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Sample records for insulator metal oxide

  1. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna

  2. Unified computational model of transport in metal-insulating oxide-metal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, B. D.; Hjalmarson, H. P.; Jacobs-Gedrim, R. B.; Agarwal, Sapan; James, C. D.; Marinella, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    A unified physics-based model of electron transport in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) systems is presented. In this model, transport through metal-oxide interfaces occurs by electron tunneling between the metal electrodes and oxide defect states. Transport in the oxide bulk is dominated by hopping, modeled as a series of tunneling events that alter the electron occupancy of defect states. Electron transport in the oxide conduction band is treated by the drift-diffusion formalism and defect chemistry reactions link all the various transport mechanisms. It is shown that the current-limiting effect of the interface band offsets is a function of the defect vacancy concentration. These results provide insight into the underlying physical mechanisms of leakage currents in oxide-based capacitors and steady-state electron transport in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) MIM devices. Finally, an explanation of ReRAM bipolar switching behavior based on these results is proposed.

  3. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device's rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  4. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.

    2014-10-07

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device\\'s rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  5. Effects of insulating vanadium oxide composite in concomitant mixed phases via interface barrier modulations on the performance improvements in metal-insulator-metal diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleem Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of metal-insulator-metal diodes is investigated for insulating vanadium oxide (VOx composite composed of concomitant mixed phases using the Pt metal as the top and the bottom electrodes. Insulating VOx composite in the Pt/VOx/Pt diode exhibits a high asymmetry of 10 and a very high sensitivity of 2,135V−1 at 0.6 V. The VOx composite provides Schottky-like barriers at the interface, which controls the current flow and the trap-assisted conduction mechanism. Such dramatic enhancement in asymmetry and rectification performance at low applied bias may be ascribed to the dynamic control of the insulating and metallic phases in VOx composites. We find that the nanostructure details of the insulating VOx layer can be critical in enhancing the performance of MIM diodes.

  6. Photoinduced Coherent Spin Fluctuation in Primary Dynamics of Insulator to Metal Transition in Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent spin fluctuation was detected in the photoinduced Mott insulator-metal transition in perovskite cobalt oxide by using 3 optical-cycle infrared pulse. Such coherent spin fluctuation is driven by the perovskite distortion changing orbital gap.

  7. Metal-insulator transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1998-10-01

    Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by the correlation effects is categorized as the Mott Insulator. Near the transition point the metallic state shows fluctuations and orderings in the spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom. The properties of these metals are frequently quite different from those of ordinary metals, as measured by transport, optical, and magnetic probes. The review first describes theoretical approaches to the unusual metallic states and to the metal-insulator transition. The Fermi-liquid theory treats the correlations that can be adiabatically connected with the noninteracting picture. Strong-coupling models that do not require Fermi-liquid behavior have also been developed. Much work has also been done on the scaling theory of the transition. A central issue for this review is the evaluation of these approaches in simple theoretical systems such as the Hubbard model and t-J models. Another key issue is strong competition among various orderings as in the interplay of spin and orbital fluctuations. Experimentally, the unusual properties of the metallic state near the insulating transition have been most extensively studied in d-electron systems. In particular, there is revived interest in transition-metal oxides, motivated by the epoch-making findings of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. The article reviews the rich phenomena of anomalous metallicity, taking as examples Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Ru compounds. The diverse phenomena include strong spin and

  8. The Role of Interfaces in Polyethylene/Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites for Ultrahigh-Voltage Insulating Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud; Olsson, Richard T; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of polyethylene/metal-oxide nanocomposites for extruded high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables with ultrahigh electric insulation properties is presented. This is a promising technology with the potential of raising the upper voltage limit in today's underground/submarine cables, based on pristine polyethylene, to levels where the loss of energy during electric power transmission becomes low enough to ensure intercontinental electric power transmission. The development of HVDC insulating materials together with the impact of the interface between the particles and the polymer on the nanocomposites electric properties are shown. Important parameters from the atomic to the microlevel, such as interfacial chemistry, interfacial area, and degree of particle dispersion/aggregation, are discussed. This work is placed in perspective with important work by others, and suggested mechanisms for improved insulation using nanoparticles, such as increased charge trap density, adsorption of impurities/ions, and induced particle dipole moments are considered. The effects of the nanoparticles and of their interfacial structures on the mechanical properties and the implications of cavitation on the electric properties are also discussed. Although the main interest in improving the properties of insulating polymers has been on the use of nanoparticles, leading to nanodielectrics, it is pointed out here that larger microscopic hierarchical metal-oxide particles with high surface porosity also impart good insulation properties. The impact of the type of particle and its inherent properties (purity and conductivity) on the nanocomposite dielectric and insulating properties are also discussed based on data obtained by a newly developed technique to directly observe the charge distribution on a nanometer scale in the nanocomposite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossanek, Rodrigo Jose Ochekoski

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structure and metal-insulator transitions in vanadium oxides (SrVO_3, CaVO_3, LaVO_3 and YVO_3) are studied here. The purpose is to show a new interpretation to the spectra which is coherent with the changes across the metal-insulator transition. The main experimental techniques are the X-ray photoemission (PES) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The spectra are interpreted with cluster model, band structure and atomic multiplet calculations. The presence of charge-transfer satellites in the core-level PES spectra showed that these vanadium oxides cannot be classified in the Mott-Hubbard regime. Further, the valence band and core-level spectra presented a similar behavior across the metal insulator transition. In fact, the structures in the spectra and their changes are determined by the different screening channels present in the metallic or insulating phases. The calculated spectral weight showed that the coherent fluctuations dominate the spectra at the Fermi level and give the metallic character to the SrVO_3 and CaVO_3 compounds. The vanishing of this charge fluctuation and the replacement by the Mott-Hubbard screening in the LaVO_3 and YVO_3 systems is ultimately responsible for the opening of a band gap and the insulating character. Further, the correlation effects are, indeed, important to the occupied electronic structure (coherent and incoherent peaks). On the other hand, the unoccupied electronic structure is dominated by exchange and crystal field effects (t2g and eg sub-bands of majority and minority spins). The optical conductivity spectrum was obtained by convoluting the removal and addition states. It showed that the oxygen states, as well as the crystal field and exchange effects are necessary to correctly compare and interpret the experimental results. Further, a correlation at the charge-transfer region of the core-level and valence band optical spectra was observed, which could be extended to other transition metal oxides

  10. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  11. Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, F.; Spieser, M.; Riel, H.; Gotsmann, B., E-mail: bgo@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Dittberner, M. [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Novotny, L. [Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Passarello, D.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)

    2016-04-25

    The thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide at submicron distances is expected to exhibit a strong dependence on the state of vanadium dioxide which undergoes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature. We report the measurement of near field thermal transport between a heated silicon oxide micro-sphere and a vanadium dioxide thin film on a titanium oxide (rutile) substrate. The temperatures of the 15 nm vanadium dioxide thin film varied to be below and above the metal-insulator-transition, and the sphere temperatures were varied in a range between 100 and 200 °C. The measurements were performed using a vacuum-based scanning thermal microscope with a cantilevered resistive thermal sensor. We observe a thermal conductivity per unit area between the sphere and the film with a distance dependence following a power law trend and a conductance contrast larger than 2 for the two different phase states of the film.

  12. Electroforming and Switching in Oxides of Transition Metals: The Role of Metal Insulator Transition in the Switching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskii, F. A.; Odynets, L. L.; Pergament, A. L.; Stefanovich, G. B.

    1996-02-01

    Electroforming and switching effects in sandwich structures based on anodic films of transition metal oxides (V, Nb, Ti, Fe, Ta, W, Zr, Hf, Mo) have been studied. After being electroformed, some materials exhibited current-controlled negative resistance with S-shapedV-Icharacteristics. For V, Fe, Ti, and Nb oxides, the temperature dependences of the threshold voltage have been measured. As the temperature increased,Vthdecreased to zero at a critical temperatureT0, which depended on the film material. Comparison of theT0values with the temperatures of metal-insulator phase transition for some compounds (Tt= 120 K for Fe3O4, 340 K for VO2, ∼500 K for Ti2O3, and 1070 K for NbO2) showed that switching was related to the transition in the applied electric field. Channels consisting of the above-mentioned lower oxides were formed in the initial anodic films during the electroforming. The possibility of formation of these oxides with a metal-insulator transition was confirmed by thermodynamic calculations.

  13. The model of metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhnin, V.S.; Lysenko, S.; Rua, A.; Fernandez, F.; Liu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Thermally induced metal-insulator phase transitions (PT) in VO 2 thin films are studied theoretically and experimentally. The hysteresis phenomena in the region of the transition for different type thin films were investigated. The phenomenological model of the PT is suggested. The charge transfer-lattice instability in VO 2 metallic phase is considered as basis of the first order metal-insulator PT in VO 2 . The charge transfer is treated as an order parameter

  14. Electronic Structure of the Pyrochlore-Type Ru Oxides through the Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.; Fujimori, S.I.; Okane, T.; Fujimori, A.; Abbate, M.; Yoshii, S.; Sato, M.

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structures of the pyrochlore-type Ru oxides Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 and Sm 2-x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 , which show metal-insulator transition with increasing Ca or Bi concentration, have been studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Spectral changes near the Fermi level are different but reflect the tendency of their transport properties in both systems. The Sm 2-x Ca x Ru 2 O 7 system shows an energy shift, which is expected from the increase of hole in the Ru 4d t 2g band and the Sm 2 - x Bi x Ru 2 O 7 system shows spectral weight transfer within the Ru 4d t 2g band, which is expected to be observed in bandwidth-control Mott-Hubbard system. (author)

  15. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Young, Chadwin D.; Bersuker, Gennadi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard

  16. Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor nanostructures based on silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryazhkina, M. N.; Tikhov, S. V.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Belov, A. I.; Korolev, D. S.; Antonov, I. N.; Karzanov, V. V.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Tetelbaum, D. I.; Karakolis, P.; Dimitrakis, P.

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar resistive switching in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor-like structures with an inert Au top electrode and a Si3N4 insulator nanolayer (6 nm thick) has been observed. The effect of a highly doped n +-Si substrate and a SiO2 interlayer (2 nm) is revealed in the changes in the semiconductor space charge region and small-signal parameters of parallel and serial equivalent circuit models measured in the high- and low-resistive capacitor states, as well as under laser illumination. The increase in conductivity of the semiconductor capacitor plate significantly reduces the charging and discharging times of capacitor-like structures.

  17. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-06

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV-vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films' ability to structurally tune their HOMO-LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO 2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures' plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  18. Size-dependent single electron transfer and semi-metal-to-insulator transitions in molecular metal oxide electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliou, Angelika; Bouroushian, Mirtat; Douvas, Antonios M.; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Glezos, Nikos

    2018-07-01

    All-inorganic self-arranged molecular transition metal oxide hyperstructures based on polyoxometalate molecules (POMs) are fabricated and tested as electronically tunable components in emerging electronic devices. POM hyperstructures reveal great potential as charging nodes of tunable charging level for molecular memories and as enhancers of interfacial electron/hole injection for photovoltaic stacks. STM, UPS, UV–vis spectroscopy and AFM measurements show that this functionality stems from the films’ ability to structurally tune their HOMO–LUMO levels and electron localization length at room temperature. By adapting POM nanocluster size in solution, self-doping and current modulation of four orders of magnitude is monitored on a single nanocluster on SiO2 at voltages as low as 3 Volt. Structurally driven insulator-to-semi-metal transitions and size-dependent current regulation through single electron tunneling are demonstrated and examined with respect to the stereochemical and electronic structure of the molecular entities. This extends the value of self-assembly as a tool for correlation length and electronic properties tuning and demonstrate POM hyperstructures’ plausibility for on-chip molecular electronics operative at room temperature.

  19. Metal-oxide assisted surface treatment of polyimide gate insulators for high-performance organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohee; Ha, Taewook; Yoo, Sungmi; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jong Chan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Yun Ho

    2017-06-14

    We developed a facile method for treating polyimide-based organic gate insulator (OGI) surfaces with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by introducing metal-oxide interlayers, called the metal-oxide assisted SAM treatment (MAST). To create sites for surface modification with SAM materials on polyimide-based OGI (KPI) surfaces, the metal-oxide interlayer, here amorphous alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ), was deposited on the KPI gate insulator using spin-coating via a rapid sol-gel reaction, providing an excellent template for the formation of a high-quality SAM with phosphonic acid anchor groups. The SAM of octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) was successfully treated by spin-coating onto the α-Al 2 O 3 -deposited KPI film. After the surface treatment by ODPA/α-Al 2 O 3 , the surface energy of the KPI thin film was remarkably decreased and the molecular compatibility of the film with an organic semiconductor (OSC), 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-C 10 ), was increased. Ph-BTBT-C 10 molecules were uniformly deposited on the treated gate insulator surface and grown with high crystallinity, as confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The mobility of Ph-BTBT-C 10 thin-film transistors (TFTs) was approximately doubled, from 0.56 ± 0.05 cm 2 V -1 s -1 to 1.26 ± 0.06 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , after the surface treatment. The surface treatment of α-Al 2 O 3 and ODPA significantly decreased the threshold voltage from -21.2 V to -8.3 V by reducing the trap sites in the OGI and improving the interfacial properties with the OSC. We suggest that the MAST method for OGIs can be applied to various OGI materials lacking reactive sites using SAMs. It may provide a new platform for the surface treatment of OGIs, similar to that of conventional SiO 2 gate insulators.

