight and free fatty acid release, and improved insulin tolerance with restoration of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in WAT. The results

  10. Ghrelin differentially affects hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, A. C.; van den Hoek, A. M.; Parlevliet, E. T.; Havekes, L. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Pijl, H.; Corssmit, E. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ghrelin on insulin's capacity to suppress endogenous glucose production and promote glucose disposal in mice. To establish whether the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor can mediate the putative effect of ghrelin on the action of insulin,

  11. Intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Ricki Y; Cree, Melanie G; Wolfe, Robert R; Mlcak, Ronald P; Qian, Ting; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N

    2010-06-01

    To institute intensive insulin therapy protocol in an acute pediatric burn unit and study the mechanisms underlying its benefits. Prospective, randomized study. An acute pediatric burn unit in a tertiary teaching hospital. Children, 4-18 yrs old, with total body surface area burned > or =40% and who arrived within 1 wk after injury were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomized to one of two groups. Intensive insulin therapy maintained blood glucose levels between 80 and 110 mg/dL. Conventional insulin therapy maintained blood glucose patients were included in the data analysis consisting of resting energy expenditure, whole body and liver insulin sensitivity, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Studies were performed at 7 days postburn (pretreatment) and at 21 days postburn (posttreatment). Resting energy expenditure significantly increased posttreatment (1476 +/- 124 to 1925 +/- 291 kcal/m(2) x day; p = .02) in conventional insulin therapy as compared with a decline in intensive insulin therapy. Glucose infusion rate was identical between groups before treatment (6.0 +/- 0.8 conventional insulin therapy vs. 6.8 +/- 0.9 mg/kg x min intensive insulin therapy; p = .5). Intensive insulin therapy displayed a significantly higher glucose clamp infusion rate posttreatment (9.1 +/- 1.3 intensive insulin therapy versus 4.8 +/- 0.6 mg/kg x min conventional insulin therapy, p = .005). Suppression of hepatic glucose release was significantly greater in the intensive insulin therapy after treatment compared with conventional insulin therapy (5.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.6 mg/kg x min; intensive insulin therapy vs. conventional insulin therapy; p = .03). States 3 and 4 mitochondrial oxidation of palmitate significantly improved in intensive insulin therapy (0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.1 microm O(2)/CS/mg protein/min for state 3, p = .004; and 0.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microm O(2)/CS/mg protein/min for state 4, p protocol improves insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial

  12. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Central insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) restores whole-body insulin action in a model of age-related insulin resistance and IGF-1 decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Derek M; Farias Quipildor, Gabriela; Mao, Kai; Zhang, Xueying; Wan, Junxiang; Apontes, Pasha; Cohen, Pinchas; Barzilai, Nir

    2016-02-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is associated with improved longevity, but is paradoxically linked with several age-related diseases in humans. Insulin-like growth factor-1 has proven to be particularly beneficial to the brain, where it confers protection against features of neuronal and cognitive decline. While aging is characterized by central insulin resistance in the face of hyperinsulinemia, the somatotropic axis markedly declines in older humans. Thus, we hypothesized that increasing IGF-1 in the brain may prove to be a novel therapeutic alternative to overcome central insulin resistance and restore whole-body insulin action in aging. Utilizing hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we show that old insulin-resistant rats with age-related declines in IGF-1 level demonstrate markedly improved whole-body insulin action, when treated with central IGF-1, as compared to central vehicle or insulin (P IGF-1, but not insulin, suppressed hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal rates in aging rats (P IGF-1 action in the brain and periphery provides a 'balance' between its beneficial and detrimental actions. Therefore, we propose that strategies aimed at 'tipping the balance' of IGF-1 action centrally are the optimal approach to achieve healthy aging and longevity in humans. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pleotropic effects of leptin to reverse insulin resistance and diabetic ketoacidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2016-01-01

    In this review we discuss the mechanisms for the pleotropic effects of leptin replacement therapy to reverse liver and muscle insulin resistance in lipodystrophic individuals, as well as insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy to suppress white adipose tissue lipolysis, hepatic...

  15. Metformin Ameliorates Dysfunctional Traits of Glibenclamide- and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion by Suppression of Imposed Overactivity of the Islet Nitric Oxide Synthase-NO System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lundquist

    Full Text Available Metformin lowers diabetic blood glucose primarily by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing peripheral glucose uptake. However, possible effects by metformin on beta-cell function are incompletely understood. We speculated that metformin might positively influence insulin secretion through impacting the beta-cell nitric oxide synthase (NOS-NO system, a negative modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. In short-time incubations with isolated murine islets either glibenclamide or high glucose augmented insulin release associated with increased NO production from both neural and inducible NOS. Metformin addition suppressed the augmented NO generation coinciding with amplified insulin release. Islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed pronounced fluorescence of inducible NOS in the beta-cells being abolished by metformin co-culturing. These findings were reflected in medium nitrite-nitrate levels. A glucose challenge following islet culturing with glibenclamide or high glucose revealed markedly impaired insulin response. Metformin co-culturing restored this response. Culturing murine islets and human islets from controls and type 2 diabetics with high glucose or high glucose + glibenclamide induced a pronounced decrease of cell viability being remarkably restored by metformin co-culturing. We show here, that imposed overactivity of the beta-cell NOS-NO system by glibenclamide or high glucose leads to insulin secretory dysfunction and reduced cell viability and also, importantly, that these effects are relieved by metformin inhibiting beta-cell NO overproduction from both neural and inducible NOS thus ameliorating a concealed negative influence by NO induced by sulfonylurea treatment and/or high glucose levels. This double-edged effect of glibenclamide on the beta-cellsuggests sulfonylurea monotherapy in type 2 diabetes being avoided.

  16. The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jan Willem R; Kingma, C; Verhoeff, K; Grootendorst, R J; de Faber, J T H N

    2003-04-01

    The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic disorders using the PST to determine the rate of false-negative results of the PST. Six hundred four children, varying in age between 3 and 15 years (mean, 7.9) were examined using the PST. Ophthalmologic disorders ranged from strabismus and amblyopia to refractive disorders. Mean testing time for the PST was 43 seconds. The PST could not be administered to 34 children (5.6%); 443 children (73.3%) had abnormal results; and 127 children (22.2%) showed no suppression. The suppression in constant strabismus was detected in almost all cases. The sensitivity for accommodative forms of strabismus was lower, but amblyopia was never missed in these cases. In children with normal eye alignment, only 2.7% with an interocular acuity difference of more than 0.1 logMAR had no suppression. Of all 119 children with clinical defined amblyopia, only 1 (0.8%) did not have suppression. Overall sensitivity of the PST for strabismus and/or abnormal interocular acuity difference was 96.2% and specificity was 41.1%. The PST has great potential as a visual screening tool in young children. Only few children with amblyogenic factors were missed. Thus, the test can differentiate those children at risk for amblyopia from normally sighted children. Because specificity is lower, all children showing suppression with the PST in a screening situation should have further examination by the health care worker before being referred to the ophthalmologist.

  17. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate insulin resistance by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation in type 2 diabetes rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoya Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is one of the most common and important pathological features of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Recently, insulin resistance is increasingly considered to be associated with systemic chronic inflammation. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β in blood are predictive indicators of the development of T2D. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-based therapies have been proven to have potential immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties through their paracrine effects; however, the mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of MSCs in enhancing insulin sensitivity is still uncertain. Methods In the present experiment, we used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, and a MSC-HepG2 transwell culturing system to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs under palmitic acid (PA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced insulin resistance in vitro. Insulin resistance was confirmed by glycogen assay kit and glucose assay kit. Inflammatory factor release was detected by ELISA, gene expression was tested by quantitative real-time PCR, and insulin signaling activation was determined by western blotting analysis. The changes of inflammatory factors and insulin signaling protein were also tested in T2D rats injected with UC-MSCs. Results Treating HepG2 cells with PA–LPS caused NLRP3 inflammation activation, including overexpression of NLRP3 and caspase-1, and overproduction of IL-1β and IL-18 as well as TNF-α from HepG2 cells. The elevated levels of these inflammatory cytokines impaired insulin receptor action and thereby prevented downstream signaling pathways, exacerbating insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. Importantly, UC-MSCs cocultured with HepG2 could effectively alleviate PA and LPS-induced insulin resistance by blocking the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inflammatory agents. Furthermore, knockdown of NLRP3 or IL-1β partially improved PA and

  18. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singnurkar, P S; Gidwani, S K

    2008-11-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 μm in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  20. Differential effects of insulin injections and insulin infusions on levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that while injections of insulin cause an increase in fat mass, infusions of insulin increase fat mass. The aim of this paper was to test the hypothesis that if an increase in glycogen is an indicator of an impending increase in adipose mass, then insulin infusions should not increase glycogen, while insulin ...

  1. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  2. Cross talk between insulin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling systems in brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Schulz, Tim J; Espinoza, Daniel O

    2010-01-01

    Both insulin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling systems are important for adipocyte differentiation. Analysis of gene expression in BMP7-treated fibroblasts revealed a coordinated change in insulin signaling components by BMP7. To further investigate the cross talk between insulin...... BMP7's suppressive effect on pref-1 transcription. Together, these data suggest cross talk between the insulin and BMP signaling systems by which BMP7 can rescue brown adipogenesis in cells with insulin resistance....

  3. TRH and T3 suppression tests after 131I therapy of thyrotoxicosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hajime; Tsushimi, Takashi; Shizume, Kazuo; Kuma, Kanji; Suematsu, Hiroyuki.

    1976-01-01

    TRH and T 3 suppression tests were performed on patients (124 cases) with Graves' disease who underwent radiotherapy. TRH test was performed at 4 - 6 months (Group I), 6 - 12 months (Group II), 12 - 24 months (Group III) and 24 - 50 months (Group IV) after final radiotherapy, and T 3 suppression test was performed just after each TRH test. Among 124 patients in Group I to IV who were clinically euthyroid and whose T 3 -RU and T 4 values were normal, compared with other groups, Group IV (2 - 4.2 Y) showed a significantly higher percentage of positive responses to both TRH and T 3 suppression tests. However, among 49 of 124 patients whose T 3 was also normal, there were no significant differences between the groups. The value of triiodothyronine was above the normal range in many cases up to 2 years after radiotherapy (in Group I, II, III). There were no significant differences in the percentage of hyperresponses between any of the four groups. Half of the patients who showed positive responses to TRH test showed exaggerated responses. In all cases when the responses to TRH and T 3 suppression tests changed from negative to positive, thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations must be within the normal range. In particular, the major determinant seems to be the value of triiodothyronine. As in more than 30% of cases TRH and T 3 suppression tests remained negative even though their T 3 -RU, T 4 , T 3 , values became normal after radiotherapy, the regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal thyroid axis do not always return to normal even though circulating thyroidal hormone level return to an euthyroid state. (J.P.N.)

  4. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for type 2 diabetes through induction of insulin resistance. Treatment of type 2 diabetes has been limited by little translational knowledge of insulin resistance although there have been several well-documented hypotheses for insulin resistance. In those hypotheses, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity have been the major concepts and have received a lot of attention. Oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, genetic background, aging, fatty liver, hypoxia and lipodystrophy are active subjects in the study of these concepts. However, none of those concepts or views has led to an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes. The reason is that there has been no consensus for a unifying mechanism of insulin resistance. In this review article, literature is critically analyzed and reinterpreted for a new energy-based concept of insulin resistance, in which insulin resistance is a result of energy surplus in cells. The energy surplus signal is mediated by ATP and sensed by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Decreasing ATP level by suppression of production or stimulation of utilization is a promising approach in the treatment of insulin resistance. In support, many of existing insulin sensitizing medicines inhibit ATP production in mitochondria. The effective therapies such as weight loss, exercise, and caloric restriction all reduce ATP in insulin sensitive cells. This new concept provides a unifying cellular and molecular mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity, which may apply to insulin resistance in aging and lipodystrophy. PMID:23471659

  5. The application and evaluation of insulin release test and quantitative parameter in diabetic type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenggang; Chen Xiaoyan; Guan Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the curve of Insulin Release Test (IRT) about the patients whit type II diabetes, to evaluate β-cell function and the sensitivity of body to Insulin using Insulin Release Index (IRI) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), and to probe the value for clinical therapy. Methods: 1) Have a IRT of 396 cases with type II diabetes and 17 normal bodies and acquire the IRT curve, 2) Design the count methods about IRI and ISI, IRI = Ins max/Ins FBI x Δ Ins max/T max (minute), ISI=(Ins max-Ins FBI)/(Ins 180'-Ins FBI), 3) Compare IRI Changes of before and after treatment for 12 cases with no insulin release and 9 cases with less insulin release. Results: IRT curve type (No release type 21.0%, less release type 33.3%, peak delay type 36.9%, high insulin type 6.0%, release delay type 2.8%); respective IRI, ISI compared to normal, P<0.01; IRI of before and after treatment with insulin P<0.01. Conclusions: IRT Curve combining IRI and ISI can reflect accurately β-cell function with type II diabetes and the sensitivity of body to insulin, Also it has some reference value for clinical therapy

  6. Peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in preterm baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia L; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Seidner, Steven R; McCurnin, Donald C; Leland, Michelle M; Anzueto, Diana G; Johnson, Marney C; Liang, Hanyu; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm baboons (67% gestation) had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5 ± 1.5 vs 21.8 ± 4.4 mg/kg · min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8 ± 2.6 vs 16.3 ± 4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold vs 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower glucose transporter-1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8%-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFAs) did not decrease in response to insulin, whereas FFAs decreased by greater than 80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFAs in the preterm animals was paired with a decreased glucose transporter-4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counterregulatory hormones are not major contributors.

  7. A human model of dietary saturated fatty acid induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Juraj; Ozias, Marlies K; Deer, James; Kurtz, Julie; Salbe, Arline D; Harman, S Mitchell; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT). Both diets were compared to a standard eucaloric American Heart Association (AHA) control diet in a series of crossover studies. Whole body insulin resistance was estimated as steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the last 30min of a 3-h insulin suppression test. SSPG was increased after a 24-h SFA diet (by 83±74% vs. control, n=38) in the entire cohort, which was comprised of participants with NGT (92±82%, n=22) or IGT (65±55%, n=16) (all pinsulin resistance in both NGT and IGT subjects. Insulin resistance persisted overnight after the last SFA meal and was attenuated by one day of a healthy diet. This model offers opportunities for identifying early mechanisms and potential treatments of dietary saturated fat induced insulin resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity During Fasting in Obese Human Subjects: Impact of GH Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgild; Svart, Mads Vandsted; Lebeck, Janne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. Growth hormone (GH) secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: (1) after an overnight fast (control), (2) after 72 hour fasting (fasting), and (3) after 72 hour fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) [fasting plus GH antagonist (GHA)]. Each study day consisted of a 4-hour basal period followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry, assessment of glucose and palmitate turnover, and muscle and fat biopsies. GH levels increased with fasting (P fasting-induced reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor I was enhanced by GHA (P Fasting increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation independent of GHA, but fasting plus GHA caused a more pronounced suppression of lipid intermediates in response to hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Fasting-induced insulin resistance was abrogated by GHA (P Fasting plus GHA also caused elevated glycerol levels and reduced levels of counterregulatory hormones. Fasting significantly reduced the expression of antilipolytic signals in adipose tissue independent of GHA. Suppression of GH activity during fasting in obese subjects reverses insulin resistance and amplifies insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid intermediates, indicating that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility also in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  9. Insulin like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Nøhr, Jane; Jensen, Charlotte Harken

    2003-01-01

    that forced expression of the soluble form, FA1, or full-length Pref-1 did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells when differentiation was induced by standard treatment with methylisobutylxanthine, dexamethasone, and high concentrations of insulin. However, forced expression of either form...... of Pref-1/FA1 in 3T3-L1 or 3T3-F442A cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation when insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was omitted from the differentiation mixture. We demonstrate that the level of the mature form of the IGF-1 receptor is reduced and that IGF-1-dependent activation of p42/p44...... mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is compromised in preadipocytes with forced expression of Pref-1. This is accompanied by suppression of clonal expansion and terminal differentiation. Accordingly, supplementation with insulin or IGF-1 rescued p42/p44 MAPK activation, clonal expansion...

  10. Nutrient Restriction Increases Circulating and Hepatic Ceramide in Dairy Cows Displaying Impaired Insulin Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amanda N; Clegg, J L; Perry, C A; McFadden, J W

    2017-09-01

    The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i.v.) for 34 h. When provided access, cows were ad libitum fed a mixed ration of grass hay and ground corn to meet requirements. Intake for NR cows was limited to vitamins and minerals. Nicotinic acid was administered to suppress lipolysis. Saline was infused in cows not provided NA. At 32 and 33 h of treatment, a liver biopsy and insulin tolerance test were performed, respectively. Samples were analyzed using colorimetry, immunoassay, and mass spectrometry. Nutrient restriction increased serum fatty acids and ceramide levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity; however, NA infusion was unable to prevent these responses. We also show that NR increases hepatic ceramide accumulation, a response that was positively associated with serum ceramide supply. Our data demonstrate that circulating and hepatic 24:0-Cer are inversely associated with systemic insulin tolerance, an effect not observed for the 16:0 moiety. In conclusion, our results suggest that ceramide accrual represents a metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction and impaired insulin action in dairy cows.

  11. Test facility of the VVER-440 condensation-type pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, H.; Arndt, S.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early nineties, GRS has supported regulatory authorities in Central and Eastern Europe in performing safety assessments of nuclear power plants. Especially studies of the condensation-type pressure suppression system of VVER-440/V-213-type plants have been important in this respect. Major steps in demonstrating complete functioning of the condensation-type pressure suppression system under accident conditions by experiments run in the Russian large scale test facility, BC V-213, have been completed in the past two years within the framework of various international experimental programs. The test results were used to validate specifically for power plants with VVER-400/V-213 reactors the COCOSYS GRS computer code, which is used in the safety assessments. The results of recalculations of the C02 EREC test, which simulates a break of a main steam pipe, demonstrate the present state of validation of COCOSYS for VVER condensation-type pressure suppression systems. (orig.) [de

  12. Suppressive Effects of Insulin on Tumor Necrosis Factor-Dependent Early Osteoarthritic Changes Associated With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Daisuke; Maynard, Robert; Schott, Eric; Drinkwater, Christopher J; Ketz, John P; Kates, Stephen L; Jonason, Jennifer H; Hilton, Matthew J; Zuscik, Michael J; Mooney, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a state of chronic inflammation that is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), as well as an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study was undertaken to define the links between obesity-associated inflammation, insulin resistance, and OA, by testing the hypotheses that 1) tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is critical in mediating these pathologic changes in OA, and 2) insulin has direct effects on the synovial joint that are compromised by insulin resistance. The effects of TNF and insulin on catabolic gene expression were determined in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) isolated from human OA synovium. Synovial TNF expression and OA progression were examined in 2 mouse models, high-fat (HF) diet-fed obese mice with type 2 DM and TNF-knockout mice. Insulin resistance was investigated in synovium from patients with type 2 DM. Insulin receptors (IRs) were abundant in both mouse and human synovial membranes. Human OA FLS were insulin responsive, as indicated by the dose-dependent phosphorylation of IRs and Akt. In cultures of human OA FLS with exogenous TNF, the expression and release of MMP1, MMP13, and ADAMTS4 by FLS were markedly increased, whereas after treatment with insulin, these effects were selectively inhibited by >50%. The expression of TNF and its abundance in the synovium were elevated in samples from obese mice with type 2 DM. In TNF-knockout mice, increases in osteophyte formation and synovial hyperplasia associated with the HF diet were blunted. The synovium from OA patients with type 2 DM contained markedly more macrophages and showed elevated TNF levels as compared to the synovium from OA patients without diabetes. Moreover, insulin-dependent phosphorylation of IRs and Akt was blunted in cultures of OA FLS from patients with type 2 DM. TNF appears to be involved in mediating the advanced progression of OA seen in type 2 DM. While insulin plays a protective, antiinflammatory role in the synovium, insulin

  13. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, B.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  15. Insulin and the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Regulate Ribonuclease 7 Expression in the Human Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Tad; Becknell, Brian; Easterling, Robert S.; Ingraham, Susan E.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Schwaderer, Andrew; Hains, David S.; Li, Birong; Cohen, Ariel; Metheny, Jackie; Trindandapani, Susheela; Spencer, John David

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease associated with a deficiency of insulin production or action. Diabetic patients have an increased susceptibility to infection with the urinary tract being the most common site of infection. Recent studies suggest that Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent antimicrobial peptide that plays an important role in protecting the urinary tract from bacterial insult. The impact of diabetes on RNase 7 expression and function are unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of insulin on RNase 7. Using human urine specimens, we measured urinary RNase 7 concentrations in healthy control patients and insulin-deficient type 1 diabetics before and after starting insulin therapy. Compared to controls, diabetic patients had suppressed urinary RNase 7 concentrations, which increased with insulin. Using primary human urothelial cells, we explored the mechanisms by which insulin induces RNase 7. Insulin induces RNase 7 production via the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway (PI3K/AKT) to shield urothelial cells from uropathogenic E. coli. In contrast, we show that uropathogenic E. coli suppresses PI3K/AKT and RNase 7. Together, these results indicate that insulin and PI3K/AKT signaling are essential for RNase 7 expression. They also suggest that increased infection risks in diabetic patients may be secondary to suppressed RNase 7 production. These data may provide unique insight into novel UTI therapeutic strategies in at risk populations. PMID:27401534

  16. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:27207525

  17. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs during endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis has been associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, insulin resistance, and a profound suppression of muscle protein synthesis. However, lesser suppression of muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs occurs in response to endotoxin (LPS) whe...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandhya S.; Zhang, Liping; Mitch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance refers to reduced sensitivity of organs to insulin-initiated biologic processes that result in metabolic defects. Insulin resistance is common in patients with end-stage renal disease but also occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even when the serum creatinine is minimally increased. Following insulin binding to its receptor, auto-phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is followed by kinase reactions that phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. In fact, low levels of Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) identifies the presence of the insulin resistance that leads to metabolic defects in insulin-initiated metabolism of glucose, lipids and muscle proteins. Besides CKD, other complex conditions (e.g., inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic acidosis, aging and excess angiotensin II) reduce p-Akt resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in each of these conditions is due to activation of different, E3 ubiquitin ligases which specifically conjugate ubiquitin to IRS-1 marking it for degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Consequently, IRS-1 degradation suppresses insulin-induced intracellular signaling, causing insulin resistance. Understanding mechanisms of insulin resistance could lead to therapeutic strategies that improve the metabolism of patients with CKD. PMID:26444029

  19. PEDF expression is inhibited by insulin treatment in adipose tissue via suppressing 11β-HSD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Zhou

    Full Text Available Early intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients; while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, an anti-angiogenic factor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesize that PEDF might be down regulated by insulin and then lead to the improved insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients during insulin therapy. We addressed this issue by investigating insulin regulation of PEDF expression in diabetic conditions. The results showed that serum PEDF was reduced by 15% in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients after insulin therapy. In adipose tissue of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, PEDF expression was associated with TNF-α elevation and it could be decreased both in serum and in adipose tissue by insulin treatment. In adipocytes, PEDF was induced by TNF-α through activation of NF-κB. The response was inhibited by knockdown and enhanced by over expression of NF-κB p65. However, PEDF expression was indirectly, not directly, induced by NF-κB which promoted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 expression in adipocytes. 11β-HSD1 is likely to stimulate PEDF expression through production of active form of glucocorticoids as dexamethasone induced PEDF expression in adipose tissue. Insulin inhibited PEDF by down-regulating 11β-HSD1 expression. The results suggest that PEDF activity is induced by inflammation and decreased by insulin through targeting 11β-HSD1/glucocorticoid pathway in adipose tissue of diabetic patients.

  20. Hematopoietic-Derived Galectin-3 Causes Cellular and Systemic Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingping; Liu, Shuainan; Lu, Min; Bandyopadhyay, Gautum; Oh, Dayoung; Imamura, Takeshi; Johnson, Andrew M F; Sears, Dorothy; Shen, Zhufang; Cui, Bing; Kong, Lijuan; Hou, Shaocong; Liang, Xiao; Iovino, Salvatore; Watkins, Steven M; Ying, Wei; Osborn, Olivia; Wollam, Joshua; Brenner, Martin; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2016-11-03

    In obesity, macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in insulin target tissues, promoting a chronic inflammatory state and insulin resistance. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a lectin mainly secreted by macrophages, is elevated in both obese subjects and mice. Administration of Gal3 to mice causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, whereas inhibition of Gal3, through either genetic or pharmacologic loss of function, improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice. In vitro treatment with Gal3 directly enhanced macrophage chemotaxis, reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and impaired insulin-mediated suppression of glucose output in primary mouse hepatocytes. Importantly, we found that Gal3 can bind directly to the insulin receptor (IR) and inhibit downstream IR signaling. These observations elucidate a novel role for Gal3 in hepatocyte, adipocyte, and myocyte insulin resistance, suggesting that Gal3 can link inflammation to decreased insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of Gal3 could be a new approach to treat insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conversion from insulin glargine U-100 to insulin glargine U-300 or insulin degludec and the impact on dosage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Scott M; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2018-04-01

    We wanted to determine whether basal insulin requirements change when patients transition from insulin glargine U-100 (Gla-100) to insulin glargine U-300 (Gla-300) or insulin degludec. This study involved subjects seen in the University of Colorado Health Endocrine Clinic who were transitioned from Gla-100 to either Gla-300 ( n = 95) or insulin degludec ( n = 39). The primary outcome was the difference between baseline Gla-100 dose and dose of Gla-300 or insulin degludec prescribed after first follow-up visit within 1-12 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in glycemic control and empiric dose conversion from Gla-100 to Gla-300 or insulin degludec on the day of transition. Wilcoxon rank sum tests evaluated changes in insulin doses, and paired t tests assessed changes in glycemic control using GraphPad statistical software. Median daily basal insulin dose increased for individuals transitioned from Gla-100 to Gla-300 from 30 [19-60 interquartile range (IQR)] units at baseline to 34.5 (19-70 IQR) units after follow up ( p = 0.01). For patients transitioned to insulin degludec, dose changes from baseline to follow up were not significantly different ( p = 0.56). At the time of transition, the prescribed dose of Gla-300 or insulin degludec did not significantly differ from the previous dose of Gla-100 ( p = 0.73 and 0.28, respectively), indicating that empiric dose adjustments were not routinely prescribed. Patients who transitioned from Gla-100 to Gla-300 had increased basal insulin requirements between visits, while basal insulin requirements for those transitioned from Gla-100 to insulin degludec were not significantly different.

  3. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND (p = 0.0002) but not in cognitively impaired (p = 0.884) subjects, indicating potentially important

  4. Multiple-vent programme to test the pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, I.

    1979-01-01

    Three pre-tests with a multiple vent configuration have been performed at the GKSS pressure suppression test facility. First test results indicate significant chugging events with occur periodically with 0.4 to 0.2 Hz. These events appear simultaneously in less than 10 ms at the exit of the three vent pipes and cause pressure pulses in the range of 3 bar. This report gives a short description of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the test facility and presents the boundary conditions of the three pre-tests, test results and a first valuation of the experimental informations. (orig.) [de

  5. The ontogeny of insulin signaling in the preterm baboon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia L; Liang, Hanyu; Joya-Galeana, Joaquin; DeFronzo, Ralph A; McCurnin, Donald; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Hyperglycemia, a prevalent condition in premature infants, is thought to be a consequence of incomplete suppression of endogenous glucose production and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in peripheral tissues. However, the molecular basis for these conditions remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that the insulin transduction pathway is underdeveloped with prematurity, fetal baboons were delivered, anesthetized, and euthanized at 125 d gestational age (GA), 140 d GA, or near term at 175 d GA. Vastus lateralis muscle and liver tissues were obtained, and protein content of insulin signaling molecules [insulin receptor (IR)-beta, IR substate-1, p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and AS160] and glucose transporters (GLUT)-1 and GLUT4 was measured by Western blotting. Muscle from 125 d GA baboons had markedly reduced GLUT1 protein content (16% of 140 d GA and 9% of 175 d GA fetuses). GLUT4 and AS160 also were severely reduced in 125 d GA fetal muscle (43% of 175 d GA and 35% of 175 d GA, respectively). In contrast, the protein content of IR-beta, IR substate-1, and Akt was elevated by 1.7-, 5.2-, and 1.9-fold, respectively, in muscle from 125 d GA baboons when compared with 175 d GA fetuses. No differences were found in the content of insulin signaling proteins in liver. In conclusion, significant gestational differences exist in the protein content of several insulin signaling proteins in the muscle of fetal baboons. Reduced muscle content of key glucose transport-regulating proteins (GLUT1, GLUT4, AS160) could play a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal hyperglycemia and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose disposal.

  6. Sodium retention and insulin treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    subcutaneously, contributes to the increased ENa. Three studies were performed. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study comprising 28 type 1 diabetic men (aged 18-35 years) with short-duration diabetes (diabetic complications, and 22 control subjects. Study 2 was a prospective study of 17...... subcutaneous insulin infusion for improvement of glycaemic control or to remain on conventional insulin treatment. In study 1, ENa was higher in short-duration type 1 diabetic men than in controls (3003 +/- 325 vs 2849 +/- 207 mEq/1.73 m2, P ...The hypothesis that total body exchangeable sodium (ENa) is elevated in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with short-duration diabetes and no signs of microangiopathy was tested. Also tested was whether peripheral hyperinsulinaemia, in terms of the amounts of insulin injected...

  7. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  8. Calcium phosphate-PEG-insulin-casein (CAPIC) particles as oral delivery systems for insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morçöl, T; Nagappan, P; Nerenbaum, L; Mitchell, A; Bell, S J D

    2004-06-11

    An oral delivery system for insulin was developed and functional activity was tested in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. Calcium phosphate particles containing insulin was synthesized in the presence of PEG-3350 and modified by aggregating the particles with caseins to obtain the calcium phosphate-PEG-insulin-casein (CAPIC) oral insulin delivery system. Single doses of CAPIC formulation were tested in NOD mice under fasting or fed conditions to evaluate the glycemic activity. The blood glucose levels were monitored every 1-2h for 12h following the treatments using an ACCU CHECK blood glucose monitoring system. Orally administered and subcutaneously injected free insulin solution served as controls in the study. Based on the results obtained we propose that: (1). the biological activity of insulin is preserved in CAPIC formulation; (2). insulin in CAPIC formulations, but not the free insulin, displays a prolonged hypoglycemic effect after oral administration to diabetic mice; (3). CAPIC formulation protects insulin from degradation while passing through the acidic environment of the GI track until it is released in the less acidic environment of the intestines where it can be absorbed in its biologically active form; (4). CAPIC formulation represents a new and unique oral delivery system for insulin and other macromolecules.

  9. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  10. Attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain networks controlling appetite and reward in insulin resistance: the cerebral basis for impaired control of food intake in metabolic syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Karen; Reed, Laurence J; Dunn, Joel T; Bingham, Emma; Hopkins, David; Marsden, Paul K; Amiel, Stephanie A

    2006-11-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is a global challenge. A possible mechanism linking insulin resistance and weight gain would be attenuation of insulin-evoked responses in brain areas relevant to eating in systemic insulin resistance. We measured brain glucose metabolism, using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, in seven insulin-sensitive (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] = 1.3) and seven insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR = 6.3) men, during suppression of endogenous insulin by somatostatin, with and without an insulin infusion that elevated insulin to 24.6 +/- 5.2 and 23.2 +/- 5.8 mU/l (P = 0.76), concentrations similar to fasting levels of the resistant subjects and approximately threefold above those of the insulin-sensitive subjects. Insulin-evoked change in global cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was reduced in insulin resistance (+7 vs. +17.4%, P = 0.033). Insulin was associated with increased metabolism in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex and with decreased metabolism in right amygdala/hippocampus and cerebellar vermis (P reward. Diminishing the link be-tween control of food intake and energy balance may contribute to development of obesity in insulin resistance.