  20. Electrical analysis of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors on flexible bulk mono-crystalline silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the electrical study of high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on a flexible ultra-thin (25 μm) silicon fabric which is peeled off using a CMOS compatible process from a standard bulk mono-crystalline silicon substrate. A lifetime projection is extracted using statistical analysis of the ramping voltage (Vramp) breakdown and time dependent dielectric breakdown data. The obtained flexible MOSCAPs operational voltages satisfying the 10 years lifetime benchmark are compared to those of the control MOSCAPs, which are not peeled off from the silicon wafer. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  2. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  3. Metal-Insulator Transition in Copper Oxides Induced by Apex Displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Acharya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High temperature superconductivity has been found in many kinds of compounds built from planes of Cu and O, separated by spacer layers. Understanding why critical temperatures are so high has been the subject of numerous investigations and extensive controversy. To realize high temperature superconductivity, parent compounds are either hole doped, such as La_{2}CuO_{4} (LCO with Sr (LSCO, or electron doped, such as Nd_{2}CuO_{4} (NCO with Ce (NCCO. In the electron-doped cuprates, the antiferromagnetic phase is much more robust than the superconducting phase. However, it was recently found that the reduction of residual out-of-plane apical oxygen dramatically affects the phase diagram, driving those compounds to a superconducting phase. Here we use a recently developed first-principles method to explore how displacement of the apical oxygen (AO in LCO affects the optical gap, spin and charge susceptibilities, and superconducting order parameter. By combining quasiparticle self-consistent GW (QS GW and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT, we show that LCO is a Mott insulator, but small displacements of the apical oxygen drive the compound to a metallic state through a localization-delocalization transition, with a concomitant maximum in d-wave order parameter at the transition. We address the question of whether NCO can be seen as the limit of LCO with large apical displacements, and we elucidate the deep physical reasons why the behavior of NCO is so different from the hole-doped materials. We shed new light on the recent correlation observed between T_{c} and the charge transfer gap, while also providing a guide towards the design of optimized high-T_{c} superconductors. Further, our results suggest that strong correlation, enough to induce a Mott gap, may not be a prerequisite for high-T_{c} superconductivity.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes in low temperatures (25-300 K. The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known ‘metal-insulator transition’ (MIT which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC; this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann’s expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  5. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  6. Metallic and Insulating Interfaces of Amorphous SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Kleibeuker, Josée E.

    2011-01-01

    AlO3, SrTiO3, and yttria-stabilized zirconia films. On the other hand, samples of amorphous La7/8Sr1/8MnO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates remain insulating. The interfacial conductivity results from the formation of oxygen vacancies near the interface, suggesting that the redox reactions on the surface...

  7. High performance inkjet-printed metal oxide thin film transistors via addition of insulating polymer with proper molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Cihai; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xiaomin; Chen, Huipeng; Guo, Tailiang

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal oxide thin film transistor (MOTFT) arrays using the inkjet printing process has caused tremendous interest for low-cost and large-area flexible electronic devices. However, the inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays usually exhibited a non-uniform geometry due to the coffee ring effect, which restricted their commercial application. Therefore, in this work, a strategy is reported to control the geometry and enhance device performance of inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays by the addition of an insulating polymer to the precursor solution prior to film deposition. Moreover, the impact of the polymer molecular weight (MW) on the geometry, chemical constitution, crystallization, and MOTFT properties of inkjet-printed metal oxide depositions was investigated. The results demonstrated that with an increase of MW of polystyrene (PS) from 2000 to 200 000, the coffee ring was gradually faded and the coffee ring effect was completely eliminated when MW reached 200 000, which is associated with the enhanced viscosity with the insulating polymer, providing a high resistance to the outward capillary flow, which facilitated the depinning of the contact line, leading to the elimination of the coffee ring. More importantly, the carrier mobility increased significantly from 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 up to 13.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 as PS MW increased from 2000 to 200 000, which was about 3 times that of the pristine In2O3 TFTs. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that PS doping of In2O3 films not only frustrated crystallization but also altered chemical constitution by enhancing the formation of the M-O structure, both of which facilitated the carrier transport. These results demonstrated that the simple polymer additive process provides a promising method that can efficiently control the geometry of MO arrays during inkjet printing and maximize the device performance of MOTFT arrays, which showed great potential for the application in next

  8. Propagation Characteristics of Multilayer Hybrid Insulator-Metal-Insulator and Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Talafi Noghani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of symmetrical and asymmetrical multilayer hybrid insulator-metal-insulator (HIMI and metal-insulator-metal (HMIM plasmonic slab waveguides are investigated using the transfer matrix method. Propagation length (Lp and spatial length (Ls are used as two figures of merit to qualitate the plasmonic waveguides. Symmetrical structures are shown to be more performant (having higher Lp and lower Ls, nevertheless it is shown that usage of asymmetrical geometry could compensate for the performance degradation in practically realized HIMI waveguides with different substrate materials. It is found that HMIM slab waveguide could support almost long-range subdiffraction plasmonic modes at dimensions lower than the spatial length of the HIMI slab waveguide.

  9. La interstitial defect-induced insulator-metal transition in the oxide heterostructures LaAl O3 /SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ming; Feng, Yuan Ping; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2017-11-01

    Perovskite oxide interfaces have attracted tremendous research interest for their fundamental physics and promising all-oxide electronic applications. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a surface La interstitial promoted interface insulator-metal transition in LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (110). Compared with surface oxygen vacancies, which play a determining role on the insulator-metal transition of LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (001) interfaces, we find that surface La interstitials can be more experimentally realistic and accessible for manipulation and more stable in an ambient atmospheric environment. Interestingly, these surface La interstitials also induce significant spin-splitting states with a Ti dy z/dx z character at a conducting LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (110) interface. On the other hand, for insulating LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (110) (<4 unit cells LaAl O3 thickness), a distortion between La (Al) and O atoms is found at the LaAl O3 side, partially compensating the polarization divergence. Our results reveal the origin of the metal-insulator transition in LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (110) heterostructures, and also shed light on the manipulation of the superior properties of LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (110) for different possibilities in electronic and magnetic applications.

  10. Influence of oxygen flow rate on metal-insulator transition of vanadium oxide thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xu; Liu, Xinkun; Li, Haizhu; Huang, Mingju [Henan University, Key Lab of Informational Opto-Electronical Materials and Apparatus, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Zhang, Angran [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    High-quality vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) films have been fabricated on Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition method. The sheet resistance of VO{sub 2} has a significant change (close to 5 orders of magnitude) in the process of the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) results show the grain size of VO{sub 2} thin films is larger with the increase of oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the thin films fabricated at different oxygen flow rates grow along the (011) crystalline orientation. As the oxygen flow rate increases from 3 sccm to 6 sccm, the phase transition temperature of the films reduces from 341 to 320 K, the width of the thermal hysteresis loop decreases from 32 to 9 K. The thin films fabricated in the condition of 5 sccm have a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) -3.455%/K with a small resistivity of 2.795 ρ/Ω cm. (orig.)

  11. Scaling behaviors of magnetoconductivity in amorphous indium oxide near the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y J; Kim, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoconductivity is measured in an amorphous indium-oxide sample which is in the microscopic region. Two different scaling behaviors are observed for the magnetoconductivity The scaling behavior is determined by either the localization or the electron correlation effects, whichever becomes stronger more rapidly at a given temperature and magnetic field. Qualitative explanations are given for the observed scaling behaviors. A curve of a function of H/T sup 2 sup / sup 3 exists on which all our magnetoconductivity data lie.

  12. Comparison of effect of insulating blockages on metal and oxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, R.W.; Dever, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The safety philosophy of the new liquid metal reactor (LMR) plant designs is oriented towards inherent protection against loss of coolable geometry and other entries to core disruption. On potential entry is via propagation of local faults. Within this category is a wide range of initiators which each require assessment of their probability and consequences in order to determine their contribution to plant risk. Local faults include those initiators which cause local power/flow disturbances restricted either to a single subassembly or to a local region of the bundle. The concern is that these localized initiators may start a sequence of events in which fuel failure may propagate first within a subassembly envelope and finally cause loss of coolable geometry in adjacent. This document discusses these scenarios. 3 refs., 1 fig

  13. A Novel Fully Depleted Air AlN Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yang; Yong, Gao; Peng-Liang, Gong

    2008-01-01

    A novel fully depleted air AlN silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS-FET) is presented, which can eliminate the self-heating effect and solve the problem that the off-state current of SOI MOSFETs increases and the threshold voltage characteristics become worse when employing a high thermal conductivity material as a buried layer. The simulation results reveal that the lattice temperature in normal SOI devices is 75 K higher than the atmosphere temperature, while the lattice temperature is just 4K higher than the atmosphere temperature resulting in less severe self-heating effect in air AlN SOI MOSFETs and AlN SOI MOSFETs. The on-state current of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is similar to the AlN SOI structure, and improves 12.3% more than that of normal SOI MOSFETs. The off-state current of AlN SOI is 6.7 times of normal SOI MOSFETs, while the counterpart of air AlN SOI MOSFETs is lower than that of SOI MOSFETs by two orders of magnitude. The threshold voltage change of air AlN SOI MOSFETs with different drain voltage is much less than that of AlN SOI devices, when the drain voltage is biased at 0.8 V, this difference is 28mV, so the threshold voltage change induced by employing high thermal conductivity material is cured. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors with Sb2TeOx gate insulators fabricated by reactive sputtering using a metallic Sb2Te target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Using reactive sputtering, we made transparent amorphous Sb 2 TeO x thin films from a metallic Sb 2 Te target in an oxidizing atmosphere. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) with Sb 2 TeO x gate insulators deposited at room temperature showed a large hysteresis with a counter clockwise direction, which was caused by mobile charges in the gate insulators. The problems of the mobile charges was solved by using Sb 2 TeO x films formed at 250 .deg. C. After the IGZO TFT had been annealed at 200 .deg. C for 1 hour in an O 2 ambient, the mobility of the IGZO TFT was 22.41 cm 2 /Vs, and the drain current on-off ratio was ∼10 8 .

  15. Luminescence from metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    The term luminescence is normally applied to light emission that is not explainable by the mechanisms discussed by the other speakers in this meeting. Specifically, it is not transition radiation, surface plasmon radiation, or bremsstrahlung. One normally thinks of luminescence as arising from one-electron transitions within a medium. This talk consists of an overview of luminescence from condensed matter under irradiation by either energetic particles or photons. The author begins with organic molecules, where luminescence is best understood, and then discusses inorganic insulators and metals. Finally, the dependence of yield upon projectile species and velocity is discussed, and predictions are made concerning the relative effectiveness of electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms in exciting luminescence

  16. Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors with silicon-oxy-nitride as the gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachander, K.; Arulkumaran, S.; Egawa, T.; Sano, Y.; Baskar, K.

    2005-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) were fabricated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxy-nitride (SiON) as an insulating layer. The compositions of SiON thin films were confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The fabricated MOSHEMTs exhibited a very high saturation current density of 1.1 A/mm coupled with high positive operational gate voltage up to +7 V. The MOSHEMTs also exhibited four orders of low gate leakage current and high forward-on voltage when compared with the conventional HEMTs. The drain current collapse using gate pulse measurements showed only a negligible difference in the saturation current density revealing the drastic improvement in passivation of the surface states due to the high quality of dielectric thin films deposited. Thus, based on the improved direct-current operation, SiON can be considered to be a potential gate oxide comparable with other dielectric insulators

  17. Near-Field Nanoscopy of Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions Towards Synthesis of Novel Correlated Transition Metal Oxides and Their Interaction with Plasmon Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    metal and osmium (IV) oxide in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of magnesium oxide. The crystal structure was refined using powder X-ray...The blue octahedral represent [MO6]7-, the yellow circles are Li rich positions and the large green circles are magnesium rich positions material...M. Lazzeri, A. K. Geim, and C. Casiraghi, Raman Fingerprint of Aligned Graphene/H-Bn Superlattices, Nano Letters 13, 5242-5246 (2013). 13. Q. H

  18. Metallic insulation transport and strainer clogging tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.; Hongisto, O.

    1994-06-01

    Experiments to probe the transport and clogging properties of metallic (metal reflective) insulation have been carried out in order to provide data for evaluation of their influence on the emergency core cooling and containment spray systems of the Finnish boiling water reactors in the event of a design basis accident. The specific metallic insulation tested was DARMET, provided by Darchem Engineering Ltd. The inner foils of Darmet are dimped. Available literature on the metallic insulation performance under design basis accident conditions has been reviewed. On the basis of the review a parametric approach has been chosen for the transport and clogging experiments. This approach involves testing a wide size range of various shapes of foil pieces. Five sets of experiments have been carried out. The first three sets investigate transport properties of the foil pieces, starting from sedimentation in stagnant waste pool and proceeding to transport in horizontal and vertically circulating flows. The clogging experiments have been addressed the differential pressures obtained due to accumulation of both pure and metallic and a mixture of metallic and fibrous (mineral wool) depris. (4 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. Metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylbersztejn, A.; Mott, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    The basic physical parameters which govern the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide are determined through a review of the properties of this material. The major importance of the Hubbard intra-atomic correlation energy in determining the insulating phase, which was already evidence by studies of the magnetic properties of V 1 -/subx/Cr/subx/O 2 alloys, is further demonstrated from an analysis of their electrical properties. An analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of niobium-doped VO 2 yields a picture for the current carrier in the low-temperature phase in which it is accompanied by a spin cloud (owing to Hund's-rule coupling), and has therefore an enhanced mass (m approx. = 60m 0 ). Semiconducting vanadium dioxide turns out to be a borderline case for a classical band-transport description; in the alloys at high doping levels, Anderson localization with hopping transport can take place. Whereas it is shown that the insulating phase cannot be described correctly without taking into account the Hubbard correlation energy, we find that the properties of the metallic phase are mainly determined by the band structure. Metallic VO 2 is, in our view, similar to transition metals like Pt or Pd: electrons in a comparatively wide band screening out the interaction between the electrons in a narrow overlapping band. The magnetic susceptibility is described as exchange enhanced. The large density of states at the Fermi level yields a substantial contribution of the entropy of the metallic electrons to the latent heat. The crystalline distortion removes the band degeneracy so that the correlation energy becomes comparable with the band width and a metal-insulator transition takes place

  20. Nanostructured Anodic Multilayer Dielectric Stacked Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Kannadassan, D; Baghini, Maryam Shojaei; Mallick, P S

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using anodization technique. High capacitance density of > 3.5 fF/μm2, low quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance of dielectric stack required for high performance MIM capacitor.

  1. Plasma damage in floating metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; De Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMCs), is reported. CID does not necessarily lead to direct yield loss, but may also induce latent damage leading to reliability losses. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between

  2. Charging damage in floating metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; De Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMC) is reported. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between the two plates of the capacitor. A simple logarithmic relation is discovered between the damage by this voltage

  3. Plasma Damage in Floating Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackaert, Jan; Wang, Zhichun; Backer, E.; Coppens, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, charging induced damage (CID) to metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMCs), is reported. CID does not necessarily lead to direct yield loss, but may also induce latent damage leading to reliability losses. The damage is caused by the build up of a voltage potential difference between

  4. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components.

  5. A Seismic Analysis for Reflective Metal Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyuhyung; Kim, Taesoon

    2016-01-01

    U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) GSI- 191 (Generic Safety Issue-191) is concerned about the head-loss of emergency core cooling pumps caused by calcium silicate insulation debris accumulated on a sump screen when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to cope with the concern, many nuclear plants in U. S. have been replacing calcium silicate insulation in containment building with reflective metal insulation (RMI). In Korea, RMI has been used for only reactor vessels recently constructed, but the RMI was imported. Therefore, we have been developing the domestic design of RMI to supply to nuclear power plants under operation and construction in relation to the GSI-191. This paper covers that the structural integrity of the RMI assembly was evaluated under SSE (safety shutdown earthquake) load. An analysis model was built for the seismic test system of a reflective metal insulation assembly and pre-stress, modal, and spectrum analysis for the model were performed using a commercial structural analysis code, ANSYS. According to the results of the analyses, the buckles fastening the RMIs showed the structural integrity under the required response spectrum containing the safety shutdown earthquake loads applied to main components in containment building. Consequently, since the RMI isn't disassembled under the SSE load, the RMI is judged not to affect safety related components

  6. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik; K. Uday Kumar; A. Subrahmanyam

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l ...

  7. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  8. Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdestany, Jamshid Moradi; Satpathy, S.

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the current interest in the understanding of the Mott insulators away from half-filling, observed in many perovskite oxides, we study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the doped Hubbard-Holstein model using the Hartree-Fock mean field theory. The Hubbard-Holstein model is the simplest model containing both the Coulomb and the electron-lattice interactions, which are important ingredients in the physics of the perovskite oxides. In contrast to the half-filled Hubbard model, which always results in a single phase (either metallic or insulating), our results show that away from half-filling, a mixed phase of metallic and insulating regions occurs. As the dopant concentration is increased, the metallic part progressively grows in volume, until it exceeds the percolation threshold, leading to percolative conduction. This happens above a critical dopant concentration δc, which, depending on the strength of the electron-lattice interaction, can be a significant fraction of unity. This means that the material could be insulating even for a substantial amount of doping, in contrast to the expectation that doped holes would destroy the insulating behavior of the half-filled Hubbard model. While effects of fluctuation beyond the mean field remain an open question, our results provide a starting point for the understanding of the density-driven metal-insulator transition observed in many complex oxides.

  9. Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althammer, Matthias Klaus

    2012-07-19

    Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet

  10. Reentrant Metal-Insulator Transitions in Silicon -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John William M.

    This thesis describes a study of reentrant metal -insulator transitions observed in the inversion layer of extremely high mobility Si-MOSFETs. Magneto-transport measurements were carried out in the temperature range 20mK-4.2 K in a ^3He/^4 He dilution refrigerator which was surrounded by a 15 Tesla superconducting magnet. Below a melting temperature (T_{M}~500 mK) and a critical electron density (n_{s }~9times10^{10} cm^{-2}), the Shubnikov -de Haas oscillations in the diagonal resistivity enormous maximum values at the half filled Landau levels while maintaining deep minima corresponding to the quantum Hall effect at filled Landau levels. At even lower electron densities the insulating regions began to spread and eventually a metal-insulator transition could be induced at zero magnetic field. The measurement of extremely large resistances in the milliKelvin temperature range required the use of very low currents (typically in the 10^ {-12} A range) and in certain measurements minimizing the noise was also a consideration. The improvements achieved in these areas through the use of shielding, optical decouplers and battery operated instruments are described. The transport signatures of the insulating state are considered in terms of two basic mechanisms: single particle localization with transport by variable range hopping and the formation of a collective state such as a pinned Wigner crystal or electron solid with transport through the motion of bound dislocation pairs. The experimental data is best described by the latter model. Thus the two dimensional electron system in these high mobility Si-MOSFETs provides the first and only experimental demonstration to date of the formation of an electron solid at zero and low magnetic fields in the quantum limit where the Coulomb interaction energy dominates over the zero point oscillation energy. The role of disorder in favouring either single particle localization or the formation of a Wigner crystal is explored by

  11. Step tunneling enhanced asymmetry in metal-insulator-insulator-metal (MIIM) diodes for rectenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, N.; Conley, J. F.

    2013-09-01

    We combine nanolaminate bilayer insulator tunnel barriers (Al2O3/HfO2, HfO2/Al2O3, Al2O3/ZrO2) deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) with asymmetric work function metal electrodes to produce MIIM diodes with enhanced I-V asymmetry and non-linearity. We show that the improvements in MIIM devices are due to step tunneling rather than resonant tunneling. We also investigate conduction processes as a function of temperature in MIM devices with Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 high electron affinity insulators. For both Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 insulators, the dominant conduction process is established as Schottky emission at small biases and Frenkel-Poole emission at large biases. The energy depth of the traps that dominate Frenkel-Poole emission in each material are estimated.

  12. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  13. A 94GHz Temperature Compensated Low Noise Amplifier in 45nm Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (SOI CMOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ring oscillator based temperature sensor will be designed to compensate for gain variations over temperature. For comparison to a competing solution...Simulated (Green) Capacitance of the GSG Pads ........................ 9 Figure 6: Die Picture and Schematic of the L-2L Coplanar Waveguides...complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A ring oscillator based temperature sensor was designed to compensate for gain variations

  14. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, K.K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations

  15. Metal-insulator transitions in IZO, IGZO, and ITZO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makise, Kazumasa, E-mail: makise@nict.go.jp [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Hidaka, Kazuya; Ezaki, Syohei; Asano, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Nakamura, Hiroaki [Central Research Laboratories, Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd, Chiba 299-0293 (Japan)

    2014-10-21

    In this study, we measured the low-temperature resistivity of amorphous two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) indium-zinc oxide, indium-gallium-zinc oxide, and indium-tin-zinc oxide films with a wide range of carrier densities. To determine their critical characteristics at the metal-insulator transition (MIT), we used the Ioffe–Regel criterion. We found that the MIT occurs in a narrow range between k{sub F}ℓ =0.13 and k{sub F}ℓ =0.25, where k{sub F} and ℓ are the Fermi wave number and electron mean free path, respectively. For films in the insulating region, we analyzed ρ(T) using a procedure proposed by Zabrodskii and Zinov'eva. This analysis confirmed the occurrence of Mott and Efros–Shklovskii (ES) variable-range hopping. The materials studied show crossover behavior from exp(T{sub Mott}/T){sup 1/4} or exp(T{sub Mott}/T){sup 1/3} for Mott hopping conduction to exp(T{sub ES}/T){sup 1/2} for ES hopping conduction with decreasing temperature. For both 2D and 3D materials, we found that the relationship between T{sub Mott} and T{sub ES} satisfies T{sub ES}∝T{sub Mott}{sup 2/3}.

  16. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  17. Optical transmission theory for metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchard-Dionne Andre-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A semi-analytical formalism for the optical properties of a metal-insulator-metal periodic nanostructure using coupled-mode theory is presented. This structure consists in a dielectric layer in between two metallic layers with periodic one-dimensional nanoslit corrugation. The model is developed using multiple-scattering formalism, which defines transmission and reflection coefficients for each of the interface as a semi-infinite medium. Total transmission is then calculated using a summation of the multiple paths of light inside the structure. This method allows finding an exact solution for the transmission problem in every dimension regime, as long as a sufficient number of diffraction orders and guided modes are considered for the structure. The resonant modes of the structure are found to be related to the metallic slab only and to a combination of both the metallic slab and dielectric layer. This model also allows describing the resonant behavior of the system in the limit of a small dielectric layer, for which discontinuities in the dispersion curves are found. These discontinuities result from the out-of-phase interference of the different diffraction orders of the system, which account for field interaction for both inner interfaces of the structure.

  18. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  19. Infrared plasmonic nano-lasers based on Metal Insulator Metal waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    We will present our latest results on metal-insulator-metal waveguide devices, in particular reducing the dimensions of devices and distributed feedback lasers. Also we will examine potential useful applications for metal nano-lasers.

  20. Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

    2013-12-13

    This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 μW at room temperature and only 75 μW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

  1. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  2. Half-metallic and insulating natures in Ru-based ordered double perovskite oxides Ba_2X"I"I"IRu"VO_6 (X = V, Cr) induced by 3d-t_2_g"n orbital filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, H.-E.M. Musa; Althoyaib, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of a comprehensive systemic study of the crystal, electronic and magnetic structures on two members of Ru-based ordered double perovskite oxides Ba_2XRuO_6 (X = V, Cr). For the corporate compound, the analysis of density of states (DOS) results suggests that the 3d-t_2_g orbital filling plays a major role in governing the conduction mechanism in these systems. The DOS and magnetic results show that Ba_2XRuO_6 exhibits half-metallic (HM) nature as X = V, where the electronic structure of Ba_2V"I"I"IRu"VO_6 with 3d-t_2_g"2 behaves like that of HM ferrimagnetic (FI), switches to compensate FI insulating behavior as X = Cr, with an extra electron filled 3d-t_2_g"3 in Ba_2Cr"I"I"IRu"VO_6. We find, on consideration of electron correlation (LSDA+U) and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects that the electronic structure of Ba_2XRuO_6 takes a HM nature, whereas it is completely transformed to insulating nature once an extra electron filled the 3d-t_2_g orbitals in X = Cr case. Such tuning is accompanied by spin-state hopping of one electron from half-filled spin-state in Ru"V (t_2_g"3 e_g"0) to two and three occupied spin-state in V"I"I"I (t_2_g"2 e_g"0) and Cr"I"I"I (t_2_g"3 e_g"0), respectively. The charge distribution results show that this extra electron occupies chiefly the spin-down of conduction orbitals and plays a major role in determining the electronic and magnetic structures of Ba_2XRuO_6 system. - Highlights: • Half-metallic and insulating natures are observed in Ba_2XRuO_6 (X = V, Cr). • 3d-t_2_g"n orbitals filling plays a major role in governing the conduction mechanism. • LSDA+U method under density functional theory (DFT) is considered. • HM ferrimagnetic (FI) (X = V) switch to compensate FI insulating (X = Cr).