  11. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  12. Neuronal Cbl Controls Biosynthesis of Insulin-Like Peptides in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Sun, Ying; He, Shengqi; Yan, Cheng; Rui, Liangyou; Li, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    The Cbl family proteins function as both E3 ubiquitin ligases and adaptor proteins to regulate various cellular signaling events, including the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathways. These pathways play essential roles in growth, development, metabolism, and survival. Here we show that in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila Cbl (dCbl) regulates longevity and carbohydrate metabolism through downregulating the production of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (dILPs) in the brain. We found that dCbl was highly expressed in the brain and knockdown of the expression of dCbl specifically in neurons by RNA interference increased sensitivity to oxidative stress or starvation, decreased carbohydrate levels, and shortened life span. Insulin-producing neuron-specific knockdown of dCbl resulted in similar phenotypes. dCbl deficiency in either the brain or insulin-producing cells upregulated the expression of dilp genes, resulting in elevated activation of the dILP pathway, including phosphorylation of Drosophila Akt and Drosophila extracellular signal-regulated kinase (dERK). Genetic interaction analyses revealed that blocking Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (dEGFR)-dERK signaling in pan-neurons or insulin-producing cells by overexpressing a dominant-negative form of dEGFR abolished the effect of dCbl deficiency on the upregulation of dilp genes. Furthermore, knockdown of c-Cbl in INS-1 cells, a rat β-cell line, also increased insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated secretion in an ERK-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that neuronal dCbl regulates life span, stress responses, and metabolism by suppressing dILP production and the EGFR-ERK pathway mediates the dCbl action. Cbl suppression of insulin biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved, raising the possibility that Cbl may similarly exert its physiological actions through regulating insulin production in β cells. PMID:22778134

  13. FoxO6 Integrates Insulin Signaling With Gluconeogenesis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Perdomo, German; Zhang, Ting; Slusher, Sandra; Lee, Sojin; Phillips, Brett E.; Fan, Yong; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Ringquist, Steven; Dong, H. Henry

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. This effect stems from inept insulin suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the ability of forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) to mediate insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis and its contribution to glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We characterized FoxO6 in glucose metabolism in cultured hepatocytes and in rodent models of dietary obesity, insulin resistance, or insulin-deficient diabetes. We determined the effect of FoxO6 on hepatic gluconeogenesis in genetically modified mice with FoxO6 gain- versus loss-of-function and in diabetic db/db mice with selective FoxO6 ablation in the liver. RESULTS FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling to hepatic gluconeogenesis. In mice, elevated FoxO6 activity in the liver augments gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels, and hepatic FoxO6 depletion suppresses gluconeogenesis, resulting in fasting hypoglycemia. FoxO6 stimulates gluconeogenesis, which is counteracted by insulin. Insulin inhibits FoxO6 activity via a distinct mechanism by inducing its phosphorylation and disabling its transcriptional activity, without altering its subcellular distribution in hepatocytes. FoxO6 becomes deregulated in the insulin-resistant liver, accounting for its unbridled activity in promoting gluconeogenesis and correlating with the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. These metabolic abnormalities, along with fasting hyperglycemia, are reversible by selective inhibition of hepatic FoxO6 activity in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Our data uncover a FoxO6-dependent pathway by which the liver orchestrates insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis, providing the proof-of-concept that selective FoxO6 inhibition is beneficial for curbing excessive hepatic glucose production and improving glycemic control in diabetes. PMID:21940782

  14. Acute activation of GLP-1-expressing neurons promotes glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuemei; Chacko, Shaji; Li, Feng; Li, Depei; Burrin, Douglas; Chan, Lawrence; Guan, Xinfu

    2017-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptides are co-released from enteroendocrine L cells in the gut and preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the brainstem. PPG-derived GLP-1/2 are probably key neuroendocrine signals for the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether activation of PPG neurons per se modulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo. We generated glucagon (Gcg) promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice and injected excitatory hM3Dq-mCherry AAV into their brainstem NTS. We characterized the metabolic impact of PPG neuron activation on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity using stable isotopic tracers coupled with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We showed that after ip injection of clozapine N-oxide, Gcg-Cre lean mice transduced with hM3Dq in the brainstem NTS downregulated basal endogenous glucose production and enhanced glucose tolerance following ip glucose tolerance test. Moreover, acute activation of PPG neurons NTS enhanced whole-body insulin sensitivity as indicated by increased glucose infusion rate as well as augmented insulin-suppression of endogenous glucose production and gluconeogenesis. In contrast, insulin-stimulation of glucose disposal was not altered significantly. We conclude that acute activation of PPG neurons in the brainstem reduces basal glucose production, enhances intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, and augments hepatic insulin sensitivity, suggesting an important physiological role of PPG neurons-mediated circuitry in promoting glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Saotome, Masao; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Funaki, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ m depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H 2 O 2 -induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ m depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin-resistance. • Inhibition of DRP or ROS

  16. Roles of mitochondrial fragmentation and reactive oxygen species in mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomoyuki [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Saotome, Masao, E-mail: msaotome@hama-med.ac.jp [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nobuhara, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Satoh, Hiroshi [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Funaki, Makoto [Clinical Research Center for Diabetes, Tokushima University Hospital, 2-50-1 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Hayashi, Hideharu [Internal Medicine III, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Evidence suggests an association between aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and cardiac diseases. Because myocardial metabolic deficiency caused by insulin resistance plays a crucial role in heart disease, we investigated the role of dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP1; a mitochondrial fission protein) in the pathogenesis of myocardial insulin resistance. Methods and Results: DRP1-expressing H9c2 myocytes, which had fragmented mitochondria with mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ{sub m}) depolarization, exhibited attenuated insulin signaling and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake, indicating insulin resistance. Treatment of the DRP1-expressing myocytes with Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride (TMPyP) significantly improved insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. When myocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), they increased DRP1 expression and mitochondrial fragmentation, resulting in ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and insulin resistance. When DRP1 was suppressed by siRNA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance were restored. Our results suggest that a mutual enhancement between DRP1 and reactive oxygen species could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial insulin resistance. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant myocytes, neither DRP1-suppression nor TMPyP restored the ΔΨ{sub m} depolarization and impaired 2-DG uptake, however they improved insulin signaling. Conclusions: A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS could promote mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of insulin signal transduction. However, other mechanisms, including lipid metabolite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, may be involved in palmitate-induced insulin resistance. - Highlights: • DRP1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and insulin-resistance. • A mutual enhancement between DRP1 and ROS ipromotes insulin-resistance. • Palmitate increases DRP1 expression and induces insulin

  17. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lepob/ob mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic β-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- ) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic β-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep ob/ob /HSL +/+ in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep +/+ background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep ob/ob islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep ob/ob mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  18. Fructose induced neurogenic hypertension mediated by overactivation of p38 MAPK to impair insulin signaling transduction caused central insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Te; Ho, Wen-Yu; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chi-Cheng; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of complications related to hypertension, and reports have indicated that insulin levels may be associated with blood pressure (BP). Fructose intake has recently been reported to promote insulin resistance and superoxide formation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether fructose intake can enhance superoxide generation and impair insulin signaling in the NTS and subsequently elevate BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with fructose for 4 weeks increased the BP, serum fasting insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and reduced the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in the fructose group. The Tempol treatment recovered the fructose-induced decrease in nitric oxide production in the NTS. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses further showed that fructose increased the p38- and fructose-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 S307 ) and suppressed Akt S473 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Similarly, fructose was able to impair insulin sensitivity and increase insulin levels in the NTS. Fructose intake also increased the production of superoxide in the NTS. The results of this study suggest that fructose might induce central insulin resistance and elevate BP by enhancing superoxide production and activating p38 phosphorylation in the NTS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia associated with insulin antibodies caused by exogenous insulin analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Su

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulin antibodies (IA associated with exogenous insulin administration seldom caused hypoglycemia and had different characteristics from insulin autoantibodies (IAA found in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, which was first described by Dr Hirata in 1970. The characteristic of IAS is the presence of insulin-binding autoantibodies and related fasting or late postprandial hypoglycemia. Here, we report a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus under insulin glargine and insulin aspart treatment who developed recurrent spontaneous post-absorptive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with the cause probably being insulin antibodies induced by exogenous injected insulin. Examinations of serial sera disclosed a high titre of insulin antibodies (33%, normal <5%, high insulin concentration (111.9 IU/mL and undetectable C-peptide when hypoglycemia occurred. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed persistent high serum levels of total insulin and undetectable C-peptide. Image studies of the pancreas were unremarkable, which excluded the diagnosis of insulinoma. The patient does not take any of the medications containing sulfhydryl compounds, which had been reported to cause IAS. After administering oral prednisolone for 3 weeks, hypoglycemic episodes markedly improved, and he was discharged smoothly.

  20. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  1. Insulin priming effect on estradiol-induced breast cancer metabolism and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagu, Peninah M; Phan, Ai N H; Kim, Min-Kyu; Han, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyun-Won; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Ki Woo; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kwang Hwa; Jeong, Yangsik

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for breast cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis for breast cancer patients. However, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated estradiol response in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with or without chronic exposure to insulin. We found that insulin priming is necessary and specific for estradiol-induced cancer cell growth, and induces anaplerotic shunting of glucose into macromolecule biosynthesis in the estradiol treated cells. Treatment with ERK or Akt specific inhibitors, U0126 or LY294002, respectively, suppressed estradiol-induced growth. Interestingly, molecular analysis revealed that estradiol treatment markedly increases expression of cyclin A and B, and decreases p21 and p27 in the insulin-primed cells. In addition, estradiol treatment activated metabolic genes in pentose phosphate (PPP) and serine biosynthesis pathways in the insulin-primed cells while insulin priming decreased metabolic gene expression associated with glucose catabolism in the breast cancer cells. Finally, we found that anti-diabetic drug metformin and AMPK ligand AICAR, but not thiazolidinediones (TZDs), specifically suppress the estradiol-induced cellular growth in the insulin-primed cells. These findings suggest that estrogen receptor (ER) activation under chronic hyperinsulinemic condition increases breast cancer growth through the modulation of cell cycle and apoptotic factors and nutrient metabolism, and further provide a mechanistic evidence for the clinical benefit of metformin use for ER-positive breast cancer patients with diabetes.

  2. Insulin aspart in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2008-01-01

    in insulin requirements during pregnancy necessitate short-acting insulins for postprandial control of hyperglycemia. The fast-acting insulin analogue insulin aspart has been tested in a large, randomized trial of pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes and offers benefits in control of postprandial...... hyperglycemia with a tendency towards fewer episodes of severe hypoglycemia compared with human insulin. Treatment with insulin aspart was associated with a tendency toward fewer fetal losses and preterm deliveries than treatment with human insulin. Insulin aspart could not be detected in the fetal circulation...... and no increase in insulin antibodies was found. Thus, the use of insulin aspart in pregnancy is regarded safe....

  3. A practical dexamethasone suppression test to evaluate hirsute women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-five hirsute women were subjected to a 2-week dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test. The pre- and post-DXM plasma dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DS) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay to define the source of androgen excess in hirsute women. Four patients (7%) failed to have adequate adrenal suppression due to failure in medication. Among the 51 patients with adequate adrenal suppression, the source of androgen excess was clearly defined in 48 patients (94%). Seventeen patients (33%) showed ovarian source, 13 patients (26%) had adrenal source, while 18 patients (35%) revealed a mixed adrenal and ovarian source. Normal baseline DS and T levels were noted in 22% of hirsute women and more than half (55%) of them had ovarian androgen excess. Even in 17 patients with normal DS and elevated T, 6 patients (36%) suggested adrenal androgen excess. The source of androgen excess in hirsute women seems evenly distributed among the ovarian, the adrenal, and the mixed group. (author)

  4. Effect of Avocado Soybean Unsaponifiables on Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Martínez-Abundis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was carried out in 14 obese adult volunteers. After random allocation of the intervention, 7 patients received 300 mg of ASU or placebo during a fasting state for 3 months. A metabolic profile including IL-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels was carried out prior to the intervention. A hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was used to assess insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity phases. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test were performed for statistical analyses. The study was approved by the local ethics committee of our institution. Results: At baseline, both groups were similar according to clinical and laboratory characteristics. There was no significant difference in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity with ASU. Conclusions: ASU administration for 3 months did not modify insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity.

  5. Sustained NFκB inhibition improves insulin sensitivity but is detrimental to muscle health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Valentine, Joseph M; Zhou, You; Li, Mengyao E; Zhang, Yiqiang; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Walsh, Michael E; Fischer, Katherine E; Austad, Steven N; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Shoelson, Steven E; Van Remmen, Holly; Chen, Hung I; Chen, Yidong; Liang, Hanyu; Musi, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Older adults universally suffer from sarcopenia and approximately 60-70% are diabetic or prediabetic. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying these aging-related metabolic disorders are unknown. NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several aging-related pathologies including sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as a target against them. NFκB also is thought to mediate muscle wasting seen with disuse, denervation, and some systemic diseases (e.g., cancer, sepsis). We tested the hypothesis that lifelong inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway would protect against aging-related sarcopenia and insulin resistance. Aged mice with muscle-specific overexpression of a super-repressor IκBα mutant (MISR) were protected from insulin resistance. However, MISR mice were not protected from sarcopenia; to the contrary, these mice had decreases in muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice. In MISR mice, NFκB suppression also led to an increase in proteasome activity and alterations in several genes and pathways involved in muscle growth and atrophy (e.g., myostatin). We conclude that the mechanism behind aging-induced sarcopenia is NFκB independent and differs from muscle wasting due to pathologic conditions. Our findings also indicate that, while suppressing NFκB improves insulin sensitivity in aged mice, this transcription factor is important for normal muscle mass maintenance and its sustained inhibition is detrimental to muscle function. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2014-01-01

    after RYGB. Participants were included after a preoperative diet induced total weight loss of -9.2±1.2%. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with glucose tracer technique and beta-cell function evaluated in response...... after surgery. Insulin mediated glucose disposal and suppression of fatty acids did not improve immediately after surgery but increased at 3 months and 1 year likely related to the reduction in body weight. Insulin secretion increased after RYGB, but only in patients with type 2 diabetes and only...

  7. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 mediate TGF-β- and myostatin-induced suppression of proliferation in porcine embryonic myogenic cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamanga-Sollo, E.; Pampusch, M.S.; White, M.E.; Hathaway, M.R.; Dayton, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMC) produce both insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 and secrete these proteins into their media. Exogenously added recombinant porcine (rp) IGFBP-3 and rpIGFBP-5 act via IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms to suppress proliferation of PEMC cultures. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in the PEMC culture medium results in increased DNA synthesis rate suggesting that endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 suppress PEMC proliferation. TGF-β superfamily members myostatin and TGF-β 1 have also been shown to suppress proliferation of myogenic cells, and treatment of cultured PEMC with either TGF-β 1 or myostatin significantly (P 1 and myostatin. Here, we show that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-5 also significantly (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures restores Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis rates to 90% of the levels observed in control cultures receiving no TGF-β 1 or myostatin treatment (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures, phosphosmad2 levels in these cultures were not affected. These findings strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 affect processes downstream from receptor-mediated Smad phosphorylation that facilitate the ability of TGF-β and myostatin to suppress proliferation of PEMC

  8. TNFα dynamics during the oral glucose tolerance test vary according to the level of insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2014-05-01

    TNFα is suspected to play a role in inflammation and insulin resistance leading to higher risk of metabolic impairment. Controversies exist concerning the role of TNFα in gestational insulin resistance. We investigated the interrelations between TNFα and insulin resistance in a large population-based cohort of pregnant women. Women (n = 756) were followed prospectively at 5-16 weeks and 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were collected at both visits. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at the second trimester to assess insulin sensitivity status (homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index). TNFα was measured at the first trimester (nonfasting) and at each time point of the OGTT. Participants were 28.4 ± 4.4 years old and had a mean body mass index of 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) at first trimester. Median TNFα levels were 1.56 (interquartile range, 1.18-2.06) pg/mL at first trimester and 1.61 (interquartile range, 1.12-2.13) pg/mL at second trimester (1 h after glucose load). At second trimester, higher TNFα levels were associated with higher insulin resistance index levels (r = 0.37 and -0.30 for homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index, respectively; P insulin resistance showed a continuing decrease in TNFα levels during the OGTT, whereas women who were more insulin sensitive showed an increase in TNFα at hour 1 and a decrease at hour 2 of the test. Higher insulin resistance is associated with higher levels of circulating TNFα at first and second trimesters of pregnancy. TNFα level dynamics during an OGTT at second trimester vary according to insulin-resistance state.

  9. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Liang, Hanyu; Farese, Robert V; Li, Ji; Musi, Nicolas; Hussey, Sophie E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats. For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus)] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min) or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d) or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD) or a low fat control diet (LFD) for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp. Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18%) in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust), suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP) in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP. Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  10. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IRβ and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IRβ and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IRβ and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IRβ and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IRβ, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IRβ, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IRβ in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effect of oral administration of ascorbic acid on insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in obese individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abundis, E; Pascoe-González, S; González-Ortiz, M; Mora-Martínez, J M; Cabrera-Pivaral, C E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of an oral ascorbic acid (AA) supplement on lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese people. A randomized double-blind clinical trial placebo controlled was performed in 16 obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) 30-40 kg/m2]. Eight received orally 1 g of AA daily for four weeks and the other eight volunteers received placebo by the same scheme and period of time. Before and after the pharmacological intervention were measured total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and uric acid. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides were calculated using formulas. In order to assess insulin sensitivity before and after the intervention, the steady-state glucose (SSG) was calculated from the insulin suppression test modified with octreotide. There were not significant differences in clinical characteristics between both groups. Basal metabolic profile and SSG were similar between both groups. There were not significant differences in both groups between before and after the intervention in metabolic profile and insulin sensitivity. AA did not modify the lipid profile nor insulin sensitivity in the group of obese people studied.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2016-04-15

    Sterile inflammation and infection are key mediators of inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies have shown endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to induce inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however is paucity of studies investigating the effects of ER stress in skeletal muscle on inflammation and insulin resistance associated with GDM. ER stress proteins IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were upregulated in skeletal muscle of obese pregnant women, whereas IRE1α was increased in GDM women. Suppression of ER stress, using ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or siRNA knockdown of IRE1α and GRP78, significantly downregulated LPS-, poly(I:C)- or IL-1β-induced production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and MCP-1. Furthermore, LPS-, poly(I:C)- or TNF-α-induced insulin resistance was improved following suppression of ER stress, by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR-β, IRS-1, GLUT-4 expression and glucose uptake. In summary, our inducible obesity and GDM-like models suggests that the development of GDM may be involved in activating ER stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insulin responsiveness of protein metabolism in vivo following bedrest in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangraw, R.E.; Stuart, C.A.; Prince, M.J.; Peters, E.J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    To test the influence of bedrest on insulin regulation of leucine metabolism, six normal young men were subjected to a five-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp before and after 7 days of strict bedrest. A primed-constant infusion of [1- 13 C]leucine was used. Before bedrest, the basal rate of appearance (R a ) of intracellular leucine and leucine oxidation were 2.79±0.17 and 0.613±0.070 μmol·kg -1 ·min -1 , respectively. Insulin caused a dose-dependent reduction of the intracellular leucine R a and leucine oxidation to a minimum of 1.64±0.08 and 0.322±0.039 μmol·kg -1 ·min -1 , respectively, in nonbedrested subjects. Insulin also caused a dose-dependent reduction of plasma leucine concentration. After bedrest, subjects exhibited decreased glucose tolerance and increased endogenous insulin secretion, but basal and insulin-suppressed intracellular leucine R a and leucine oxidation rates were not different from control. Magnetic resonance imaging of the back and lower extremities revealed a 1-4% decrease in muscle volume and a 2-5% increase in fat volume secondary to bedrest. Bedrest also resulted in a negative nitrogen balance as compared with the control period. Thus because negative nitrogen balance and skeletal muscle atrophy occurred in six rested subjects in the absence of changes in the two indices of protein breakdown used in this study, it seems likely that muscle protein synthesis was inhibited

  14. Insulin sensitizers prevent fine particulate matter-induced vascular insulin resistance and changes in endothelial progenitor cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Petra; McCracken, James P; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. Because blood vessels are sensitive targets of air pollutant exposure, we examined the effects of concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) on vascular insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which reflect cardiovascular health. We found that CAP exposure for 9 days decreased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta of mice maintained on control diet. This change was accompanied by the induction of IL-1β and increases in the abundance of cleaved IL-18 and p10 subunit of Casp-1, consistent with the activation of the inflammasome pathway. CAP exposure also suppressed circulating levels of EPCs (Flk-1(+)/Sca-1(+) cells), while enhancing the bone marrow abundance of these cells. Although similar changes in vascular insulin signaling and EPC levels were observed in mice fed high-fat diet, CAP exposure did not exacerbate diet-induced changes in vascular insulin resistance or EPC homeostasis. Treatment with an insulin sensitizer, metformin or rosiglitazone, prevented CAP-induced vascular insulin resistance and NF-κB and inflammasome activation and restored peripheral blood and bone marrow EPC levels. These findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure induces diet-independent vascular insulin resistance and inflammation and prevents EPC mobilization, and that this EPC mobilization defect could be mediated by vascular insulin resistance. Impaired vascular insulin sensitivity may be an important mechanism underlying PM2.5-induced vascular injury, and pharmacological sensitization to insulin action could potentially prevent deficits in vascular repair and mitigate vascular inflammation due to exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollution. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and [3-3H]glucose studies in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, O.; Arnfred, J.; Hother Nielsen, O.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Oerskov, H.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg · min or in identical amounts in pulses of 1 1 / 2 to 2 1 / 4 min followed by intervals of 10 1 / 2 to 9 3 / 4 min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 μU/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7±0.7 vs 6.8±0.9 ml/kg · min, P 3 H]glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion. (author)

  16. NADPH Oxidase-Mediated ROS Production Determines Insulin's Action on the Retinal Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Teruyo; Oku, Hidehiro; Horie, Taeko; Matsuo, Junko; Kobayashi, Takatoshi; Fukumoto, Masanori; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether insulin induces nitric oxide (NO) formation in retinal microvessels and to examine the effects of high glucose on the formation of NO. Freshly isolated rat retinal microvessels were incubated in normal (5.5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose with or without insulin (100 nM). The levels of insulin-induced NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the retinal microvessels were determined semiquantitatively using fluorescent probes, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, and hydroethidine, respectively, and a laser scanning confocal microscope. The insulin-induced changes of NO in rat retinal endothelial cells and pericytes cultured at different glucose concentrations (5.5 and 25 mM) were determined using flow cytometry. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein levels were determined by Western blot analysis; intracellular levels of ROS were determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of ethidium fluorescence; and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase RNA expression was quantified using real-time PCR. Exposure of microvessels to insulin under normal glucose conditions led to a significant increase in NO levels; however, this increase was significantly suppressed when the microvessels were incubated under high glucose conditions. Intracellular levels of ROS were significantly increased in both retinal microvessels and cultured microvascular cells under high glucose conditions. The expression of NOS and NADPH oxidase were significantly increased in endothelial cells and pericytes under high glucose conditions. The increased formation of NO by insulin and its suppression by high glucose conditions suggests that ROS production mediated by NADPH oxidase is important by insulin's effect on the retinal microvasculature.

  17. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin......AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...

  18. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Mitrou, Panayota; Lambadiari, Vaia; Boutati, Eleni; Maratou, Eirini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Koukkou, Efi; Tzanela, Marinela; Thalassinos, Nikos; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2006-12-01

    Although insulin resistance in thyroid hormone excess is well documented, information on insulin action in hypothyroidism is limited. To investigate this, a meal was given to 11 hypothyroid (HO; aged 45 +/- 3 yr) and 10 euthyroid subjects (EU; aged 42 +/- 4 yr). Blood was withdrawn for 360 min from veins (V) draining the anterior abdominal sc adipose tissue and the forearm and from the radial artery (A). Blood flow (BF) in adipose tissue was measured with 133Xe and in forearm with strain-gauge plethysmography. Tissue glucose uptake was calculated as (A-V)glucose(BF), lipoprotein lipase as (A-V)Triglycerides(BF), and lipolysis as [(V-A)glycerol(BF)]-lipoprotein lipase. The HO group had higher glucose and insulin levels than the EU group (P hypothyroidism: 1) glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue is resistant to insulin; 2) suppression of lipolysis by insulin is not impaired; and 3) hypertriglyceridemia is due to decreased clearance by the adipose tissue.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of seric C-peptide. Practical value in the study of insulin secretion. Results of 140 stimulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafflart, Jean.

    1977-10-01

    C-peptide, which appears as a by-product of insulin synthesis, is secreted with this latter in equimolar quantities but is not degraded in the liver. It thus reflects indirectly the insulin secreted. After the structure of C-peptide was determined in 1971 by OYER it was synthesized by YANAIHARA and a radioimmunoassay was developed by KANEKO in 1974. This work was made possible by the recent commercialisation of a Japanese analysis kit, the 'DAIICHI' kit, and its availability through GUERBET TESTS. Part one describes the structural, physiological and immuno properties of C-peptide and its method of determination. Part two is devoted to a review of foreign publications on the practical interest of the C-peptide measurement. Part three gives the results of 140 oral or venous stimulation tests where blood sugar, blood insulin and C-peptide are measured in parallel. The different diabetic pathologies are explored and compared against normal subjects. The purpose of this work is to establish the value of C-peptide as a reflection of insulin secretion on the one hand, and that of a parallel insulin and C-peptide determination on the other [fr

  20. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  1. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Vatner

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2 reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32. This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003. There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase. Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  3. Relationship Between β-cell Response and Insulin Sensitivity in Horses based on the Oral Sugar Test and the Euglycemic Hyperinsulinemic Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindåse, S; Nostell, K; Söder, J; Bröjer, J

    2017-09-01

    A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and insulin sensitivity (IS) has been described in several species including rodents, dogs, and humans. This relationship has not been elucidated in the horse. To determine whether the hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses by using indices of β-cell response from the oral sugar test (OST) and IS measurements from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A second aim was to compare how well IS estimates from the OST and EHC correlate. Forty-nine horses with different degrees of insulin regulation (normal-to-severe insulin dysregulation). Cross-sectional study. Horses were examined with an OST and an EHC. Decreased IS was associated with increased β-cell response in the horses. Nine of 12 comparisons between indices of β-cell response and IS measures fulfilled the criteria for a hyperbolic relationship. Indices of IS calculated from the OST correlated highly with the insulin-dependent glucose disposal rate (M) and the insulin-dependent glucose disposal rate per unit of insulin (M/I) determined from the EHC (r = 0.81-0.87). A hyperbolic relationship between β-cell response and IS exists in horses, which suggest that horses with insulin dysregulation respond not only with postprandial hyperinsulinemia but are also insulin resistant. The OST is primarily a test for β-cell response rather than a test for IS, but calculated indices of IS from the OST may be useful to estimate IS in horses, especially when the horse is insulin resistant. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET A R during insulin resistance, ET A R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET A R expression, but not ET B R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET A R pathway suppressed insulin

  5. Insulin Preconditioning Elevates p-Akt and Cardiac Contractility after Reperfusion in the Isolated Ischemic Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin induces cardioprotection partly via an antiapoptotic effect. However, the optimal timing of insulin administration for the best quality cardioprotection remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that insulin administered prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration after ischemia. Isolated rat hearts were prepared using Langendorff method and divided into three groups. The Pre-Ins group (Pre-Ins received 0.5 U/L insulin prior to 15 min no-flow ischemia for 20 min followed by 20 min of reperfusion. The Post-Ins group (Post-Ins received 0.5 U/L insulin during the reperfusion period only. The control group (Control was perfused with KH buffer throughout. The maximum of left ventricular derivative of pressure development (dP/dt(max was recorded continuously. Measurements of TNF-α and p-Akt in each time point were assayed by ELISA. After reperfusion, dP/dt(max in Pre-Ins was elevated, compared with Post-Ins at 10 minutes after reperfusion and Control at all-time points. TNF-α levels at 5 minutes after reperfusion in the Pre-Ins were lower than the others. After 5 minutes of reperfusion, p-Akt was elevated in Pre-Ins compared with the other groups. Insulin administration prior to ischemia provides better cardioprotection than insulin administration only at reperfusion. TNF-α suppression is possibly mediated via p-Akt leading to a reduction in contractile myocardial dysfunction.

  6. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  7. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 50%, whereas suppression of the parallel ATP-producing isoform (ΔSCS-ATP) increased GSIS by two-fold in INS-1 832/13 cells and cultured rat islets. Insulin secretion correlated with increases in cytosolic calcium but not with changes in NAD(P)H or the ATP/ADP ratio. These data suggest an important role for mtGTP in mediating GSIS in β-cells by modulation of mitochondrial metabolism possibly via influencing mitochondrial calcium. Furthermore, by virtue of its tight coupling to TCA oxidation rates, mtGTP production may serve as an important molecular signal of TCA cycle activity. PMID:17403370

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is associated with insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids and net lipid oxidation in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, SB; Andersen, O; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates lipolysis in man. We examined whether plasma TNF-alpha is associated with the degree by which insulin suppresses markers of lipolysis, for example, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and net lipid oxidation (LIPOX) rate in HIV-infected patients...... with lipodystrophy (LIPO) and those without (controls). LIPOX was estimated by indirect calorimetry during fasting and steady state of a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in 36 (18 LIPO and 18 controls) normoglycemic HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy. In LIPO, TNF-alpha correlated with clamp...... were significant in controls. In all patients, TNF-alpha correlated with clamp FFA (r = 0.61, P

  9. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinna NA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidal A Qinna,1 Adnan A Badwan2 1Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, 2Research and Innovation Centre, The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co. Plc. (JPM, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Streptozotocin (STZ is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL, noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were

  10. Paradoxical Acceleration of Dithiothreitol-Induced Aggregation of Insulin in the Presence of a Chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kurganov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of dithiothreitol (DTT-induced aggregation of human recombinant insulin and the effect of α-crystallin, a representative of the family of small heat shock proteins, on the aggregation process have been studied using dynamic light scattering technique. Analysis of the distribution of the particles by size measured in the course of aggregation showed that the initial stage of the aggregation process was the stage of formation of the start aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh of about 90 nm. When studying the effect of α-crystallin on the rate of DTT-induced aggregation of insulin, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of α-crystallin dramatically accelerated the aggregation process, whereas high concentrations of α-crystallin suppressed insulin aggregation. In the present study, at the molar stoichiometric ratio (insulin:α-crystallin less than 1:0.5, a pronounced accelerating effect of α-crystallin was observed; whereas a ratio exceeding the value of 1:0.6 caused suppression of insulin aggregation. The mechanisms underlying the dual effect of α-crystallin have been proposed. It is assumed that heterogeneous nucleation occurring on the surface of the α-crystallin particle plays the key role in the paradoxical acceleration of insulin aggregation by α-crystallin that may provide an alternative biologically significant pathway of the aggregation process.

  11. Mark II containment 1/6-scale pressure suppression test program: data report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Okazaki, Motoaki; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-08-01

    This report documents experimental data from the first test phase of the Mark II Containment 1/6-Scale Pressure Suppression Test. The 1/6-Scale Test was initiated in December, 1976, to investigate the thermohydraulic responses of a BWR Mark II pressure suppression system to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), by means of scale model experiments. From January to June, 1977, a series of tests were performed for the Japanese BWR Owners' Group. These tests consisted of eight air-blowdown pool swell tests, three steam-blowdown pool swell tests, and twelve steam condensation tests. The dynamic responses of pressure and pool water level during the blowdown, pressure oscillation and chugging phenomena associated with unsteady condensation of steam were measured. (author)

  12. Evidence for altered transport of insulin across the blood-brain barrier in insulin-resistant humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Schöpfer, Patricia; Peter, Andreas; Sartorius, Tina; Fritsche, Andreas; Synofzik, Matthis; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Maetzler, Walter; Hennige, Anita M

    2014-08-01

    Eating behavior, body weight regulation, peripheral glucose metabolism, and cognitive function depend on adequate insulin action in the brain, and recent studies in humans suggested that impaired insulin action in the brain emerges upon fat intake, obesity, and genetic variants. As insulin enters into the brain in a receptor-mediated fashion, we hypothesized that whole-body insulin sensitivity might affect the transport of insulin into the brain and contribute to the aversive effect of insulin resistance in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine the ratio of insulin in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum to whole-body insulin sensitivity. Healthy human subjects participated in an oral glucose tolerance test to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity and underwent lumbar puncture. Blood and CSF concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated. The CSF/serum ratio for insulin was significantly associated with whole body insulin sensitivity with reduced insulin transported into the CSF in insulin-resistant subjects. Together, our data suggest that transport of insulin into the CSF relates to peripheral insulin sensitivity and impairs insulin action in the brain. This underlines the need for sensitizing measures in insulin-resistant subjects.

  13. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression Scale: from construct definition to pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trego, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    The Military Women's Attitudes Toward Menstrual Suppression scale (MWATMS) was created to measure attitudes toward menstrual suppression during deployment. The human health and social ecology theories were integrated to conceptualize an instrument that accounts for military-unique aspects of the environment on attitudes toward suppression. A three-step instrument development process was followed to develop the MWATMS. The instrument was pilot tested on a convenience sample of 206 military women with deployment experience. Reliability was tested with measures of internal consistency (alpha = .97); validity was tested with principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Four components accounted for 65% of variance: Benefits/Interest, Hygiene, Convenience, and Soldier/Stress. The pilot test of the MWATMS supported its reliability and validity. Further testing is warranted for validation of this instrument.

  15. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aβ-Induced Insulin Resistance and the Effects of Insulin on the Cholesterol Synthesis Pathway and Aβ Secretion in Neural Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Dema; Bamji-Mirza, Michelle; Yang, Ze; Zhang, Wandong

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity, tau pathology, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation, and dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, all of which play roles in neurodegeneration. Insulin has polytrophic effects on neurons and may be at the center of these pathophysiological changes. In this study, we investigated possible relationships among insulin signaling and cholesterol biosynthesis, along with the effects of Aβ42 on these pathways in vitro. We found that neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells transfected with the human gene encoding amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) (N2a-AβPP) produced Aβ and exhibited insulin resistance by reduced p-Akt and a suppressed cholesterol-synthesis pathway following insulin treatment, and by increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor subunit-1 at serine 612 (p-IRS-S612) as compared to parental N2a cells. Treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with Aβ42 also increased p-IRS-S612, suggesting that Aβ42 is responsible for insulin resistance. The insulin resistance was alleviated when N2a-AβPP cells were treated with higher insulin concentrations. Insulin increased Aβ release from N2a-AβPP cells, by which it may promote Aβ clearance. Insulin increased cholesterol-synthesis gene expression in SH-SY5Y and N2a cells, including 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) through sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP2). While Aβ42-treated SH-SY5Y cells exhibited increased HMGCR expression and c-Jun phosphorylation as pro-inflammatory responses, they also showed down-regulation of neuro-protective/anti-inflammatory DHCR24. These results suggest that Aβ42 may cause insulin resistance, activate JNK for c-Jun phosphorylation, and lead to dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis, and that enhancing insulin signaling may relieve the insulin-resistant phenotype and the dysregulated cholesterol-synthesis pathway to promote A

  17. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yan-Jie [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Juan, Chi-Chang [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kwok, Ching-Fai [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yung-Pei [Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Kuang-Chung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin-Chang [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ho, Low-Tone, E-mail: ltho@vghtpe.gov.tw [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-08

    suppressed insulin-induced AKT activation, whereas remained insulin-induced ERK activation. ET-1 and insulin synergistically potentiated migration and proliferation mainly through ET{sub A}R/ERK dependent pathway, which is dominant in VSMCs during modest insulin resistance syndrome. Therefore, ET-1 and ET{sub A}R are potential targets responsible for the observed synergism effect in the hypertensive atherosclerotic process through enhancement of ET-1 binding, ET-1 binding, ET{sub A}R expression, and ET-1-induced mitogenic actions in aortic VSMCs. - Highlights: • ET-1/ET{sub A}R signaling and insulin-induced pERK were high in modest insulin resistance. • ET-1 via ET{sub A}R suppressed insulin-induced pAKT but remained intact pERK in VSMCs. • Insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMC mitogenic action was ET{sub A}R/ERK dependent.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-I (lGF-l): safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2004-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a peptide synthesized mainly in the liver by stimulation by pituitary growth hormone (GH). It circulates almost entirely bound to its binding proteins. It is the anabolic effector hormone of GH. It is the only treatment in states of GH resistance such as Laron syndrome and blocking antibodies to human GH. As it suppresses insulin and GH secretion it has been used in states of insulin resistance including Type II diabetes mellitus. IGF-I is administered by once or twice daily injections. Adverse effects are mostly caused by overdosage. The usual daily dose in children ranges from 100-200 microg/kg.

  19. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  20. Hormone-sensitive lipase null mice exhibit signs of impaired insulin sensitivity whereas insulin secretion is intact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    of increased amounts of insulin. Impaired insulin sensitivity was further indicated by retarded glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that hepatic glucose production was insufficiently blocked by insulin in HSL null mice. In vitro, insulin......-stimulated glucose uptake into soleus muscle, and lipogenesis in adipocytes were moderately reduced, suggesting additional sites of insulin resistance. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets revealed a doubling of beta-cell mass in HSL null mice, which is consistent with an adaptation to insulin resistance....... Insulin secretion in vitro, examined by perifusion of isolated islets, was not impacted by HSL deficiency. Thus, HSL deficiency results in a moderate impairment of insulin sensitivity in multiple target tissues of the hormone but is compensated by hyperinsulinemia....

  1. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We investigated 1,415 healthy, nondiabetic participants (mean age 43.9 ± 8.3 years; 54.3% women) from the RISC (Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) study, of whom 852 participated in a follow-up examination after 3 years. At baseline, insulin sensitivity...... was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, expressed as the M/I value. Oral glucose tolerance test-based insulin sensitivity (OGIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were determined at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS...

  2. Comparison of insulin analogue B9AspB27Glu and soluble human insulin in insulin-treated diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S; Owens, D R; Vora, J P; Brange, J

    1990-02-10

    Postprandial plasma glucose excursions and plasma levels of free insulin after subcutaneous bolus injection of a rapidly absorbed monomeric insulin analogue (B9AspB27Glu) or soluble human insulin ('Actrapid HM' U100) were studied in six insulin-treated diabetic subjects. 10 U actrapid or an equimolar amount of the analogue were injected, in random order with an interval of 1 week, immediately before a 500 kcal test meal. Basal insulin levels were similar on the 2 study days (mean 74.1 [SE 5.1] pmol/l, actrapid; 79.7 [13.0] pmol/l, analogue). After injection of actrapid plasma free insulin levels rose slowly, reaching a plateau by 105 min at 222 (19) pmol/l. Injection of the analogue resulted in a rapid early peak at 30 min (798 [112] pmol/l), and levels were significantly higher than those after actrapid between 15 and 210 min. The more physiological plasma insulin levels achieved with the analogue were accompanied by a substantial reduction in postprandial plasma glucose excursions; the integrated area under the incremental plasma glucose curve was 45% lower after the analogue than after actrapid.