  3. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu2O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex; Regan, William Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu 2 O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu 2 O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date

  4. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu{sub 2}O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Regan, William Raymond [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu{sub 2}O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu{sub 2}O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date.

  5. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbasli, M. Cengiz; Okyay, Ali K.

    2010-08-01

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement and high integration density are key features that make metal-insulator-metal waveguides (MIM) utilizing plasmonic modes attractive for applications in on-chip optical signal processing. Size-mismatch between two fundamental components (micron-size fibers and a few hundred nanometers wide waveguides) demands compact coupling methods for implementation of large scale on-chip optoelectronic device integration. Existing solutions use waveguide tapering, which requires more than 4λ-long taper distances. We demonstrate that nanoantennas can be integrated with MIM for enhancing coupling into MIM plasmonic modes. Two-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulations of antennawaveguide structures for TE and TM incident plane waves ranging from λ = 1300 to 1600 nm were done. The same MIM (100-nm-wide Ag/100-nm-wide SiO2/100-nm-wide Ag) was used for each case, while antenna dimensions were systematically varied. For nanoantennas disconnected from the MIM; field is strongly confined inside MIM-antenna gap region due to Fabry-Perot resonances. Major fraction of incident energy was not transferred into plasmonic modes. When the nanoantennas are connected to the MIM, stronger coupling is observed and E-field intensity at outer end of core is enhanced more than 70 times.

  6. Unusual metal-insulator transition in disordered ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.; Wölfle, P.; Misra, R.; Hebard, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical interpretation of recent data on the conductance near and farther away from the metal-insulator transition in thin ferromagnetic Gd films of thickness b≈2-10 nm. For increasing sheet resistances a dimensional crossover takes place from d=2 to d=3 dimensions, since the large phase relaxation rate caused by scattering of quasiparticles off spin wave excitations renders the dephasing length L φ ≲b at strong disorder. The conductivity data in the various regimes obey fractional power-law or logarithmic temperature dependence. One observes weak localization and interaction induced corrections at weaker disorder. At strong disorder, near the metal-insulator transition, the data show scaling and collapse onto two scaling curves for the metallic and insulating regimes. We interpret this unusual behavior as proof of two distinctly different correlation length exponents on both sides of the transition.

  7. Controlled modification of resonant tunneling in metal-insulator-insulator-metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, I. Z.; Weerakkody, A. D.; Sedghi, N.; Ralph, J. F.; Hall, S.; Dhanak, V. R.; Luo, Z.; Beeby, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present comprehensive experimental and theoretical work on tunnel-barrier rectifiers comprising bilayer (Nb2O5/Al2O3) insulator configurations with similar (Nb/Nb) and dissimilar (Nb/Ag) metal electrodes. The electron affinity, valence band offset, and metal work function were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, and electrical measurements on fabricated reference structures. The experimental band line-up parameters were fed into a theoretical model to predict available bound states in the Nb2O5/Al2O3 quantum well and generate tunneling probability and transmittance curves under applied bias. The onset of strong resonance in the sub-V regime was found to be controlled by a work function difference of Nb/Ag electrodes in agreement with the experimental band alignment and theoretical model. A superior low-bias asymmetry of 35 at 0.1 V and a responsivity of 5 A/W at 0.25 V were observed for the Nb/4 nm Nb2O5/1 nm Al2O3/Ag structure, sufficient to achieve a rectification of over 90% of the input alternate current terahertz signal in a rectenna device.

  8. Determination of Insulator-to-Semiconductor Transition in Sol-Gel Oxide Semiconductors Using Derivative Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woobin; Choi, Seungbeom; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jingu; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption ( A' ) vs. wavelength (λ) plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.

  9. Electronic correlations in insulators, metals and superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentef, Michael Andreas

    2010-12-03

    In this thesis dynamical mean-field methods in combination with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver are used to study selected open problems of condensed matter theory. These problems comprise the effect of correlations and their quantification in covalent band insulators, non-local correlation effects and their intriguing consequences in frustrated two-dimensional systems, and a phenomenological approach to investigate temperature-dependent transport in graphene in the presence of disorder. (orig.)

  10. Electronic correlations in insulators, metals and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentef, Michael Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis dynamical mean-field methods in combination with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver are used to study selected open problems of condensed matter theory. These problems comprise the effect of correlations and their quantification in covalent band insulators, non-local correlation effects and their intriguing consequences in frustrated two-dimensional systems, and a phenomenological approach to investigate temperature-dependent transport in graphene in the presence of disorder. (orig.)

  11. Pressure-driven insulator-metal transition in cubic phase UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Werner, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the electronic properties of actinide oxides under pressure poses a great challenge for experimental and theoretical studies. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of cubic phase uranium dioxide at different volumes using a combination of density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. The ab initio calculations predict an orbital-selective insulator-metal transition at a moderate pressure of ∼45 GPa. At this pressure the uranium's 5f 5/2 state becomes metallic, while the 5f 7/2 state remains insulating up to about 60 GPa. In the metallic state, we observe a rapid decrease of the 5f occupation and total angular momentum with pressure. Simultaneously, the so-called “Zhang-Rice state”, which is of predominantly 5f 5/2 character, quickly disappears after the transition into the metallic phase.

  12. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of β-diketones, halogenated β-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs

  13. Harnessing the metal-insulator transition for tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charipar, Nicholas A.; Charipar, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Suess, Ryan J.; Mathews, Scott A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    The control of light-matter interaction through the use of subwavelength structures known as metamaterials has facilitated the ability to control electromagnetic radiation in ways not previously achievable. A plethora of passive metamaterials as well as examples of active or tunable metamaterials have been realized in recent years. However, the development of tunable metamaterials is still met with challenges due to lack of materials choices. To this end, materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition are being explored as the active element for future metamaterials because of their characteristic abrupt change in electrical conductivity across their phase transition. The fast switching times (▵t < 100 fs) and a change in resistivity of four orders or more make vanadium dioxide (VO2) an ideal candidate for active metamaterials. It is known that the properties associated with thin film metal-insulator transition materials are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. For this work, we have studied how growth conditions (such as gas partial pressure) influence the metalinsulator transition in VO2 thin films made by pulsed laser deposition. In addition, strain engineering during the growth process has been investigated as a method to tune the metal-insulator transition temperature. Examples of both the optical and electrical transient dynamics facilitating the metal-insulator transition will be presented together with specific examples of thin film metamaterial devices.

  14. Transport and screen blockage characteristics of reflective metallic insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocard, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a LOCA within a nuclear power plant, it is possible for insulation debris to be generated by the break jet. Such debris has the potential for PWR sump screen (or BWR RHR suction inlet) blockage and thus can affect the long-term recirculation capability. In addition to the variables of break jet location and orientation, the types and quantities of debris which could be generated are dependent on the insulation materials employed. This experimental investigation was limited to reflective metallic insulation and components thereof. The study was aimed at determining the flow velocities needed to transport the insulation debris to the sump screens and the resulting modes of screen blockage. The tests revealed that thin metallic foils (0.0025 in. and 0.004 in.) could transport at low flow velocities, 0.2 to 0.5 ft/sec. Thicker foils (0.008 in.) transported at higher velocities, 0.4 to 0.8 ft/sec, and as fabricated half cylinder insulation units required velocities in excess of 1.0 ft/sec for transport. The tests also provided information on screen blockage patterns that showed blockage could occur at the lower portion of the screen as foils readily flipped on the screen when reaching it

  15. He atom surface spectroscopy: Surface lattice dynamics of insulators, metals and metal overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    During the first three years of this grant (1985--1988) the effort was devoted to the construction of a state-of-the-art He atom scattering (HAS) instrument which would be capable of determining the structure and dynamics of metallic, semiconductor or insulator crystal surfaces. The second three year grant period (1988--1991) has been dedicated to measurements. The construction of the instrument went better than proposed; it was within budget, finished in the proposed time and of better sensitivity and resolution than originally planned. The same success has been carried over to the measurement phase where the concentration has been on studies of insulator surfaces, as discussed in this paper. The experiments of the past three years have focused primarily on the alkali halides with a more recent shift to metal oxide crystal surfaces. Both elastic and inelastic scattering experiments were carried out on LiF, NaI, NaCl, RbCl, KBr, RbBr, RbI, CsF, CsI and with some preliminary work on NiO and MgO

  16. Electron Band Alignment at Interfaces of Semiconductors with Insulating Oxides: An Internal Photoemission Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Afanas'ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of the electron energy band alignment at interfaces between different semiconductors and wide-gap oxide insulators is examined using the internal photoemission spectroscopy, which is based on observations of optically-induced electron (or hole transitions across the semiconductor/insulator barrier. Interfaces of various semiconductors ranging from the conventional silicon to the high-mobility Ge-based (Ge, Si1-xGex, Ge1-xSnx and AIIIBV group (GaAs, InxGa1-xAs, InAs, GaP, InP, GaSb, InSb materials were studied revealing several general trends in the evolution of band offsets. It is found that in the oxides of metals with cation radii larger than ≈0.7 Å, the oxide valence band top remains nearly at the same energy (±0.2 eV irrespective of the cation sort. Using this result, it becomes possible to predict the interface band alignment between oxides and semiconductors as well as between dissimilar insulating oxides on the basis of the oxide bandgap width which are also affected by crystallization. By contrast, oxides of light elements, for example, Be, Mg, Al, Si, and Sc exhibit significant shifts of the valence band top. General trends in band lineup variations caused by a change in the composition of semiconductor photoemission material are also revealed.

  17. Low leakage stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3} dielectric for advanced metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, Mihaela; Kaczer, Ben; Redolfi, Augusto; Elshocht, Sven van; Jurczak, Malgorzata [imec Belgium, Leuven (Belgium); Afanas' ev, Valeri V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven (Belgium); Sereni, Gabriele [DISMI, Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, (Italy); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Universita degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, (Italy); MDLab, Saint Christophe (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Metal-insulator-metal capacitors (MIMCAP) with stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3} dielectric were deposited stacking two strontium titanate (STO) layers, followed by intermixing the grain determining Sr-rich STO seed layer, with the Ti-rich STO top layer. The resulted stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3} would have a structure with less defects as demonstrated by internal photoemission experiments. Consequently, the leakage current density is lower compared to Sr-rich STO which allow further equivalent oxide thickness downscaling. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. On metal-insulator transition in cubic fullerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Naoya; Chibotaru, Liviu

    The interplay between degenerate orbital and electron correlation is a key to characterize the electronic phases in, for example, transition metal compounds and alkali-doped fullerides. Besides, the degenerate orbital couples to spin and lattice degrees of freedom ,giving rise to exotic phenomena. Here, we develop the self-consistent Gutzwiller approach for the simultaneous treatment of the Jahn-Teller effect and electron correlation, and apply the methodology to reveal the nature of the ground electronic state of fullerides. For small Coulomb repulsion on site U, the fulleride is quasi degenerate correlated metal. With increase of U, we found the quantum phase transition from the metallic phase to JT split phase. In the latter, the Mott transition (MT) mainly develops in the half-filled subband, whereas the empty and the completely filled subbands are almost uninvolved. Therefore, we can qualify the metal-insulator transition in fullerides as an orbital selective MT induced by JT effect.

  19. Some characteristics of metal migration in or on the surface of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    This report reviews the migration of metals, principally silver, in or on the surface of insulating materials, by electrolytic processes. These processes are described for various metals, insulating materials and physical conditions, with numerous examples from the literature. While it is concluded that the only sure way to prevent degradation of insulation due to metal migration is to avoid the use of migration-prone metals, some other measures are mentioned which have been reported to reduce the extent of the growth. (author)

  20. Study of transition metal oxides by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Sarma, D.D.; Vasudevan, S.; Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Systematics in the X-ray photoelectron spectra (X.p.e.s.) of Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Nb oxides with the metal ion in different oxidation states as well as of related series of mono-, sesqui- and di-oxides of the first row of transition metals have been investigated in detail. Core level binding energies, spin-orbit splittings and exchange splittings are found to exhibit interesting variations with the oxidation state of the metal or the nuclear charge. The 3d binding energies of the monoxides show a proportionality to Goodenough's (R - RC). Other aspects of interest in the study are the satellite structure and final state effects in the X.p.e.s. of the oxides, and identification of different valence states in oxides of the general formulae Mn02n-1 and M304. The nature of changes in the 3d bands of oxides undergoing metal-insulator transitions is also indicated. (author)

  1. A transparent electrochromic metal-insulator switching device with three-terminal transistor geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Onozato, Takaki; Hirono, Misako; Mizuno, Taku; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Proton and hydroxyl ion play an essential role for tuning functionality of oxides because their electronic state can be controlled by modifying oxygen off-stoichiometry and/or protonation. Tungsten trioxide (WO3), a well-known electrochromic (EC) material for smart window, is a wide bandgap insulator, whereas it becomes a metallic conductor HxWO3 by protonation. Although one can utilize electrochromism together with metal-insulator (MI) switching for one device, such EC-MI switching cannot be utilized in current EC devices because of their two-terminal structure with parallel-plate configuration. Here we demonstrate a transparent EC-MI switchable device with three-terminal TFT-type structure using amorphous (a-) WO3 channel layer, which was fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature. We used water-infiltrated nano-porous glass, CAN (calcium aluminate with nano-pores), as a liquid-leakage-free solid gate insulator. At virgin state, the device was fully transparent in the visible-light region. For positive gate voltage, the active channel became dark blue, and electrical resistivity of the a-WO3 layer drastically decreased with protonation. For negative gate voltage, deprotonation occurred and the active channel returned to transparent insulator. Good cycleability of the present transparent EC-MI switching device would have potential for the development of advanced smart windows.

  2. Metallic Interface Emerging at Magnetic Domain Wall of Antiferromagnetic Insulator: Fate of Extinct Weyl Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Yamaji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators, in contrast to ordinary semiconductors, accompany protected metallic surfaces described by Dirac-type fermions. Here, we theoretically show that another emergent two-dimensional metal embedded in the bulk insulator is realized at a magnetic domain wall. The domain wall has long been studied as an ingredient of both old-fashioned and leading-edge spintronics. The domain wall here, as an interface of seemingly trivial antiferromagnetic insulators, emergently realizes a functional interface preserved by zero modes with robust two-dimensional Fermi surfaces, where pyrochlore iridium oxides proposed to host the condensed-matter realization of Weyl fermions offer such examples at low temperatures. The existence of in-gap states that are pinned at domain walls, theoretically resembling spin or charge solitons in polyacetylene, and protected as the edges of hidden one-dimensional weak Chern insulators characterized by a zero-dimensional class-A topological invariant, solves experimental puzzles observed in R_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} with rare-earth elements R. The domain wall realizes a novel quantum confinement of electrons and embosses a net uniform magnetization that enables magnetic control of electronic interface transports beyond the semiconductor paradigm.

  3. On holographic disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology,Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2017-01-10

    We give a minimal holographic model of a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. It consists in a CFT with a charge sector and a translation-breaking sector that interact in the most generic way allowed by the symmetries and by dynamical consistency. In the gravity dual, it reduces to a Massive Gravity-Maxwell model with a new direct coupling between the gauge field and the metric that is allowed when gravity is massive. We show that the effect of this coupling is to decrease the DC electrical conductivity generically. This gives a nontrivial check that holographic massive gravity can be consistently interpreted as disorder from the CFT perspective. The suppression of the conductivity happens to such an extent that it does not obey any lower bound and it can be very small in the insulating phase. In some cases, the large disorder limit produces gradient instabilities that hint at the formation of modulated phases.

  4. On holographic disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    We give a minimal holographic model of a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. It consists in a CFT with a charge sector and a translation-breaking sector that interact in the most generic way allowed by the symmetries and by dynamical consistency. In the gravity dual, it reduces to a Massive Gravity-Maxwell model with a new direct coupling between the gauge field and the metric that is allowed when gravity is massive. We show that the effect of this coupling is to decrease the DC electrical conductivity generically. This gives a nontrivial check that holographic massive gravity can be consistently interpreted as disorder from the CFT perspective. The suppression of the conductivity happens to such an extent that it does not obey any lower bound and it can be very small in the insulating phase. In some cases, the large disorder limit produces gradient instabilities that hint at the formation of modulated phases.

  5. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  6. Structurally triggered metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Alain; Bieder, Jordan; Íñiguez, Jorge; Ghosez, Philippe

    2017-11-22

    Rare-earth nickelates form an intriguing series of correlated perovskite oxides. Apart from LaNiO 3 , they exhibit on cooling a sharp metal-insulator electronic phase transition, a concurrent structural phase transition, and a magnetic phase transition toward an unusual antiferromagnetic spin order. Appealing for various applications, full exploitation of these compounds is still hampered by the lack of global understanding of the interplay between their electronic, structural, and magnetic properties. Here we show from first-principles calculations that the metal-insulator transition of nickelates arises from the softening of an oxygen-breathing distortion, structurally triggered by oxygen-octahedra rotation motions. The origin of such a rare triggered mechanism is traced back in their electronic and magnetic properties, providing a united picture. We further develop a Landau model accounting for the metal-insulator transition evolution in terms of the rare-earth cations and rationalizing how to tune this transition by acting on oxygen rotation motions.

  7. Quantum Critical “Opalescence” around Metal-Insulator Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Yamaji, Youhei; Imada, Masatoshi

    2006-08-01

    Divergent carrier-density fluctuations equivalent to the critical opalescence of gas-liquid transition emerge around a metal-insulator critical point at a finite temperature. In contrast to the gas-liquid transitions, however, the critical temperatures can be lowered to zero, which offers a challenging quantum phase transition. We present a microscopic description of such quantum critical phenomena in two dimensions. The conventional scheme of phase transitions by Ginzburg, Landau, and Wilson is violated because of its topological nature. It offers a clear insight into the criticalities of metal-insulator transitions (MIT) associated with Mott or charge-order transitions. Fermi degeneracy involving the diverging density fluctuations generates emergent phenomena near the endpoint of the first-order MIT and must shed new light on remarkable phenomena found in correlated metals such as unconventional cuprate superconductors. It indeed accounts for the otherwise puzzling criticality of the Mott transition recently discovered in an organic conductor. We propose to accurately measure enhanced dielectric fluctuations at small wave numbers.

  8. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  9. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal--metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution to leave a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180 0 C, whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles

  10. Flexible high-κ/Metal gate metal/insulator/metal capacitors on silicon (100) fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Implementation of memory on bendable substrates is an important step toward a complete and fully developed notion of mechanically flexible computational systems. In this paper, we have demonstrated a simple fabrication flow to build metal-insulator-metal capacitors, key components of dynamic random access memory, on a mechanically flexible silicon (100) fabric. We rely on standard microfabrication processes to release a thin sheet of bendable silicon (area: 18 {\\ m cm}2 and thickness: 25 \\\\mu{\\ m m}) in an inexpensive and reliable way. On such platform, we fabricated and characterized the devices showing mechanical robustness (minimum bending radius of 10 mm at an applied strain of 83.33% and nominal strain of 0.125%) and consistent electrical behavior regardless of the applied mechanical stress. Furthermore, and for the first time, we performed a reliability study suggesting no significant difference in performance and showing an improvement in lifetime projections. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  11. Transport properties of metal-metal and metal-insulator heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadlallah Elabd, Mohamed Mostafa

    2010-06-09

    In this study we present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for metallic and metal-insulator interfaces, based on density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Starting from the electronic structure of bulk Al, Cu, Ag, and Au interfaces, we study the effects of different kinds of interface roughness on the transmission coefficient (T(E)) and the I-V characteristic. In particular, we compare prototypical interface distortions, including vacancies, metallic impurities, non-metallic impurities, interlayer, and interface alloy. We find that vacancy sites have a huge effect on transmission coefficient. The transmission coefficient of non-metallic impurity systems has the same behaviour as the transmission coefficient of vacancy system, since these systems do not contribute to the electronic states at the Fermi energy. We have also studied the transport properties of Au-MgO-Au tunnel junctions. In particular, we have investigated the influence of the thickness of the MgO interlayer, the interface termination, the interface spacing, and O vacancies. Additional interface states appear in the O-terminated configuration due to the formation of Au-O bonds. An increasing interface spacing suppresses the Au-O bonding. Enhancement of T(E) depends on the position and density of the vacancies (the number of vacancies per unit cell). (orig.)

  12. Phase coexistence in the metal-insulator transition of a VO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.J.; Koo, C.H.; Yang, J.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.S.; Noh, T.W.; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Chae, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) shows a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature, accompanied by an abrupt resistivity change. Since the MIT of VO 2 is known to be a first order phase transition, it is valuable to check metallic and insulating phase segregation during the MIT process. We deposited (100)-oriented epitaxial VO 2 thin films on R-cut sapphire substrates. From the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) spectra, we could distinguish metallic and insulating regions by probing the band gap. Optical spectroscopic analysis also supported the view that the MIT in VO 2 occurs through metal and insulator phase coexistence

  13. Ultrashort hybrid metal-insulator plasmonic directional coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noghani, Mahmoud Talafi; Samiei, Mohammad Hashem Vadjed

    2013-11-01

    An ultrashort plasmonic directional coupler based on the hybrid metal-insulator slab waveguide is proposed and analyzed at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. It is first analyzed using the supermode theory based on mode analysis via the transfer matrix method in the interaction region. Then the 2D model of the coupler, including transition arms, is analyzed using a commercial finite-element method simulator. The hybrid slab waveguide is composed of a metallic layer of silver and two dielectric layers of silica (SiO2) and silicon (Si). The coupler is optimized to have a minimum coupling length and to transfer maximum power considering the layer thicknesses as optimization variables. The resulting coupling length in the submicrometer region along with a noticeable power transfer efficiency are advantages of the proposed coupler compared to previously reported plasmonic couplers.

  14. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  15. Pr-O-Al-N dielectrics for metal insulator semiconductor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Karsten; Torche, Mohamed; Sohal, Rakesh; Karavaev, Konstantin; Burkov, Yevgen; Schwiertz, Carola; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology, Chair of Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This work focuses on praseodymium oxide films as a high-k material on silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) in metal insulator semiconductor samples. The electrical results are correlated to spectroscopic findings on this material system. Strong interfacial reactions between the praseodymium oxide and the semiconductor as well as silicon inter-diffusion into the high-k material are observed. The importance of a buffer layer is discussed and its optimisation is addressed, too. In particular the improvement of the performance by the introduction of an aluminium oxynitride buffer layer, which acts as an inter-diffusion barrier and reduces the leakage current, the interface state density and the equivalent oxide thickness is demonstrated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A method for preparing particulate metal or metal oxide of controlled partile size comprises contacting an an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea at a temperature sufficient to cause urea to react with water to provide a molten urea solution containing the metal values; heating the molten urea solution to cause the metal values to precipitate, forming a mixture containing precipitated metal values; heating the mixture containing precipitated metal values to evaporate volatile material leaving a dry powder containing said metal values. The dry powder can be calcined to provide particulate metal oxide or reduced to provide particulate metal. Oxide mixtures are provided when the aqueous solution contains values of more than one metal. Homogeneousmetal-metal oxide mistures for preparing cermets can be prepared by selectively reducing at least one of the metal oxides. (auth)

  17. Tunable metal-insulator transitions in bilayer graphene by thermal annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Kalon, Gopinadhan; Shin, Young Jun; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2012-01-01

    Tunable and highly reproducible metal-insulator transitions have been observed in bilayer graphene upon thermal annealing at 400 K under high vacuum conditions. Before annealing, the sample is metallic in the whole temperature regime of study. Upon annealing, the conductivity changes from metallic to that of an insulator and the transition temperature is a function of annealing time. The pristine metallic state can be reinstated by exposing to air thereby inducing changes in the electronic pr...

  18. Simulated electron affinity tuning in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kissan; Yavuz, Mustafa; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2017-05-01

    Metal-insulator-metal diodes for rectification applications must exhibit high asymmetry, nonlinearity, and responsivity. Traditional methods of improving these figures of merit have consisted of increasing insulator thickness, adding multiple insulator layers, and utilizing a variety of metal contact combinations. However, these methods have come with the price of increasing the diode resistance and ultimately limiting the operating frequency to well below the terahertz regime. In this work, an Airy Function Transfer Matrix simulation method was used to observe the effect of tuning the electron affinity of the insulator as a technique to decrease the diode resistance. It was shown that a small increase in electron affinity can result in a resistance decrease in upwards of five orders of magnitude, corresponding to an increase in operating frequency on the same order. Electron affinity tuning has a minimal effect on the diode figures of merit, where asymmetry improves or remains unaffected and slight decreases in nonlinearity and responsivity are likely to be greatly outweighed by the improved operating frequency of the diode.