  3. C peptide and insulin releasing RIA test for the investigation of β cell function in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ailan; Zhu Chengmo; Wang Qiyu; Wang Ping

    1993-01-01

    Results of C-peptide releasing RIA test in 15 normals, and 100 diabetes were summarized and compared with glucose tolerance test and serum insulin for investigating the characteristics in different types of diabetes and evaluating the functional state of islet β cell. In 36 cases of IDDM the fasting blood sugar was significantly increased, and further elevated after eating of bread, but its peak time delay in 2 hours (normalin 1 hour). The level of basal C-peptide is very low, but shows slightly weak on no response after bread stimulating test, all of this denotes that β cell function of islets severely injured. The increasing of fasting blood sugar in 64 cases of NIDDM was lower than those of IDDM. Fasting C-peptide and insulin was normal or increased, their peak value increased after bread stimulation with peak time delayed also at 2 hours. Above results demonstrated that the function of islets B cell decreased but not fully deprived. It is concluded that C-peptide and insulin stimulating test, together with OGTT can accurately assess the islets β cell function, and also have important significance in the pathogenesis, classification and staging, prognostic evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic effects in diabetes

  4. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  5. Prediction of clamp-derived insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, Andrea; Chemello, Gaetano; Szendroedi, Julia

    2018-01-01

    that underwent both a clamp and an OGTT or meal test, thereby allowing calculation of both the M value and OGIS. The population was divided into a training and a validation cohort (n = 359 and n = 154, respectively). After a stepwise selection approach, the best model for M value prediction was applied......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp is the gold-standard method for measuring insulin sensitivity, but is less suitable for large clinical trials. Thus, several indices have been developed for evaluating insulin sensitivity from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However......, most of them yield values different from those obtained by the clamp method. The aim of this study was to develop a new index to predict clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (M value) from the OGTT-derived oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (OGIS). METHODS: We analysed datasets of people...

  6. Impaired genome maintenance suppresses the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in mice with Cockayne syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid van der Pluijm

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a photosensitive, DNA repair disorder associated with progeria that is caused by a defect in the transcription-coupled repair subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER. Here, complete inactivation of NER in Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mutants causes a phenotype that reliably mimics the human progeroid CS syndrome. Newborn Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mice display attenuated growth, progressive neurological dysfunction, retinal degeneration, cachexia, kyphosis, and die before weaning. Mouse liver transcriptome analysis and several physiological endpoints revealed systemic suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1 somatotroph axis and oxidative metabolism, increased antioxidant responses, and hypoglycemia together with hepatic glycogen and fat accumulation. Broad genome-wide parallels between Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- and naturally aged mouse liver transcriptomes suggested that these changes are intrinsic to natural ageing and the DNA repair-deficient mice. Importantly, wild-type mice exposed to a low dose of chronic genotoxic stress recapitulated this response, thereby pointing to a novel link between genome instability and the age-related decline of the somatotroph axis.

  7. Central GLP-2 enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity via activating PI3K signaling in POMC neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuemei; Zhou, Fuguo; Li, Xiaojie; Chang, Benny; Li, Depei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong; Fukuda, Makoto; Zhao, Jean J.; Li, Defa; Burrin, Douglas G.; Chan, Lawrence; Guan, Xinfu

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1/2) are co-produced and highlighted as key modulators to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after bariatric surgery. However, it is unknown if CNS GLP-2 plays any physiological role in the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. We show that mice lacking GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) in POMC neurons display glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance. GLP-2R activation in POMC neurons is required for GLP-2 to enhance insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and gluconeogenesis. GLP-2 directly modulates excitability of POMC neurons in GLP-2R- and PI3K-dependent manners. GLP-2 initiates GLP-2R-p85α interaction and facilitates PI3K-Akt-dependent FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in POMC neurons. Central GLP-2 suppresses basal HGP and enhances insulin sensitivity, which are abolished in POMC-p110α KO mice. Thus, CNS GLP-2 plays a key physiological role in the control of hepatic glucose production through activating PI3K-dependent modulation of membrane excitability and nuclear transcription of POMC neurons in the brain. PMID:23823479

  8. Central GLP-2 enhances hepatic insulin sensitivity via activating PI3K signaling in POMC neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuemei; Zhou, Fuguo; Li, Xiaojie; Chang, Benny; Li, Depei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong; Fukuda, Makoto; Zhao, Jean J; Li, Defa; Burrin, Douglas G; Chan, Lawrence; Guan, Xinfu

    2013-07-02

    Glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1/GLP-2) are coproduced and highlighted as key modulators to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after bariatric surgery. However, it is unknown if CNS GLP-2 plays any physiological role in the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. We show that mice lacking GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R) in POMC neurons display glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance. GLP-2R activation in POMC neurons is required for GLP-2 to enhance insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and gluconeogenesis. GLP-2 directly modulates excitability of POMC neurons in GLP-2R- and PI3K-dependent manners. GLP-2 initiates GLP-2R-p85α interaction and facilitates PI3K-Akt-dependent FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in POMC neurons. Central GLP-2 suppresses basal HGP and enhances insulin sensitivity, which are abolished in POMC-p110α KO mice. Thus, CNS GLP-2 plays a key physiological role in the control of HGP through activating PI3K-dependent modulation of membrane excitability and nuclear transcription of POMC neurons in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatocyte DACH1 Is Increased in Obesity via Nuclear Exclusion of HDAC4 and Promotes Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Ozcan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defective insulin signaling in hepatocytes is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. In obesity, activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII in hepatocytes suppresses ATF6, which triggers a PERK-ATF4-TRB3 pathway that disrupts insulin signaling. Elucidating how CaMKII suppresses ATF6 is therefore essential to understanding this insulin resistance pathway. We show that CaMKII phosphorylates and blocks nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4. As a result, HDAC4-mediated SUMOylation of the corepressor DACH1 is decreased, which protects DACH1 from proteasomal degradation. DACH1, together with nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR, represses Atf6 transcription, leading to activation of the PERK-TRB3 pathway and defective insulin signaling. DACH1 is increased in the livers of obese mice and humans, and treatment of obese mice with liver-targeted constitutively nuclear HDAC4 or DACH1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA increases ATF6, improves hepatocyte insulin signaling, and protects against hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Thus, DACH1-mediated corepression in hepatocytes emerges as an important link between obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. Effect of starvation on human muscle protein metabolism and its response to insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryburg, D.A.; Barrett, E.J.; Louard, R.J.; Gelfand, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effect of fasting on muscle protein turnover in the basal state and in response to insulin, we measured forearm amino acid kinetics, using [3H]phenylalanine (Phe) and [14C]leucine (Leu) infused systemically, in eight healthy subjects after 12 (postabsorptive) and 60 h of fasting. After a 150-min basal period, forearm local insulin concentration was selectively raised by approximately 25 muU/ml for 150 min by intra-arterial insulin infusion (0.02 mU.kg-1. min-1). The 60-h fast increased urine nitrogen loss and whole body Leu flux and oxidation (by 50-75%, all P less than 0.02). Post-absorptively, forearm muscle exhibited a net release of Phe and Leu, which increased two- to threefold after the 60-h fast (P less than 0.05); this effect was mediated exclusively by accelerated local rates of amino acid appearance (Ra), with no reduction in rates of disposal (Rd). Local hyperinsulinemia in the postabsorptive condition caused a twofold increase in forearm glucose uptake (P less than 0.01) and completely suppressed the net forearm output of Phe and Leu (P less than 0.02). After the 60-h fast, forearm glucose disposal was depressed basally and showed no response to insulin; in contrast, insulin totally abolished the accelerated net forearm release of Phe and Leu. The action of insulin to reverse the augmented net release of Phe and Leu was mediated exclusively by approximately 40% suppression of Ra (P less than 0.02) rather than a stimulation of Rd. We conclude that in short-term fasted humans (1) muscle amino acid output accelerates due to increased proteolysis rather than reduced protein synthesis, and (2) despite its catabolic state and a marked impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal, muscle remains sensitive to insulin's antiproteolytic action

  11. Effect of starvation on human muscle protein metabolism and its response to insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryburg, D.A.; Barrett, E.J.; Louard, R.J.; Gelfand, R.A. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-10-01

    To assess the effect of fasting on muscle protein turnover in the basal state and in response to insulin, we measured forearm amino acid kinetics, using (3H)phenylalanine (Phe) and (14C)leucine (Leu) infused systemically, in eight healthy subjects after 12 (postabsorptive) and 60 h of fasting. After a 150-min basal period, forearm local insulin concentration was selectively raised by approximately 25 muU/ml for 150 min by intra-arterial insulin infusion (0.02 mU.kg-1. min-1). The 60-h fast increased urine nitrogen loss and whole body Leu flux and oxidation (by 50-75%, all P less than 0.02). Post-absorptively, forearm muscle exhibited a net release of Phe and Leu, which increased two- to threefold after the 60-h fast (P less than 0.05); this effect was mediated exclusively by accelerated local rates of amino acid appearance (Ra), with no reduction in rates of disposal (Rd). Local hyperinsulinemia in the postabsorptive condition caused a twofold increase in forearm glucose uptake (P less than 0.01) and completely suppressed the net forearm output of Phe and Leu (P less than 0.02). After the 60-h fast, forearm glucose disposal was depressed basally and showed no response to insulin; in contrast, insulin totally abolished the accelerated net forearm release of Phe and Leu. The action of insulin to reverse the augmented net release of Phe and Leu was mediated exclusively by approximately 40% suppression of Ra (P less than 0.02) rather than a stimulation of Rd. We conclude that in short-term fasted humans (1) muscle amino acid output accelerates due to increased proteolysis rather than reduced protein synthesis, and (2) despite its catabolic state and a marked impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal, muscle remains sensitive to insulin's antiproteolytic action.

  12. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are common metabolic disorders which are observed with increasing prevalences, and which are caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including increased calorie intake and physical inactivity. These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In several studies, we have investigated insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism, and at the molecular level, insulin signaling to glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle from healthy individuals and in obesity, PCOS and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we have described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is impaired. This suggests that the defects in glucose and lipid oxidation in the common metabolic disorders are secondary to other factors. In young women with PCOS, the degree of insulin resistance was similar to that seen in middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. This supports the hypothesis of an unique pathogenesis of insulin resistance in PCOS. Insulin in physiological concentrations stimulates glucose uptake in human skeletal

  13. The dexametazone suppression test (DST) for diagnosing of depression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejopachi P, L.A.

    1984-09-01

    The dexametazone suppression test (DST) is a very valuable neuroendocrin assay as auxiliar method for diagnosing the depression. The serum cortisol levels of 20 patients of the Hospital de Salud Mental and of a control group were determined by radio-immunoassay technique. Normal concentration was defined as 5 micrograms per deciliter. Among depressed patients the average value was 9.8865 micro-grams per deciliter; having the test a 85% of positiveness. Among the control group the average value found was 1.167 micro-grams per deciliter, with a 20% of positiveness for the test. (author)

  14. Effect of iodination site on binding of radiolabeled ligand by insulin antibodies and insulin autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.L.; Wilkin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Four human insulins and four porcine insulins, each monoiodinated to the same specific activity at one of the four tyrosine residues (A14, A19, B16, B26) and purified by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, were tested in a radiobinding assay against a panel of insulin-antibody (IA)-positive sera from 10 insulin-treated diabetics and insulin-autoantibody-positive (IAA) sera from 10 nondiabetics. Of the 10 IAA-positive sera, five were fully cross reactive with both insulin species, and five were specific for human insulin. The rank order of binding of sera with the four ligands from each species was random for IA (mean rank values of 1.9 for A14, 2.0 for A19, 2.5 for B16, and 3.6 for B26 from a possible ranking range of 1 to 4), but more consistent for non-human-insulin-specific IAA (mean rank values 1.3 for A14, 3.8 for A19, 1.7 for B16, and 3.2 for B26 for labeled human insulins; 1.2 for A14, 4.0 for A19, 1.8 for B16, and 3.0 for B26 for labeled porcine insulins). The rank order of binding was virtually uniform for human-insulin-specific IAA (mean values 1.2 for A14, 3.0 for A19, 1.8 for B16, and 4.0 for B26). The influence of iodination site on the binding of labeled insulin appears to be dependent on the proximity of the labeled tyrosine to the antibody binding site and the clonal diversity, or restriction, of insulin-binding antibodies in the test serum. When IA and IAA are measured, the implications of this study regarding the choice of assay ligand may be important

  15. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. pH-Dependent Release of Insulin from Layer-by-Layer-Deposited Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yoshida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-containing microcapsules were prepared by a layer-by-layer (LbL deposition of poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polyanions, such as poly(styrenesulfonate (PSS, poly(vinyl sulfate (PVS, and dextran sulfate (DS on insulin-containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3 microparticles. The CaCO3 core was dissolved in diluted HCl solution to obtain insulin-containing hollow microcapsules. The microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM images and ζ-potential. The release of insulin from the microcapsules was faster at pH 9.0 and 7.4 than in acidic solutions due to the different charge density of PAH. In addition, insulin release was suppressed when the microcapsules were constructed using PAH with a lower molecular weight, probably owing to a thicker shell of the microcapsules. The results suggested a potential use of the insulin-containing microcapsules for developing insulin delivery systems.

  17. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Jianwei, E-mail: wangjianwei1968@gmail.com [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Gu, Tieguang [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia); Yamahara, Johji [Pharmafood Institute, Kyoto 602-8136 (Japan); Li, Yuhao, E-mail: yuhao@sitcm.edu.au [Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  18. Oleanolic acid supplement attenuates liquid fructose-induced adipose tissue insulin resistance through the insulin receptor substrate-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Gu, Tieguang; Yamahara, Johji; Li, Yuhao

    2014-01-01

    Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid contained in more than 1620 plants including various fruits and foodstuffs, has numerous metabolic effects, such as hepatoprotection. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) may contribute to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities through release of excessive free fatty acids from adipose tissue. This study investigated the effect of oleanolic acid on Adipo-IR. The results showed that supplement with oleanolic acid (25 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) over 10 weeks attenuated liquid fructose-induced increase in plasma insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in rats. Simultaneously, oleanolic acid reversed the increase in the Adipo-IR index and plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during the oral glucose tolerance test assessment. In white adipose tissue, oleanolic acid enhanced mRNA expression of the genes encoding insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. At the protein level, oleanolic acid upregulated total IRS-1 expression, suppressed the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 at serine-307, and restored the increased phosphorylated IRS-1 to total IRS-1 ratio. In contrast, phosphorylated Akt to total Akt ratio was increased. Furthermore, oleanolic acid reversed fructose-induced decrease in phosphorylated-Akt/Akt protein to plasma insulin concentration ratio. However, oleanolic acid did not affect IRS-2 mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggest that oleanolic acid supplement ameliorates fructose-induced Adipo-IR in rats via the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of metabolic actions of oleanolic acid. - Highlights: • Adipose insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to metabolic abnormalities. • We investigated the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adipo-IR in

  19. Suppressing Unwanted Autobiographical Memories Reduces Their Automatic Influences: Evidence From Electrophysiology and an Implicit Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress unwanted autobiographical memories in a memory-detection context involving a mock crime. Participants encoded sensorimotor-rich memories by enacting a lab-based crime (stealing a ring) and received instructions to suppress memory of the crime in order to evade guilt detection in a brain-wave-based concealed-information test. Aftereffects of suppression on automatic memory processes were measured in an autobiographical Implicit Association Test. Results showed that suppression attenuated brain-wave activity (the P300) associated with crime-relevant memory retrieval, which rendered waveforms from innocent and guilty participants indistinguishable. However, the two groups could nevertheless be discriminated via the late-posterior-negative slow wave, which may reflect the need to monitor response conflict arising between voluntary suppression and automatic recognition processes. Finally, extending recent findings that suppression can impair implicit memory processes, we provide novel evidence that suppression reduces automatic cognitive biases often associated with actual autobiographical memories. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  1. Insulin suppresses the AMPK signaling pathway to regulate lipid metabolism in primary cultured hepatocytes of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Li, Yu; Ding, Hongyan; Dong, Jihong; Zhang, Renhe; Huang, Dan; Lei, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing

    2018-05-01

    Dairy cows with type II ketosis display hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia, but the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of lipid metabolism by insulin in cow hepatocytes. In vitro, cow hepatocytes were treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 nm insulin in the presence or absence of AICAR (an AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) activator). The results showed that insulin decreased AMPKα phosphorylation. This inactivation of AMPKα increased the gene and protein expression levels of carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, AMPKα inactivation decreased the gene and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), which upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes, thereby increasing lipid oxidation. In addition, insulin decreased the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly. Consequently, triglyceride content was significantly increased in insulin treated hepatocytes. Activation of AMPKα induced by AICAR could reverse the effect of insulin on PPARα, SREBP-1c, and ChREBP, thereby decreasing triglyceride content. These results indicate that insulin inhibits the AMPKα signaling pathway to increase lipid synthesis and decrease lipid oxidation and VLDL assembly in cow hepatocytes, thereby inducing TG accumulation. This mechanism could partly explain the causal relationship between hepatic fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia in dairy cows with type II ketosis.

  2. Ghrelin differentially affects hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, A.C.; Hoek, A.M. van den; Parlevliet, E.T.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Pijl, H.; Corssmit, E.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ghrelin on insulin's capacity to suppress endogenous glucose production and promote glucose disposal in mice. To establish whether the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor can mediate the putative effect of ghrelin on the

  3. Assessment of insulin action in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus using [6(14)C]glucose, [3(3)H]glucose, and [2(3)H]glucose. Differences in the apparent pattern of insulin resistance depending on the isotope used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.M.; Firth, R.G.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether [2(3)H], [3(3)H], and [6(14)C]glucose provide an equivalent assessment of glucose turnover in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and nondiabetic man, glucose utilization rates were measured using a simultaneous infusion of these isotopes before and during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. In the nondiabetic subjects, glucose turnover rates determined with [6(14)C]glucose during insulin infusion were lower (P less than 0.02) than those determined with [2(3)H]glucose and higher (P less than 0.01) than those determined with [3(3)H]glucose. In IDDM, glucose turnover rates measured with [6(14)C]glucose during insulin infusion were lower (P less than 0.05) than those determined with [2(3)H]glucose, but were not different from those determined with [3(3)H]glucose. All three isotopes indicated the presence of insulin resistance. However, using [3(3)H]glucose led to the erroneous conclusion that glucose utilization was not significantly decreased at high insulin concentrations in the diabetic patients. [6(14)C] and [3(3)H]glucose but not [2(3)H]glucose indicated impairment in insulin-induced suppression of glucose production. These results indicate that tritiated isotopes do not necessarily equally reflect the pattern of glucose metabolism in diabetic and nondiabetic man

  4. Clinical insights into the safety and utility of the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in the assessment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finucane, Francis M

    2008-10-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for assessing GH and cortisol production in pituitary disease. However, areas of uncertainty remain regarding its safety in older people, the optimal duration of the test and its performance in insulin resistant states. Whether basal cortisol concentration can reliably predict an adequate adrenal response to hypoglycaemia remains to be determined.

  5. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Viscarra, Jose A.; Jaques, John T.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged food deprivation in mammals typically reduces glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations, as well as tissue deiodinase (DI) content and activity, which, collectively, suppress metabolism. However, in elephant seal pups, prolonged fasting does not suppress TH levels; it is associated with upregulation of adipose TH-mediated cellular mechanisms and adipose-specific insulin resistance. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox and the effects of glucose and insulin on TH-mediated signaling in an insulin-resistant tissue are not well defined. To address our hypothesis that insulin increases adipose TH signaling in pups during extended fasting, we assessed the changes in TH-associated genes in response to an insulin infusion in early- and late-fasted pups. In late fasting, insulin increased DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 mRNA expression by 566%, 44%, and 267% at 60 min postinfusion, respectively, with levels decreasing by 120 min. Additionally, we performed a glucose challenge in late-fasted pups to differentiate between insulin- and glucose-mediated effects on TH signaling. In contrast to the insulin-induced effects, glucose infusion did not increase the expressions of DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 until 120 min, suggesting that glucose delays the onset of the insulin-induced effects. The data also suggest that fasting duration increases the sensitivity of adipose TH-mediated mechanisms to insulin, some of which may be mediated by increased glucose. These responses appear to be unique among mammals and to have evolved in elephant seals to facilitate their adaptation to tolerate an extreme physiological condition. PMID:26739649

  6. Intrahippocampal Administration of Amyloid-β1–42 Oligomers Acutely Impairs Spatial Working Memory, Insulin Signaling, and Hippocampal Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal brain accumulation of amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) oligomers plays a causal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and in particular may cause the cognitive deficits that are the hallmark of AD. In vitro, Aβ1–42 oligomers impair insulin signaling and suppress neural functioning. We previously showed that endogenous insulin signaling is an obligatory component of normal hippocampal function, and that disrupting this signaling led to a rapid impairment of spatial working memory, while delivery of exogenous insulin to the hippocampus enhanced both memory and metabolism; diet-induced insulin resistance both impaired spatial memory and prevented insulin from increasing metabolism or cognitive function. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that Aβ1–42 oligomers could acutely impair hippocampal metabolic and cognitive processes in vivo in the rat. Our findings support this hypothesis: Aβ1–42 oligomers impaired spontaneous alternation behavior while preventing the task-associated dip in hippocampal ECF glucose observed in control animals. In addition, Aβ1–42 oligomers decreased plasma membrane translocation of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GluT4), and impaired insulin signaling as measured by phosphorylation of Akt. These data show in vivo that Aβ1–42 oligomers can rapidly impair hippocampal cognitive and metabolic processes, and provide support for the hypothesis that elevated Aβ1–42 leads to cognitive impairment via interference with hippocampal insulin signaling. PMID:22430529

  7. Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 to attenuate insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Baran A; Tarun, Akansha; D'Aquino, Katharine; Hancer, Nancy J; Ukomadu, Chinweike; White, Morris F; Michel, Thomas; Manning, Brendan D; Cohen, David E

    2013-07-30

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenced by insulin-independent IRS2 activation after knockdown, genetic ablation, or chemical inhibition of PC-TP. In addition, IRS2 was activated after knockdown of THEM2, providing support for a role for the interaction of PC-TP with THEM2 in suppressing insulin signaling. Additionally, we showed that PC-TP bound to tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and stabilized the components of the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which functions to inhibit mTORC1. Preventing phosphatidylcholine from binding to PC-TP disrupted interactions of PC-TP with THEM2 and TSC2, and disruption of the PC-TP-THEM2 complex was associated with increased activation of both IRS2 and mTORC1. In livers of mice with genetic ablation of PC-TP or that had been treated with a PC-TP inhibitor, steady-state amounts of IRS2 were increased, whereas those of TSC2 were decreased. These findings reveal a phospholipid-dependent mechanism that suppresses insulin signaling downstream of its receptor.

  8. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Ravaja, N; Räikkönen, K; Hautanen, A; Adlercreutz, H

    1998-12-01

    We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH) and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the cortisol response to dexamethasone (DXM) suppression and intravenous ACTH stimulation was also measured. We found that the basal ACTH level during the OGTT was positively associated with the cortisol response to ACTH at 60 minutes, the fasting insulin level, and the insulin to glucose ratio among exhausted and high DB men, while the reverse was true for nonexhausted and low DB men. Also, a high cortisol response to ACTH, a low cortisol level during the OGTT, and a high ratio of these cortisol determinations (cortisol ratio) were associated with high fasting insulin and glucose levels, the summed insulin values, and the insulin to glucose ratio only among nonexhausted and low DB men; among exhausted and high DB men, these associations were less pronounced, absent, or in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that VE and DB have a moderating influence on the relationships among the hormonal and metabolic parameters studied. Psychosocial stress may affect the pituitary-adrenocortical system in complex ways, contributing thereby to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

  9. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125 I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125 I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

  10. The ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) attenuates insulin resistance through suppressing GLUT-2 in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of the ergogenic supplement β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on insulin resistance induced by high-fructose diet (HFD) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks and HMB (320 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. HFD significantly increased fasting insulin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1C), liver glycogen content, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, while it decreased glucose and insulin tolerance. Furthermore, HFD significantly increased serum triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, while it significantly decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, HFD significantly increased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) but decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in liver. Aortic relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired and histopathology showed severe hepatic steatosis. HMB significantly increased insulin tolerance and decreased fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HBA1C, hepatic glycogen content, serum TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C. Additionally, HMB enhanced ACh-induced relaxation, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, and decreased mRNA expression of GLUT-2. In conclusion, HMB may attenuate insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through inhibiting GLUT-2 in liver.

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin in pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Kim M; Ehrensing, Gordon; Odoi, Agricola; Boston, Raymond C; Frank, Nicholas

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression within pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance. ANIMALS 10 insulin-resistant horses and 13 insulin-sensitive horses. PROCEDURES For each horse, food was withheld for at least 10 hours before a blood sample was collected for determination of serum insulin concentration. Horses with a serum insulin concentration horses with a serum insulin concentration > 20 μU/mL underwent a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test to determine sensitivity to insulin by minimal model analysis. Horses with a sensitivity to insulin horses were euthanized with a barbiturate overdose, and pancreatic specimens were harvested and immunohistochemically stained for determination of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression in pancreatic islets. Islet hormone expression was compared between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses. RESULTS Cells expressing insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin made up approximately 62%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-resistant horses and 64%, 18%, and 9%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-sensitive horses. Expression of insulin and somatostatin did not differ between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses, but the median percentage of glucagon-expressing cells in the islets of insulin-resistant horses was significantly less than that in insulin-sensitive horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, in insulin-resistant horses, insulin secretion was not increased but glucagon production might be downregulated as a compensatory response to hyperinsulinemia.

  12. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity......, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging estimated abdominal adipose tissue. Twenty-six (74%) AIT and 29 (83%) LED participants completed intervention per protocol. LED increased ISI-composite by 55% and ISI-HOMA by 70% (p0.7) revealing a significant...... difference between the groups (pHOMA and ISI-composite were associated with reduced visceral abdominal fat, waist circumference and body weight. Intention-to-treat analyses (n=64...

  13. Aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine enhance pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin compared with co-administered insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Sumio; Togami, Kohei; Itagaki, Shirou

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that aerosolized liposomes with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) enhance the pulmonary absorption of encapsulated insulin. In this study, we aimed to compare insulin encapsulated into the liposomes versus co-administration of empty liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin, where the DPCC liposomes would serve as absorption enhancer. The present study provides the useful information for development of noninvasive treatment of diabetes. Co-administration of empty DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin was investigated in vivo to assess the potential enhancement in protein pulmonary absorption. Co-administration was compared to DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin, and free insulin. DPPC liposomes enhanced the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin; however, the enhancing effect was lower than that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. The mechanism of the pulmonary absorption of unencapsulated free insulin by DPPC liposomes involved the opening of epithelial cell space in alveolar mucosa, and not mucosal cell damage, similar to that of the DPPC liposomes encapsulating insulin. In an in vitro stability test, insulin in the alveolar mucus layer that covers epithelial cells was stable. These findings suggest that, although unencapsulated free insulin spreads throughout the alveolar mucus layer, the concentration of insulin released near the absorption surface is increased by the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes and the absorption efficiency is also increased. We revealed that the encapsulation of insulin into DPPC liposomes is more effective for pulmonary insulin absorption than co-administration of DPPC liposomes and unencapsulated free insulin.

  14. A novel insulin resistance index to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance: the ACT NOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

  15. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on counterregulatory hormone responses, cognitive functions, and insulin secretion during hyperinsulinemic, stepped hypoglycemic clamp experiments in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Heimesaat, Markus M; Behle, Kai

    2002-01-01

    and neuroglucopenic symptoms were assessed, and cognitive function was tested at each plateau. Insulin secretion rates were estimated by deconvolution (two-compartment model of C-peptide kinetics). At insulin concentrations of approximately 45 mU/liter, glucose infusion rates were similar with and without GLP-1 (P......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and analogues are being evaluated as a new therapeutic principle for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 suppresses glucagon secretion, which could lead to disturbances of hypoglycemia counterregulation. This has, however, not been tested. Nine healthy volunteers.......97). The other counterregulatory hormones and autonomic or neuroglucopenic symptom scores increased, and cognitive functions decreased with decreasing glucose concentrations, but there were no significant differences comparing experiments with GLP-1 or placebo, except for a significant reduction of GH responses...

  16. Diagnostic utility of the glucagon stimulation test in comparison to the insulin tolerance test in patients following pituitary surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian; Meinel, Timo; Lahner, Harald

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The glucagon stimulation test (GST) like the insulin tolerance test (ITT) stimulates both ACTH and GH secretion. However, there are limited data with modern assays on sensitivity and specificity for GST in comparison to ITT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility......). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify the thresholds for GST. RESULTS: In ITT, 18/49 cases were classified as AI. ROC analysis revealed a peak cortisol value >599 nmol/l in GST for adrenal sufficiency with 100% specificity and 32% sensitivity, and a peak cortisol

  17. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  18. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  19. TCPTP Regulates Insulin Signalling in AgRP Neurons to Coordinate Glucose Metabolism with Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Garron T; Lee-Young, Robert S; Brüning, Jens C; Tiganis, Tony

    2018-04-30

    Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by eliciting effects on peripheral tissues as well as the brain. Insulin receptor (IR) signalling inhibits AgRP-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus to contribute to the suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) by insulin, whereas AgRP neuronal activation attenuates brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose uptake. The tyrosine phosphatase TCPTP suppresses IR signalling in AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic TCPTP is induced by fasting and degraded after feeding. Here we assessed the influence of TCPTP in AgRP neurons in the control of glucose metabolism. TCPTP deletion in AgRP neurons ( Agrp -Cre; Ptpn2 fl/fl ) enhanced insulin sensitivity as assessed by the increased glucose infusion rates and reduced HGP during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, accompanied by increased [ 14 C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in BAT and browned white adipose tissue. TCPTP deficiency in AgRP neurons promoted the intracerebroventricular insulin-induced repression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in otherwise unresponsive food-restricted mice yet had no effect in fed/satiated mice where hypothalamic TCPTP levels are reduced. The improvement in glucose homeostasis in Agrp -Cre; Ptpn2 fl/fl mice was corrected by IR heterozygosity ( Agrp -Cre; Ptpn2 fl/fl ; Insr fl/+ ), causally linking the effects on glucose metabolism with the IR signalling in AgRP neurons. Our findings demonstrate that TCPTP controls IR signalling in AgRP neurons to coordinate HGP and brown/beige adipocyte glucose uptake in response to feeding/fasting. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  1. Sexual dimorphism in hepatic, adipose tissue and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipid metabolism differ between men and women, and women tend to have better whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. This may be explained, in part, by differences in sex hormones and adipose tissue distribution. Few studies have investigated gender differences in hepatic, adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity between severely obese men and women. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences in glucose metabolism between severely obese men and women using tissue-specific measurements of insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was compared between age and body mass index (BMI-matched obese men and women by a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose. Basal endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue and peripheral tissues were assessed. Liver fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subset of included subjects. We included 46 obese men and women (age, 48±2 vs 46±2 years, p=0.591; BMI, 41±1 vs 41±1 kg/m2, p=0.832. There was no difference in basal endogenous glucose production (14.4±1.0 vs 15.3±0.5 µmol•kg fat-free mass-1•min-1, p=0.410, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids, 71.6±3.6 vs 76.1±2.6%, p=0.314 or peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated rate of disappearance of glucose, 26.2±2.1 vs 22.7±1.7 µmol•kg-1•min-1, p=0.211. Obese men were characterized by lower hepatic insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, 61.7±4.1 vs 72.8±2.5% in men vs women, resp., p=0.028. Finally, these observations could not be explained by differences in liver fat content (men vs women, 16.5±3.1 vs 16.0±2.5%, p=0.913, n=27.We conclude that obese men have lower hepatic, but comparable adipose tissue and peripheral tissue, insulin sensitivity compared to similarly obese women. Hepatic insulin resistance may

  2. Baicalin and its metabolites suppresses gluconeogenesis through activation of AMPK or AKT in insulin resistant HepG-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Hongmei; Cao, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Cui, Mingyuan; Wang, Zhijie; Li, Dandan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Tao; Qiu, Feng; Kang, Ning

    2017-12-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis), as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is an important component of several famous Chinese medicinal formulas for treating patients with diabetes mellitus. Baicalin (BG), a main bioactive component of S. baicalensis, has been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, pharmacokinetic studies have indicated that BG has poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, it is hard to explain the pharmacological effects of BG in vivo. Interestingly, several reports show that BG is extensively metabolized in rats and humans. Therefore, we speculate that the BG metabolites might be responsible for the pharmacological effects. In this study, BG and its three metabolites (M1-M3) were examined their effects on glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG-2 cells with a commercial glucose assay kit. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to confirm genes and proteins of interest, respectively. The results demonstrate that BG and its metabolites (except for M3) enhanced the glucose consumption which might be associated with inhibiting the expression of the key gluconeogenic genes, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Further study found that BG and M1 could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK pathway, while M2 could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that both BG and its metabolites have antihyperglycemic activities, and might be the active forms of oral doses of BG in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Phobia of self-injecting and self-testing in insulin-treated diabetes patients: opportunities for screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E. D.; Snoek, F. J.; Heine, R. J.; van der Ploeg, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    To define clinically relevant cut-off points for severe fear of self-injecting (FSI) and self-testing (FST) (phobia) in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, and to estimate the magnitude of these phobias in our research population. FSI and FST were assessed in a cross-sectional survey using the

  4. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  5. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mitochondrial GTP Regulates Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbey, Richard G.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Romanelli, Anthony J.; Wollheim, Claes B.; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Substrate-level mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP) and ATP (mtATP) synthesis occurs by nucleotide-specific isoforms of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS). Unlike mtATP, each molecule of glucose metabolized produces approximately one mtGTP in pancreatic β-cells independent of coupling with oxidative phosphorylation making mtGTP a potentially important fuel signal. siRNA suppression of the GTP-producing pathway (ΔSCS-GTP) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ...

  7. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  8. Awake intranasal insulin delivery modifies protein complexes and alters memory, anxiety, and olfactory behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David R; Tucker, Kristal; Cavallin, Melissa A; Mast, Thomas G; Fadool, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    The role of insulin pathways in olfaction is of significant interest with the widespread pathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic and neuronal comorbidities. The insulin receptor (IR) kinase is expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb, in which it suppresses a dominant Shaker ion channel (Kv1.3) via tyrosine phosphorylation of critical N- and C-terminal residues. We optimized a 7 d intranasal insulin delivery (IND) in awake mice to ascertain the biochemical and behavioral effects of insulin to this brain region, given that nasal sprays for insulin have been marketed notwithstanding our knowledge of the role of Kv1.3 in olfaction, metabolism, and axon targeting. IND evoked robust phosphorylation of Kv1.3, as well as increased channel protein-protein interactions with IR and postsynaptic density 95. IND-treated mice had an increased short- and long-term object memory recognition, increased anxiolytic behavior, and an increased odor discrimination using an odor habituation protocol but only moderate change in odor threshold using a two-choice paradigm. Unlike Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion that alters metabolism, adiposity, and axonal targeting to defined olfactory glomeruli, suppression of Kv1.3 via IND had no effect on body weight nor the size and number of M72 glomeruli or the route of its sensory axon projections. There was no evidence of altered expression of sensory neurons in the epithelium. In mice made prediabetic via diet-induced obesity, IND was no longer effective in increasing long-term object memory recognition nor increasing anxiolytic behavior, suggesting state dependency or a degree of insulin resistance related to these behaviors.