  19. Holographic metal-insulator transition in higher derivative gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Zhou, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhouzh@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-03-10

    We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein–Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter γ, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT) when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT).

  20. Converting topological insulators into topological metals within the tetradymite family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.-W.; Aryal, N.; Dai, J.; Graf, D.; Zhang, S.; Das, S.; Le Fèvre, P.; Bertran, F.; Yukawa, R.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Fortuna, F.; Balicas, L.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Manousakis, E.; Baumbach, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    We report the electronic band structures and concomitant Fermi surfaces for a family of exfoliable tetradymite compounds with the formula T2C h2P n , obtained as a modification to the well-known topological insulator binaries Bi2(Se,Te ) 3 by replacing one chalcogen (C h ) with a pnictogen (P n ) and Bi with the tetravalent transition metals T = Ti, Zr, or Hf. This imbalances the electron count and results in layered metals characterized by relatively high carrier mobilities and bulk two-dimensional Fermi surfaces whose topography is well-described by first-principles calculations. Intriguingly, slab electronic structure calculations predict Dirac-like surface states. In contrast to Bi2Se3 , where the surface Dirac bands are at the Γ point, for (Zr,Hf ) 2Te2 (P,As) there are Dirac cones of strong topological character around both the Γ ¯ and M ¯ points, which are above and below the Fermi energy, respectively. For Ti2Te2P , the surface state is predicted to exist only around the M ¯ point. In agreement with these predictions, the surface states that are located below the Fermi energy are observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements, revealing that they coexist with the bulk metallic state. Thus this family of materials provides a foundation upon which to develop novel phenomena that exploit both the bulk and surface states (e.g., topological superconductivity).

  1. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  2. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  3. Metal-insulator transition in nanocomposite VO{sub x} films formed by anodic electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, Lok-kun; Lu, Jiwei; Zangari, Giovanni, E-mail: gz3e@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik [Department for Materials Science LKO, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-11-11

    The ability to grow VO{sub 2} films by electrochemical methods would open a low-cost, easily scalable production route to a number of electronic devices. We have synthesized VO{sub x} films by anodic electrodeposition of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, followed by partial reduction by annealing in Ar. The resulting films are heterogeneous, consisting of various metallic/oxide phases and including regions with VO{sub 2} stoichiometry. A gradual metal insulator transition with a nearly two order of magnitude change in film resistance is observed between room temperature and 140 °C. In addition, the films exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance of ∼ −2.4%/ °C from 20 to 140 °C.

  4. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  5. Spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong; Yang, Wei; Yang, Xinjian; Qin, Minghui; Guo, Jianqin

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the thickness of the ferromagnetic insulator, the spin-filter effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor (NM/FI/NM/SC) junctions is studied based on the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. It is shown that a spin-dependent energy shift during the tunneling process induces splitting of the subgap resonance peaks. The spin polarization due to the spin-filter effect of the FI causes an imbalance of the peaks heights and can enhance the Zeeman splitting of the gap peaks caused by an applied magnetic field. The spin-filter effect has no contribution to the proximity-effect-induced superconductivity in NM interlayer

  6. High pressure metallization of Mott Insulators: Magnetic, structural and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.P.; Hearne, G.; Sterer, E.; Taylor, R.D.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-01-01

    High pressure studies of the insulator-metal transition in the (TM)I 2 (TM = V, Fe, Co and Ni) compounds are described. Those divalent transition-metal iodides are structurally isomorphous and classified as Mott Insulators. Resistivity, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy were employed to investigate the electronic, structural, and magnetic properties as a function of pressure both on the highly correlated and on the metallic regimes

  7. All-optical bit magnitude comparator device using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Lokendra; Chen, Nan-Kuang

    2017-12-01

    A plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide has great success in confining the surface plasmon up to a deep subwavelength scale. The structure of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) using a plasmonic MIM waveguide has been analyzed. A one-bit magnitude comparator has been designed using an MZI and two linear control waveguides. The device works on the Kerr effect inside the plasmonics waveguide. The mathematical description of the device is explained. The simulation of the device is done using MATLAB® and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  8. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S.; Sgubin, L.G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal nanoparticles can be produced through metallic ion implantation in insulating substrate, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile, that can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN. • Nanocomposites, obtained by this way, can be produced in different insulator materials. More specifically we have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. • The nanocomposites were characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as function of the dose implanted, reaching the percolation threshold. • Excellent agreement was found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. - Abstract: There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in

  9. Tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Xiaomeng; Deng, Haidong; Guo, Kangxian

    2014-10-15

    We propose a tunable all-optical plasmonic rectifier based on the nonlinear Fano resonance in a metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and cavities coupling system. We develop a theoretical model based on the temporal coupled-mode theory to study the device physics of the nanoscale rectifier. We further demonstrate via the finite difference time domain numerical experiment that our idea can be realized in a plasmonic system with an ultracompact size of ~120×800  nm². The tunable plasmonic rectifier could facilitate the all-optical signal processing in nanoscale.

  10. Mode conversion in metal-insulator-metal waveguide with a shifted cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueke; Yan, Xin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method, which is utilized to achieve the plasmonic mode conversion in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide, theoretically. Our proposed structure is composed of bus waveguides and a shifted cavity. The shifted cavity can choose out a plasmonic mode (a- or s-mode) when it is in Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance. The length of the shifted cavity L is carefully chosen, and our structure can achieve the mode conversion between a- and s-mode in the communication region. Besides, our proposed structure can also achieve plasmonic mode-division multiplexing. All the numerical simulations are carried on by the finite element method to verify our design.

  11. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Rachel, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    We propose a realistic cold-atom setup which allows for a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator phase by simply tuning the hopping between the layers. We further employ cluster slave-rotor mean-field theory to study the effect of additional Hubbard onsite interactions that give rise to various spin liquid-like phases such as gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating states.

  12. Shocked plate metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Koker, J.G.; Rice, W.W. Jr.; Jensen, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing metal atom oxidation lasing wherein an explosively shocked grooved metal plate produces metal vapor jets directed through an appropriate gaseous oxidizer are described. Reaction of the metal vapor with the oxidizer produces molecular species having a population inversion therein. (U.S.)

  13. Phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transition in VO2 under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The roles of an electric field and electronic doping in insulator-to-metal transitions are still not well understood. Here we formulated a phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transitions by taking into account both structural and electronic instabilities as well as free electrons and holes in VO2, a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. Our phase-field simulations demonstrate that in a VO2 slab under a uniform electric field, an abrupt universal resistive transition occurs inside the supercooling region, in sharp contrast to the conventional Landau-Zener smooth electric breakdown. We also show that hole doping may decouple the structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2, leading to a metastable metallic monoclinic phase which could be stabilized through a geometrical confinement and the size effect. This work provides a general mesoscale thermodynamic framework for understanding the influences of electric field, electronic doping, and stress and strain on insulator-to-metal transitions and the corresponding mesoscale domain structure evolution in VO2 and related strongly correlated systems.

  14. MHD pressure drop of imperfect insulation of liquid metal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiike, H.; Nishiura, R.; Inoue, S.; Miyazaki, K.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure gradient in the case of an imperfect electric insulation coating when using NaK loop. Test channels with uniform defects in their coating were made by painting inner surface with acrylic lacquer insulation. It was found that the exponent to B -- which is 1 for insulated walls, and 2 for conducting ones, was very sensitive to crack fractions lower than 25%. The pressure gradient was found to increase almost linearly with the fraction

  15. Electrochromism in transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, W.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochromism is discussed for transition metal oxides. Particularly tungsten oxide and nickel oxide are reviewed, in order to put forth the different aspects of the field. Since this phenomena has been reviewed by several authors, it is not tried to be comprehensive but rather pedagogical. The basic requirements for a material -in both non-emissive displays and energy efficiency applications- to be electrochromic, a general view of electrochromic mechanism, anodic and cathodic electrochromic materials, and current problems for a electrochromic theory are presented. (author) 45 refs., 8 figs

  16. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are result...

  17. Design and fabrication of metal-insulator-metal diode for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes play significant role in high speed electronics where high frequency rectification is needed. Quantum based tunneling mechanism helps MIM diodes to rectify at high frequency signals. Rectenna, antenna coupled MIM diodes are becoming popular due to their potential use as IR detectors and energy harvesters. Because of small active area, MIM diodes could easily be incorporated into integrated circuits (IC's). The objective of the work is to design and develop MIM diodes for high frequency rectification. In this work, thin insulating layer of ZnO was fabricated using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique which facilitates ultrathin thin, uniform and pinhole free fabrication of insulating layer. The ZnO layer was synthesized from organic precursor of zinc acetate layer. The optimization in the LB technique of fabrication process led to fabricate MIM diodes with high non-linearity and sensitivity. Moreover, the top and bottom electrodes as well as active area of the diodes were patterned using UV-tunneling conduction mechanism. The highest sensitivity of the diode was measured around 37 (A/W), and the rectification ratio was found around 36 under low applied bias at +/-100 mV.

  18. A highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons excitation achieved with a metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel metal-coupled metal-insulator-metal (MC-MIM waveguide which can achieve a highly efficient surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs excitation. The MC-MIM waveguide is formed by inserting a thin metal film in the insulator of an MIM. The introduction of the metal film, functioning as an SPPs coupler, provides a space for the interaction between SPPs and a confined electromagnetic field of the intermediate metal surface, which makes energy change and phase transfer in the metal-dielectric interface, due to the joint action of incomplete electrostatic shielding effect and SPPs coupling. Impacts of the metal film with different materials and various thickness on SPPs excitation are investigated. It is shown that the highest efficient SPPs excitation is obtained when the gold film thickness is 60 nm. The effect of refractive index of upper and lower symmetric dielectric layer on SPPs excitation is also discussed. The result shows that the decay value of refractive index is 0.3. Our results indicate that this proposed MC-MIM waveguide may offer great potential in designing a new SPPs source.

  19. The control of magnetism near metal-to-insulator transitions of VO2 nano-belts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of paramagnetic/weakly ferromagnetic films are strongly affected by the proximity to materials that undergo a metal to insulator phase transition. Here, we show that under the deposition conditions associated with structural...

  20. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  1. Spin-filtering effect and proximity effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Yang Wei; Yang Xinjian; Qin Minghui; Xu Yihong

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the thickness of the ferromagnetic insulator (FI), the spin-filtering effect and proximity effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor (NM/FI/NM/SC) junctions are studied based on an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. It is shown that a spin-dependent energy shift during the tunneling process induces splitting of the sub-energy gap conductance peaks and the spin polarization in the ferromagnetic insulator causes an imbalance of the peak heights. Different from the ferromagnet the spin-filtering effect of the FI cannot cause the reversion of the normalized conductance in NM/FI/NM/SC junctions

  2. Nanoscale semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell heterostructures: facile synthesis and light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gong Ping; Chen, Rui; Guo, Dong Lai; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shi Jie; Sun, Han Dong; Wu, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in MgO nanotubes and porous MgO nanotubes can be obtained by taking advantage of the reduced thermal stability of the ZnO core. Furthermore, after MgO shell-coating and the appropriate annealing treatment, the intensity of the ZnO near-band-edge UV emission becomes much stronger, showing a 25-fold enhancement. The intensity ratio of the UV/visible emission can be increased further by decorating the surface of the ZnO/MgO nanowires with high-density plasmonic Au nanoparticles. These heterostructured semiconductor-insulator-metal nanowires with tailored morphologies and enhanced functionalities have great potential for use as nanoscale building blocks in photonic and electronic applications.Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in

  3. Zirconium Micro-Arc Oxidation as a Method for Producing Heat Insulation Elements in Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Shatalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of coatings on the surface of materials as well as their composition and structure control in the near-surface layer enables us to use properties of base material and modified layers in the most rational and profitable way and save expensive and rare metals and alloys.The space telescope of T-170M will be the main tool of the international space observatory "Spektr-UF".It is being understood that the main mirror shade, which is in the outer space and has a considerable height will act as a radiator cooling a unit (cage of the main mirror. Therefore it is necessary to create heat insulation between the shade of the main mirror and the frame of the main mirror unit. From the thermal calculations a detail to provide heat insulation must possess thermal conductivity, at most, 2,5 and a conditional limit of fluidity for compression, at least, 125 MPas to ensure that the shade diaphragms position of the main mirror is stable with respect to the optical system of telescope.Considering that oxide of zirconium possesses one of the lowest thermal conductivities among oxides of metals, it is offered to use zirconium, as a material of base, and to put the MAO-covering (micro-arc oxide on its surface.As a result of studying the features of MAO-coverings on zirconium it is:1 found that the composite material consisting of zirconium and MAO-covering on it, has low thermal conductivity (less than 2 , and thus, because of small oxide layer thickness against the thickness of base material, possesses the mechanical properties which are slightly different from the pure zirconium ones;2 found that the composite material possesses the low gas release, allowing its use in the outer space conditions; the material processed in two electrolytes i.e. phosphate and acid ones has the lowest gas release;3 found that with growing thickness of MAO-covering its porosity decreases, thus the average pore diameter grows thereby leading to increasing thermal

  4. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  5. Half-metallic and insulating natures in Ru-based ordered double perovskite oxides Ba{sub 2}X{sup III}Ru{sup V}O{sub 6} (X = V, Cr) induced by 3d-t{sub 2g}{sup n} orbital filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, H.-E.M. Musa, E-mail: musa.1964@gmail.com; Althoyaib, S.S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present results of a comprehensive systemic study of the crystal, electronic and magnetic structures on two members of Ru-based ordered double perovskite oxides Ba{sub 2}XRuO{sub 6} (X = V, Cr). For the corporate compound, the analysis of density of states (DOS) results suggests that the 3d-t{sub 2g} orbital filling plays a major role in governing the conduction mechanism in these systems. The DOS and magnetic results show that Ba{sub 2}XRuO{sub 6} exhibits half-metallic (HM) nature as X = V, where the electronic structure of Ba{sub 2}V{sup III}Ru{sup V}O{sub 6} with 3d-t{sub 2g}{sup 2} behaves like that of HM ferrimagnetic (FI), switches to compensate FI insulating behavior as X = Cr, with an extra electron filled 3d-t{sub 2g}{sup 3} in Ba{sub 2}Cr{sup III}Ru{sup V}O{sub 6}. We find, on consideration of electron correlation (LSDA+U) and spin-orbital coupling (SOC) effects that the electronic structure of Ba{sub 2}XRuO{sub 6} takes a HM nature, whereas it is completely transformed to insulating nature once an extra electron filled the 3d-t{sub 2g} orbitals in X = Cr case. Such tuning is accompanied by spin-state hopping of one electron from half-filled spin-state in Ru{sup V} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3} e{sub g}{sup 0}) to two and three occupied spin-state in V{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 2} e{sub g}{sup 0}) and Cr{sup III} (t{sub 2g}{sup 3} e{sub g}{sup 0}), respectively. The charge distribution results show that this extra electron occupies chiefly the spin-down of conduction orbitals and plays a major role in determining the electronic and magnetic structures of Ba{sub 2}XRuO{sub 6} system. - Highlights: • Half-metallic and insulating natures are observed in Ba{sub 2}XRuO{sub 6} (X = V, Cr). • 3d-t{sub 2g}{sup n} orbitals filling plays a major role in governing the conduction mechanism. • LSDA+U method under density functional theory (DFT) is considered. • HM ferrimagnetic (FI) (X = V) switch to compensate FI insulating (X = Cr).

  6. Fabrication and characterization of NiO based metal-insulator-metal diode using Langmuir-Blodgett method for high frequency rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes have attracted significant attention for use in infrared energy harvesting and detection applications. As demonstrated over the past decades, MIM or metal-insulator-insulator-metal (MIIM) diodes can operate at the THz frequencies range by quantum tunneling of electrons. The aim of this work is to synthesize required ultra-thin insulating layers and fabricate MIM diodes using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The nickel stearate (NiSt) LB precursor film was deposited on glass, silicon (Si), ITO glass and gold coated silicon substrates. The photodesorption (UV exposure) and the thermodesorption (annealing at 100 °C and 350 °C) methods were used to remove organic components from the NiSt LB film and to achieve a uniform homogenous nickel oxide (NiO) film. These ultrathin NiO films were characterized by EDS, AFM, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry methods, respectively. The MIM diode was fabricated by depositing nickel (Ni) on the NiO film, all on a gold (Au) plated silicon (Si) substrate. The current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics of the fabricated diode were studied to understand the conduction mechanism assumed to be tunneling of electron through the ultra-thin insulating layer. The sensitivity of the diode was measured to be as high as 35 V-1. The diode resistance was ˜100 ohms (at a bias voltage of 0.60 V), and the rectification ratio was about 22 (for a signal voltage of ±200 mV). At the bias point, the diode response demonstrated significant non-linearity and high asymmetry, which are very desirable characteristics for applications in infrared detection and harvesting.

  7. Microstructure and chemical analysis of Hf-based high-k dielectric layers in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangadurai, P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kaplan, W.D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-05-31

    The microstructure and chemistry of the high-k gate dielectric significantly influences the performance of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. In particular, the local structure, chemistry, and inter-layer mixing are important phenomena to be understood. In the present study, high resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy are combined to study the local structure, morphology, and chemistry in MIM capacitors containing a Hf-based high-k dielectric. The gate dielectric, bottom and gate electrodes were deposited on p-type Si(100) wafers by electron beam evaporation. Four chemically distinguishable sub-layers were identified within the dielectric stack. One is an unintentionally formed 4.0 nm thick interfacial layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the interface between the Ta electrode and the dielectric. The other three layers are based on HfN{sub x}O{sub y} and HfTiO{sub y}, and intermixing between the nearby sub-layers including deposited SiO{sub 2}. Hf-rich clusters were found in the HfN{sub x}O{sub y} layer adjacent to the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer.

  8. Electrostatic analysis of n-doped SrTiO3 metal-insulator-semiconductor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerbeek, A. M.; Banerjee, T.; Hueting, R. J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Electron doped SrTiO 3 , a complex-oxide semiconductor, possesses novel electronic properties due to its strong temperature and electric-field dependent permittivity. Due to the high permittivity, metal/n-SrTiO 3 systems show reasonably strong rectification even when SrTiO 3 is degenerately doped. Our experiments show that the insertion of a sub nanometer layer of AlO x in between the metal and n-SrTiO 3 interface leads to a dramatic reduction of the Schottky barrier height (from around 0.90 V to 0.25 V). This reduces the interface resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude. The derived electrostatic analysis of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (n-SrTiO 3 ) system is consistent with this trend. When compared with a Si based MIS system, the change is much larger and mainly governed by the high permittivity of SrTiO 3 . The non-linear permittivity of n-SrTiO 3 leads to unconventional properties such as a temperature dependent surface potential non-existent for semiconductors with linear permittivity such as Si. This allows tuning of the interfacial band alignment, and consequently the Schottky barrier height, in a much more drastic way than in conventional semiconductors

  9. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  10. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture results of the investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process on some metals (aluminum, titanium, tantalum, magnesium, and zirconium were presented. Whole process involves anodizing metals above the dielectric breakdown voltage where numerous micro-discharges are generated continuously over the coating surface. For the characterization of PEO process optical emission spectroscopy and real-time imaging were used. These investigations enabled the determination of electron temperature, electron number density, spatial density of micro-discharges, the active surface covered by micro-discharges, and dimensional distribution of micro-discharges at various stages of PEO process. Special attention was focused on the results of the study of the morphology, chemical, and phase composition of oxide layers obtained by PEO process on aluminum, tantalum, and titanium in electrolytes containing tungsten. Physicochemical methodes: atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for examining obtained oxide coatings. Also, the application of the obtained oxide coatings, especially the application of TiO2/WO3 coatings in photocatalysis, were discussed.

  11. Design of nanoring resonators made of metal-insulator-metal nanostrip waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun-Hwa; Lee, Hyun-Shik; O, Beom-Hoan; Lee, Seung-Gol; Park, Se-Geun; Lee, El-Hang

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design of nanoring resonators made of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanostrip waveguides. The characteristics of the lightwave propagation through the silver-based MIM plasmonic waveguides with an air superstrate are examined. The effective refractive indices, the propagation losses, the bending losses, and the beat lengths are analyzed by using 2D and 3D finite element methods (FEMs). For the optimization of the nanoring resonators, we examined the resonant mode power and the Q factor with respect to the width of the MIM nanostrip and the separation between the ring resonator and the straight waveguide. We obtained an optimized nanoring resonator that had submicron diameters (R = 399 nm) and 3 rd -order resonances at a 1550-nm wavelength. These nanoring resonators will play an important role as the basic building blocks for the realization of nanoscale photonic integrated circuits.

  12. A new high-κ Al2O3 based metal-insulator-metal antifuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Min; Zhong, Huicai; Li, Li; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new metal-insulator-metal (MIM) antifuse was fabricated with the high κ Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the dielectric. On this high κ antifuse structure, the very low on-state resistance was obtained under certain programming conditions. It is the first time that the antifuse on-state resistance has been found decreasing along with the increase of dielectric film thickness, which is attributed to a large current overshoot during breakdown. For the device with a dielectric thickness of 12 nm, very large overshoot current (∼60 mA) was observed and extremely low on-state resistance (∼10 Ω) was achieved.

  13. Optical magnetism and plasmonic Fano resonances in metal-insulator-metal oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verre, R; Yang, Z J; Shegai, T; Käll, M

    2015-03-11

    The possibility of achieving optical magnetism at visible frequencies using plasmonic nanostructures has recently been a subject of great interest. The concept is based on designing structures that support plasmon modes with electron oscillation patterns that imitate current loops, that is, magnetic dipoles. However, the magnetic resonances are typically spectrally narrow, thereby limiting their applicability in, for example, metamaterial designs. We show that a significantly broader magnetic response can be realized in plasmonic pentamers constructed from metal-insulator-metal (MIM) sandwich particles. Each MIM unit acts as a magnetic meta-atom and the optical magnetism is rendered quasi-broadband through hybridization of the in-plane modes. We demonstrate that scattering spectra of individual MIM pentamers exhibit multiple Fano resonances and a broad subradiant spectral window that signals the magnetic interaction and a hierarchy of coupling effects in these intricate three-dimensional nanoparticle oligomers.

  14. Thin-film composite materials as a dielectric layer for flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Meena, Jagan Singh; Wu, Chung-Shu; Tiwari, Rajanish N; Chu, Min-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chih; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2010-09-24

    A new organic-organic nanoscale composite thin-film (NCTF) dielectric has been synthesized by solution deposition of 1-bromoadamantane and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, BASF, EO20-PO70-EO20), in which the precursor solution has been achieved with organic additives. We have used a sol-gel process to make a metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIM) comprising a nanoscale (10 nm-thick) thin-film on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope revealed that the deposited NCTFs were crack-free, uniform, highly resistant to moisture absorption, and well adhered on the Au-Cr/PI. The electrical properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF were characterized by dielectric constant, capacitance, and leakage current measurements. The 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF on the PI substrate showed a low leakage current density of 5.5 x 10(-11) A cm(-2) and good capacitance of 2.4 fF at 1 MHz. In addition, the calculated dielectric constant of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF was 1.9, making them suitable candidates for use in future flexible electronic devices as a stable intermetal dielectric. The electrical insulating properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF have been improved due to the optimized dipole moments of the van der Waals interactions.

  15. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  16. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  17. Numerical simulations of quantum many-body systems with applications to superfluid-insulator and metal-insulator transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyaz, P.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo techniques were used to study two quantum many-body systems, the one-dimensional extended boson-Hubbard Hamiltonian, a model of superfluid-insulator quantum phase transitions, and the two-dimensional Holstein Model, a model for electron-phonon interactions. For the extended boson-Hubbard model, the authors studied the ground state properties at commensurate filling (density = 1) and half-integer filling (density = 1/2). At commensurate filling, the system has two possible insulating phases for strong coupling. If the on-site repulsion dominates, the system freezes into an insulating phase where each site is singly occupied. If the intersite repulsion dominates, doubly occupied and empty sites alternate. At weak coupling, the system becomes a superfluid. The authors investigated the order of phase transitions between these different phases. At half-integer filling, the authors found one strong coupling insulating phase, where singly occupied and empty sites alternate, and a weak coupling superfluid phase. The authors also investigated the possibility of a supersolid phase and found no clear evidence of such a new phase. For the electron-phonon (Holstein) model, the authors focused on the finite temperature phase transition from a metallic state to an insulating charge density wave (CDW) state as the temperature is lowered. The authors present the first calculation of the spectral density from Monte Carlo data for this system. The authors also investigated the formation of a CDW state as a function of various parameters characterizing the electron-phonon interactions. Using these numerical results as benchmarks, the authors then investigated different levels of Migdal approximations. The authors found the solutions of a set of gapped Migdal-Eliashberg equations agreed qualitatively with the Monte Carlo results

  18. First principles description of the insulator-metal transition in europium monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-02-01

    Europium monoxide, EuO, is a ferromagnetic insulator. Its electronic structure under pressure and doping is investigated by means of density functional theory. We employ spin polarized electronic structure calculations including onsite electron-electron interaction for the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons. Our results show that under pressure the ferromagnetism is stable, both for hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure, while the compound undergoes an insulator-metal transition. The insulator-metal transition in O deficient and Gd doped EuO is reproduced for an impurity concentration of 6.25%. A 10 monolayer thick EuO(1 0 0) thin film is predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of 0.08 eV. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  20. Theory of the low-voltage impedance of superconductor-- p insulator--normal metal tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemberger, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    A theory for the low-voltage impedance of a superconductor-- p insulator--normal metal tunnel junction is developed that includes the effects of charge imbalance and of quasiparticle fluctuations. A novel, inelastic, charge-imbalance relaxation process is identified that is associated with the junction itself. This new process leads to the surprising result that the charge-imbalance component of the dc resistance of a junction becomes independent of the electron-phonon scattering rate as the insulator resistance decreases

  1. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalyst precursors comprising combustible crystallization seeds upon which...... the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  2. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  3. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.; Jayaswal, Gaurav; Gahaffar, F.A.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  4. Metal-insulator-metal diodes with sub-nanometre surface roughness for energy-harvesting applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, A.A.