  9. Pressure suppression experiments in the PSS test rig of the GKSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1975-01-01

    A pressure suppression system has been developed for the advanced pressurized water reactor. Due to its compact layout, this system enables the reactor plant to be installed in the ship in a volume and weight saving manner. Because of significant differences in design and construction of this system as compared to similar systems for land based nuclear power plants, a test facility was built to experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness and the functioning of this system. The test facility will be described and a program of the major experimental tests will be given. Finally, some preliminary results of tests with air carry over in the wet well will be presented. (orig.) [de

  10. Globular adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance via AMPK-mediated restoration of microvascular insulin responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance, and microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of insulin action in muscle. Here we tested whether adiponectin replenishment could improve metabolic insulin sensitivity in male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) via the modulation of microvascular insulin responses. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 weeks. Small resistance artery myograph changes in tension, muscle microvascular recruitment and metabolic response to insulin were determined. Compared with rats fed a LFD, HFD feeding abolished the vasodilatory actions of globular adiponectin (gAd) and insulin on pre-constricted distal saphenous arteries. Pretreatment with gAd improved insulin responses in arterioles isolated from HFD rats, which was blocked by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition. Similarly, HFD abolished microvascular responses to either gAd or insulin and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by ∼60%. However, supplementing gAd fully rescued insulin’s microvascular action and significantly improved the metabolic responses to insulin in HFD male rats and these actions were abolished by inhibition of either AMPK or nitric oxide production. We conclude that HFD induces vascular adiponectin and insulin resistance but gAd administration can restore vascular insulin responses and improve insulin’s metabolic action via an AMPK- and nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in male rats. Key points Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Hypoadiponectinaemia is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes. Insulin resistance is present in muscle microvasculature and this may contribute to decreased insulin delivery to, and action in, muscle. In this study we examined whether adiponectin ameliorates metabolic insulin resistance by affecting muscle

  11. The effects of short-term overfeeding on insulin action in lean and reduced-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; Bergman, Bryan C; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2006-09-01

    Insulin resistance is clearly associated with obesity. However, the role of excess energy intake per se as opposed to increased fat mass in the development of insulin resistance has not been clearly defined. It may be that the nutrient load provided by short-term overfeeding is sufficient to induce measurable changes in insulin action in skeletal muscle and the liver. We examined the effects of 3 days of overfeeding on insulin action and glucose kinetics in 13 lean (body mass index, 20.9 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2); 6 men, 7 women) and 9 reduced-obese (RO) (body mass index, 29.1 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2); 4 men, 5 women) individuals. A two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study (5 and 40 mU m(-2) min(-1)) with a primed, constant infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose was performed after 3 days of a weight-maintenance diet and again after 3 days of overfeeding by 50% (50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, 20% protein). At baseline, lean individuals were more insulin sensitive, as measured by glucose infusion rate, than RO individuals (12.08 +/- 0.8 vs 7.62 +/- 1.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P lean women being more insulin sensitive than lean men (P lean women (13.37 +/- 1.3 to 11.42 +/- 1.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P lean men or RO individuals. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal remained unchanged with overfeeding in all groups. Low-dose insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production was impaired after overfeeding in lean women (euenergetic, 1.92 +/- 0.36 to 0.36 +/- 0.16 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1); overfeeding: 2.13 +/- 0.17 to 0.86 +/- 0.12 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1); P = .04) but remained unchanged in the other groups. These findings demonstrate that insulin action is reduced in lean, obese-resistant women after short-term overfeeding primarily because of an inhibition of insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, whereas short-term overfeeding does not appear to effect insulin action in lean men and RO individuals. This response may be indirectly involved in the ability of

  12. Anti-hyperglycemic and insulin sensitizer effects of turmeric and its principle constituent curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2014-10-01

    Turmeric is obtained from the plant Curcuma longa L; its major constituent, curcumin, is a polyphenol with multiple effects which can modulate some signaling pathways. Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In addition, Insulin resistance in peripheral tissue is one of the most important reasons of hyperglycemia which can cause global or systemic effects. The present study reviewed studies published in PubMed from 1998 to 2013, indicating the role of curcumin in attenuation of many pathophysiological processes involved in development and progression of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Curcumin can reduce blood glucose level by reducing the hepatic glucose production, suppression of hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory state, stimulation of glucose uptake by up-regulation of GLUT4, GLUT2 and GLUT3 genes expressions, activation of AMP kinase, promoting the PPAR ligand-binding activity, stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic tissues, improvement in pancreatic cell function, and reduction of insulin resistance. Curcumin has antihyperglycemic and insulin sensitizer effects. Thereby, more studies evaluating the effects of curcumin on hyperglycemic state and insulin resistance in related disorders such as diabetes are recommended.

  13. Intermittent hypoxia suppression of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the neonatal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Charles; Ahmad, Taimur; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V; Xu, Jiliu; Beharry, Kay D

    2018-03-08

    Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis. Newborn rats were exposed to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 hypoxic episodes (12% O 2 ) during hyperoxia (50% O 2 ) from P0-P7, P0-P14 (IH), or allowed to recover from P7-P21 or P14-P21 (IHR) in room air (RA). RA littermates at P7, P14, and P21 served as RA controls; and groups exposed to hyperoxia only (50% O 2 ) served as zero IH controls. Histopathology of the liver; hepatic levels of GH, GHBP, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and leptin; and immunoreactivities of GH, GHR, IGF-I and IGF-IR were determined. Pathological findings of the liver, including cellular swelling, steatosis, necrosis and focal sinusoid congestion were seen in IH, and were particularly severe in the P7 animals. Hepatic GH levels were significantly suppressed in the IH groups exposed to 6-12 hypoxic episodes per day and were not normalized during IHR. Deficits in the GH levels were associated with reduced body length and increase body weight during IHR suggesting increased adiposity and catchup fat. Catchup fat was also associated with elevations in GHBP, IGF-I, leptin. IH significantly impairs hepatic GH/IGF-1 signaling during the first few weeks of life, which is likely responsible for hepatic GH resistance, increased body fat, and hepatic steatosis. These hormonal perturbations may contribute to long-term organ and body growth impairment, and metabolic dysfunction in preterm infants experiencing frequent IH and/or apneic episodes. Copyright © 2018

  14. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin......The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... infusion, second stage 1,000 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin infusion, together with a [3-(3)H]glucose infusion, before and after 7 days of exercise. The training consisted of 30 min of cycling and 30 min of treadmill walking at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity daily for 7 days. The exercise program...

  15. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal; Li, Jianguo; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-01-01

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP's indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine's preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine's interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. Trans-Fatty Acids Aggravate Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in C57BL/6 Mice, Possibly by Suppressing the IRS1 Dependent Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaona; Shen, Cheng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Cong; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Han, Shasha; Wang, Peng; Dong, Zhen; Ma, Xin; Hu, Kai; Sun, Aijun; Ge, Junbo

    2016-05-30

    Trans-fatty acid consumption has been reported as a risk factor for metabolic disorders and targeted organ damages. Nonetheless, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of trans-fatty acids in obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were fed with four different diets for 20 weeks: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low trans-fatty acids diet (LTD) and high trans-fatty acid diet (HTD). The diet-induced metabolic disorders were assessed by evaluating body weight, glucose tolerance test, hepatic steatosis and plasma lipid profiles post 20-week diet. Histological (H&E, Oil-Red-O) staining and western blot analysis were employed to assess liver steatosis and potential signaling pathways. After 20-weeks of diet, the body weights of the four groups were 29.61 ± 1.89 g (ND), 39.04 ± 4.27 g (HFD), 34.09 ± 2.62 g (LTD) and 43.78 ± 4.27 g (HTD) (p steatosis compared with HFD group possibly through regulating adipose triglyceride lipase. The group consuming the HTD also exhibited significantly reduced levels of IRS1, phosphor-PKC and phosphor-AKT. These results support our hypothesis that consumption of a diet high in trans-fatty acids induces higher rates of obesity, IR and hepatic steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice, possibly by suppressing the IRS1dependent pathway.

  18. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion at birth in intrauterine growth retarded infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Sridhar, M G; Bhat, Vishnu; Chaturvedula, Lata; Vinayagamoorti, R; John, Mathew

    2006-06-01

    To study insulin sensitivity, secretion and relation of insulin levels with birth weight and ponderal index in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants at birth. We studied 30 IUGR and 30 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in Jipmer, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time of delivery for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin. When compared with healthy newborns, IUGR newborns had lower plasma glucose levels (mean 2.3+/-0.98 versus 4.1+/-0.51 mmol/L, p<0.001); lower plasma insulin levels (mean 4.5+/-2.64 versus 11.03+/-1.68 microU/L, p<0.001); higher insulin sensitivity calculated using G/I ratio (mean 11.6+/-5.1 versus 6.7+/-0.31, p<0.001), HOMA IS (mean 5.5+/-6.0 versus 0.53+/-0.15, p<0.001), and QUICKI (mean 0.47+/-0.12 versus 0.34+/-0.02, p<0.001); and decreased pancreatic beta-cell function test measured as I/G (mean 0.10+/-0.037 versus 0.15+/-0.006, p<0.001). A positive correlation was identified between insulin levels and birth weight in both the healthy control group (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.024) and IUGR group (r2 = 0.13, p = 0.048). However correlation of insulin levels with ponderal index was much more confident in both healthy control (r2 = 0.90, p<0.001) and IUGR groups (r2 = 0.28, p = 0.003). Insulin status correlated both with birth weight and ponderal index more confidently in control group than in IUGR group. At birth, IUGR infants are hypoglycaemic, hypoinsulinaemic and display increased insulin sensitivity and decreased pancreatic beta-cell function. Insulin levels correlate with ponderal index much more confidently than with birth weight.

  19. Insulin and GH signaling in human skeletal muscle in vivo following exogenous GH exposure: impact of an oral glucose load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available GH induces acute insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vivo, which in rodent models has been attributed to crosstalk between GH and insulin signaling pathways. Our objective was to characterize time course changes in signaling pathways for GH and insulin in human skeletal muscle in vivo following GH exposure in the presence and absence of an oral glucose load.Eight young men were studied in a single-blinded randomized crossover design on 3 occasions: 1 after an intravenous GH bolus 2 after an intravenous GH bolus plus an oral glucose load (OGTT, and 3 after intravenous saline plus OGTT. Muscle biopsies were taken at t = 0, 30, 60, and 120. Blood was sampled at frequent intervals for assessment of GH, insulin, glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA.GH increased AUC(glucose after an OGTT (p<0.05 without significant changes in serum insulin levels. GH induced phosphorylation of STAT5 independently of the OGTT. Conversely, the OGTT induced acute phosphorylation of the insulin signaling proteins Akt (ser(473 and thr(308, and AS160.The combination of OGTT and GH suppressed Akt activation, whereas the downstream expression of AS160 was amplified by GH. WE CONCLUDED THE FOLLOWING: 1 A physiological GH bolus activates STAT5 signaling pathways in skeletal muscle irrespective of ambient glucose and insulin levels 2 Insulin resistance induced by GH occurs without a distinct suppression of insulin signaling proteins 3 The accentuation of the glucose-stimulated activation of AS 160 by GH does however indicate a potential crosstalk between insulin and GH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00477997.

  20. Fatty acid represses insulin receptor gene expression by impairing HMGA1 through protein kinase Cε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Debleena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Roy, SibSankar; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2007-01-01

    It is known that free fatty acid (FFA) contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism in FFA-induced insulin resistance is still unclear. In the present investigation we have demonstrated that palmitate significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PDK1, the key insulin signaling molecule. Consequently, PDK1 phosphorylation of plasma membrane bound PKCε was also inhibited. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of cytosolic PKCε was greatly stimulated by palmitate; this was then translocated to the nuclear region and associated with the inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) gene transcription. A PKCε translocation inhibitor peptide, εV1, suppressed this inhibitory effect of palmitate, suggesting requirement of phospho-PKCε migration to implement palmitate effect. Experimental evidences indicate that phospho-PKCε adversely affected HMGA1. Since HMGA1 regulates IR promoter activity, expression of IR gene was impaired causing reduction of IR on cell surface and that compromises with insulin sensitivity

  1. The Higher the Insulin Resistance the Lower the Cardiac Output in Men with Type 1 Diabetes During the Maximal Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Pawel; Naskret, Dariusz; Pilacinski, Stanislaw; Pempera, Maciej; Uruska, Aleksandra; Adamska, Anna; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hemodynamic parameters analyzed in bioimpedance cardiography during maximal exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes differing in insulin resistance. The study group consisted of 40 men with type 1 diabetes. Tissue sensitivity to insulin was assessed on the basis of the glucose disposal rate (GDR) analyzed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Patients were divided into groups with GDR insulin sensitivity) and GDR ≥4.5 mg/kg/min (G2 group-higher insulin sensitivity). During the exercise test, the heart rate, systolic volume, cardiac output, cardiac index were measured by the impedance meter (PhysioFlow). Compared with the G2 group, the G1 group had a lower cardiac output (CO): during exercise 8.6 (IQR 7.7-10.0) versus 12.8 (IQR 10.8-13.7) L/min; P insulin resistance is associated with cardiac hemodynamic parameters assessed during and after exercise. The higher the insulin resistance the lower the cardiac output during maximal exercise in men with type 1 diabetes.

  2. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-κB pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Xue, Liqiong; Guo, Cuicui; Han, Bing; Pan, Chunming; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong; Ma, Qinyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. ► Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. ► Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. ► Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-κB in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-α, IL6, IL10, IL1β, KC, MIP-1α, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-κB) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

  3. Suppression of background noise in a transonic wind-tunnel test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Howard, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some exploratory tests were recently performed in the transonic test section of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 14-in. wind tunnel to suppress the background noise. In these tests, the perforated walls of the test section were covered with fine wire screens. The screens eliminated the edge tones generated by the holes in the perforated walls and significantly reduced the tunnel background noise. The tunnel noise levels were reduced to such a degree by this simple modification at Mach numbers 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.46 that the fluctuating pressure levels of a turbulent boundary layer could be measured on a 5-deg half-angle cone.

  4. Long-term AICAR administration reduces metabolic disturbances and lowers blood pressure in rats displaying features of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Esben Selmer; Jessen, Niels; Pold, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    , upregulate mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscles, and decrease the content of intra-abdominal fat. Furthermore, acute AICAR exposure has been found to reduce sterol and fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes incubated in vitro as well as suppress endogenous glucose production in rats under euglycemic......-treated animals exhibited a tendency toward decreased intra-abdominal fat content. Furthermore, AICAR administration normalized the oral glucose tolerance test and decreased fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin close to the level of the lean animals. Finally, in line with previous findings, AICAR...... treatment was also found to enhance GLUT4 protein expression and to increase maximally insulin-stimulated glucose transport in primarily white fast-twitch muscles. Our data provide strong evidence that long-term administration of AICAR improves glucose tolerance, improves the lipid profile, and reduces...

  5. Comparison of two insulin assays for first-phase insulin release in type 1 diabetes prediction and prevention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jeffrey L; Beam, Craig A; Marcovina, Santica M; Boulware, David C; Palmer, Jerry P; Winter, William E; Skyler, Jay S; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2011-11-20

    Detection of below-threshold first-phase insulin release or FPIR (1+3 minute insulin concentrations during an intravenous glucose tolerance test [IVGTT]) is important in type 1 diabetes prediction and prevention studies including the TrialNet Oral Insulin Prevention Trial. We assessed whether an insulin immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) could replace the less practical but current standard of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for FPIR. One hundred thirty-three islet autoantibody positive relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes underwent 161 IVGTTs. Insulin concentrations were measured by both assays in 1056 paired samples. A rule classifying FPIR (below-threshold, above-threshold, uncertain) by the IEMA was derived and validated against FPIR by the RIA. The insulin IEMA-based rule accurately classified below- and above-threshold FPIRs by the RIA in 110/161 (68%) IVGTTs, but was uncertain in 51/161 (32%) tests for which FPIR by RIA is needed. An uncertain FPIR by the IEMA was more likely among below-threshold vs above-threshold FPIRs by the RIA (64% [30/47] vs. 18% [21/114], respectively; pTrialNet is limiting the insulin RIA for FPIR to the latter given the practical advantages of the more specific IEMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between exogenous insulin, endogenous insulin, and glucose in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Parkner, Tina; Bruun, Niels Henrik; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Laursen, Torben

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of exogenous insulin and actual glucose levels on the release of endogenous insulin in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study investigated the interaction among serum endogenous insulin (s-EI), serum exogenous insulin aspart (s-IAsp), and blood glucose levels in an experimental short-term crossover design. Eight T2DM patients (63.52 years old; range, 49-69 years; mean body mass index, 28.8±3.8 kg/m(2)) were randomized to treatment with individual fixed doses of insulin aspart (0.5-1.5 IU/h) as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) during a 10-h period on two occasions with different duration of hyperglycemia: (1) transient hyperglycemia for 2 h (visit TH) and (2) continuous hyperglycemia for 12 h (visit CH). During steady state the variances of plasma glucose (p-glucose), s-IAsp, and s-EI were equal within visit TH and within visit CH, but variances were significantly higher during visit CH compared with visit TH. The s-IAsp reached lower levels at visit CH compared with visit TH (test for slope=1, P=0.005). The s-EI depended on p-glucose in a nonlinear fashion during the first 100 min of both visits when s-IAsp was undetectable (adjusted R(2)=0.9). A complex but statistically significant interaction among s-IAsp, s-EI, p-glucose, and patients was observed during measurable s-IAsp levels (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Endogenous and exogenous insulin showed higher variation during continuous hyperglycemia. Significantly lower levels of exogenous insulin were observed following CSII during continuous hyperglycemia compared with transient hyperglycemia. Endogenous insulin levels could in a complex way be explained by an individual interaction among p-glucose and serum exogenous insulin, if present.

  7. Growth of rhombohedral insulin crystals and in vitro modeling of their dissolution in the blood stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanev, C.N.; Dimitrov, I.L.; Hodzhaoglu, F.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-15

    Insulin is the only protein that is secreted in a crystalline form in a human healthy body. To mimic the secretion process we used NaCl salting-out to growing tiny rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals. The dissolution of the insulin crystals is of special interest for the therapeutical praxis, because the human body is supplied with the physiologically active monomers of the insulin through dissolution of the crystalline granules secreted in the pancreatic {beta}-cells. Sets of tiny rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals, which resembled the granules secreted in the {beta}-cells, were subjected to dissolution in blood plasma and model solutions. The impacts of the solution composition, flow rate, pH and ionic strength on the insulin crystal dissolution were investigated. The effect of the blood plasma was determinant because it dissolved the rhombohedral Zn-insulin crystals almost instantly, while the effects of solution's physicochemical characteristics were of minor importance. In addition, we found that the presence of abundant zinc ions suppressed the dissolution of the insulin crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  9. Patient safety and minimizing risk with insulin administration - role of insulin degludec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Myint M; Atkin, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a lifelong condition requiring ongoing medical care and patient self-management. Exogenous insulin therapy is essential in type 1 diabetes and becomes a necessity in patients with longstanding type 2 diabetes who fail to achieve optimal control with lifestyle modification, oral agents, and glucagon-like peptide 1-based therapy. One of the risks that hinders insulin use is hypoglycemia. Optimal insulin therapy should therefore minimize the risk of hypoglycemia while improving glycemic control. Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a novel basal insulin that, following subcutaneous injection, assembles into a depot of soluble multihexamer chains. These subsequently release IDeg monomers that are absorbed at a slow and steady rate into the circulation, with the terminal half-life of IDeg being ~25 hours. Thus, it requires only once-daily dosing unlike other basal insulin preparations that often require twice-daily dosing. Despite its long half-life, once-daily IDeg does not cause accumulation of insulin in the circulation after reaching steady state. IDeg once a day will produce a steady-state profile with a lower peak:trough ratio than other basal insulins. In clinical trials, this profile translates into a lower frequency of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with insulin glargine, as well as an ability to allow some flexibility in dose timing without compromising efficacy and safety. Indeed, a study that tested the extremes of dosing intervals of 8 and 40 hours showed no detriment in either glycemic control or hypoglycemic frequency versus insulin glargine given at the same time each day. While extreme flexibility in dose timing is not recommended, these findings are reassuring. This may be particularly beneficial to elderly patients, patients with learning difficulties, or others who have to rely on health-care professionals for their daily insulin injections. Further studies are required to confirm whether this might benefit adherence to treatment, reduce long

  10. Targeting Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Pathways in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Beauchamp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies, due in part to the diagnosis at an advanced stage caused by the lack of specific signs and symptoms and the absence of reliable tests for screening and early detection. Most patients will respond initially to treatment but about 70% of them will suffer a recurrence. Therefore, new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed to overcome chemoresistance observed in ovarian cancer patients. Evidence accumulates suggesting that the insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF pathways could act as a good therapeutic target in several cancers, including ovarian cancer. In this paper, we will focus on the role of insulin/IGF in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and treatment.

  11. Adipose tissue insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression, and blood glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests in transition Holstein cows with different body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, H; Karis, P; Ling, K; Ilves-Luht, A; Samarütel, J; Henno, M; Jõudu, I; Waldmann, A; Reimann, E; Pärn, P; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Kaart, T; Kass, M; Ots, M

    2018-01-01

    Glucose uptake in tissues is mediated by insulin receptor (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of body condition during the dry period on adipose tissue mRNA and protein expression of INSR and GLUT4, and on the dynamics of glucose and insulin following the i.v. glucose tolerance test in Holstein cows 21 d before (d -21) and after (d 21) calving. Cows were grouped as body condition score (BCS) ≤3.0 (thin, T; n = 14), BCS = 3.25 to 3.5 (optimal, O; n = 14), and BCS ≥3.75 (overconditioned, OC; n = 14). Blood was analyzed for glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Adipose tissue was analyzed for INSR and GLUT4 mRNA and protein concentrations. During the glucose tolerance test 0.15 g/kg of body weight glucose was infused; blood was collected at -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min, and analyzed for glucose and insulin. On d -21 the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was smallest in group T (1,512 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min) and largest in group OC (1,783 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min), and different between all groups. Basal insulin on d -21 was lowest in group T (13.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL), which was different from group OC (24.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL. On d -21 the smallest AUC 5-60 of insulin in group T (5,308 ± 1,214 µU/mL × min) differed from the largest AUC in group OC (10,867 ± 1,215 µU/mL × min). Time to reach basal concentration of insulin in group OC (113 ± 14.1 min) was longer compared with group T (45 ± 14.1). The INSR mRNA abundance on d 21 was higher compared with d -21 in groups T (d -21: 3.3 ± 0.44; d 21: 5.9 ± 0.44) and O (d -21: 3.7 ± 0.45; d 21: 4.7 ± 0.45). The extent of INSR protein expression on d -21 was highest in group T (7.3 ± 0.74 ng/mL), differing from group O (4.6 ± 0.73 ng/mL), which had the lowest expression. The amount of GLUT4 protein on d -21 was lowest in group OC (1.2 ± 0.14 ng/mL), different from group O (1.8 ± 0.14 ng/mL), which had the highest amount

  12. Protectin DX suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMPK-HO-1-mediated inhibition of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may improve insulin resistance. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was documented to attenuate insulin resistance by stimulating IL-6 expression in skeletal muscle, thereby regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings made us investigate the direct effects of PDX on hepatic glucose metabolism in the context of diabetes. In the current study, we show that PDX regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in a manner distinct from its indirect glucoregulatory activity via IL-6. We found that PDX stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, thereby inducing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. This induction blocked hepatic gluconeogenesis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes under hyperlipidemic conditions. These effects were significantly dampened by silencing AMPK or HO-1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also demonstrated that administration of PDX to high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice resulted in increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, whereas hepatic ER stress was substantially attenuated. Furthermore, PDX treatment suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDX inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via AMPK-HO-1-dependent suppression of ER stress. Thus, PDX may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on insulin receptor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The present study was designed for the purpose of establishing a method of insulin radioreceptor assay using plasma membranes of guinea pigs as receptor sites. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Insulin receptor in the renal plasma membranes of guinea pigs showed a significantly high affinity to porcine insulin compared with that in the plasma membranes of guinea pig liver or rat kidney and liver. 2) In the insulin radioreceptor assay, an optimum condition was observed by the incubation at 4 0 C for 24 - 48 hours with 100 μg membrane protein of guinea pig kidney and 0.08 ng of 125 I-insulin. This assay method was specific for insulin and showed an accurate biological activity of insulin. 3) The recovery rate of insulin radioreceptor assay was 98.4% and dilution check up to 16 times did not influence on the result. An average of coefficient variation was 3.92% within assay. All of these results indicated the method to be satisfactory. 4) Glucose induced insulin release by perfusion method in isolated Langerhans islets of rats showed an identical pattern of reaction curves between radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay, although the values of radioreceptor assay was slightly low. 5) Insulin free serum produced by ultra filtration method was added to the standard assay medium. By this procedure, direct measurement of human serum by radioreceptor assay became possible. 6) The value of human serum insulin receptor binding activity by the radioreceptor assay showed a high correlation with that of insulin radioimmunoassay in sera of normal, borderline or diabetic type defined by glucose tolerance test. (author)

  14. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  15. Blueberries’ Impact on Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April J. Stull

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM. These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Additionally, the improvements in glucose tolerance after blueberry consumption were assessed by glucose tolerance tests. However, firm conclusions regarding the anti-diabetic effect of blueberries cannot be drawn due to the small number of existing clinical studies. Although the current evidence is promising, more long-term, randomized, and placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the role of blueberries in preventing or delaying T2DM.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) suppresses ghrelin levels in humans via increased insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Holst, Jens Juul; Gethmann, Arnica

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin plasma levels rise before meal ingestion and sharply decline afterwards, but the mechanisms controlling ghrelin secretion are largely unknown. Since meal ingestion also elicits the secretion...... of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), we examined whether exogenous GLP-1 administration reduces ghrelin secretion in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 healthy male volunteers were given intravenous infusions of GLP-1(1.2 pmol x kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test...... meal was served. Venous blood was drawn frequently for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and ghrelin. RESULTS: During the infusion of exogenous GLP-1 and placebo, GLP-1 plasma concentrations reached steady-state levels of 139+/-15 pmol/l and 12+/-2 pmol/l, respectively (p

  17. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yunli, E-mail: chrisyu1255@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Xinting, E-mail: wxinting1986@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Can, E-mail: ltsan@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yao, Dan, E-mail: erinyao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai 201203 (China); Hu, Mengyue, E-mail: juliahmy@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Jia, E-mail: ljbzd@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu, Nan, E-mail: hn_324@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Li, E-mail: liulee@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdliu@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be

  18. Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yunli; Wang, Xinting; Liu, Can; Yao, Dan; Hu, Mengyue; Li, Jia; Hu, Nan; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K ATP channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ► Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ► Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ► Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ► GLP-1 over-secretion may be involved in

  19. Free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance is attenuated following lifestyle intervention in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Edmison, John M; González, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans. Obese men and women (n = 23) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to either exercise training with a eucaloric (EU; approximately 1800 kcal; n = 11) or hypocaloric (HYPO; approximately 1300 kcal; n = 12) diet for 12 wk. Hepatic glucose production (HGP; milligrams per kilogram fat-free mass(-1) per minute(-1)) and hepatic insulin resistance were determined using a two-stage sequential hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2) . min(-1)) euglycemic (5.0 mm) clamp with [3-(3)H]glucose. Measures were obtained at basal, during insulin infusion (INS; 120 min), and insulin plus intralipid/heparin infusion (INS/FFA; 300 min). At baseline, basal HGP was similar between groups; hyperinsulinemia alone did not completely suppress HGP, whereas INS/FFA exhibited less suppression than INS (EU, 4.6 +/- 0.8, 2.0 +/- 0.5, and 2.6 +/- 0.4; HYPO, 3.8 +/- 0.5, 1.2 +/- 0.3, and 2.3 +/- 0.4, respectively). After the intervention the HYPO group lost more body weight (P HYPO: -50 +/- 20%, before vs. after, P = 0.02). In contrast, the ability of insulin to overcome FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance and HGP was improved only in the HYPO group (EU: -15 +/- 24% vs. HYPO: -58 +/- 19%, P = 0.02). Both lifestyle interventions are effective in reducing hepatic insulin resistance under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions. However, the reversal of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is best achieved with a combined exercise/caloric-restriction intervention.

  20. Pregnancy-induced insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscles of the conscious rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauguel, S.; Gilbert, M.; Girard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity of maternal nonuterine tissues (liver and skeletal muscles) has been investigated in the conscious rabbit during late gestation (24 and 30 days). The specific effect of insulin on glucose production and utilization was evaluated with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique using two types of labelled microspheres ( 57 Co and 113 Sn). The net balance of glucose across the hindlimb muscles was studied by means of the Fick principle in basal and insulin stimulated conditions (clamp study). The results show that an insulin-resistant state developed between days 24 and 30 of gestation in the rabbit and involves both glucose producing (liver) and utilizing (muscles) tissues. On day 30 of gestation, muscle glucose uptake was not significantly stimulated at a plasma insulin concentration of 700 μU/ml determined by radioimmunoassay, whereas it was stimulated by 30-40% in nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits. At similar plasma insulin concentration, endogenous glucose production was suppressed by 85% in both nonpregnant and 24 day pregnant rabbits, whereas it was decreased by only 30% in 30 day pregnant rabbits. The present data suggest that hindlimb muscles of late pregnant rabbits are able to reduce their insulin-induced glucose utilization. This could contribute to meet the glucose requirements of pregnant uterus in late gestation

  1. Dietary Sodium Restriction Decreases Insulin Secretion Without Affecting Insulin Sensitivity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Loretta M.; Yu, Chang; Wang, Thomas J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Interruption of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system prevents incident diabetes in high-risk individuals, although the mechanism remains unclear. Objective: To test the hypothesis that activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or exogenous aldosterone impairs insulin secretion in humans. Design: We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: Healthy, nondiabetic, normotensive volunteers. Interventions: Infusion of exogenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg/h for 12.5 h) or vehicle during low or high sodium intake. Low sodium (20 mmol/d; n = 12) vs high sodium (160 mmol/d; n = 17) intake for 5–7 days. Main Outcome Measures: Change in acute insulin secretory response assessed during hyperglycemic clamps while in sodium balance during a low-sodium vs high-sodium diet during aldosterone vs vehicle. Results: A low-sodium diet increased endogenous aldosterone and plasma renin activity, and acute glucose-stimulated insulin (−16.0 ± 5.6%; P = .007) and C-peptide responses (−21.8 ± 8.4%; P = .014) were decreased, whereas the insulin sensitivity index was unchanged (−1.0 ± 10.7%; P = .98). Aldosterone infusion did not affect the acute insulin response (+1.8 ± 4.8%; P = .72) or insulin sensitivity index (+2.0 ± 8.8%; P = .78). Systolic blood pressure and serum potassium were similar during low and high sodium intake and during aldosterone infusion. Conclusions: Low dietary sodium intake reduces insulin secretion in humans, independent of insulin sensitivity. PMID:25029426

  2. [Value of desmopressin stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression testin the etiologic diagnosis of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yu, Yerong; Tan, Huiwen; Wang, Chun; Li, Jianwei; An, Zhenmei; Liu, Yuping

    2016-03-22

    To investigate the value of desmopressin (DDAVP) stimulation test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) in establishing the cause of ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome. The clinical data of patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome at West China Hospital from January 1, 2010 to September 30, 2015 was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test, HDDST, and the diagnostic accordance rate when the two tests were combined, were evaluated based on the diagnostic gold standard. A total of 85 patients with Cushing's disease and 10 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were included. The sensitivity and specificity of DDAVP stimulation test were 87% and 5/5, respectively, whereas those of HDDST were 79% and 8/10, respectively. The standard high dose dexamethasone suppression test showed a higher sensitivity than overnight 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test. When the two tests had consistent results, the diagnostic accordance rate was 100%. DDAVP stimulation test and HDDST are both efficient modalities for the diagnosis of Cushing's Disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome. The accuracy of diagnosis can be further improved by combining the two tests.

  3. The comprehensive electrophysiological study of curcuminoids on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lee, Yu-Chi; Chen, Pei-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2018-01-15

    Curcumin (CUR) has been demonstrated to induce insulin release from pancreatic β-cells; however, how curcuminoids (including demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC)) exert any possible effects on membrane ion currents inherently in insulin-secreting cells remains largely unclear. The effects of CUR and other structurally similar curcuminoids on ion currents in rat insulin-secreting (INS-1) insulinoma cells were therefore investigated in this study. The effects of these compounds on ionic currents and membrane potential were studied by patch-clamp technique. CUR suppressed the amplitude of delayed-rectifier K + current (I K(DR) ) in a time-, state- and concentration-dependent manner in these cells and the inhibition was not reversed by diazoxide, nicorandil or chlorotoxin. The value of dissociation constant for CUR-induced suppression of I K(DR) in INS-1 cells was 1.26μM. Despite the inability of CUR to alter the activation rate of I K(DR) , it accelerated current inactivation elicited by membrane depolarization. Increasing CUR concentrations shifted the inactivation curve of I K(DR) to hyperpolarized potential and slowed the recovery of I K(DR) inactivation. CUR, DMC, and BDMC all exerted depressant actions on I K(DR) amplitude to a similar magnitude, although DMC and BDMC did not increase current inactivation clearly. CUR slightly suppressed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na + current. CUR, DMC and BDMC depolarized the resting potential and increased firing frequency of action potentials. The CUR-mediated decrease of I K(DR) and the increase of current inactivation also occurred in βTC-6 INS-1 cells. Taken these results together, these effects may be one of the possible mechanisms contributing their insulin-releasing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Insulin and insulin signaling play a critical role in fat induction of insulin resistance in mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jie; Hong, Tao; Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Hui-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The primary player that induces insulin resistance has not been established. Here, we studied whether or not fat can cause insulin resistance in the presence of insulin deficiency. Our results showed that high-fat diet (HFD) induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The HFD-induced insulin resistance was prevented largely by the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced moderate insulin deficiency. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD-induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and gastrocnemius. The STZ-induced insulin deficiency prevented the HFD- or insulin-induced increase in hepatic expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL), which are necessary for fatty acid activation. HFD increased mitochondrial contents of long-chain acyl-CoAs, whereas it decreased mitochondrial ADP/ATP ratio, and these HFD-induced changes were prevented by the STZ-induced insulin deficiency. In cultured hepatocytes, we observed that expressions of ACSL1 and -5 were stimulated by insulin signaling. Results in cultured cells also showed that blunting insulin signaling by the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 prevented fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to either insulin or oleate plus sera that normally contain insulin. Finally, knockdown of the insulin receptor prevented the oxidative stress and insulin resistance induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin or oleate plus sera. Together, our results show that insulin and insulin signaling are required for fat induction of insulin resistance in mice and cultured mouse hepatocytes. PMID:21586696

  5. GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia through Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in Type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Ning; Dong, Mei; Chen, Fang; Li, Zhong; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2014-07-01

    GdCl3 (gadolinium chloride) has been shown to reduce blood glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Liver gluconeogenesis is an important pathway involved in the maintenance of glucose homoeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GdCl3 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and explore the precise molecular mechanism. Animals from a classical Type 2 diabetic mouse model, created by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 4 months, were treated with GdCl3 or saline. Body weight, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity were monitored. It was observed that GdCl3 significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity. A pyruvate tolerance test showed further that GdCl3 suppressed gluconeogenesis in diabetic mice. In the livers of GdCl3-treated mice, the expression of Pepck (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and G6pase (glucose-6-phosphatase), the key enzymes in gluconeogenesis, were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, experiments in hepatocarcinoma cells revealed that GdCl3 activated the Akt pathway to promote the phosphorylation of FoxO1 (forkhead box O1), leading to the suppression of gluconeogenesis by reducing the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase and resulting in decreased cellular production of glucose. Comparable results were observed in the livers of GdCl3-treated mice. In addition, we have shown that GdCl3 augmented the role of insulin to control hepatic glucose production. We conclude that GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia via the Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in Type 2 diabetic mice (in vivo) and in hepatocarcinoma cells (in vitro), suggesting that GdCl3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes.

  6. Fetal adaptations in insulin secretion result from high catecholamines during placental insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR. We propose that sustained high catecholamine concentrations observed in the IUGR fetus produce developmental adaptations in pancreatic β-cells that impair fetal insulin secretion. Experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis shows that chronic elevation in circulating catecholamines in IUGR fetuses persistently inhibits insulin concentrations and secretion. Elevated catecholamines also allow for maintenance of a normal fetal basal metabolic rate despite low fetal insulin and glucose concentrations while suppressing fetal growth. Importantly, a compensatory augmentation in insulin secretion occurs following inhibition or cessation of catecholamine signalling in IUGR fetuses. This finding has been replicated in normally grown sheep fetuses following a 7-day noradrenaline (norepinephrine) infusion. Together, these programmed effects will potentially create an imbalance between insulin secretion and insulin-stimulated glucose utilization in the neonate which probably explains the transient hyperinsulinism and hypoglycaemia in some IUGR infants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  7. Insulin Regulates Hepatic Triglyceride Secretion and Lipid Content via Signaling in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; O'Hare, James; Hackl, Martina; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Krššák, Martin; Scheja, Ludger; Fürnsinn, Clemens; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and insulin resistance and results from a net retention of lipids in the liver. A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as VLDLs. Insulin controls nutrient partitioning via signaling through its cognate receptor in peripheral target organs such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and via signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) to orchestrate organ cross talk. While hepatic insulin signaling is known to suppress VLDL production from the liver, it is unknown whether brain insulin signaling independently regulates hepatic VLDL secretion. Here, we show that in conscious, unrestrained male Sprague Dawley rats the infusion of insulin into the third ventricle acutely increased hepatic TG secretion. Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by noninvasive (1)H-MRS and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. In mice that lack the insulin receptor in the brain, hepatic TG secretion was reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. These studies identify brain insulin as an important permissive factor in hepatic VLDL secretion that protects against hepatic steatosis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, C.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, 125 I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and 125 I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture

  9. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, C

    1986-01-01

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, /sup 125/I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and /sup 125/I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture.

  10. Mactosylceramide Prevents Glial Cell Overgrowth by Inhibiting Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdøe-Kristensen, Stine; Lund, Viktor K; Wandall, Hans H

    2017-01-01

    , in which the mannosyltransferase Egghead controls conversion of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) to mactosylceramide (MacCer). Lack of elongated GSL in egghead (egh) mutants causes overgrowth of subperineurial glia (SPG), largely due to aberrant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, to what...... of the Drosophila Insulin Receptor (InR) and the FGFR homolog Heartless (Htl) in wild type SPG, and is suppressed by inhibiting Htl and InR activity in egh. Knockdown of GlcCer synthase in the SPG fails to suppress glial overgrowth in egh nerves, and slightly promotes overgrowth in wild type, suggesting that RTK...... hyperactivation is caused by absence of MacCer and not by GlcCer accumulation. We conclude that an early product in GSL biosynthesis, MacCer, prevents inappropriate activation of Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Drosophila glia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by downregulating the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Xue, Liqiong; Guo, Cuicui; Han, Bing; Pan, Chunming; Zhao, Shuangxia; Song, Huaidong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Ma, Qinyun, E-mail: qinyunma@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside alleviates the adipose tissue inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside reduces macrophages infiltration into the adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stevioside suppresses the activation of NF-{kappa}B in the adipose tissue. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue is the main source of pro-inflammatory molecules that predispose individuals to insulin resistance. Stevioside (SVS) is a widely used sweetener with multiple beneficial effects for diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of SVS on insulin resistance and the pro-inflammatory state of adipose tissue in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Oral administration of SVS for 1 month had no effect on body weight, but it significantly improved fasting glucose, basal insulin levels, glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these changes were accompanied with decreased expression levels of several inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including TNF-{alpha}, IL6, IL10, IL1{beta}, KC, MIP-1{alpha}, CD11b and CD14. Moreover, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was remarkably reduced by SVS. Finally, SVS significantly suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa b (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggested that SVS may ameliorate insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and inhibiting the NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  12. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519

  13. Detection of transketolase in bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells: benfotiamine enhances insulin synthesis and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Witek, Rafal P; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus.

  14. Detection of Transketolase in Bone Marrow—Derived Insulin-Producing Cells: Benfotiamine Enhances Insulin Synthesis and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Rafal P.; Bae, Si-Hyun; Darwiche, Houda; Jung, Youngmi; Pi, Liya; Brown, Alicia; Petersen, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult bone marrow (BM)-derived insulin-producing cells (IPCs) are capable of regulating blood glucose levels in chemically induced hyperglycemic mice. Using cell transplantation therapy, fully functional BM-derived IPCs help to mediate treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we demonstrate the detection of the pentose phosphate pathway enzyme, transketolase (TK), in BM-derived IPCs cultured under high-glucose conditions. Benfotiamine, a known activator of TK, was not shown to affect the proliferation of insulinoma cell line, INS-1; however, when INS-1 cells were cultured with oxythiamine, an inhibitor of TK, cell proliferation was suppressed. Treatment with benfotiamine activated glucose metabolism in INS-1 cells in high-glucose culture conditions, and appeared to maximize the BM-derived IPCs ability to synthesize insulin. Benfotiamine was not shown to induce the glucose receptor Glut-2, however it was shown to activate glucokinase, the enzyme responsible for conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Furthermore, benfotiamine-treated groups showed upregulation of the downstream glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, in cells where the pentose phosphate pathway was blocked by oxythiamine treatment, there was a clear downregulation of Glut-2, glucokinase, insulin, and GAPDH. When benfotiamine was used to treat mice transplanted with BM-derived IPCs transplanted, their glucose level was brought to a normal range. The glucose challenge of normal mice treated with benfotiamine lead to rapidly normalized blood glucose levels. These results indicate that benfotiamine activates glucose metabolism and insulin synthesis to prevent glucose toxicity caused by high concentrations of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus. PMID:18393672

  15. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  16. Roles of circulating WNT-signaling proteins and WNT-inhibitors in human adiposity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, R U; Karakas, S E

    2015-02-01

    Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (WNT) signaling and WNT-inhibitors have been implicated in regulation of adipogenesis, insulin resistance, pancreatic function, and inflammation. Our goal was to determine serum proteins involved in WNT signaling (WNT5 and WISP2) and WNT inhibition (SFRP4 and SFRP5) as they relate to obesity, serum adipokines, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and inflammation in humans. Study population comprised 57 insulin resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 27 reference women. In a cross-sectional study, blood samples were obtained at fasting, during oral, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Serum WNT5, WISP2, and SFRP4 concentrations did not differ between PCOS vs. reference women. Serum WNT5 correlated inversely with weight both in PCOS and reference women, and correlated directly with insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test in PCOS women. Serum WISP2 correlated directly with fatty acid binding protein 4. Serum SFRP5 did not differ between obese (n=32) vs. nonobese (n=25) PCOS women, but reference women had lower SFRP5 (pPCOS groups). Serum SFRP5 correlated inversely with IL-1β, TNF-α, cholesterol, and apoprotein B. These findings demonstrated that WNT5 correlated inversely with adiposity and directly with insulin response, and the WNT-inhibitor SFRP5 may be anti-inflammatory. Better understanding of the role of WNT signaling in obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammation is important for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A genome-wide siRNA screen to identify modulators of insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruojing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify genes that modulate hepatic insulin signaling and HGP, we generated a human cell line stably expressing beta-lactamase under the control of the human glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC promoter (AH-G6PC cells. Both beta-lactamase activity and endogenous G6PC mRNA were increased in AH-G6PC cells by a combination of dexamethasone and pCPT-cAMP, and reduced by insulin. A 4-gene High-Throughput-Genomics assay was developed to concomitantly measure G6PC and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4 (PDK4 mRNA levels. Using this assay, we screened an siRNA library containing pooled siRNA targeting 6650 druggable genes and identified 614 hits that lowered G6PC expression without increasing PDK4 mRNA levels. Pathway analysis indicated that siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD of genes known to positively or negatively affect insulin signaling increased or decreased G6PC mRNA expression, respectively, thus validating our screening platform. A subset of 270 primary screen hits was selected and 149 hits were confirmed by target gene KD by pooled siRNA and 7 single siRNA for each gene to reduce G6PC expression in 4-gene HTG assay. Subsequently, pooled siRNA KD of 113 genes decreased PEPCK and/or PGC1alpha mRNA expression thereby demonstrating their role in regulating key gluconeogenic genes in addition to G6PC. Last, KD of 61 of the above 113 genes potentiated insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that they suppress gluconeogenic gene by enhancing insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the proposition that the proteins encoded by the genes identified in

  18. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......-nine women completed the study. Insulin sensitivity (assessed by ISI(composite)), β-cell function (the disposition index), and the metabolic clearance rate of insulin were not significantly affected by the dietary intervention. Neither was the ability of insulin to suppress plasma nonesterified fatty acid...

  19. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  20. Instructions to suppress semantic memory enhances or has no effect on P300 in a concealed information test (CIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Drapekin, Jesse; Labkovsky, Elena; Tullman, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which people can suppress semantic memory as indexed with the P300 ERP and the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). In EXP 1, participants (22) were run in a counterbalanced repeated measures study in both simply knowledgeable (SK) and knowledgeable with suppression (SP) conditions. A P300-based, concealed information test ("Complex Trial Protocol"; CTP) with a 50/50 Target/Nontarget (T/NT) ratio was given both with and without instructions to suppress semantic memories. The results showed increased P300s to probe name stimuli, reduced (but still high positive) aIAT d-scores, and increased simple reaction times to all stimuli used in ERP tests in the SP condition. EXP 2 was similar, but with SP and SK in two separate groups, and a 20/80 T/NT ratio. Again, ERP and aIAT results failed to show a suppression effect for semantic memory. The behavioral data suggest some task demand effects under suppression instructions, and that EXP 1 was more demanding than EXP 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum IGF1 and insulin levels in girls with normal and precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2012-01-01

    IGF1 plays an important role in growth and metabolism during puberty. IGF1 levels are increased in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, the relationship with insulin before and during gonadal suppression is unknown. In addition, the influence of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor gene...

  2. Insulin sensitivity deteriorates after short-term lifestyle intervention in the insulin sensitive phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Vallone, Luciana; Cottafava, Raffaella; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-month lifestyle intervention on insulin sensitivity and its related cardiometabolic factors in obese patients. Anthropometry, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, lipids, alanine aminotransferase, insulin sensitivity (insulinogenic index (ISI), homeostasis model assessment, β-cell performance (disposition index)) were evaluated in 263 obese women and 93 obese men before and after 3 months of hypocaloric low fat/high protein diet associated with physical activity 30 min/day. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the intervention-induced ISI changes: group 1 (decrease), group 2 (stability) and group 3 (increase). Insulin sensitivity and the disposition index were significantly higher before the intervention in group 1 than in group 3. BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass significantly decreased in groups 1 and 3 in both sexes. β-cell performance decreased in group 1 and increased in group 3. Metabolic variables improved in group 3, whereas glucose levels increased in women of group 1. The post-intervention insulin sensitivity was lower in group 1 than in group 3. Lifestyle intervention induces changes in insulin sensitivity and metabolic factors that depend on the pre-intervention degree of insulin sensitivity. Weight loss leads to metabolic benefits in insulin-resistant, obese patients, whereas it may paradoxically worsen the metabolic conditions in the insulin-sensitive phenotype of obesity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+ radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine α-LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT were conducted after intervention with α-LAH for 10 weeks and 11 weeks, respectively. Results showed that bovine α-LAH significantly reduced body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, lowered the area-under-the-curve (AUC during OGTT and ipITT, and downregulated inflammation-related gene [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1] expression in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, bovine α-LAH also suppressed insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (Ser307, Ser612, enhanced protein kinase B (known as Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited the activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. These results suggested that bovine α-LAH could ameliorate adipose insulin resistance and inflammation through IKK and MAPK signaling

  4. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  5. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  6. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  7. Comparison of analysis and flight test data for a drone aircraft with active flutter suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, J. R.; Pototzky, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A drone aircraft equipped with an active flutter suppression system is considered with emphasis on the comparison of modal dampings and frequencies as a function of Mach number. Results are presented for both symmetric and antisymmetric motion with flutter suppression off. Only symmetric results are given for flutter suppression on. Frequency response functions of the vehicle are presented from both flight test data and analysis. The analysis correlation is improved by using an empirical aerodynamic correction factor which is proportional to the ratio of experimental to analytical steady-state lift curve slope. The mathematical models are included and existing analytical techniques are described as well as an alternative analytical technique for obtaining closed-loop results.

  8. Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatment regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren

    The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part that des......The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part...... that describes an implemented software program able to handle stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with mixed effects. The thesis is supplemented with scientific papers published during the PhD. Developing an insulin analogue from candidate molecule to a clinical drug consists of a development programme...... and efficacy are investigated. Numerous methods are used to quantify dose and efficacy in Phase II - especially of interest is the 24-hour meal tolerance test as it tries to portray near normal living conditions. Part I describes an integrated model for insulin and glucose which is aimed at simulating 24-hour...

  9. Interaction Between the Central and Peripheral Effects of Insulin in Controlling Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Conscious Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Kraft, Guillaume; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Williams, Phillip E.; Lautz, Margaret; Farmer, Tiffany; Donahue, E. Patrick; Cherrington, Alan D.; Edgerton, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of hypothalamic insulin action to the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in the presence of a normal liver/brain insulin ratio (3:1) is unknown. Thus, we assessed the role of central insulin action in the response of the liver to normal physiologic hyperinsulinemia over 4 h. Using a pancreatic clamp, hepatic portal vein insulin delivery was increased three- or eightfold in the conscious dog. Insulin action was studied in the presence or absence of intracerebroventricularly mediated blockade of hypothalamic insulin action. Euglycemia was maintained, and glucagon was clamped at basal. Both the molecular and metabolic aspects of insulin action were assessed. Blockade of hypothalamic insulin signaling did not alter the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic gluconeogenic gene transcription but blunted the induction of glucokinase gene transcription and completely blocked the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β gene transcription. Thus, central and peripheral insulin action combined to control some, but not other, hepatic enzyme programs. Nevertheless, inhibition of hypothalamic insulin action did not alter the effects of the hormone on hepatic glucose flux (production or uptake). These data indicate that brain insulin action is not a determinant of the rapid (<4 h) inhibition of hepatic glucose metabolism caused by normal physiologic hyperinsulinemia in this large animal model. PMID:23011594

  10. Insulin secretion and insulin action in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: which defect is primary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaven, G M

    1984-01-01

    Defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action exist in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The loss of the acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose is seen in patients with relatively mild degrees of fasting hyperglycemia, but patients with severe fasting hyperglycemia also demonstrate absolute hypoinsulinemia in response to an oral glucose challenge. In contrast, day-long circulating insulin levels are within normal limits even in severely hyperglycemic patients with NIDDM. The relationship between NIDDM and insulin action in NIDDM is less complex, and is a characteristic feature of the syndrome. This metabolic defect is independent of obesity, and the severity of the resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increases with magnitude of hyperglycemia. Control of hyperglycemia with exogenous insulin ameliorates the degree of insulin resistance, and reduction of insulin resistance with weight loss in obese patients with NIDDM leads to an enhanced insulin response. Since neither therapeutic intervention is capable of restoring all metabolic abnormalities to normal, these observations do not tell us which of these two defects is primarily responsible for the development of NIDDM. Similarly, the observation that most patients with impaired glucose tolerance are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant does not prove that insulin resistance is the primary defect in NIDDM. In conclusion, reduction in both insulin secretion and action is seen in patients with NIDDM, and the relationship between these two metabolic abnormalities is very complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Insulin Inclusion into a Tragacanth Hydrogel: An Oral Delivery System for Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Todor

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles or microparticles created by physical complexation between two polyelectrolytes may have a prospective use as an excipient for oral insulin administration. Natural polymers such as tragacanth, alginate, dextran, pullulan, hyaluronic acid, gelatin and chitosan can be potential candidates for this purpose. In this research, insulin particles were prepared by the inclusion of insulin into a tragacanth hydrogel. The effect of the pH and concentration relationship involving polyelectrolytes offering individual particle size and zeta potential was assessed by zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Insulin–tragacanth interactions at varying pH (3.7, 4.3, 4.6, or 6), and concentration (0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% w/w) were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. Individual and smaller particles, approximately 800 nm, were acquired at pH 4.6 with 0.5% of tragacanth. The acid gelation test indicated that insulin could be entrapped in the physical hydrogel of tragacanth. DSC thermograms of insulin–tragacanth showed shifts on the same unloaded tragacanth peaks and suggested polyelectrolyte–protein interactions at a pH close to 4.3–4.6. FTIR spectra of tragacanth–insulin complexes exhibited amide absorption bands featuring in the protein spectra and revealed the creation of a new chemical substance. PMID:29304023

  12. Medium-chain triglyceride ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shanshan; Zhu, Weiwei; Xie, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoting; Wu, Jieshu; Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jianyun; Huang, Cong; Zhu, Mingming; Wu, Rui; Zhong, Caiyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) on inflammation and insulin resistance as well as the underlying potential molecular mechanisms in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 24) were fed one of the following three diets for a period of 12 weeks: (1) a modified AIN-76 diet with 5 % corn oil (normal diet); (2) a high-fat control diet (17 % w/w lard and 3 % w/w corn oil, HFC); (3) an isocaloric high-fat diet supplemented with MCT (17 % w/w MCT and 3 % w/w corn oil, HF-MCT). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by fasting serum insulin levels and the index of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by ELISA, and hepatic activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was determined using western blot analysis. Compared to HFC diet, consumption of HF-MCT did not induce body weight gain and white adipose tissue accumulation in mice. HFC-induced increases in serum fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose intolerance were prevented by HF-MCT diet. Meanwhile, HF-MCT resulted in significantly lower serum IL-6 level and higher IL-10 level, and lower expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein in liver tissues when compared to HFC. In addition, HF-MCT attenuated HFC-triggered hepatic activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK. Our study demonstrated that MCT was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory response, and NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in high fat diet-fed mice. These data suggest that MCT may exert beneficial effects against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.

  13. Nuclear SREBP-1a causes loss of pancreatic β-cells and impaired insulin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yuko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Mayumi; Kato, Toyonori; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Yahagi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a under the control of the insulin promoter were generated to determine the role of SREBP-1a in pancreatic β-cells. Only low expressors could be established, which exhibited mild hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced plasma insulin levels compared to C57BL/6 controls. The islets isolated from the transgenic mice were fewer and smaller, and had decreased insulin content and unaltered glucagon staining. Both glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretions were decreased. The transgenic islets consistently expressed genes for fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, resulting in accumulation of triglycerides but not cholesterol. PDX-1, ΒΕΤΑ2, MafA, and IRS-2 were suppressed, partially explaining the loss and dysfunction of β-cell mass. The transgenic mice on a high fat/high sucrose diet still exhibited impaired insulin secretion and continuous β-cell growth defect. Therefore, nuclear SREBP-1a, even at a low level, strongly disrupts β-cell mass and function.

  14. Effects of a somatostatin derivative (SMS 201-995) on postprandial hyperglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics studied by means of a closed-loop device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosari, I; Lepore, G; Querci, F; Maglio, M L; Sileo, F; Pagani, G

    1989-06-01

    We studied the effects of a premeal sc injection of an analog of somatostatin (SMS 201-995, Sandoz) on the postprandial glycemic excursions, insulin requirement and hormone profiles (GH, glucagon and C-peptide) in 8 IDDM patients (diabetes duration 14.0 +/- 6.5 yr, daily insulin requirement 36 +/- 6.4 U) maintained normoglycemic by connecting them to a closed-loop insulin infusion system (Betalike, Genoa). The morning of the test the patients were connected to the Betalike and their glucose levels stabilized for at least 4 h. At 13:00 h the study was begun with a sc injection of 50 micrograms of SMS 201-995 or placebo (randomly) and a standardized mixed meal (800 Kcal) was given. Blood samples were obtained 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the injection. Each patient was tested both with SMS 201-995 and placebo. Postmeal glycemic peaks were decreased after SMS 201-995 (119.6 +/- 5.4 mg/dl vs 149.1 +/- 4.2; p less than 0.05) as well as insulin requirements (3.2 +/- 0.8 U vs 13.3 +/- 1.9; p less than 0.01) for the 180 min postprandial period. Similarly, glucagon level was reduced 30 min postprandially (24 +/- 6 pg/ml vs 59 +/- 24; p less than 0.05) and so GH level only 180 min after lunch (p less than 0.05). The premeal injection of SMS decreases postprandial glycemic excursions and the corresponding insulin requirement. The action of SMS 201-995 may be mainly mediated by the suppression of postprandial glucagon peak.

  15. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  16. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on inflammation and insulin action in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Hussey, Sophie E; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Tantiwong, Puntip; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggest that chronic elevation of circulating intestinal-generated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (i.e., metabolic endotoxemia) could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the effect of LPS in human muscle is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether blockade/down regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 can prevent the effect of LPS on insulin action and glucose metabolism in human muscle cells. In the present study we compared plasma LPS concentration in insulin resistant [obese non-diabetic and obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects versus lean individuals. In addition, we employed a primary human skeletal muscle cell culture system to investigate the effect of LPS on glucose metabolism and whether these effects are mediated via TLR4. Obese non-diabetic and T2DM subjects had significantly elevated plasma LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) concentrations. Plasma LPS (r = -0.46, P = 0.005) and LBP (r = -0.49, P = 0.005) concentrations negatively correlated with muscle insulin sensitivity (M). In human myotubes, LPS increased JNK phosphorylation and MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression. This inflammatory response led to reduced insulin-stimulated IRS-1, Akt and AS160 phosphorylation and impaired glucose transport. Both pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with TAK-242, and TLR4 gene silencing, suppressed the inflammatory response and insulin resistance caused by LPS in human muscle cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that elevations in plasma LPS concentration found in obese and T2DM subjects could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and that antagonists of TLR4 may improve insulin action in these individuals.

  17. Insulin-releasing action of the novel antidiabetic agent BTS 67 582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, N H; Flatt, P R; Bailey, C J

    1998-02-01

    1. BTS 67582 (1,1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate) is a novel antidiabetic agent with a short-acting insulin-releasing effect. This study examined its mode of action in the clonal B-cell line BRIN-BD11. 2. BTS 67582 increased insulin release from BRIN-BD11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (10[-8] to 10[-4] M) at both non-stimulating (1.1 mM) and stimulating (16.7 mM) concentrations of glucose. 3. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated the insulin-releasing effect of a depolarizing concentration of K+ (30 mM), whereas the K+ channel openers pinacidil (400 microM) and diazoxide (300 microM) inhibited BTS 67582-induced release. 4. Suppression of Ca+ channel activity with verapamil (20 microM) reduced the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 5. BTS 67582 (10[-4] M) potentiated insulin release induced by amino acids (10 mM), and enhanced the combined stimulant effects of glucose plus either the fatty acid palmitate (10 mM), or agents which raise intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations (25 microM forskolin and 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine), or the cholinoceptor agonist carbachol (100 microM). 6. Inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release by adrenaline or noradrenaline (10 microM) was partially reversed by BTS 67582 (10[-4] M). 7. These data suggest that the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67582 involves regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity and Ca2+ influx, and that the drug augments the stimulant effects of nutrient insulin secretagogues and agents which enhance adenylate cyclase and phospholipase C. BTS 67582 may also exert insulin-releasing effects independently of ATP-sensitive K+ channel activity.

  18. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5). In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U) in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4) or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3). Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion. Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP) across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05). Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) across all groups. However, the increase (%) in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile)] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278) vs. 186 (94-308)] or 80 U ([491 (414-548) vs. 478 (409-857)] experiments (P > 0.05). Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P BCAA in either of the experiments (P > 0.05). Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  19. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  20. Insulin degludec versus insulin glargine in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinman, Bernard; Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Cariou, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    To compare ultra-long-acting insulin degludec with glargine for efficacy and safety in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs).......To compare ultra-long-acting insulin degludec with glargine for efficacy and safety in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)....

  1. Insulin/insulin like growth factors in cancer: new roles for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, tumor resistance mechanisms and new blocking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B Salisbury

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R and the insulin receptor (IR are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs that are expressed in cancer cells. The results of different studies indicate that tumor proliferation and survival is dependent on the IGF1R and IR, and that their inhibition leads to reductions in proliferation and increases in cell death. Molecular targeting therapies that have been used in solid tumors include: anti-IGF1R antibodies, anti-IGF1/IGF2 antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that suppress IGF1R and IR kinase activity. New advances in the molecular basis of anti-IGF1R blocking antibodies reveal they are biased agonists and promote the binding of IGF1 to integrin β3 receptors in some cancer cells. Our recent reports indicate that pharmacological aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR ligands inhibit breast cancer cell responses to IGFs, suggesting that targeting AHR may have benefit in cancers whose proliferation and survival are dependent on insulin/IGF signaling. Novel aspects of IGF1R/IR in cancer, such as biased agonism, integrin β3 signaling, AHR and new therapeutic targeting strategies will be discussed.

  2. Alantolactone Improves Prolonged Exposure of Interleukin-6-Induced Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Associated Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjee Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, has been proposed to be one of the mediators that link chronic inflammation to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of IL-6 on insulin action in the skeletal muscle. However, few studies have investigated the effect of long-term treatment of IL-6, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. In the present study, we observed protective effects of alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium against glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by prolonged exposure of IL-6. Alantolactone has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects through IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway. The relationship between IL-6 exposure and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, involved in inflammation in the skeletal muscle, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. We observed maximum dysregulation of glucose uptake after 40 ng/ml IL-6 induction for 24 h in L6 myotubes. Prolonged IL-6 exposure suppressed glucose uptake regulating alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT phosphorylation; however, pretreatment with alantolactone activated AKT phosphorylation and improved glucose uptake. Alantolactone also attenuated IL-6-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation, followed by an increase in expression of negative regulator suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3. Furthermore, IL-6-induced expression of pathogen recognition receptor, TLR4, was also suppressed by alantolactone pretreatment. Post-silencing of STAT3 using siRNA approach, IL-6-stimulated siRNA-STAT3 improved glucose uptake and suppressed TLR4 gene expression. Taken together, we propose that, as a STAT3 inhibitor, alantolactone, improves glucose regulation in the skeletal muscle by inhibiting IL-6-induced STAT3-SOCS3 signaling followed by inhibition of the TLR4 gene expression. Therefore

  3. Pterocarpan-Enriched Soy Leaf Extract Ameliorates Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Un-Hee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, soy (Glycine max (L. Merr. leaves are eaten as a seasonal vegetable or pickled in soy sauce. Ethyl acetate extracts of soy leaves (EASL are enriched in pterocarpans and have potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effect of EASL in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced type 2 diabetes. Mice were randomly divided into normal diet (ND, HFD (60 kcal% fat diet, EASL (HFD with 0.56% (wt/wt EASL, and Pinitol (HFD with 0.15% (wt/wt pinitol groups. Weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation were significantly suppressed by EASL. Levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c, and insulin in the EASL group were significantly lower than those of the HFD group, and the pancreatic islet of the EASL group had greater size than those of the HFD group. EASL group up-regulated neurogenin 3 (Ngn3, paired box 4 (Pax4, and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA, which are markers of pancreatic cell development, as well as insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1, IRS2, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, which are related to insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, EASL suppressed genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and steatosis. These results suggest that EASL improves plasma glucose and insulin levels in mice with HDF-induced type 2 diabetes by regulating β-cell proliferation and insulin sensitivity.

  4. Lack of liver glycogen causes hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Jose M; Meyer, Catalina M; Segvich, Dyann M; Surendran, Sneha; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Morral, Nuria; Roach, Peter J

    2017-06-23

    Disruption of the Gys2 gene encoding the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse strain (LGSKO) that almost completely lacks hepatic glycogen, has impaired glucose disposal, and is pre-disposed to entering the fasted state. This study investigated how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice was reduced in liver, but not muscle, suggesting an organ-specific defect. Phosphorylation of components of the hepatic insulin-signaling pathway, namely IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, was decreased in LGSKO mice. Moreover, insulin stimulation of their phosphorylation was significantly suppressed, both temporally and in an insulin dose response. Phosphorylation of the insulin-regulated transcription factor FoxO1 was somewhat reduced and insulin treatment did not elicit normal translocation of FoxO1 out of the nucleus. Fat overaccumulated in LGSKO livers, showing an aberrant distribution in the acinus, an increase not explained by a reduction in hepatic triglyceride export. Rather, when administered orally to fasted mice, glucose was directed toward hepatic lipogenesis as judged by the activity, protein levels, and expression of several fatty acid synthesis genes, namely, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, SREBP1c, chREBP, glucokinase, and pyruvate kinase. Furthermore, using cultured primary hepatocytes, we found that lipogenesis was increased by 40% in LGSKO cells compared with controls. Of note, the hepatic insulin resistance was not associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers. Our results suggest that loss of liver glycogen synthesis diverts glucose toward fat synthesis, correlating with impaired hepatic insulin signaling and glucose disposal. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Branched chain amino acid suppressed insulin-initiated proliferation of human cancer cells through induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubetu, Gizachew Yismaw; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Ishikawa, Daichi; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Shinichiro; Morine, Yuji; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Arakawa, Yusuke; Imura, Satoru; Arimochi, Hideki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-09-01

    Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) dietary supplementation inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) axis in diabetic animal models. However, the in vitro effect of BCAA on human cancer cell lines under hyper-insulinemic conditions remains unclear. Colon (HCT-116) and hepatic (HepG2) tumor cells were treated with varying concentrations of BCAA with or without fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of BCAA on insulin-initiated proliferation was determined. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. BCAA supplementation had no significant effect on cell proliferation and did not show significant synergistic or antagonistic effects with 5-FU. However, BCAA significantly decreased insulin-initiated proliferation of human colon and hepatic cancer cell lines in vitro. BCAA supplementation caused a marked decrease in activated IGF-IR expression and significantly enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of LC3-II and BECN1 (BECLIN-1). BCAA could be a useful chemopreventive modality for cancer in hyperinsulinemic conditions. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Insulin, Insulin Growth Factor, and Insulin-Degrading Enzyme in Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, Claude; Teutenberg, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Most brain insulin comes from the pancreas and is taken up by the brain by what appears to be a receptor-based carrier. Type 2 diabetes animal models associated with insulin resistance show reduced insulin brain uptake and content. Recent data point to changes in the insulin receptor cascade in obesity-related insulin resistance, suggesting that brain insulin receptors also become less sensitive to insulin, which could reduce synaptic plasticity. Insulin transport to the brain is reduced in a...

  7. Association between insulin and executive functioning in alcohol dependence: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Won, Sung-Doo; Lim, Jaeyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a disorder ascribable to multiple factors and leads to cognitive impairment. Given that insulin dysregulation can cause cognitive impairment, patients with alcohol dependence are likely to develop insulin dysregulation such as that in diabetes. The purposes of this study are to identify an association between cognitive functioning and insulin and to investigate insulin as the biomarker of cognitive functioning in alcohol-dependent patients. Serum insulin levels were measured and cognitive functions were assessed in 45 patients with chronic alcoholism. The Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K), a battery of cognitive function tests, was used to assess cognitive functioning. Serum insulin levels were not significantly correlated with most CERAD-K scores, but there was a significant negative correlation with scores on the Trail Making Test B, which is designed to measure executive functioning. Lower serum insulin levels were associated with slower executive functioning responses on the Trail Making Test B, suggesting that executive functioning may be in proportion to serum insulin levels. Thus, in patients with alcohol dependence, insulin level is associated with cognitive functioning. In addition, the present findings suggest that insulin level is a potential biomarker for determining cognitive functioning.

  8. Lipid-anthropometric index optimization for insulin sensitivity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, J.; Wong, S.; Encalada, L.; Herrera, H.; Severeyn, E.

    2015-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is the ability of cells to react due to insulińs presence; when this ability is diminished, low insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance (IR) is considered. IR had been related to other metabolic disorders as metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, dyslipidemia and diabetes. IS can be determined using direct or indirect methods. The indirect methods are less accurate and invasive than direct and they use glucose and insulin values from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The accuracy is established by comparison using spearman rank correlation coefficient between direct and indirect method. This paper aims to propose a lipid-anthropometric index which offers acceptable correlation to insulin sensitivity index for different populations (DB1=MS subjects, DB2=sedentary without MS subjects and DB3=marathoners subjects) without to use OGTT glucose and insulin values. The proposed method is parametrically optimized through a random cross-validation, using the spearman rank correlation as comparator with CAUMO method. CAUMO is an indirect method designed from a simplification of the minimal model intravenous glucose tolerance test direct method (MINMOD-IGTT) and with acceptable correlation (0.89). The results show that the proposed optimized method got a better correlation with CAUMO in all populations compared to non-optimized. On the other hand, it was observed that the optimized method has better correlation with CAUMO in DB2 and DB3 groups than HOMA-IR method, which is the most widely used for diagnosing insulin resistance. The optimized propose method could detect incipient insulin resistance, when classify as insulin resistant subjects that present impaired postprandial insulin and glucose values.

  9. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  10. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  11. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Insulin-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis genes, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase 2, is associated with reduced histone acetylation in a human liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Kamikubo, Michiko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT; also known as alanine aminotransferase) is a gluconeogenesis enzyme that catalyzes conversions between alanine and pyruvic acid. It is also used as a blood biomarker for hepatic damage. In this study, we investigated whether insulin regulates GPT expression, as it does for other gluconeogenesis genes, and if this involves the epigenetic modification of histone acetylation. Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured with 0.5-100nM insulin for 8h, and the mRNA expression of GPT, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), PCK1, G6PC and FBP1 was measured. We also investigated the extent of histone acetylation around these genes. Insulin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes (GPT2, GOT1, GOT2, GGT1, GGT2, G6PC, and PCK1) in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA levels of GPT2, but not GPT1, were decreased by insulin. Histone acetylation was also reduced around GPT2, G6PC, and PCK1 in response to insulin. The expression of GPT2 and other gluconeogenesis genes such as G6PC and PCK1 was suppressed by insulin, in association with decreases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation surrounding these genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  14. An immunochemical method for the quantitation of insulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.G.; Kelly, U.

    1980-01-01

    A 125 I-labelled insulin binding assay is described in which IgG antibody is precipitated by the addition of an optimal concentration of second antibody. Other features include the removal of unlabelled insulin from test sera prior to assay and the use of 22 Na as a volume marker. This approach overcomes problems associated with previous assays for insulin antibodies. Clear differences are seen in the IgG insulin binding capacity (IBC) of sera from patients with insulin resistance and injection site lipo-atrophy when compared with insulin-treated diabetics who lack such complications. The precision and flexibility of this technique make it particularly suitable for studies of the immune response to different species and forms of insulin. (Auth.)

  15. Insulin resistance in porphyria cutanea tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcinaro, F; Basta, G; Lisi, P; Cruciani, C; Pietropaolo, M; Santeusanio, F; Falorni, A; Calafiore, R

    1989-06-01

    It has been reported that patients with porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) develop carbohydrate (CHO) intolerance and manifest diabetes melitus (DM) more frequently than the normal population. In order to verify whether this is due to insulin resistance we studied 5 patients with PCT and 5 normal subjects matched for age, sex and weight. In all the patients an evaluation consisted of the glycemic curve and insulin response to an iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT: 0.33 g/kg) as well as of an evaluation of the circulating monocyte insulin receptors. Blood samples were drawn in the basal state to measure plasma levels of NEFA, glycerol, and intermediate metabolites. The patients with PCT showed normal glucose tolerance which was obtained, however, at the expense of the elevated insulin levels: therefore a condition of insulin resistance was demonstrated in these subjects. An involvement of the lipid metabolism, observed by the raised levels of plasma NEFA and glycerol, was also evident. The insulin binding to circulating monocytes was reduced but not enough to justify the degree of insulin resistance observed. Therefore, it could be hypothesized, in agreement with similar studies, that a postreceptor defect is responsible for the insulin-resistance observed in patients with PCT and that the reduction of insulin receptors is determined by the down regulation in response to elevated insulinemic levels. An alteration of the porphyrin metabolism might be responsible for this disorder.

  16. Insulin Inclusion into a Tragacanth Hydrogel: An Oral Delivery System for Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Nur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles or microparticles created by physical complexation between two polyelectrolytes may have a prospective use as an excipient for oral insulin administration. Natural polymers such as tragacanth, alginate, dextran, pullulan, hyaluronic acid, gelatin and chitosan can be potential candidates for this purpose. In this research, insulin particles were prepared by the inclusion of insulin into a tragacanth hydrogel. The effect of the pH and concentration relationship involving polyelectrolytes offering individual particle size and zeta potential was assessed by zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Insulin–tragacanth interactions at varying pH (3.7, 4.3, 4.6, or 6, and concentration (0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% w/w were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR analysis. Individual and smaller particles, approximately 800 nm, were acquired at pH 4.6 with 0.5% of tragacanth. The acid gelation test indicated that insulin could be entrapped in the physical hydrogel of tragacanth. DSC thermograms of insulin–tragacanth showed shifts on the same unloaded tragacanth peaks and suggested polyelectrolyte–protein interactions at a pH close to 4.3–4.6. FTIR spectra of tragacanth–insulin complexes exhibited amide absorption bands featuring in the protein spectra and revealed the creation of a new chemical substance.

  17. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours before blood is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do testing when fasting is not possible, such as when a glucose tolerance test (see Glucose ) is done. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer ...

  18. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin-resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Blaszczak, Alecia; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-11-15

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance; however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilization in adults with IFG, IGT, or IFG + IGT is unknown. Twenty-four older (66.7 ± 0.8 yr) obese (34.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) adults were categorized as IFG (n = 8), IGT (n = 8), or IFG + IGT (n = 8) according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects underwent 12-wk of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/wk at ∼85% HRmax) and were instructed to maintain a eucaloric diet. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) with [6,6-(2)H]glucose was used to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Nonoxidative glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility [insulin-stimulated respiratory quotient (RQ) minus fasting RQ] were also assessed. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUCOGTT) was calculated from the OGTT. Exercise increased clamp-derived peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity more in adults with IFG or IGT alone than with IFG + IGT (P work is required to assess the molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic hyperglycemia modifies insulin sensitivity following exercise training.

  20. Insulin and TOR signal in parallel through FOXO and S6K to promote epithelial wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakanj, Parisa; Moussian, Bernard; Grönke, Sebastian; Bustos, Victor; Eming, Sabine A.; Partridge, Linda; Leptin, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The TOR and Insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) network controls growth, metabolism and ageing. Although reducing TOR or insulin signalling can be beneficial for ageing, it can be detrimental for wound healing, but the reasons for this difference are unknown. Here we show that IIS is activated in the cells surrounding an epidermal wound in Drosophila melanogaster larvae, resulting in PI3K activation and redistribution of the transcription factor FOXO. Insulin and TOR signalling are independently necessary for normal wound healing, with FOXO and S6K as their respective effectors. IIS is specifically required in cells surrounding the wound, and the effect is independent of glycogen metabolism. Insulin signalling is needed for the efficient assembly of an actomyosin cable around the wound, and constitutively active myosin II regulatory light chain suppresses the effects of reduced IIS. These findings may have implications for the role of insulin signalling and FOXO activation in diabetic wound healing. PMID:27713427

  1. A comparison between the minimal model and the glucose clamp in the assessment of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M F; Anderson, R L; Laws, A; Watanabe, R M; Kades, W W; Chen, Y D; Sands, R E; Pei, D; Savage, P J; Bergman, R N

    1994-09-01

    An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with minimal model analysis was compared with the glucose clamp in 11 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 20 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from FSIGTT using 22- and 12-sample protocols (SI(22) and SI(12), respectively). Insulin sensitivity from the clamp was expressed as SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp). Minimal model parameters were similar when calculated with SI(22) and SI(12). SI could not be distinguished from 0 in approximately 50% of diabetic patients with either protocol. SI(22) correlated significantly with SI(clamp) in the whole group (r = 0.62), and in the NGT (r = 0.53), IGT (r = 0.48), and NIDDM (r = 0.41) groups (P SIP(clamp) were expressed in the same units, SI(22) was 66 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE) and 50 +/- 8% lower than SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp), respectively. Thus, minimal model analysis of the insulin-modified FSIGTT provides estimates of insulin sensitivity that correlate significantly with those from the glucose clamp. The correlation was weaker, however, in NIDDM. The insulin-modified FSIGTT can be used as a simple test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in population studies involving nondiabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed before using this test routinely in patients with NIDDM.

  2. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  3. Counterregulation of insulin by leptin as key component of autonomic regulation of body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2014-01-01

    A re-examination of the mechanism controlling eating, locomotion, and metabolism prompts formulation of a new explanatory model containing five features: a coordinating joint role of the (1) autonomic nervous system (ANS); (2) the suprachiasmatic (SCN) master clock in counterbalancing parasympathetic digestive and absorptive functions and feeding with sympathetic locomotor and thermogenic energy expenditure within a circadian framework; (3) interaction of the ANS/SCN command with brain substrates of reward encompassing dopaminergic projections to ventral striatum and limbic and cortical forebrain. These drive the nonhomeostatic feeding and locomotor motivated behaviors in interaction with circulating ghrelin and lateral hypothalamic neurons signaling through melanin concentrating hormone and orexin-hypocretin peptides; (4) counterregulation of insulin by leptin of both gastric and adipose tissue origin through: potentiation by leptin of cholecystokinin-mediated satiation, inhibition of insulin secretion, suppression of insulin lipogenesis by leptin lipolysis, and modulation of peripheral tissue and brain sensitivity to insulin action. Thus weight-loss induced hypoleptimia raises insulin sensitivity and promotes its parasympathetic anabolic actions while obesity-induced hyperleptinemia supresses insulin lipogenic action; and (5) inhibition by leptin of bone mineral accrual suggesting that leptin may contribute to the maintenance of stability of skeletal, lean-body, as well as adipose tissue masses. PMID:25317239

  4. Abdominal adipose tissue quantification on water-suppressed and non-water-suppressed MRI at 3T using semi-automated FCM clustering algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaparla, Sunil K.; Peng, Qi; Gao, Feng; Clarke, Geoffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate measurements of human body fat distribution are desirable because excessive body fat is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the performance of water suppressed (WS) MRI is superior to non-water suppressed (NWS) MRI for volumetric assessment of abdominal subcutaneous (SAT), intramuscular (IMAT), visceral (VAT), and total (TAT) adipose tissues. We acquired T1-weighted images on a 3T MRI system (TIM Trio, Siemens), which was analyzed using semi-automated segmentation software that employs a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Sixteen contiguous axial slices, centered at the L4-L5 level of the abdomen, were acquired in eight T2DM subjects with water suppression (WS) and without (NWS). Histograms from WS images show improved separation of non-fatty tissue pixels from fatty tissue pixels, compared to NWS images. Paired t-tests of WS versus NWS showed a statistically significant lower volume of lipid in the WS images for VAT (145.3 cc less, p=0.006) and IMAT (305 cc less, p1), but not SAT (14.1 cc more, NS). WS measurements of TAT also resulted in lower fat volumes (436.1 cc less, p=0.002). There is strong correlation between WS and NWS quantification methods for SAT measurements (r=0.999), but poorer correlation for VAT studies (r=0.845). These results suggest that NWS pulse sequences may overestimate adipose tissue volumes and that WS pulse sequences are more desirable due to the higher contrast generated between fatty and non-fatty tissues.

  5. In vivo response of Mesocestoides vogae to human insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canclini, L; Esteves, A

    2009-02-01

    Successful host invasion by parasitic helminths involves detection and appropriate response to a range of host-derived signals. Insulin signal response pathways are ancient and highly-conserved throughout the metazoans. However, very little is known about helminth insulin signalling and the potential role it may play in host-parasite interactions. The response of Mesocestoides vogae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) larvae to human insulin was investigated, focusing on tyrosine-phosphorylation status, glucose content, survival and asexual reproduction rate. Parasite larvae were challenged with different levels of insulin for variable periods. The parameters tested were influenced by human insulin, and suggested a host-parasite molecular dialogue.

  6. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise: focus on insulin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    After a single bout of exercise, the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake is markedly improved locally in the previously active muscles. This makes exercise a potent stimulus counteracting insulin resistance characterizing type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is believed that at least part...... of the mechanism relates to an improved ability of insulin to stimulate translocation of glucose transporters (GLUT4) to the muscle membrane after exercise. How this is accomplished is still unclear; however, an obvious possibility is that exercise interacts with the insulin signaling pathway to GLUT4...... translocation allowing for a more potent insulin response. Parallel to unraveling of the insulin signaling cascade, this has been investigated within the past 25 years. Reviewing existing studies clearly indicates that improved insulin action can occur independent of interactions with proximal insulin signaling...

  7. Activation of SF1 Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus by DREADD Technology Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eulalia A; Okamoto, Shiki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Yokota, Shigefumi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Saito, Kumiko; Sato, Tatsuya; Takagi, Kazuyo; Wang, Chen-Chi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, and this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology. Activation of SF1 neurons by an intraperitoneal injection of clozapine- N -oxide (CNO), a specific hM3Dq ligand, reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in mice expressing hM3Dq in SF1 neurons. It also increased whole-body glucose utilization and glucose uptake in red-type skeletal muscle, heart, and interscapular brown adipose tissue, as well as glucose production and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, such activation of SF1 neurons increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in the same peripheral tissues and tended to enhance insulin-induced suppression of glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenic gene expression and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver. DREADD technology is thus an important tool for studies of the role of the brain in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Effects of insulin and epinephrine on Na+-K+ and glucose transport in soleus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, T.; Flatman, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    To identify possible cause-effect relationships between changes in active Na + -K + transport, resting membrane potential, and glucose transport, the effects of insulin and epinephrine were compared in rat soleus muscle. Epinephrine, which produced twice as large a hyperpolarization as insulin, induced only a modest increase in 14 C-labeled sugar transport. Ouabain, at a concentration (10 -3 M) sufficient to block active Na + -K + transport and the hyperpolarization induced by the two hormones, did not interfere with sugar transport stimulation. After Na + loading in K + -free buffer, the return to K + -containing standard buffer caused marked stimulation of active 22 Na + - 42 K + transport, twice the hyperpolarization produced by insulin but no change in sugar transport. The insulin-induced activation of the 22 Na + - 42 K + pump leads to decreased intracellular 22 Na + concentration and hyperpolarization, but none of these events can account for the concomitant activation of the glucose transport system. The stimulating effect of insulin on active Na + -K + transport was not suppressed by amiloride, indicating that in intact skeletal muscle it is not elicited by a primary increase in Na + influx via the Na + /H + -exchange system

  9. Insulin-Inducible SMILE Inhibits Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Min; Seo, Woo-Young; Han, Hye-Sook; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Seri; Choi, Byeong Hun; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ(-/-)) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Factors influencing insulin and glucagon secretion in lean and genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloff-Chain, A.; Newman, M.E.; Mansford, K.R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The control of 125 I-labelled insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated pancreatic islets of lean and genetically obese mice has been compared. The enlarged islets of obese mouse pancreas and islets of obese mice maintained on a restricted diet manifested a greater response to glucose stimulation of insulin secretion than the lean mice islets. The glucagon content of the islets, the secretion of glucagon in a medium containing 150 mg% glucose and the stimulation of glucagon secretion by arginine did not differ significantly in the two groups. Adrenaline stimulated glucagon secretion in vitro from obese mice but not from lean mice. Antiinsulin serum injections into obese mice increased the plasma glucagon levels about twofold and had no effect on glucagon levels in lean mice, although the level of hyperglycaemia was the same in both groups. It is suggested that the suppression of glucagon release by glucose requires a higher concentration of insulin in the obese mouse pancreas than in lean mice. (orig./AJ) [de

  11. Factors influencing insulin and glucagon secretion in lean and genetically obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloff-Chain, A; Newman, M E; Mansford, K R.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-01-01

    The control of /sup 125/I-labelled insulin and glucagon secretion from isolated pancreatic islets of lean and genetically obese mice has been compared. The enlarged islets of obese mouse pancreas and islets of obese mice maintained on a restricted diet manifested a greater response to glucose stimulation of insulin secretion than the lean mice islets. The glucagon content of the islets, the secretion of glucagon in a medium containing 150 mg% glucose and the stimulation of glucagon secretion by arginine did not differ significantly in the two groups. Adrenaline stimulated glucagon secretion in vitro from obese mice but not from lean mice. Antiinsulin serum injections into obese mice increased the plasma glucagon levels about twofold and had no effect on glucagon levels in lean mice, although the level of hyperglycaemia was the same in both groups. It is suggested that the suppression of glucagon release by glucose requires a higher concentration of insulin in the obese mouse pancreas than in lean mice.

  12. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard G Fred

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of high glucose exposure results in human islet dysfunction in vitro. The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3'-UTR contains binding sites for the microRNA molecules miR-133a, miR-124a and miR-146. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether high glucose increased the levels of these three miRNAs in association with lower PTB levels and lower insulin biosynthesis rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human islets were cultured for 24 hours in the presence of low (5.6 mM or high glucose (20 mM. Islets were also exposed to sodium palmitate or the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, since saturated free fatty acids and cytokines also cause islet dysfunction. RNA was then isolated for real-time RT-PCR analysis of miR-133a, miR-124a, miR-146, insulin mRNA and PTB mRNA contents. Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined by radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation. Synthetic miR-133a precursor and inhibitor were delivered to dispersed islet cells by lipofection, and PTB was analyzed by immunoblotting following culture at low or high glucose. Culture in high glucose resulted in increased islet contents of miR-133a and reduced contents of miR-146. Cytokines increased the contents of miR-146. The insulin and PTB mRNA contents were unaffected by high glucose. However, both PTB protein levels and insulin biosynthesis rates were decreased in response to high glucose. The miR-133a inhibitor prevented the high glucose-induced decrease in PTB and insulin biosynthesis, and the miR-133a precursor decreased PTB levels and insulin biosynthesis similarly to high glucose. CONCLUSION: Prolonged high-glucose exposure down-regulates PTB levels and insulin biosynthesis rates in human islets by increasing miR-133a levels. We propose that this mechanism

  13. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  14. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [ 3 H]glucose and 2-deoxy[ 14 C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  15. Prediction of the outcome of growth hormone provocative testing in short children by measurement of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH) in healthy children and exhibit little diurnal variation, which makes them potential candidates for screening of GH deficiency (GHD......). We evaluated serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in relation to the outcome of GH provocative testing in 203 children and adolescents (111 boys and 92 girls) in whom GHD was suspected. A total of 1030 children served as control subjects. In children less than 10 years of age, IGF-I levels were below...... with a normal GH response (specificity 97.9%). Consequently the predictive value of a positive test result in prepubertal children was 88.8% for IGF-I and 90% for IGFBP-3. In children and adolescents between 10 and 20 years of age, IGF-I levels were below the cutoff limit in 34 of 46 children with GHD...

  16. Thylakoids promote release of the satiety hormone cholecystokinin while reducing insulin in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindbo, Agnes; Larsson, Therese

    2009-01-01

    (CCK, leptin and ghrelin), insulin and blood metabolites (glucose and free fatty acids). RESULTS: The CCK level increased, in particular between the 120 min time-point and onwards, the ghrelin level was reduced at 120 min and leptin level increased at 360 min after intake of the thylakoid-enriched meal....... The insulin level was reduced, whereas glucose concentrations were unchanged. Free fatty acids were reduced between time-point 120 min and onwards after the thylakoid meal. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of thylakoids to energy-dense food promotes satiety signals and reduces insulin response during a single meal......OBJECTIVE: The effects of a promising new appetite suppressor named "thylakoids" (membrane proteins derived from spinach leaves) were examined in a single meal in man. Thylakoids inhibit the lipase/colipase hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in vitro and suppress food intake, decrease body-weight gain...

  17. Influence of Unweighting on Insulin Signal Transduction in Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    2002-01-01

    Unweighting of the juvenile soleus muscle is characterized by an increased binding capacity for insulin relative to muscle mass due to sparing of the receptors during atrophy. Although carbohydrate metabolism and protein degradation in the unweighted muscle develop increased sensitivity to insulin in vivo, protein synthesis in vivo and system A amino acid transport in vitro do not appear to develop such an enhanced response. The long-term goal is to identify the precise nature of this apparent resistance in the insulin signal transduction pathway and to consider how reduced weight-bearing may elicit this effect, by evaluating specific components of the insulin signalling pathway. Because the insulin-signalling pathway has components in common with the signal transduction pathway for insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and potentially other growth factors, the study could have important implications in the role of weight-bearing function on muscle growth and development. Since the insulin signalling pathway diverges following activation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, the immediate specific aims will be to study the receptor tyrosine kinase (IRTK) and those branches, which lead to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and of Shc protein. To achieve these broader objectives, we will test in situ, by intramuscular injection, the responses of glucose transport, system A amino acid transport and protein synthesis to insulin analogues for which the receptor has either a weaker or much stronger binding affinity compared to insulin. Studies will include: (1) estimation of the ED(sub 50) for each analogue for these three processes; (2) the effect of duration (one to four days) of unweighting on the response of each process to all analogues tested; (3) the effect of unweighting and the analogues on IRTK activity; and (4) the comparative effects of unweighting and analogue binding on the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRTK, IRS-1, and Shc protein.

  18. Flaxseed Oil Alleviates Chronic HFD-Induced Insulin Resistance through Remodeling Lipid Homeostasis in Obese Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Liegang; Shen, Ruiling; Deng, Qianchun; Yao, Ping

    2017-11-08

    Emerging evidence suggests that higher circulating long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) levels were intimately associated with lower prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the understanding of bioactivity and potential mechanism of α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil (ALA-FO) against insulin resistance was still limited. This study evaluated the effect of FO on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice focused on adipose tissue lipolysis. Mice after HFD feeding for 16 weeks (60% fat-derived calories) exhibited systemic insulin resistance, which was greatly attenuated by medium dose of FO (M-FO), paralleling with differential accumulation of ALA and its n-3 derivatives across serum lipid fractions. Moreover, M-FO was sufficient to effectively block the metabolic activation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), thereby improving adipose tissue insulin signaling. Importantly, suppression of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α were involved in FO-mediated modulation of adipose tissue lipolysis, accompanied by specific reconstitution of n-3PUFA within adipose tissue lipid fractions.

  19. Detecting insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: purposes and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Castracane, V Daniel; Kauffman, Robert P

    2004-02-01

    Approximately 50% to 70% of all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have some degree of insulin resistance, and this hormone insensitivity probably contributes to the hyperandrogenism that is responsible for the signs and symptoms of PCOS. Although uncertainty exists, early detection and treatment of insulin resistance in this population could ultimately reduce the incidence or severity of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Even if that proves to be the case, there are still several problems with our current approach to insulin sensitivity assessment in PCOS, including the apparent lack of consensus on what defines PCOS and "normal" insulin sensitivity, ethnic and genetic variability, the presence of other factors contributing to insulin resistance such as obesity, stress, and aging, and concern about whether simplified models of insulin sensitivity have the precision to predict treatment needs, responses, and future morbidity. Although the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique is the gold standard for measuring insulin sensitivity, it is too expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive to be of practical use in an office setting. Homeostatic measurements (fasting glucose/insulin ratio or homeostatic model assessment [HOMA] value) and minimal model tests (particularly the oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) represent the easiest office-based assessments of insulin resistance in the PCOS patient. The OGTT is probably the best simple, office-based method to assess women with PCOS because it provides information about both insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The diagnosis of glucose intolerance holds greater prognostic and treatment implications. All obese women with PCOS should be screened for the presence of insulin resistance by looking for other stigmata of the insulin resistance syndrome such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and glucose intolerance.

  20. Efficacy of 2-hour post glucose insulin levels in predicting insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Insulin resistance (IR is central to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, but tests for determining IR are elaborate, tedious and expensive. Aims : To evaluate if "2-hour post-glucose insulin level" is an effective indicator of IR and can aid in diagnosing IR in infertile PCOS women. Settings and Design : Observational study at infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods : 50 infertile women with PCOS and 20 females with tubal/male factor infertility were evaluated for the presence of IR, as defined by the fasting/2-hour post-glucose insulin levels cutoffs of >25/>41 μU/mL, respectively. The clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic profile was determined in both the groups. Statistical Analysis : Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA. Results : Body mass index, post load glucose, insulin, glucose/insulin ratio, area under curve (AUC of glucose and insulin and insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the controls as compared to the PCOS group. "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" were elevated in 88% of PCOS individuals but were normal in all females not suffering from PCOS. These levels significantly correlated with AUC of glucose and insulin, and insulinogenic index and inversely correlated with 2-hour glucose to insulin ratio (r=0.827, 0.749 and −0.732, respectively. Conclusions : "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" appears to be a good indicator of IR. It can be a useful tool, especially in low resource setting where a single sample can confirm the diagnosis, thus reducing cost and repeat visits.

  1. Fixed ratio dosing of pramlintide with regular insulin before a standard meal in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M C; Yuen, K C J; de Bruin, T W; Herrmann, K; Xu, J; Öhman, P; Kolterman, O G

    2015-09-01

    Amylin is co-secreted with insulin and is therefore lacking in patients with type 1 diabetes. Replacement with fixed ratio co-administration of insulin and the amylin analogue pramlintide may be superior to separate dosing. This concept was evaluated in a ratio-finding study. Patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in a randomized, single-masked, standard breakfast crossover study using regular human insulin injected simultaneously with pramlintide 6, 9 or 12 mcg/unit insulin or placebo. Insulin dosage was reduced by 30% from patients' usual estimates. Plasma glucose, glucagon and pramlintide and adverse events were assessed. All ratios reduced 0-3-h glucose and glucagon increments by >50%. No hypoglycaemia occurred. Adverse events were infrequent and generally mild. All pramlintide/insulin ratios markedly and safely reduced glycaemic excursions and suppressed glucagon secretion in the immediate postprandial state. Further study using one of these ratios to explore the efficacy and safety of longer-term meal-time and basal hormone replacement is warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Studies on the T3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial 123I uptake in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T 3 suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal 123 I uptake after T 3 administration (75 μg/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T 3 uptake). In 38 patients whose post T 3 uptake was below 35% in post T 3 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T 3 suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of 123 I after T 3 administration (r=0.847, p 3 suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T 3 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T 3 suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author)

  3. The Role of the Immune System in Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal S. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system provides organisms with rapid and well-coordinated protection from foreign pathogens. However, under certain conditions of metabolic dysfunction, components of the innate immune system may be activated in the absence of external pathogens, leading to pathologic consequences. Indeed, there appears to be an intimate relationship between metabolic diseases and immune dysfunction; for example, macrophages are prime players in the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in obesity which leads to insulin resistance. In response to increases in free fatty acid release from obese adipose depots, M1-polarized macrophages infiltrate adipose tissues. These M1 macrophages trigger inflammatory signaling and stress responses within cells that signal through JNK or IKKβ pathways, leading to insulin resistance. If overnutrition persists, mechanisms that counteract inflammation (such as M2 macrophages and PPAR signaling are suppressed, and the inflammation becomes chronic. Although macrophages are a principal constituent of obese adipose tissue inflammation, other components of the immune system such as lymphocytes and mast cells also contribute to the inflammatory cascade. Thus it is not merely an increased mass of adipose tissue that directly leads to attenuation of insulin action, but rather adipose tissue inflammation activated by the immune system in obese individuals that leads to insulin resistance.

  4. The short term effect of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination on the liver morphology in high fat diet/streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.; Amjad, Z.; Memon, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the histological effects of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination on liver morphology in high fat diet (HFD) / Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. Study Design: Experimental and comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Ojha Campus, Karachi, from January to August 2012. Methodology: The study was conducted on 50 HFD/STZ induced diabetic albino wistar rats which were randomized into 5 groups. One of the groups was treated with insulin, one with metformin, and the other group with insulin-metformin combination for 4 weeks. One of the groups was left untreated. One group was control group. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed and livers were isolated, weighed, processed and stained to analyse the difference in hepatic morphology in each treated and untreated groups, then the results were compared with control rats. Results: Statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) was seen between the groups by using Kruskill Wallis Test. To further investigate the effectiveness of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination, Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. Statistically significant difference was noticed when diabetic rats were given insulin-metformin combination (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The combination therapy was observed to have better effects on liver morphology than insulin and metformin used separately. (author)

  5. RFX6 Regulates Insulin Secretion by Modulating Ca2+ Homeostasis in Human β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development and function of pancreatic β cells involve the regulated activity of specific transcription factors. RFX6 is a transcription factor essential for mouse β cell differentiation that is mutated in monogenic forms of neonatal diabetes. However, the expression and functional roles of RFX6 in human β cells, especially in pathophysiological conditions, are poorly explored. We demonstrate the presence of RFX6 in adult human pancreatic endocrine cells. Using the recently developed human β cell line EndoC-βH2, we show that RFX6 regulates insulin gene transcription, insulin content, and secretion. Knockdown of RFX6 causes downregulation of Ca2+-channel genes resulting in the reduction in L-type Ca2+-channel activity that leads to suppression of depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. We also describe a previously unreported homozygous missense RFX6 mutation (p.V506G that is associated with neonatal diabetes, which lacks the capacity to activate the insulin promoter and to increase Ca2+-channel expression. Our data therefore provide insights for understanding certain forms of neonatal diabetes.

  6. [Comparison between basal insulin glargine and NPH insulin in patients with diabetes type 1 on conventional intensive insulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesić, Milica; Zivić, Sasa; Radenković, Sasa; Velojić, Milena; Dimić, Dragan; Antić, Slobodan

    2007-04-01

    Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin analog that mimics normal basal insulin secretion without pronounced peaks. The aim of this study was to compare insulin glargine with isophane insulin (NPH insulin) for basal insulin supply in patients with type 1 diabetes. A total of 48 type 1 diabetics on long term conventional intensive insulin therapy (IT) were randomized to three different regimens of basal insulin substitution: 1. continuation of NPH insulin once daily at bedtime with more intensive selfmonitoring (n = 15); 2. NPH insulin twice daily (n = 15); 3. insulin glargine once daily (n = 18). Meal time insulin aspart was continued in all groups. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was lower in the glargine group (7.30+/-0.98 mmol/1) than in the twice daily NPH group (7.47+/-1.06 mmol/1), but without significant difference. FBG was significantly higher in the once daily NPH group (8.44+/-0.85 mmol/l; p < 0.05). HbAlc after 3 months did not change in the once daily NPH group, but decreased in the glargine group (from 7.72+/-0.86% to 6.87+/-0.50%), as well as in the twice daily NPH group (from 7.80+/-0.83% to 7.01+/-0.63%). Total daily insulin doses were similar in all groups but only in the glargine group there was an increase of basal and decrease of meal related insulin doses. The frequency of mild hypoglycemia was significantly lower in the glargine group (6.56+/-2.09) than in both NPH groups (9.0+/-1.65 in twice daily NPH group and 8.13+/-1.30 in other NPH group) (episodes/patients-month, p < 0.05). Basal insulin supplementation in type 1 diabetes mellitus with either twice daily NPH insulin or glargine can result in similar glycemic control when combined with meal time insulin aspart. However, with glargine regimen FBG, HbAlc and frequency of hypoglycemic event are lower. These facts contribute to better patients satisfaction with insulin glargine versus NPH insulin in IIT in type 1 diabetics.

  7. Exenatide improves both hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance: A dynamic positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gaggini, Melania; Daniele, Giuseppe; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Iozzo, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1-RAs) act on multiple tissues, in addition to the pancreas. Recent studies suggest that GLP-1-RAs act on liver and adipose tissue to reduce insulin resistance (IR). Thus, we evaluated the acute effects of exenatide (EX) on hepatic (Hep-IR) and adipose (Adipo-IR) insulin resistance and glucose uptake. Fifteen male subjects (age = 56 ± 8 years; body mass index = 29 ± 1 kg/m 2 ; A1c = 5.7 ± 0.1%) were studied on two occasions, with a double-blind subcutaneous injection of EX (5 μg) or placebo (PLC) 30 minutes before a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, we measured hepatic (HGU) and adipose tissue (ATGU) glucose uptake with [ 18 F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose/positron emission tomography, lipolysis (RaGly) with [U- 2 H 5 ]-glycerol, oral glucose absorption (RaO) with [U- 13 C 6 ]-glucose, and hepatic glucose production (EGP) with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]-glucose. Adipo-IR and Hep-IR were calculated as (FFA 0-120min ) × (Ins 0-120min ) and (EGP 0-120min ) × (Ins 0-120min ), respectively. EX reduced RaO, resulting in reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentration from 0 to 120 minutes postglucose ingestion. EX decreased Hep-IR (197 ± 28 to 130 ± 37; P = 0.02) and increased HGU of orally administered glucose (23 ± 4 to 232 ± 89 [μmol/min/L]/[μmol/min/kg]; P = 0.003) despite lower insulin (23 ± 5 vs. 41 ± 5 mU/L; P < 0.02). EX enhanced insulin suppression of RaGly by decreasing Adipo-IR (23 ± 4 to 13 ± 3; P = 0.009). No significant effect of insulin was observed on ATGU (EX = 1.16 ± 0.15 vs. PLC = 1.36 ± 0.13 [μmol/min/L]/[μmol/min/kg]). Acute EX administration (1) improves Hep-IR, decreases EGP, and enhances HGU and (2) reduces Adipo-IR, improves the antilipolytic effect of insulin, and reduces plasma free fatty acid levels during OGTT. (Hepatology 2016;64:2028-2037). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. New ways of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, L

    2011-02-01

    even too short (see postprandial glycaemic excursions with test meals in the publication by Rosenstock et al. in The Lancet (1)). In the end a number of aspects are of relevance for the success of a given product; one key aspect is clearly the price. However, for patients also practical aspects (handling, need for regular pulmonary function test etc.) are of importance. We shall have to see how creatively MannKind will handle all such questions. Until now Al Mann and his colleagues were able to manage a number of challenges during the clinical development process successfully, so one can have hopes for the market success of TI. However, it is clear that at the same time, if TI fails like Exubera did before, this will be the end for pulmonary insulin in general. Not too many original publications presenting data from clinical trials were published in the last year when it comes to oral insulin (OI), nasal insulin or transdermal insulin developments; simply none with transdermal insulin. Also at the last international congresses not many studies about ARIA were presented. At least in part this might be still a reflection of the shockwaves that the failure of Exubera has sent out to pharmaceutical companies and venture capitalists; they are quite reluctant to invest in any of these developments. However, a considerable number of reviews (in some cases more than original papers!) were published about ARIA. These reviews are listed for completeness, but in most cases are not further commented. OI is still the area of research most companies are active in; however, in some cases it is not clear how active they really are (e.g. Diabetology). Nevertheless, at least some companies are quite active and progressed in their clinical development programme close to market approval, e.g. the large Indian company Biocon is in late phase 3 with IN-105 and the small Israel-based company Oramed is in phase 2b. It appears that other interesting OI developments (e.g. Diasome) were not very

  9. Neuronal LRP1 regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Jin; Tsai, Chih-Wei; Yue, Mei; Melrose, Heather L; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2015-04-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes during the early stage of AD and likely triggers or exacerbates AD pathology. However, the mechanisms linking disturbed insulin signaling/glucose metabolism and AD pathogenesis remain unclear. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a major apolipoprotein E receptor, plays critical roles in lipoprotein metabolism, synaptic maintenance, and clearance of Aβ in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that LRP1 interacts with the insulin receptor β in the brain and regulates insulin signaling and glucose uptake. LRP1 deficiency in neurons leads to impaired insulin signaling as well as reduced levels of glucose transporters GLUT3 and GLUT4. Consequently, glucose uptake is reduced. By using an in vivo microdialysis technique sampling brain glucose concentration in freely moving mice, we further show that LRP1 deficiency in conditional knock-out mice resulted in glucose intolerance in the brain. We also found that hyperglycemia suppresses LRP1 expression, which further exacerbates insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and AD pathology. As loss of LRP1 expression is seen in AD brains, our study provides novel insights into insulin resistance in AD. Our work also establishes new targets that can be explored for AD prevention or therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355851-09$15.00/0.

  10. Effects of mealtime insulin aspart and bedtime NPH insulin on postprandial coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Henriksen, Je; Akram, S

    2012-01-01

    and Methods: This was tested in a parallel controlled study in well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to bedtime NPH insulin (n=41) or mealtime insulin aspart (n=37). They were served standard diabetic meals for breakfast (8:00) and lunch (12:00). Blood samples were collected at 7:40 (fasting...

  11. Subcutaneous insulin absorption explained by insulin's physicochemical properties. Evidence from absorption studies of soluble human insulin and insulin analogues in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S; Brange, J; Burch, A; Vølund, A; Owens, D R

    1991-11-01

    To study the influence of molecular aggregation on rates of subcutaneous insulin absorption and to attempt to elucidate the mechanism of absorption of conventional soluble human insulin in humans. Seven healthy male volunteers aged 22-43 yr and not receiving any drugs comprised the study. This study consisted of a single-blind randomized comparison of equimolar dosages of 125I-labeled forms of soluble hexameric 2 Zn2+ human insulin and human insulin analogues with differing association states at pharmaceutical concentrations (AspB10, dimeric; AspB28, mixture of monomers and dimers; AspB9, GluB27, monomeric). After an overnight fast and a basal period of 1 h, 0.6 nmol/kg of either 125I-labeled human soluble insulin (Actrapid HM U-100) or 125I-labeled analogue was injected subcutaneously on 4 separate days 1 wk apart. Absorption was assessed by measurement of residual radioactivity at the injection site by external gamma-counting. The mean +/- SE initial fractional disappearance rates for the four preparations were 20.7 +/- 1.9 (hexameric soluble human insulin), 44.4 +/- 2.5 (dimeric analogue AspB10), 50.6 +/- 3.9 (analogue AspB28), and 67.4 +/- 7.4%/h (monomeric analogue AspB9, GluB27). Absorption of the dimeric analogue was significantly faster than that of hexameric human insulin (P less than 0.001); absorption of monomeric insulin analogue AspB9, GluB27 was significantly faster than that of dimeric analogue AspB10 (P less than 0.01). There was an inverse linear correlation between association state and the initial fractional disappearance rates (r = -0.98, P less than 0.02). Analysis of the disappearance data on a log linear scale showed that only the monomeric analogue had a monoexponential course throughout. Two phases in the rates of absorption were identified for the dimer and three for hexameric human insulin. The fractional disappearance rates (%/h) calculated by log linear regression analysis were monomer 73.3 +/- 6.8; dimer 44.4 +/- 2.5 from 0 to 2 h and

  12. Insulin receptor internalization defect in an insulin-resistant mouse melanoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androlewicz, M.J.; Straus, D.S.; Brandenburg, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated that the PG19 mouse melanoma cell line does not exhibit a biological response to insulin, whereas melanoma x mouse embryo fibroblast hybrids do respond to insulin. To investigate the molecular basis of the insulin resistance of the PG19 melanoma cells, insulin receptors from the insulin-resistant melanoma cells and insulin-sensitive fibroblast x melanoma hybrid cells were analyzed by the technique of photoaffinity labeling using the photoprobe 125 I-NAPA-DP-insulin. Photolabeled insulin receptors from the two cell types have identical molecular weights as determined by SDS gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that the receptors on the two cell lines are structurally similar. Insulin receptor internalization studies revealed that the hybrid cells internalize receptors to a high degree at 37 degree C, whereas the melanoma cells internalize receptors to a very low degree or not at all. The correlation between ability to internalize insulin receptors and sensitivity to insulin action in this system suggests that uptake of the insulin-receptor complex may be required for insulin action in these cells. Insulin receptors from the two cell lines autophosphorylate in a similar insulin-dependent manner both in vitro and in intact cells, indicating that insulin receptors on the melanoma and hybrid cells have functional tyrosine protein kinase activity. Therefore, the block in insulin action in the PG19 melanoma cells appears to reside at a step beyond insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation

  13. Reduced Circulating Insulin Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Old Mice and Extends Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Templeman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The causal relationships between insulin levels, insulin resistance, and longevity are not fully elucidated. Genetic downregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1 signaling components can extend invertebrate and mammalian lifespan, but insulin resistance, a natural form of decreased insulin signaling, is associated with greater risk of age-related disease in mammals. We compared Ins2+/− mice to Ins2+/+ littermate controls, on a genetically stable Ins1 null background. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of livers from 25-week-old mice suggested potential for healthier aging and altered insulin sensitivity in Ins2+/− mice. Halving Ins2 lowered circulating insulin by 25%–34% in aged female mice, without altering Igf1 or circulating Igf1. Remarkably, decreased insulin led to lower fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity in aged mice. Moreover, lowered insulin caused significant lifespan extension, observed across two diverse diets. Our study indicates that elevated insulin contributes to age-dependent insulin resistance and that limiting basal insulin levels can extend lifespan.

  14. Reduced Circulating Insulin Enhances Insulin Sensitivity in Old Mice and Extends Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Nicole M; Flibotte, Stephane; Chik, Jenny H L; Sinha, Sunita; Lim, Gareth E; Foster, Leonard J; Nislow, Corey; Johnson, James D

    2017-07-11

    The causal relationships between insulin levels, insulin resistance, and longevity are not fully elucidated. Genetic downregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) signaling components can extend invertebrate and mammalian lifespan, but insulin resistance, a natural form of decreased insulin signaling, is associated with greater risk of age-related disease in mammals. We compared Ins2 +/- mice to Ins2 +/+ littermate controls, on a genetically stable Ins1 null background. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of livers from 25-week-old mice suggested potential for healthier aging and altered insulin sensitivity in Ins2 +/- mice. Halving Ins2 lowered circulating insulin by 25%-34% in aged female mice, without altering Igf1 or circulating Igf1. Remarkably, decreased insulin led to lower fasting glucose and improved insulin sensitivity in aged mice. Moreover, lowered insulin caused significant lifespan extension, observed across two diverse diets. Our study indicates that elevated insulin contributes to age-dependent insulin resistance and that limiting basal insulin levels can extend lifespan. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acupuncture treatment for insulin sensitivity of women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Shao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Meifang; Lai, Maohua; Xie, Changcai; Su, Nianjun; Yu, Chuyi; Liu, Jia; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2017-03-09

    Our prospective pilot study of acupuncture affecting insulin sensitivity on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) combined with insulin resistance (IR) showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on improving the insulin sensitivity of PCOS. But there is still no randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS and IR. In this article, we present the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of true acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity of these patients compared with metformin and sham acupuncture. Acupuncture may be an effective therapeutic alternative that is superior to metformin and sham acupuncture in improving the insulin sensitivity of PCOS combined with IR. This study is a multi-center, controlled, double-blind, and randomized clinical trial aiming to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on the insulin sensitivity in PCOS combined with IR. In total 342 patients diagnosed with PCOS and IR will be enrolled. Participants will be randomized to one of the three groups: (1) true acupuncture + metformin placebo; (2) sham acupuncture + metformin, and (3) sham acupuncture + metformin placebo. Participants and assessors will be blinded. The acupuncture intervention will be given 3 days per week for a total of 48 treatment sessions during 4 months. Metformin (0.5 g per pill) or placebo will be given, three times per day, and for 4 months. Primary outcome measures are changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and improvement rate of HOMA-IR by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test (Ins). Secondary outcome measures are homeostasis model assessment-β (HOMA-β), area under the curve for glucose and insulin, frequency of regular menstrual cycles and ovulation, body composition, metabolic profile, hormonal profile, questionnaires, side effect profile, and expectation and credibility of treatment. Outcome measures are

  16. Experimental testing of skin reactions to insulin detemir in diabetes patients naïve to insulin detemir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'goshi, Kenichiro; Serup, Jørgen; Blaaholm, Bente

    2011-01-01

    in accordance with ICH-GCP guidelines. Blood flow was recorded with the Periflux PF5010, and skin colour (a*) with the DSMII colorimeter. RESULTS: Clinical reading, flowmetry and colorimetry consistently showed delayed reactions after intradermal insulin injection (35 of 40 patients reacted with mainly weak...

  17. Autophagy is essential for the differentiation of porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lipeng; Yang, Hong; Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Shuanshuan; Sun, Fen; Tian, Na; Hua, Jinlian; Peng, Sha

    2017-07-01

    Porcine pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) are seed cells with potential use for diabetes treatment. Stem cell differentiation requires strict control of protein turnover and lysosomal digestion of organelles. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that controls the turnover of organelles and proteins within cells and contributes to the balance of cellular components. However, whether autophagy plays roles in PSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we successfully induced porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells and found that autophagy was activated during the second induction stage. Inhibition of autophagy in the second stage resulted in reduced differentiational efficiency and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, the expression of active β-catenin increased while autophagy was activated but was suppressed when autophagy was inhibited. Therefore, autophagy is essential to the formation of insulin-producing cells, and the effects of autophagy on differentiation may be regulated by canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-01-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUCglu) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to...

  19. Comparison between basal insulin glargine and NPH insulin in patients with diabetes type 1 on conventional intensive insulin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Insulin glargine is a long-acting insulin analog that mimics normal basal insulin secretion without pronounced peaks. The aim of this study was to compare insulin glargine with isophane insulin (NPH insulin for basal insulin supply in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods. A total of 48 type 1 diabetics on long term conventional intensive insulin therapy (IIT were randomized to three different regimens of basal insulin substitution: 1. continuation of NPH insulin once daily at bedtime with more intensive selfmonitoring (n = 15; 2. NPH insulin twice daily (n = 15; 3. insulin glargine once daily (n = 18. Meal time insulin aspart was continued in all groups. Results. Fasting blood glucose (FBG was lower in the glargine group (7.30±0.98 mmol/l than in the twice daily NPH group (7.47±1.06 mmol/l, but without significant difference. FBG was significantly higher in the once daily NPH group (8.44±0.85 mmol/l; p < 0.05. HbA1c after 3 months did not change in the once daily NPH group, but decreased in the glargine group (from 7.72±0.86% to 6.87±0.50%, as well as in the twice daily NPH group (from 7.80±0.83% to 7.01±0.63%. Total daily insulin doses were similar in all groups but only in the glargine group there was an increase of basal and decrease of meal related insulin doses. The frequency of mild hypoglycemia was significantly lower in the glargine group (6.56±2.09 than in both NPH groups (9.0±1.65 in twice daily NPH group and 8.13±1.30 in other NPH group (episodes/patients-month, p < 0.05. Conclusion. Basal insulin supplementation in type 1 diabetes mellitus with either twice daily NPH insulin or glargine can result in similar glycemic control when combined with meal time insulin aspart. However, with glargine regimen FBG, HbA1c and frequency of hypoglycemic event are lower. These facts contribute to better patients satisfaction with insulin glargine versus NPH insulin in IIT in type 1 diabetics.

  20. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  1. [Changes in the secretion of somatotropin and insulin in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnini, F; Peracchi, M; Panerai, A E; Pinto, M

    1975-06-01

    Twenty hyperthyroid patients were investigated for growth hormone (GH) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) secretion in response to insulin hypoglycaemia, arginine infusion and glucose-induced hyperglycaemia. GH response to either insulin hypoglycaemia or arginine infusion was significantly reduced in these patients compared with 20 normal subjects. Thyrotoxic patients also displayed an abnormal GH pattern after a 100 g oral glucose load: in fact, serum GH underwent a paradoxical increase in spite of abnormally high levels attained by blood glucose. IRI secretion was also clearly reduced in response to arginine infusion and moderately blunted after oral glucose. In a group of patients re-evaluated under euthyroid conditions, a fair increase of GH response to the provocative stimuli jointly with the restoration of a normal suppressibility of serum GH by glucose were noted; by contrast, no significant change of IRI response to arginine or glucose took place. Likewise, the impairment of glucose tolerance was not improved. These findings indicate that an impairment of GH and IRI secretion is present in hyperthyroidism. The possibility that a potentiation of the catecholamine effects caused by the thyroid hormones is involved in this alteration deserves consideration.

  2. A model of insulin fibrils derived from the x-ray crystal structure of a monomeric insulin (despentapeptide insulin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Dodson, G G; Edwards, D J; Holden, P H; Whittingham, J L

    1997-04-01

    The crystal structure of despentapeptide insulin, a monomeric insulin, has been refined at 1.3 A spacing and subsequently used to predict and model the organization in the insulin fibril. The model makes use of the contacts in the densely packed despentapeptide insulin crystal, and takes into account other experimental evidence, including binding studies with Congo red. The dimensions of this model fibril correspond well with those measured experimentally, and the monomer-monomer contacts within the fibril are in accordance with the known physical chemistry of insulin fibrils. Using this model, it may be possible to predict mutations in insulin that might alleviate problems associated with fibril formation during insulin therapy.

  3. Tau hyperphosphorylation induces oligomeric insulin accumulation and insulin resistance in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Patricia; Sandebring-Matton, Anna; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Parrado-Fernandez, Cristina; Rabano, Alberto; Winblad, Bengt; Ávila, Jesús; Ferrer, Isidre; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel

    2017-12-01

    Insulin signalling deficiencies and insulin resistance have been directly linked to the progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. However, to date little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms or insulin state and distribution in the brain under pathological conditions. Here, we report that insulin is accumulated and retained as oligomers in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons in Alzheimer's disease and in several of the most prevalent human tauopathies. The intraneuronal accumulation of insulin is directly dependent on tau hyperphosphorylation, and follows the tauopathy progression. Furthermore, cells accumulating insulin show signs of insulin resistance and decreased insulin receptor levels. These results suggest that insulin retention in hyperphosphorylated tau-bearing neurons is a causative factor for the insulin resistance observed in tauopathies, and describe a novel neuropathological concept with important therapeutic implications. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Tian Yaping; Guo Duo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in an insulin-resistant (IR) cell model which was established by the way of high concentration of insulin induction with HepG 2 cell in vitro culture. The IR cells were treated by turtle oil, the glucose consumption and 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate in IR cells were detected by the way of glucose oxidase and 3 H-D-glucose incorporation assay respectively. The state of cell proliferation was tested by MTT method. The results showed that the incorporation rate of 3 H-D-glucose in IR cells was significantly lower than that in the control cells(P 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate in either IR cells or control cells was increased with the increase of insulin concentration. Moreover, the 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate of IR cells increased slower than that of control cells. The MTT assay showed that turtle oil can promote the proliferation of IR cell and control cell. The glucose uptake and glucose consumption in IR cell which treated with turtle oil was significantly increase than that in the control cells (P<0.05). Turtle oil can improve the insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the IR cell model. (authors)

  5. Essential roles of insulin, AMPK signaling and lysyl and prolyl hydroxylases in the biosynthesis and multimerization of adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming-Ming; Corcoran, Marie; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-01-05

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the adiponectin molecule are essential for its full bioactivity, and defects in PTMs leading to its defective production and multimerization have been linked to the mechanisms of insulin resistance, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Here we observed that, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, decreased insulin signaling caused by blocking of insulin receptors (InsR) with an anti-InsR blocking antibody, increased rates of adiponectin secretion, whereas concomitant elevations in insulin levels counteracted this effect. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulated adiponectin production by modulating the expression of adiponectin receptors, the secretion of adiponectin, and eventually the expression of adiponectin itself. We found that lysyl hydroxylases (LHs) and prolyl hydroxylases (PHs) were expressed in white-adipose tissue of ob/ob mice, wherein LH3 levels were increased compared with controls. In differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, both non-specific inhibition of LHs and PHs by dipyridyl, and specific inhibition of LHs by minoxidil and of P4H with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, caused significant suppression of adiponectin production, more particularly of the higher-order isoforms. Transient gene knock-down of LH3 (Plod3) caused a suppressive effect, especially on the high molecular-weight (HMW) isoforms. These data indicate that PHs and LHs are both required for physiological adiponectin production and in particular are essential for the formation/secretion of the HMW isoforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Variability of HOMA and QUICKI insulin sensitivity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žarković, Miloš; Ćirić, Jasmina; Beleslin, Biljana; Stojković, Mirjana; Savić, Slavica; Stojanović, Miloš; Lalić, Tijana

    2017-07-01

    Assessment of insulin sensitivity based on a single measurement of insulin and glucose, is both easy to understand and simple to perform. The tests most often used are HOMA and QUICKI. The aim of this study was to assess the biological variability of estimates of insulin sensitivity using HOMA and QUICKI indices. After a 12-h fast, blood was sampled for insulin and glucose determination. Sampling lasted for 90 min with an intersample interval of 2 min. A total of 56 subjects were included in the study, and in nine subjects sampling was done before and after weight reduction, so total number of analyzed series was 65. To compute the reference value of the insulin sensitivity index, averages of all 46 insulin and glucose samples were used. We also computed point estimates (single value estimates) of the insulin sensitivity index based on the different number of insulin/glucose samples (1-45 consecutive samples). To compute the variability of point estimates a bootstrapping procedure was used using 1000 resamples for each series and for each number of samples used to average insulin and glucose. Using a single insulin/glucose sample HOMA variability was 26.18 ± 4.31%, and QUICKI variability was 3.30 ± 0.54%. For 10 samples variability was 11.99 ± 2.22% and 1.62 ± 0.31% respectively. Biological variability of insulin sensitivity indices is significant, and it can be reduced by increasing the number of samples. Oscillations of insulin concentration in plasma are the major cause of variability of insulin sensitivity indices.

  7. Selection of well labelled insulin fractions for radioimmunoassay use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awh, O D; Kim, J R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1980-06-01

    Selection methods of well labelled insulin fractions based on two different criteria were compared to establish an efficient low level RIA of insulin and to elucidate the correlation between the immunoreactivity and the charcoal-adsorptivity of the radioiodine labelled insulin. The result indicated that the selection of well labelled insulin fractions by means of a charcoal-adsorption test is inappropriate. Generally, the distribution of radioactivity, antibody-bindability, and charcoal-adsorptivity of the labelled insulin was not consistent with each other. Thus, the selection should be carried out for every labelling batch to get the utmost assay reliability by antibody-bindability but not by charcoal-adsorptivity. By using the well selected labelled insulin fractions based on antibody-binding, a correct assay for a reference serum was possible, and by extending the incubation time up to 96 hrs, a sharp dose response curve could be obtained even in the range of below 5 ..mu..U/ml standard insulin doses.

  8. Trans-Fatty Acids Aggravate Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in C57BL/6 Mice, Possibly by Suppressing the IRS1 Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trans-fatty acid consumption has been reported as a risk factor for metabolic disorders and targeted organ damages. Nonetheless, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of trans-fatty acids in obesity, insulin resistance (IR and hepatic steatosis. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were fed with four different diets for 20 weeks: normal diet (ND, high fat diet (HFD, low trans-fatty acids diet (LTD and high trans-fatty acid diet (HTD. The diet-induced metabolic disorders were assessed by evaluating body weight, glucose tolerance test, hepatic steatosis and plasma lipid profiles post 20-week diet. Histological (H&E, Oil-Red-O staining and western blot analysis were employed to assess liver steatosis and potential signaling pathways. After 20-weeks of diet, the body weights of the four groups were 29.61 ± 1.89 g (ND, 39.04 ± 4.27 g (HFD, 34.09 ± 2.62 g (LTD and 43.78 ± 4.27 g (HTD (p < 0.05, respectively. HFD intake significantly impaired glucose tolerance, which was impaired further in the mice consuming the HTD diet. The effect was further exacerbated by HTD diet. Moreover, the HTD group exhibited significantly more severe liver steatosis compared with HFD group possibly through regulating adipose triglyceride lipase. The group consuming the HTD also exhibited significantly reduced levels of IRS1, phosphor-PKC and phosphor-AKT. These results support our hypothesis that consumption of a diet high in trans-fatty acids induces higher rates of obesity, IR and hepatic steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice, possibly by suppressing the IRS1dependent pathway.

  9. Cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and brain angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Le; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Insulin performs unique non-metabolic functions within the brain. Broadly speaking, two major areas of these functions are those related to brain endothelial cells and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and those related to behavioral effects, like cognition in disease states (Alzheimer's disease, AD) and in health. Recent studies showed that both these functions are associated with brain angiogenesis. These findings raise interesting questions such as how they are linked to each other and whether modifying brain angiogenesis by targeting certain insulin signaling pathways could be an effective strategy to treat dementia as in AD, or even to help secure healthy longevity. The two canonical downstream pathways involved in mediating the insulin signaling pathway, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, in the brain are supposed to be similar to those in the periphery. PI3K and MAPK pathways play important roles in angiogenesis. Both are involved in stimulating hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in angiogenesis and could be activated by the insulin signaling pathway. This suggests that PI3K and MAPK pathways might act as cross-talk between the insulin signaling pathway and the angiogenesis pathway in brain. But the cerebral insulin, insulin signaling pathway, and the detailed mechanism in the connection of insulin signaling pathway, brain angiogenesis pathway, and healthy aging or dementias are still mostly not clear and need further studies.

  10. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other “insulin sensitive” tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. Conclusions These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24252636

  11. Absence of down-regulation of the insulin receptor by insulin. A possible mechanism of insulin resistance in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, A P; Flint, D J

    1983-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in rat adipocytes during pregnancy and lactation despite increased or normal insulin binding respectively; this suggests that a post-receptor defect exists. The possibility has been examined that, although insulin binding occurs normally, internalization of insulin or its receptor may be impaired in these states. Insulin produced a dose-dependent reduction in the number of insulin receptors on adipocytes from virgin rats maintained in culture medium, probably due to ...

  12. Egr2 enhances insulin resistance via JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ye, Xinhua; Yao, Qing; Lu, Aijiao; Zhao, Zhen; Ding, Yang; Meng, Chuchen; Yu, Wenlong; Du, Yunfeng; Cheng, JinLuo

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance is generally responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early growth response proteins-2 (Egr2) has been reported to be able to increase the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), and impair insulin signaling pathway through suppression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS), including IRS-1 and IRS-2. However, whether Egr2 is directly involved in the development of insulin resistance, and how its potential contributions to insulin resistance still remain unknown. Here, our present investigation found that the expression levels of Egr2 were up-regulated when insulin resistance occurs, and knockdown of Egr2 abolished the effect of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells induced with palmitate (PA). Importantly, inhibition of Egr2 decreased the expression of SOCS-1 as well as reduced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. And, our data indicated that silencing of Egr2 accelerated hepatic glucose uptake and reversed the impaired lipid metabolism upon insulin resistance. In summary, the present study confirms that Egr2 could deteriorate insulin resistance via the pathway of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 and may shed light on resolving insulin resistance and further the pathogenesis of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The PPARα/γ Agonist, Tesaglitazar, Improves Insulin Mediated Switching of Tissue Glucose and Free Fatty Acid Utilization In Vivo in the Obese Zucker Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Wallenius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility was assessed in male Zucker rats: lean controls, obese controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 μmol/kg/day for 3 weeks. Whole body glucose disposal rate ( and hepatic glucose output (HGO were assessed under basal fasting and hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp conditions using [3,3H]glucose. Indices of tissue specific glucose utilization ( were measured at basal, physiological, and supraphysiological levels of insulinemia using 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-3H]glucose. Finally, whole body and tissue specific FFA and glucose utilization and metabolic fate were evaluated under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions using a combination of [U-13C]glucose, 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]palmitate, and [9,10-3H]-(R-bromopalmitate. Tesaglitazar improved whole body insulin action by greater suppression of HGO and stimulation of compared to obese controls. This involved increased insulin stimulation of in fat and skeletal muscle as well as increased glycogen synthesis. Tesaglitazar dramatically improved insulin mediated suppression of plasma FFA level, whole body turnover (, and muscle, liver, and fat utilization. At basal insulin levels, tesaglitazar failed to lower HGO or compared to obese controls. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that tesaglitazar has a remarkable ability to improve insulin mediated control of glucose and FFA fluxes in obese Zucker rats.

  14. Sex differences in insulin resistance in GABAB1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, M M; Rodriguez, D; Ferreira, M L; Crivello, M; Repetto, E M; Bettler, B; Libertun, C; Lux-Lantos, V A

    2013-02-27

    We have previously demonstrated that the absence of functional GABA B receptors (GABABRs) disturbs glucose homeostasis in GABAB1KO mice. The aim of this work was to extend our studies of these alterations in GABAB1KO mice and investigate the sexual differences therein. Male and female, GABAB1KO and WT mice were used. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT), and insulin and glucagon secretion tests (IST and GST) were performed. Blood glucose, serum insulin and hyperglycemic hormones were determined, and HOMA-IR calculated. Skeletal muscle insulin receptor β subunit (IRβ), insulin receptor substrates 1/2 (IRS1, IRS2) and hexokinase-II levels were determined by Western blot. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was assessed by in vivo insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation (Western blot). Food intake and hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression (by qPCR) were also evaluated. Fasted insulin and HOMA-IR were augmented in GABAB1KO males, with no alterations in females. Areas under the curve (AUC) for GTT and ITT were increased in GABAB1KO mice of both genders, indicating compromised insulin sensitivity. No genotype differences were observed in IST, GST or in IRβ, IRS1, IRS2 and hexokinase-II expression. Akt activation was severely impaired in GABAB1KO males while no alterations were observed in females. GABAB1KO mice showed increased food intake and NPY expression. Glucose metabolism and energy balance disruptions were more pronounced in GABAB1KO males, which develop peripheral insulin resistance probably due to augmented insulin secretion. Metabolic alterations in females were milder and possibly due to previously described reproductive disorders, such as persistent estrus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical use of the co-formulation of insulin degludec and insulin aspart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, A; Awata, T; Bain, S C

    2016-01-01

    (HbA1c ) to current modern insulins, but with lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. In prior insulin users, glycaemic control was achieved with lower or equal insulin doses vs. other basal+meal-time or premix insulin regimens. In insulin-naïve patients with T2DM, IDegAsp can be started once or twice...... a simpler insulin regimen than other available basal-bolus or premix-based insulin regimens, with stable daytime basal coverage, a lower rate of hypoglycaemia and some flexibility in injection timing compared with premix insulins....

  16. Partial ablation of adult Drosophila insulin-producing neurons modulates glucose homeostasis and extends life span without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron; Sharmin, Effat; Schrader, Janel; Sah, Megha; Poon, Peter; Fridell, Yih-Woei C

    2010-08-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), neurosecretory insulin-like peptide-producing cells (IPCs), analogous to mammalian pancreatic beta cells are involved in glucose homeostasis. Extending those findings, we have developed in the adult fly an oral glucose tolerance test and demonstrated that IPCs indeed are responsible for executing an acute glucose clearance response. To further develop D. melanogaster as a relevant system for studying age-associated metabolic disorders, we set out to determine the impact of adult-specific partial ablation of IPCs (IPC knockdown) on insulin-like peptide (ILP) action, metabolic outcomes and longevity. Interestingly, while IPC knockdown flies are hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant, these flies remain insulin sensitive as measured by peripheral glucose disposal upon insulin injection and serine phosphorylation of a key insulin-signaling molecule, Akt. Significant increases in stored glycogen and triglyceride levels as well as an elevated level of circulating lipid measured in adult IPC knockdown flies suggest profound modulation in energy metabolism. Additional physiological outcomes measured in those flies include increased resistance to starvation and impaired female fecundity. Finally, increased life span and decreased mortality rates measured in IPC knockdown flies demonstrate that it is possible to modulate ILP action in adult flies to achieve life span extension without insulin resistance. Taken together, we have established and validated an invertebrate genetic system to further investigate insulin action, metabolic homeostasis and regulation of aging regulated by adult IPCs.

  17. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  18. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fred, Rikard G; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of high glucose exposure results in human islet dysfunction in vitro. The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3......'-UTR contains binding sites for the microRNA molecules miR-133a, miR-124a and miR-146. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether high glucose increased the levels of these three miRNAs in association with lower PTB levels and lower insulin biosynthesis rates. METHODOLOGY...... for real-time RT-PCR analysis of miR-133a, miR-124a, miR-146, insulin mRNA and PTB mRNA contents. Insulin biosynthesis rates were determined by radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation. Synthetic miR-133a precursor and inhibitor were delivered to dispersed islet cells by lipofection, and PTB...

  19. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  20. CNC-bZIP protein Nrf1-dependent regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Xue, Peng; Zhao, Rui; Dong, Jian; Liu, Dianxin; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tong, Qingchun; Teng, Weiping; Qu, Weidong; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2015-04-01

    The inability of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient insulin in response to glucose stimulation is a major contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo effects of deficiency of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1) in β-cells on β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. Silencing of Nrf1 in β-cells leads to a pre-T2D phenotype with disrupted glucose metabolism and impaired insulin secretion. Specifically, MIN6 β-cells with stable knockdown of Nrf1 (Nrf1-KD) and isolated islets from β-cell-specific Nrf1-knockout [Nrf1(b)-KO] mice displayed impaired glucose responsiveness, including elevated basal insulin release and decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Nrf1(b)-KO mice exhibited severe fasting hyperinsulinemia, reduced GSIS, and glucose intolerance. Silencing of Nrf1 in MIN6 cells resulted in oxidative stress and altered glucose metabolism, with increases in both glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, which is associated with the elevated basal insulin release and reduced glucose responsiveness. The elevated glycolysis and reduced glucose responsiveness due to Nrf1 silencing likely result from altered expression of glucose metabolic enzymes, with induction of high-affinity hexokinase 1 and suppression of low-affinity glucokinase. Our study demonstrated a novel role of Nrf1 in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in β-cells and characterized Nrf1 as a key transcription factor that regulates the coupling of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism and GSIS. Nrf1 plays critical roles in regulating glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion, suggesting that Nrf1 may be a novel target to improve the function of insulin-secreting β-cells.

  1. Psychological insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients regarding oral antidiabetes treatment, subcutaneous insulin injections, or inhaled insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Frank; Herpertz, Stephan; Stridde, Elmar; Pfützner, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    "Psychological insulin resistance" (PIR) is an obstacle to insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes, and patients' expectations regarding alternative ways of insulin delivery are poorly understood. PIR and beliefs regarding treatment alternatives were analyzed in patients with type 2 diabetes (n=532; mean glycated hemoglobin, 68±12 mmol/mol [8.34±1.5%]) comparing oral antidiabetes treatment, subcutaneous insulin injections, or inhaled insulin. Questionnaires were used to assess barriers to insulin treatment (BIT), generic and diabetes-specific quality of life (Short Form 36 and Problem Areas in Diabetes, German version), diabetes knowledge, locus of control (Questionnaire for the Assessment of Diabetes-Specific Locus of Control, in German), coping styles (Freiburg Questionnaire of Illness Coping, 15-Items Short Form), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, German version), and mental disorders (Patient Health Questionnaire, German version). Patients discussed treatment optimization options with a physician and were asked to make a choice about future diabetes therapy options in a two-step treatment choice scenario. Step 1 included oral antidiabetes drugs or subcutaneous insulin injection (SCI). Step 2 included an additional treatment alternative of inhaled insulin (INH). Subgroups were analyzed according to their treatment choice. Most patients perceived their own diabetes-related behavior as active, problem-focused, internally controlled, and oriented toward their doctors' recommendations, although their diabetes knowledge was limited. In Step 1, rejection of the recommended insulin was 82%, and in Step 2, it was 57%. Fear of hypoglycemia was the most important barrier to insulin treatment. Patients choosing INH (versus SCI) scored higher regarding fear of injection, expected hardship from insulin therapy, and BIT-Sumscore. The acceptance of insulin is very low in type 2 diabetes patients. The option to inhale insulin increases the acceptability for some but

  2. Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Mouse Models to Disease Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism for the “metabolic syndrome”, which is also known as insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is increasing at an alarming rate, becoming a major public and clinical problem worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is represented by a group of interrelated disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Animal studies demonstrate that insulin and its signaling cascade normally control cell growth, metabolism and survival through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphotidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), of which activation of PI-3K-associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 (IRS1, 2) and subsequent Akt→Foxo1 phosphorylation cascade has a central role in control of nutrient homeostasis and organ survival. Inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and over nutrition may provide the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome in humans. Targeting the IRS→Akt→Foxo1 signaling cascade will likely provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review discusses the basis of insulin signaling, insulin resistance in different mouse models, and how a deficiency of insulin signaling components in different organs contributes to the feature of the metabolic syndrome. Emphasis will be placed on the role of IRS1, IRS2, and associated signaling pathways that couple to Akt and the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxo1. PMID:24281010

  3. Insulin controls food intake and energy balance via NPY neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Loh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Insulin signaling in the brain has been implicated in the control of satiety, glucose homeostasis and energy balance. However, insulin signaling is dispensable in energy homeostasis controlling AgRP or POMC neurons and it is unclear which other neurons regulate these effects. Here we describe an ancient insulin/NPY neuronal network that governs energy homeostasis across phyla. Methods: To address the role of insulin action specifically in NPY neurons, we generated a variety of models by selectively removing insulin signaling in NPY neurons in flies and mice and testing the consequences on energy homeostasis. Results: By specifically targeting the insulin receptor in both fly and mouse NPY expressing neurons, we found NPY-specific insulin signaling controls food intake and energy expenditure, and lack of insulin signaling in NPY neurons leads to increased energy stores and an obese phenotype. Additionally, the lack of insulin signaling in NPY neurons leads to a dysregulation of GH/IGF-1 axis and to altered insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that insulin actions in NPY neurons is critical for maintaining energy balance and an impairment of this pathway may be causally linked to the development of metabolic diseases. Keywords: Hypothalamus, NPY, Insulin, Obesity

  4. Postreceptor defects causing insulin resistance in normoinsulinemic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinder, J.; Ostman, J.; Arner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of the diminished hypoglycemic response to insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with normal levels of circulating plasma insulin were investigated. Specific binding of mono- 125 I (Tyr A14)-insulin to isolated adipocytes and effects of insulin (5--10,000 microunits/ml) on glucose oxidation and lipolysis were determined simultaneously in subcutaneous adipose tissue of seven healthy subjects of normal weight and seven untreated NIDDM patients with normal plasma insulin levels. The two groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. Insulin binding, measured in terms of receptor number and affinity, was normal in NIDDM, the total number of receptors averaging 350,000 per cell. Neither sensitivity nor the maximum antilipolytic effect of insulin was altered in NIDDM patients as compared with control subjects; the insulin concentration producing half the maximum effect (ED50) was 10 microunits/ml. As regards the effect of insulin on glucose oxidation, for the control subjects ED50 was 30 microunits/ml, whereas in NIDDM patients, insulin exerted no stimulatory effect. The results obtained suggest that the effect of insulin on glucose utilization in normoinsulinemic NIDDM may be diminished in spite of normal insulin binding to receptors. The resistance may be due solely to postreceptor defects, and does not involve antilipolysis

  5. Serum Insulin, Glucose, Indices of Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argirion, Ilona; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Mondul, Alison M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Although insulin may increase the risk of some cancers, few studies have examined fasting serum insulin and lung cancer risk. Methods: We examined serum insulin, glucose, and indices of insulin resistance [insulin:glucose molar ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and lung cancer risk using a case-cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish men. A total of 196 cases and 395 subcohort members were included. Insulin and glucose were measured in fasting serum collected 5 to 12 years before diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer. Results: The average time between blood collection and lung cancer was 9.6 years. Fasting serum insulin levels were 8.7% higher in subcohort members than cases. After multivariable adjustment, men in the fourth quartile of insulin had a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those in the first quartile [HR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.94]. A similar relationship was seen with HOMA-IR (HR = 1.83; 95% CI, 0.99-3.38). Risk was not strongly associated with glucose or the insulin:glucose molar ratio ( P trend = 0.55 and P trend = 0.27, respectively). Conclusions: Higher fasting serum insulin concentrations, as well as the presence of insulin resistance, appear to be associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer development. Impact: Although insulin is hypothesized to increase risk of some cancers, insulin and lung cancer remain understudied. Higher insulin levels and insulin resistance were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Although smoking cessation is the best method of lung cancer prevention, other lifestyle changes that affect insulin concentrations and sensitivity may reduce lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1519-24. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...... and smelling both induced a similar appetite suppression with a disappearance of correlations between VAS scores and insulin, GLP-1 and CCK levels. However, while the correlation between VAS score and ghrelin disappeared completely after chocolate eating, it reversed after chocolate smelling, that is......, olfactory stimulation with dark chocolate (85%) resulted in a satiation response that correlated inversely with ghrelin levels....

  7. Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher J.; Adams, Sean H.

    2015-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important nutrient signals that have direct and indirect effects. Frequently, BCAAs have been reported to mediate antiobesity effects, especially in rodent models. However, circulating levels of BCAAs tend to be increased in individuals with obesity and are associated with worse metabolic health and future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A hypothesized mechanism linking increased levels of BCAAs and T2DM involves leucine-mediated activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which results in uncoupling of insulin signalling at an early stage. A BCAA dysmetabolism model proposes that the accumulation of mitotoxic metabolites (and not BCAAs per se) promotes β-cell mitochondrial dysfunction, stress signalling and apoptosis associated with T2DM. Alternatively, insulin resistance might promote aminoacidaemia by increasing the protein degradation that insulin normally suppresses, and/or by eliciting an impairment of efficient BCAA oxidative metabolism in some tissues. Whether and how impaired BCAA metabolism might occur in obesity is discussed in this Review. Research on the role of individual and model-dependent differences in BCAA metabolism is needed, as several genes (BCKDHA, PPM1K, IVD and KLF15) have been designated as candidate genes for obesity and/or T2DM in humans, and distinct phenotypes of tissue-specific branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex activity have been detected in animal models of obesity and T2DM. PMID:25287287

  8. Cortisol responses on the dexamethasone suppression test among women with Bulimia-spectrum eating disorders: associations with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kenneth R; Steiger, Howard; Israël, Mimi; Groleau, Patricia; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Ouellette, Anne-Sophie; Sycz, Lindsay; Badawi, Ghislaine

    2012-08-07

    Evidence associates Bulimia Nervosa (BN) with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the clinical implications of such alterations need to be better understood. We contrasted cortisol responses to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in bulimic and non-eating disordered women and examined relationships among DST cortisol responses, eating symptoms and co-morbid disturbances. Sixty women with Bulimia Spectrum (BS) Disorders (either BN or normal weight Eating Disorder NOS with regular binge eating or purging) and 54 non-eating disordered women of similar age and body mass index participated in a 0.5 mg DST, and completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating symptoms and co-morbid psychopathology. Compared with the normal-eater group, the BS women demonstrated significantly less DST suppression. Among BS women, DST non-suppression was associated with more severe depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Our findings show BS women to show less DST suppression compared to normal eater women, and results link extent of non-suppression, in BS individuals, to severity of depression, anxiety and eating preoccupations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic benefits of improved insulin stability in insulin pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Richard C; van Amerongen, Derek; Bazalo, Gary; Aagren, Mark; Bouchard, Jonathan R

    2011-05-01

    Insulin pump users discard unused medication and infusion sets according to labeling and manufacturer's instructions. The stability labeling for insulin aspart (rDNA origin] (Novolog) was increased from two days to six. The associated savings was modeled from the perspective of a hypothetical one-million member health plan and the total United States population. The discarded insulin volume and the number of infusion sets used under a two-day stability scenario versus six were modeled. A mix of insulin pumps of various reservoir capacities with a range of daily insulin dosages was used. Average daily insulin dose was 65 units ranging from 10 to 150 units. Costs of discarded insulin aspart [rDNA origin] were calculated using WAC (Average Wholesale Price minus 16.67%). The cost of pump supplies was computed for the two-day scenario assuming a complete infusion set change, including reservoirs, every two days. Under the six-day scenario complete infusion sets were discarded every six days while cannulas at the insertion site were changed midway between complete changes. AWP of least expensive supplies was used to compute their costs. For the hypothetical health plan (1,182 pump users) the annual reduction in discarded insulin volume between scenarios was 19.8 million units. The corresponding cost reduction for the plan due to drug and supply savings was $3.4 million. From the U.S. population perspective, savings of over $1 billion were estimated. Using insulin that is stable for six days in pump reservoirs can yield substantial savings to health plans and other payers, including patients.

  10. Incorporating a Generic Model of Subcutaneous Insulin Absorption into the AIDA v4 Diabetes Simulator 3. Early Plasma Insulin Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eldon D.; Tarín, Cristina; Bondia, Jorge; Teufel, Edgar; Deutsch, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Introduction AIDA is an interactive educational diabetes simulator that has been available without charge via the Internet for over 12 years. Recent articles have described the incorporation of a novel generic model of insulin absorption into AIDA as a way of enhancing its capabilities. The basic model components to be integrated have been overviewed, with the aim being to provide simulations of regimens utilizing insulin analogues, as well as insulin doses greater than 40 IU (the current upper limit within the latest release of AIDA [v4.3a]). Some preliminary calculated insulin absorption results have also recently been described. Methods This article presents the first simulated plasma insulin profiles from the integration of the generic subcutaneous insulin absorption model, and the currently implemented model in AIDA for insulin disposition. Insulin absorption has been described by the physiologically based model of Tarín and colleagues. A single compartment modeling approach has been used to specify how absorbed insulin is distributed in, and eliminated from, the human body. To enable a numerical solution of the absorption model, a spherical subcutaneous depot for the injected insulin dose has been assumed and spatially discretized into shell compartments with homogeneous concentrations, having as its center the injection site. The number of these compartments will depend on the dose and type of insulin. Insulin inflow arises as the sum of contributions to the different shells. For this report the first bench testing of plasma insulin determinations has been done. Results Simulated plasma insulin profiles are provided for currently available insulin preparations, including a rapidly acting insulin analogue (e.g., lispro/Humalog or aspart/Novolog), a short-acting (regular) insulin preparation (e.g., Actrapid), intermediate-acting insulins (both Semilente and neutral protamine Hagedorn types), and a very long-acting insulin analogue (e.g., glargine/Lantus), as

  11. Pregestational diabetes with extreme insulin resistance: use of U-500 insulin in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwise, Lisa C; Werner, Erika F; Pettker, Christian M; McMahon-Brown, Erin K; Thung, Stephen F; Han, Christina S

    2012-08-01

    Increased insulin requirements in pregnancy can hinder attainment of glycemic control in diabetic patients. U-500 insulin is a concentrated form of regular insulin that can be a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with severe insulin resistance. A 24-year-old woman with pregestational diabetes mellitus experienced increasing insulin requirements during pregnancy, peaking at 650 units daily. The frequent, large-volume injections of standard-concentration insulin were poorly tolerated by the patient and resulted in nonadherence. She subsequently achieved glycemic control on thrice-daily U-500 insulin. Pregnancy exacerbates insulin resistance in diabetic patients, and these patients may require high doses of insulin. U-500 insulin is an effective alternative for patients with severe insulin resistance and should be considered for pregnant women with difficulty achieving glycemic control.

  12. Modification and Validation of the Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio as a Surrogate of Insulin Sensitivity in White Juveniles and Adults without Diabetes Mellitus: The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmichl, Katharina; Hatunic, Mensud; Højlund, Kurt; Jotic, Aleksandra; Krebs, Michael; Mitrakou, Asimina; Porcellati, Francesca; Tura, Andrea; Bergsten, Peter; Forslund, Anders; Manell, Hannes; Widhalm, Kurt; Weghuber, Daniel; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz

    2016-09-01

    The triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was introduced as a tool to estimate insulin resistance, because circulating lipid measurements are available in routine settings. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acids are components of other insulin-sensitivity indices but their measurement is expensive. Easier and more affordable tools are of interest for both pediatric and adult patients. Study participants from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease [43.9 (8.3) years, n = 1260] as well as the Beta-Cell Function in Juvenile Diabetes and Obesity study cohorts [15 (1.9) years, n = 29] underwent oral-glucose-tolerance tests and euglycemic clamp tests for estimation of whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculation of insulin sensitivity indices. To refine the TG/HDL ratio, mathematical modeling was applied including body mass index (BMI), fasting TG, and HDL cholesterol and compared to the clamp-derived M-value as an estimate of insulin sensitivity. Each modeling result was scored by identifying insulin resistance and correlation coefficient. The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) was compared to traditional insulin sensitivity indices using area under the ROC curve (aROC) analysis and χ(2) test. The novel formula for SPISE was computed as follows: SPISE = 600 × HDL-C(0.185)/(TG(0.2) × BMI(1.338)), with fasting HDL-C (mg/dL), fasting TG concentrations (mg/dL), and BMI (kg/m(2)). A cutoff value of 6.61 corresponds to an M-value smaller than 4.7 mg · kg(-1) · min(-1) (aROC, M:0.797). SPISE showed a significantly better aROC than the TG/HDL-C ratio. SPISE aROC was comparable to the Matsuda ISI (insulin sensitivity index) and equal to the QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) when calculated with M-values. The SPISE seems well suited to surrogate whole-body insulin sensitivity from inexpensive fasting single-point blood draw and BMI

  13. Effect of Insulin Therapy using Hyper-insulinemic Normoglycemic Clamp on Inflammatory Response in Brain Dead Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljiffry, M; Hassanain, M; Schricker, T; Shaheen, M; Nouh, T; Lattermann, R; Salman, A; Wykes, L; Metrakos, P

    2016-05-01

    Brain death is a major stress that is associated with a massive inflammatory response and systemic hyperglycemia. Severe inflammation leads to increased graft immunogenicity and risk of graft dysfunction; while acute hyperglycemia aggravates the inflammatory response and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Insulin therapy not only controls hyperglycemia but also suppresses inflammation. The present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties and the normoglycemia maintenance of high dose insulin on brain dead organ donors. 15 brain dead organ donors were divided into 2 groups, insulin treated (n=6) and controls (n=9). Insulin was provided for a minimum of 6 h using the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp technique. The changes of serum cytokines, including IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, TGFα and MCP-1, were measured by suspension bead array immunoassay and glucose by a glucose monitor. Compared to controls, insulin treated donors had a significant lower blood glucose 4.8 (4-6.9) vs. 9 (5.6-11.7) mmol/L, pinsulin treated donors compared with those in controls. High dose insulin therapy decreases the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in brain dead donors and preserves normoglycemia. High dose of insulin may have anti-inflammatory effects in brain dead organ donors and therefore, improve the quality of donor organs and potentially improve outcomes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Celecoxib Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Type 2 Diabetic Rats via Suppression of the Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhang, Ya Jie; Li, Yu; Xie, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to test whether pharmacological inhibition of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) reverses non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway expression. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed to two groups and were fed with a high fat and sucrose (HF-HS) diet or a normal chow diet, respectively. After four weeks, rats fed with a HF-HS diet were made diabetic with low-dose streptozotocin. At the 9th week the diabetic rats fed with a HF-HS diet or the non-diabetic rats fed with a normal chow diet were further divided into two subgroups treated with vehicle or celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor, 10 mg/Kg/day, gavage) for the last 4 weeks, respectively. At the end of the 12th week, rats were anesthetized. NASH was assessed by histology. Related cytokine expression was measured at both the protein and gene levels through immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and real-time PCR. T2DM rats fed with a HF-HS diet developed steatohepatitis and insulin resistance associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin levels and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS). The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 were all significantly increased in the T2DM-NASH group compared with the control and control-cele group. Hepatic injury was improved by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group indicated by reduced serum ALT and AST levels and hepatic inflammation was reduced by celecoxib showed by histology and the NAFLD activity score (NAS). Serum related metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity index were all improved by celecoxib. The expression of Wnt5a, JNK1, NF-κB p65, and COX-2 expression were all suppressed by celecoxib in T2DM-NASH-Cele group. The results of the present study indicated that celecoxib ameliorated NASH in T2DM rats via suppression of the non-canonical Wnt

  15. Effects of Mealtime Insulin Aspart and Bedtime NPH Insulin on Postprandial Inflammation and Endothelial Cell Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Akram, Sumarra

    2011-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel, controlled study on well-controlled patients with type 2 diabetes randomly assigned to bedtime Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin (n = 41) or mealtime insulin aspart (n = 37). They were served standard diabetic meals for breakfast (8.00) and lunch (12.00). Blood samples were...

  16. Lipid-induced insulin resistance does not impair insulin access to skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Joyce M.; Castro, Ana Valeria B.; Broussard, Josiane L.; Ionut, Viorica; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFA) induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Previously, we have shown that experimental insulin resistance induced by lipid infusion prevents the dispersion of insulin through the muscle, and we hypothesized that this would lead to an impairment of insulin moving from the plasma to the muscle interstitium. Thus, we infused lipid into our anesthetized canine model and measured the appearance of insulin in the lymph as a means to sample muscle interstitium under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp conditions. Although lipid infusion lowered the glucose infusion rate and induced both peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, we were unable to detect an impairment of insulin access to the lymph. Interestingly, despite a significant, 10-fold increase in plasma FFA, we detected little to no increase in free fatty acids or triglycerides in the lymph after lipid infusion. Thus, we conclude that experimental insulin resistance induced by lipid infusion does not reduce insulin access to skeletal muscle under clamp conditions. This would suggest that the peripheral insulin resistance is likely due to reduced cellular sensitivity to insulin in this model, and yet we did not detect a change in the tissue microenvironment that could contribute to cellular insulin resistance. PMID:25852002

  17. Vibration phenomena in large scale pressure suppression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Boettcher, G.; Kolb, M.; Sattler, P.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1982-01-01

    Structure und fluid vibration phenomena (acceleration, strain; pressure, level) were observed during blow-down experiments simulating a LOCA in the GKSS full scale multivent pressure suppression test facility. The paper describes first the source related excitations during the two regimes of condensation oscillation and of chugging, and deals then with the response vibrations of the facility's wetwell. Modal analyses of the wetwell were run using excitation by hammer and by shaker in order to separate phenomena that are particular to the GKSS facility from more general ones, i.e. phenomena specific to the fluid related parameters of blowdown and to the geometry of the vent pipes only. The lowest periodicities at about 12 and 16 Hz stem from the vent acoustics. A frequency of about 36 to 38 Hz prominent during chugging seems to result from the lowest local models of two of the wetwell's walls when coupled by the wetwell pool. Further peaks found during blowdown in the spectra of signals at higher frequencies correspond to global vibration modes of the wetwell. (orig.)

  18. Alternative translation initiation of Caveolin-2 desensitizes insulin signaling through dephosphorylation of insulin receptor by PTP1B and causes insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayeong; Jang, Donghwan; Choi, Moonjeong; Lee, Jaewoong; Jeong, Kyuho; Pak, Yunbae

    2018-06-01

    Insulin resistance, defined as attenuated sensitivity responding to insulin, impairs insulin action. Direct causes and molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance have thus far remained elusive. Here we show that alternative translation initiation (ATI) of Caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin sensitivity. Cav-2β isoform yielded by ATI desensitizes insulin receptor (IR) via dephosphorylation by protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and subsequent endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of IR, causing insulin resistance. Blockage of Cav-2 ATI protects against insulin resistance by preventing Cav-2β-PTP1B-directed IR desensitization, thereby normalizing insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Our findings show that Cav-2β is a negative regulator of IR signaling, and identify a mechanism causing insulin resistance through control of insulin sensitivity via Cav-2 ATI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human monoclonal antibodies against glucagon receptor improve glucose homeostasis by suppression of hepatic glucose output in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Dong Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Glucagon is an essential regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP, which provides an alternative therapeutic target for managing type 2 diabetes with glucagon antagonists. We studied the effect of a novel human monoclonal antibody against glucagon receptor (GCGR, NPB112, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODS: The glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of NPB112 were investigated in DIO mice with human GCGR for 11 weeks, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was conducted to measure HGP. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal injection of NPB112 with 5 mg/kg effectively decreased blood glucose levels in DIO mice for 5 days. A significant reduction in blood glucose was observed in DIO mice treated with NPB112 at a dose ≥5 mg/kg for 6 weeks, and its glucose-lowering effect was dose-dependent. Long-term administration of NPB112 also caused a mild 29% elevation in glucagon level, which was returned to the normal range after discontinuation of treatment. The clamp study showed that DIO mice injected with NPB112 at 5 mg/kg were more insulin sensitive than control mice, indicating amelioration of insulin resistance by treatment with NPB112. DIO mice treated with NPB112 showed a significant improvement in the ability of insulin to suppress HGP, showing a 33% suppression (from 8.3 mg/kg/min to 5.6 mg/kg/min compared to the 2% suppression (from 9.8 mg/kg/min to 9.6 mg/kg/min in control mice. In addition, no hypoglycemia or adverse effect was observed during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A novel human monoclonal GCGR antibody, NPB112, effectively lowered the glucose level in diabetic animal models with mild and reversible hyperglucagonemia. Suppression of excess HGP with NPB112 may be a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S. E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S

    2002-02-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported.

  1. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S.

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported

  2. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.R.; Barnes, A.J.; Adrian, T.E.; Polak, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment. (author)

  3. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S R; Barnes, A J; Adrian, T E; Polak, J M [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1979-01-06

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment.

  4. Identification of metformin poor responders, requiring supplemental insulin, during randomization of metformin versus insulin for the control of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoush, Sherif; El-Said, Mourrad; Fathi, Hisham; Abdelnaby, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate glycemic control among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under insulin versus metformin (with or without insulin supplementation), and to identify metformin poor responders requiring supplemental insulin. In Ain Shams University Hospital, mothers with 26-32-week GDM pregnancies, failing diet control, were randomized to receive metformin (n = 47) or insulin (n = 48). The primary outcome was glycemic control. Secondary outcomes included maternal weight, parameters predicting successful metformin monotherapy, neonatal hypoglycemia, and birthweight. Women using metformin (23.4% needing supplemental insulin) gained less weight (P metformin group was related to initial body mass index, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), and first week mean glucose level. The 1-h glucose level during initial GTT (Hr1-GTT) and the mean fasting glucose level during the first week of therapy (Wk1-mFG) were the two independent parameters associated with requiring supplemental insulin. Women with Hr1-GTT >212 mg/dL and Wk1-mFG >95 mg/dL had a risk ratio of 58.6 (95%CI: 3.68-933.35, P = 0.004) and 11.5 (95%CI: 2.77-47.34,= 0.0008), respectively for needing supplemental insulin during the course of the study compared with women without. Metformin is an effective and safe alternative to insulin in GDM. Women using metformin (± supplemental insulin) had similar glycemic control, less weight gain, and similar rates of side-effects as those on insulin monotherapy. Insulin supplementation to metformin therapy was more likely with elevated Hr1-GTT and Wk1-mFG. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): role of insulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M C; Vesco, R; Vigneri, E; Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism are the predominant metabolic defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, hyperinsulinism, as well as being compensatory, can also express a condition of reduced insulin clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in insulin action and metabolism between women with PCOS (with normal glucose tolerance) and age- and BMI-matched women with prediabetes (without hyperandrogenism and ovulatory disorders). 22 women with PCOS and 21 age/BMI-matched women with prediabetes were subjected to a Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and an Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the glucose infusion rate during clamp (M value); insulin secretion by Insulinogenic index, Oral Disposition Index (DIo) and AUC(2h-insulin) during OGTT; and insulin clearance by the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) during clamp. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher levels of AUC(2h-insulin) (p PCOS [420 (IQR 227-588) vs. 743 (IQR 597-888) ml m(-2) min(-1): p PCOS group, a strong independent inverse correlation was only observed between MCRI and AUC(2h-insulin) (PCOS: β:-0.878; p PCOS there is peripheral insulin sensitivity similar to that of women with prediabetes. What sets PCOS apart is the hyperinsulinism, today still simplistically defined "compensatory"; actually this is mainly related to decreased insulin clearance whose specific causes and dynamics have yet to be clarified.

  6. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  7. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  8. The influence of short-term endurance training on the insulin blood level, binding, and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in patients after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylewicz, P; Przywarska, I; Szcześniak, L; Rychlewski, T; Bieńkowska, S; Długiewicz, I; Wilk, M

    1999-01-01

    This study was directed toward establishing whether and to what extent, short-term endurance training influences the insulin blood level, and the binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in patients undergoing rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. The study was conducted in a group of 60 patients who had had myocardial infarction within the past 1.5 to 3 months and who did not have arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. All the patients took a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test. Before and after the test, venous blood was collected to determine lactic acid and insulin blood levels as well as the binding and degradation of 125I-insulin. The study group was randomized into two subgroups. One subgroup entered into a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation course. The control group was discharged from the hospital and was given no recommendations for physical exercise. The same investigation was repeated 3 weeks later. In the patients (50%) with hyperinsulinemia (insulin resistance index, > 10 microIU/mL), which was detected during the first investigation, insulin blood level decreased from 23.9 +/- 4.4 to 15.0 +/- 1.9 microIU/mL (P endurance training period during rehabilitation after myocardial infarction reduces insulin resistance in patients with hyperinsulinemia.

  9. Cancer risk among insulin users: comparing analogues with human insulin in the CARING five-country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Anna; De Bruin, Marie L; Bazelier, Marloes T; Hjellvik, Vidar; Andersen, Morten; Auvinen, Anssi; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Furu, Kari; de Vries, Frank; Karlstad, Øystein; Ekström, Nils; Haukka, Jari

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between use of certain insulins and risk for cancer, when addressing the limitations and biases involved in previous studies. National Health Registries from Denmark (1996-2010), Finland (1996-2011), Norway (2005-2010) and Sweden (2007-2012) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database (1987-2013) were used to conduct a cohort study on new insulin users (N = 327,112). By using a common data model and semi-aggregate approach, we pooled individual-level records from five cohorts and applied Poisson regression models. For each of ten cancer sites studied, we estimated the rate ratios (RRs) by duration (≤0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6 and >6 years) of cumulative exposure to insulin glargine or insulin detemir relative to that of human insulin. A total of 21,390 cancer cases occurred during a mean follow-up of 4.6 years. No trend with cumulative treatment time for insulin glargine relative to human insulin was observed in risk for any of the ten studied cancer types. Of the 136 associations tested in the main analysis, only a few increased and decreased risks were found: among women, a higher risk was observed for colorectal (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.25) and endometrial cancer (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.07, 2.94) for ≤0.5 years of treatment and for malignant melanoma for 2-3 years (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.02, 3.61) and 4-5 years (RR 3.55, 95% CI 1.68, 7.47]); among men, a lower risk was observed for pancreatic cancer for 2-3 years (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17, 0.66) and for liver cancer for 3-4 years (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14, 0.94) and >6 years (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05, 0.92). Comparisons of insulin detemir with human insulin also showed no consistent differences. The present multi-country study found no evidence of consistent differences in risk for ten cancers for insulin glargine or insulin detemir use compared with human insulin, at follow-up exceeding 5 years.

  10. Update on insulin treatment for dogs and cats: insulin dosing pens and more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ann Thompson,1 Patty Lathan,2 Linda Fleeman3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente

  11. Chronic exercise increases insulin binding in muscles but not liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonen, A.; Clune, P.A.; Tan, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been postulated that the improved glucose tolerance provoked by chronic exercise is primarily attributable to increased insulin binding in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the authors investigated the effects of progressively increased training (6 wk) on insulin binding by five hindlimb skeletal muscles and in liver. In the trained animals serum insulin levels at rest were lower either in a fed or fasted state and after an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise bout sections of the liver, soleus (S), plantaris (P), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles were pooled from four to six rats. Insulin binding to plasma membranes increased in S, P, and EDL but not in WG or in liver. There were insulin binding differences among muscles. Comparison of rank orders of insulin binding data with published glucose transport data for the same muscles revealed that these parameters do not correspond well. In conclusion, insulin binding to muscle is shown to be heterogeneous and training can increase insulin binding to selected muscles but not liver

  12. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ricardo K; Brito, Gleisson A P; Coelho, Isabela; Pequitto, Danielle C T; Yamaguchi, Adriana A; Borghetti, Gina; Schiessel, Dalton Luiz; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Machado, Juliano; Rocha, Ricelli E R; Aikawa, Julia; Iagher, Fabiola; Naliwaiko, Katya; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Nunes, Everson A; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2011-04-28

    Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish oil-treated normal weight group (FO), obese control group (Ob), coconut fat-treated obese group (ObCO) and fish oil-treated obese group (ObFO). Obese insulin-resistant rats were supplemented with fish oil or coconut fat (1 g/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, fasting blood biochemicals parameters, and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were analyzed. Obese animals (Ob) presented higher Index Lee and 2.5 fold epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue than C. Insulin sensitivity test (Kitt) showed that fish oil supplementation was able to maintain insulin sensitivity of obese rats (ObFO) similar to C. There were no changes in glucose and HDL-cholesterol levels amongst groups. Yet, ObFO revealed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC; 30%) and triacylglycerol (TG; 33%) compared to Ob. Finally, since exposed to insulin, ObFO skeletal muscle revealed an increase of 10% in lactate production, 38% in glycogen synthesis and 39% in oxidation of glucose compared to Ob. Low dose of fish oil supplementation (1 g/kg/day) was able to reduce TC and TG levels, in addition to improved systemic and muscle insulin sensitivity. These results lend credence to the benefits of n-3 fatty acids upon the deleterious effects of insulin resistance mechanisms.

  13. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  14. Revisiting the Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihmer Zoltan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important methodological questions still exist concerning the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST, including the possibility of a better way of interpreting it. The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of an alternative way of interpreting DST results. Methods A total of 50 patients with major depression aged 41.0 ± 11.4 years old participated in the study. Past and present suicide attempts were recorded. Psychometric assessment included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS, the Newcastle Depression Diagnostic Scale (NDDS, the Diagnostic Melancholia Scale (DMS and the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale. The 1 mg DST protocol was used. Analysis methods included the chi square test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA with Fisher least significant difference (LSD as post hoc tests. Results In all, 34 patients (68% were suppressors, 16 (32% were non-suppressors and 14 patients had cortisol values above 5 μg/dl at baseline. Baseline cortisol level did not influence the classical DST interpretation. A total of 18 patients (36% showed an increase of their cortisol levels after dexamethasone administration and 32 patients (64% showed a decrease. Reducers had less melancholic features, similar levels of depression, better sleep and less suicidal thoughts in comparison to increasers. No relationship of DST to suicidality was found. Discussion The present study explored the pattern of cortisol response to dexamethasone suppression and suggested an alternative way of coding and interpreting the DST on the basis of whether the cortisol levels remain stable or increase vs decrease after the administration of cortisol. The results put forward a complex way of understanding the relationship of the DST results with clinical symptoms.

  15. Genome-wide association study of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index identifies BCL2 and FAM19A2 as novel insulin sensitivity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Gustafsson, Stefan; Rybin, Denis

    2016-01-01

    of the modified Stumvoll Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI) within the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium. Discovery was performed in 16,753 individuals, and replication was attempted for the 23 most significant novel loci in 13,354 independent individuals. Association with ISI was tested...

  16. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  17. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Strauss, Holger M.

    2012-01-01

    An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers...... in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic ß-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization...... and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization...

  18. The Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels, Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion in Women 3 Years after Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänczer, Tímea; Magenheim, Rita; Fürst, Ágnes; Domján, Beatrix; Janicsek, Zsófia; Szabó, Eszter; Ferencz, Viktória; Tabák, Ádám G

    2017-12-01

    There is a direct correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, women with gestational diabetes (GDM) may have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to controls. The present study intended to investigate 25(OH)D levels and their association with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with prior GDM and in controls 3.2 years after delivery. A total of 87 patients with prior GDM and 45 randomly selected controls (age range, 22 to 44 years) with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy nested within a cohort of all deliveries at Saint Margit Hospital, Budapest, between January 1 2005, and December 31 2006, were examined. Their 25(OH) D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin secretion were estimated using the homeostasis model asssessment (HOMA) calculator and early insulin secretion by the insulinogenic index based on a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. There was no significant difference in 25(OH)D levels between cases and controls (27.2±13.1 [±SD] vs. 26.9±9.8 ng/L). There was a positive association between HOMA insulin sensitivity and 25(OH)D levels (beta = 0.017; 95% CI 0.001 to 0.034/1 ng/mL) that was robust to adjustment for age and body mass index. There was a nonsignificant association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D (p=0.099), while no association was found with the insulinogenic index. Prior GDM status was not associated with 25(OH)D levels; however, 25(OH) D levels were associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesized that the association between HOMA insulin secretion and 25(OH)D levels is related to the autoregulation of fasting glucose levels because no association between 25(OH)D and insulinogenic index was found. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal dose and timing of insulin Aspart to mimic first phase insulin response in patients with recently onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C.; Rosenfalck, A.; Dejgaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal dose and timing of subcutaneous injection of insulin Aspart (IAsp) in relation to meal to mimic first phase insulin response in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty patients were randomised in a double blind, double dummy...... design to four standard meal tests with pre-meal injection of insulin Aspart 0.08 IU/kg BW 30 min before the meal, insulin Aspart 0.04 IU/kg BW 30 or 15 min before the meal and placebo. RESULTS: All three insulin regimes significantly reduced postprandial glucose increment (area under the curve AUC(-30...... injection of IAsp 0.08 IU/kg BW. No difference in postprandial glucose profile was demonstrated whether IAsp 0.04 IU/kg BW was administrated 15 or 30 min before mealtime. CONCLUSIONS: IAsp 0.04IU/kg BW injected subcutaneously 15 or 30 min before meal reduced the postprandial blood glucose increment without...

  20. Insulin analogues: have they changed insulin treatment and improved glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten

    2002-01-01

    To improve insulin therapy, new insulin analogues have been developed. Two fast-acting analogues with a more rapid onset of effect and a shorter duration of action combined with a low day-to-day variation in absorption rate are now available. Despite this favourable time-action profile most studies....... This is probably the main explanation for the absence of improvement in overall glycaemic control when compared with regular human insulin. A tendency to a reduction in hypoglycaemic events during treatment with fast-acting analogues has been observed in most studies. Recent studies have indicated that NPH insulin...... administered several times daily at mealtimes can improve glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. The fast-acting analogues are now also available as insulin mixed with NPH. Insulin glargine is a new long-acting insulin which is soluble and precipitates after injection, resulting...

  1. Insulin structure and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Langkjoer, L

    1993-01-01

    Insulin is composed of 51 amino acids in two peptide chains (A and B) linked by two disulfide bonds. The three-dimensional structure of the insulin molecule (insulin monomer), essentially the same in solution and in solid phase, exists in two main conformations. These differ in the extent of helix in the B chain which is governed by the presence of phenol or its derivatives. In acid and neutral solutions, in concentrations relevant for pharmaceutical formulation, the insulin monomer assembles to dimers and at neutral pH, in the presence of zinc ions, further to hexamers. Many crystalline modifications of insulin have been identified but only those with the hexamer as the basic unit are utilized in preparations for therapy. The insulin hexamer forms a relatively stable unit but some flexibility remains within the individual molecules. The intrinsic flexibility at the ends of the B chain plays an important role in governing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. A variety of chemical changes of the primary structure (yielding insulin derivatives), and physical modifications of the secondary to quaternary structures (resulting in "denaturation," aggregation, and precipitation) are known to affect insulin and insulin preparations during storage and use (Fig. 8). The tendency of insulin to undergo structural transformation resulting in aggregation and formation of insoluble insulin fibrils has been one of the most intriguing and widely studied phenomena in relation to insulin stability. Although the exact mechanism of fibril formation is still obscure, it is now clear that the initial step is an exposure of certain hydrophobic residues, normally buried in the three-dimensional structure, to the surface of the insulin monomer. This requires displacement of the COOH-terminal B-chain residues from their normal position which can only be accomplished via monomerization of the insulin. Therefore, most methods stabilizing insulin against fibrillation share the

  2. Automatic computation of radioimmunoassay data. Insulin and C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, T; Kudo, M; Abe, K [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Kawamata, F; Uehata, S

    1975-09-01

    Radioimmunoassay provided dose response curves which showed linearity by the use of logistic transformation (Rodbard). This transformation which was applicable to radioimmunoassay should be useful for the computer processing of insulin and C-peptide assay. In the present studies, standard curves were analysed by testing the fit of analytic functions to radioimmunoassay of insulin and C-peptides. A program for use in combination with the double antibody technique was made by Dr. Kawamata. This approach was evidenced to be useful in order to allow automatic computation of data derived from the double antibody assays of insulin and C-peptides. Automatic corrected calculations of radioimmunoassay data of insulin was found to be satisfactory.

  3. Alteration in insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanti, J F; Gual, P; Grémeaux, T

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance, when combined with impaired insulin secretion, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is characterised by a decrease in insulin effect on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tIssue. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS......-1) and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) are critical events in the insulin signalling cascade leading to insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Modification of IRS-1 by serine phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms leading to a decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine...... to phosphorylate these serine residues have been identified. These exciting results suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 is a possible hallmark of insulin resistance in biologically insulin responsive cells or tIssues. Identifying the pathways by which "diabetogenic" factors activate IRS-1 kinases...

  4. Interaction of PAMAM dendrimers with bovine insulin depends on nanoparticle end-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacka, Olga; Milowska, Katarzyna; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We have looked at the interactions between polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with different terminal groups (−COOH, −NH 2 , −OH) and bovine insulin. The influence of PAMAM dendrimers on insulin was tested by measuring zeta potential and fluorescence quenching. The secondary structure of insulin in the presence of dendrimers was examined by circular dichroism. The effect of dendrimers on dithiotreitol-induced aggregation of insulin was investigated by spectrophotometry. Dendrimers quenched the fluorescence of insulin, but did not change its secondary structure. Thus dendrimers neither induce hormone aggregation nor inhibit the aggregation process induced by dithiotreitol (DTT), except at 0.01 µmol/l. Dendrimers–insulin interactions are mainly electrostatic. - Highlight: • The interactions between PAMAM dendrimers and insulin were investigated. • The PAMAM dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of insulin. • The PAMAM dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of insulin. • Dendrimers did not induce aggregation of hormone. • Dendrimers–insulin interaction is mainly electrostatic

  5. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  7. ADAMTS13 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells induced by insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Fırat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Disintegrin-like Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTS proteins is a proteinase enzyme group that primarily located in the extracellular matrix (ECM. Insulin has been known to stimulate proteoglycan biosynthesis in chondrosarcoma chondrocytes and thereby the levels of ADAMTS proteins. The aim of this study is to evaluate the time-dependent effects of insulin on the ADAMTS13 expression in OUMS-27 human chondrosarcoma cell line to test the hypothesis that insulin diminishes ADAMTS13 expression because of its anabolic effects. Methods: To test this hypothesis OUMS-27 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’ medium (DMEM containing 10μg/mL insulin. The medium containing insulin was changed every other day up to 11th day. Cells were harvested at 1, 3, 7, and 11th days and protein and RNA isolations were performed at the proper times. The levels of RNA expression of ADAMTS13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using appropriate primers while protein levels was detected by Western blot technique using anti-ADAMTS13 antibody. Results: Although there was a decrease in both RNA and protein levels in insulin-applied groups compared to the control cells, it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Under the light of our findings, it is suggested that insulin does not participate in regulation of ADAMTS13 in OUMS-27 chondrosarcoma cells. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 226-232

  8. Effect of alcohol on insulin secretion and viability of human pancreatic islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. There are controversial data in the literature on the topic of effects of alcohol on insulin secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The goal of this research was to determine how alcohol affects the insulin secretion and viability of human adult pancreatic islets in vitro during a seven-day incubation. Methods. Human pancreatic tissue was digested with Collagenase XI, using a non-automated method. Cultures were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium containing alcohol (10 μl of alcohol in 100 ml of medium. Insulin stimulation index (SI and viability of the islets were determined on the first, third, and seventh day of cultivation. Results. Analysis of the viability of the islets showed that there wasn’t significant difference between the control and the test group. In the test group, viability of the cultures declined with the time of incubation. SI of the test group was higher compared to the control group, by 50% and 25% on the first and third day of cultivation, respectively. On the seventh day, insulin secretion was reduced by 25%. The difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the test group, significant decline in insulin secretion was found on the third and seventh day of incubation (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion. Alcohol can increase or decrease insulin secretion of islets cultures, which may result in an inadequate response of pancreatic β-cells to blood glucose, leading to insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 41002

  9. Insulin use, prescription patterns, regimens and costs.-a narrative from a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbera Anthonia O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving good glycemic control is of paramount importance in the reduction of diabetes mellitus (DM associated morbidity and mortality. Insulin plays a key role in the management of DM but unfortunately whilst some healthcare providers present insulin as a treatment of last resort , patients on insulin often have insulin related issues such as needle phobias, fear of hypoglycaemia, weight gain and in developing countries, costs. This Report aims at assessing insulin prescription pattern, insulin costs and issues associated with adherence. Methods This was a Cross-sectional observation Study whereby 160 patients with DM who were on insulin solely or in combination with oral hypoglycaemic agents were recruited over a 6 month period. Information obtained from the Study subjects pertained to their histories of DM, types of insulin, insulin costs, adherence issues and insulin delivery devices. Long and short term glycaemic control were determined and evaluated for possible relation to insulin adherence. Test statistics used were chi square, t test and binary regression. Results Insulin adherence was noted in 123-77% of the Study subjects and this was comparable between persons with type 1 DM and those with type 2 DM. The mean glycosylated haemoglobin values were significantly higher in those who admitted to non insulin adherence compared to those who adhered to their insulin regimen (9.7% (2.3 Vs 8.6% (2.1, p = 0.01. Reasons proffered by Respondents for non insulin adherence included high costs-15(41%, inconvenience −15 (41% and needle pain-7918%. A greater proportion of persons who self injected insulin adhered to insulin prescriptions compared to those who did not self inject and thus had better glycaemic control. Shorter duration of DM and older age were found to be predictors of adherence to insulin prescription. The monthly mean costs of insulin for those who earned an income was 5212.8 Nigerian naira which is

  10. C1qTNF-related protein 1 improve insulin resistance by reducing phosphorylation of serine 1101 in insulin receptor substrate 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yaping; Zhang, Dongming; Fu, Yanqin; Wang, Chongxian; Li, Qingju; Tian, Chenguang; Zhang, Suhe; Lyu, Xiaodong

    2017-08-30

    C1qTNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1) is independently associated with type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between CTRP1 and insulin resistance is still not established. This study aimed to explore the role of CTRP1 under the situation of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Plasma CTRP1 level was investigated in type 2 diabetic subjects (n = 35) and non-diabetic subjects (n = 35). The relationship between CTRP1 and phosphorylation of multi insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) serine (Ser) sites was further explored. Our data showed that Plasma CTRP1 was higher and negative correlation with insulin resistance in diabetic subjects (r = -0.283, p = 0.018). Glucose utilisation test revealed that the glucose utilisation rate of mature adipocytes was improved by CTRP1 in the presence of insulin. CTRP1 was not only related to IRS-1 protein, but also negatively correlated with IRS-1 Ser1101 phosphorylation (r = -0.398, p = 0.031). Furthermore, Phosphorylation levels of IRS-1 Ser1101 were significantly lower after incubation with 40 ng/mL CTRP1 in mature adipocytes than those with no intervention (p insulin resistance by reducing the phosphorylation of IRS-1 Ser1101, induced in the situation of insulin resistance as a feedback adipokine.

  11. Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-07-01

    The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

  12. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-