    2017-07-27

    For ambient radio-frequency (RF) energy harvesting, the available power levels are quite low, and it is highly desirable that the rectifying diodes do not consume any power at all. Contrary to semiconducting diodes, a tunnelling diode – also known as a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode – can provide zero-bias rectification, provided the two metals have different work functions. This could result in a complete passive rectenna system. Despite great potential, MIM diodes have not been investigated much in the GHz-frequency regime due to challenging nano-fabrication requirements. In this work, we investigate zero-bias MIM diodes for RF energy-harvesting applications. We studied the surface roughness issue for the bottom metal of the MIM diode for various deposition techniques such as sputtering, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation for crystalline metals as well as for an amorphous alloy, namely ZrCuAlNi. A surface roughness of sub-1nm has been achieved for both the crystalline metals as well as the amorphous alloy, which is vital for the reliable operation of the MIM diode. An MIM diode comprising of a Ti-ZnO-Pt combination yields a zero-bias responsivity of 0.25V−1 and a dynamic resistance of 1200Ω. Complete RF characterisation has been performed by integrating the MIM diode with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. The input impedance varies from 100Ω to 50Ω in the frequency range of between 2GHz and 10GHz, which can be easily matched to typical antenna impedances in this frequency range. Finally, a rectified DC voltage of 4.7mV is obtained for an incoming RF power of 0.4W at zero bias. These preliminary results of zero-bias rectification indicate that complete, passive rectennas (a rectifier and antenna combination) are feasible with further optimisation of MIM devices.

  5. Metal-Insulator Phase Transition in Quasi-One-Dimensional VO2 Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Ki Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition (MIT in strongly correlated oxides has attracted considerable attention from both theoretical and experimental researchers. Among the strongly correlated oxides, vanadium dioxide (VO2 has been extensively studied in the last decade because of a sharp, reversible change in its optical, electrical, and magnetic properties at approximately 341 K, which would be possible and promising to develop functional devices with advanced technology by utilizing MITs. However, taking the step towards successful commercialization requires the comprehensive understanding of MIT mechanisms, enabling us to manipulate the nature of transitions. In this regard, recently, quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D VO2 structures have been intensively investigated due to their attractive geometry and unique physical properties to observe new aspects of transitions compared with their bulk counterparts. Thus, in this review, we will address recent research progress in the development of various approaches for the modification of MITs in quasi-1D VO2 structures. Furthermore, we will review recent studies on realizing novel functional devices based on quasi-1D VO2 structures for a wide range of applications, such as a gas sensor, a flexible strain sensor, an electrical switch, a thermal memory, and a nonvolatile electrical memory with multiple resistance.

  6. A dosemeter with a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digoy, J.-L.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a semiconducting device for measuring irradiation doses, this device being a Mosfet structure, field effect and insulated-gate device of revolution, with a cylindrical effective surface and ring-shaped source and drain. This can be applied to the measurement of doses up to 10 4 rads, for radiations of a few keV, in the field of in-vivo biology, in a flowing fluid [fr

  7. Transfer-free electrical insulation of epitaxial graphene from its metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Alessandro; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Barreto, Lucas; Bianchi, Marco; Perkins, Edward; Hofmann, Philip

    2012-09-12

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen, and the eventual formation of a SiO(2) layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique.

  8. Transfer-Free Electrical Insulation of Epitaxial Graphene from its Metal Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizzit, Silvano; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    High-quality, large-area epitaxial graphene can be grown on metal surfaces, but its transport properties cannot be exploited because the electrical conduction is dominated by the substrate. Here we insulate epitaxial graphene on Ru(0001) by a stepwise intercalation of silicon and oxygen......, and the eventual formation of a SiO2 layer between the graphene and the metal. We follow the reaction steps by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and demonstrate the electrical insulation using a nanoscale multipoint probe technique....

  9. Tuning metal-insulator behavior in LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures integrated directly on Si(100) through control of atomic layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Chen, Tongjie; Lim, Zheng Hui; Conlin, Patrick; Hensley, Ricky; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chen, Hanghui; Kumah, Divine P.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2018-05-01

    We present electrical and structural characterization of epitaxial LaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures integrated directly on Si(100). By reducing the thicknesses of the heterostructures, an enhancement in carrier-carrier scattering is observed in the Fermi liquid behavior, followed by a metal to insulator transition in the electrical transport. The insulating behavior is described by activated transport, and its onset occurs near an occupation of 1 electron per Ti site within the SrTiO3, providing evidence for a Mott driven transition. We also discuss the role that structure and gradients in strain could play in enhancing the carrier density. The manipulation of Mott metal-insulator behavior in oxides grown directly on Si opens the pathway to harnessing strongly correlated phenomena in device technologies.

  10. Current redistribution in cables made of insulated, soldered, or oxidized strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck, B.

    1979-07-01

    Current redistributions are compared in cables made of insulated strands, soldered, or oxidized strands and insulated strands with periodic joints. After discussing the different current redistributions in the cases of a rapidly changing current and a dc current, several particular situations are investigated: what happens if a strand is broken, or if a local normal zone appears that does not affect all the strands equally, the detection of this normal zone, and the influence of short circuits between strands

  11. Theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masataka; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2004-01-01

    Our recent positron lifetime measurements for metal oxides suggest that positron lifetimes of bulk state in metal oxides are shorter than previously reported values. We have performed theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for bulk and vacancy states in MgO and ZnO using first-principles electronic structure calculations and discuss the validity of positron lifetime calculations for insulators. By comparing the calculated positron lifetimes to the experimental values, it wa found that the semiconductor model well reproduces the experimental positron lifetime. The longer positron lifetime previously reported can be considered to arise from not only the bulk but also from the vacancy induced by impurities. In the case of cation vacancy, the calculated positron lifetime based on semiconductor model is shorter than the experimental value, which suggests that the inward relaxation occurs around the cation vacancy trapping the positron. (author)

  12. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Y; Ueda, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO sub 2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO sub 2 /TiO sub 2 :Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO sub 2 :Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO sub 2. (letter to the editor)

  13. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-05-15

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  14. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achatz, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n c for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers (∼ 500 cm -1 ) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g c . The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap Δ in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the first time in aluminum

  15. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  16. Hotspot related plasmon assisted multiphoton photocurrents in metal-insulator-metal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Differt, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Walter [Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Diesing, Detlef [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr. 5, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Scanning photocurrent microscopy of metal-insulator-metal junctions (MIM) is used to investigate the mechanisms of femtosecond multiphoton photocurrent injection at liquid nitrogen temperature. The locally induced multiphoton photocurrent in a Ag-TaO-Ta MIM junction is measured in a scanning microscope cryostat under focused illumination (5{mu}m focus diameter, 800 nm, 30 fs, 80 MHz repetition rate). The intensity dependence reveals a mixture of two-photon and three-photon processes that are responsible for the photocurrent. Its lateral variation shows hotspot-like behaviour with significant magnitude variations on a 100 to 200 nm length scale. Assuming an injection current duration of 40fs the peak injection current density of about 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2} is estimated - 10{sup 6} times higher than that for 400 nm continuous wave illumination slightly below the damage threshold. The simultaneously measured extinction of the incident radiation reveals a 20 to 30% increased absorption at the hotspots. We attribute the local photocurrent enhancement to the defect-assisted excitation of surface plasmon polaritons at the silver electrode leading to an enhanced local excitation.

  17. Direct Fabrication of Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Film for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Cheng-Lin; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, Li-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inkjet-printed dielectric film that used a polymer-based SU-8 ink was fabricated for use in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. Thermal treatment of the inkjet-printed SU-8 polymer film affected its surface morphology, chemical structure, and surface wettability. A 20-min soft-bake at 60°C was applied to eliminate inkjet-printed bubbles and ripples. The ultraviolet-exposed SU-8 polymer film was crosslinked at temperatures between 120°C and 220°C and became disordered at 270°C, demonstrated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A maximum SU-8 polymer film hard-bake temperature of 120°C was identified, and a printing process was subsequently employed because the appropriate water contact angle of the printed film was 79°. Under the appropriate inkjet printing conditions, the two-transmission-line method was used to extract the dielectric and electrical properties of the SU-8 polymer film, and the electrical behavior of the fabricated MIM capacitor was also characterized.

  18. Trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for liquid metal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Masaru; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1995-03-01

    In the design of the liquid metal blanket, MHD pressure drop is one of critical issues. Ceramic coating on the surface of structural material is considered as an electrical insulator to reduce the MHD pressure drop. Ceramic coating such as Y 2 O 3 is a promising electrical insulator due to its high electrical resistivity and good compatibility with liquid lithium. This report describes the trial fabrication and preliminary characterization of electrical insulator for a design study of the liquid metal system. From the results of trial fabrication and preliminary characterization, it is concluded that densified atmospheric plasma spray Y 2 O 3 coating with 410SS undercoating between 316SS substrate and Y 2 O 3 coating is suitable for Y 2 O 3 coating fabrication. (author)

  19. Charge disproportionation in RNiO3 at the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Casais, M.T.; Garcia-Munoz, J.L.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Aranda, M.A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction data provide the first observation of changes in the crystal symmetry at the metal-insulator (MI) transition in RNiO 3 perovskites [1]. At high temperatures, YNiO 3 is orthorhombic and metallic but below T MI = 582 K it changes to a monoclinic insulator. The monoclinic symmetry is due to a partial 2 Ni 3+ → Ni 3+δ + Ni 3-δ charge disproportionation associated to the MI transition. In the insulating state the presence of two NiO 6 octahedra is reported with, respectively, expanded (Ni1) and contracted (Ni2) Ni-O bonds, that alternated along the three directions of the crystal. Corroborating the charge disproportion, unequal moments are found at Ni1 and Ni2 octahedra in the low temperature monoclinic phase. (author) J.A. Alonso et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press

  20. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  1. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  2. Simulation studies of current transport in metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky barrier diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Subhash; Bala, Saroj

    2007-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes with an interfacial insulator layer are analysed by numerical simulation. The current-voltage data of the metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky diode are simulated using thermionic emission diffusion (TED) equation taking into account an interfacial layer parameter. The calculated current-voltage data are fitted into ideal TED equation to see the apparent effect of interfacial layer parameters on current transport. Results obtained from the simulation studies shows that with mere presence of an interfacial layer at the metal-semiconductor interface the Schottky contact behave as an ideal diode of apparently high barrier height (BH), but with same ideality factor and series resistance as considered for a pure Schottky contact without an interfacial layer. This apparent BH decreases linearly with decreasing temperature. The effects giving rise to high ideality factor in metal-insulator-semiconductor diode are analysed. Reasons for observed temperature dependence of ideality factor in experimentally fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes are analysed and possible mechanisms are discussed

  3. Metal-insulator transition and Frohlich conductivity in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.F L; de Raedt, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    A quantum molecular dynamics technique is used to study the single-particle density of states, Drude weight, optical conductivity and flux quantization in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Our simulation data show that the SSH model has a metal-insulator transition away from half-filling. In the

  4. Coexistence of metallic and insulating channels in compressed YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jianjun; Tang, Lingyun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Xianhui; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2018-03-01

    It remains controversial whether compressed YbB6 material is a topological insulator or a Kondo topological insulator. We performed high-pressure transport, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Raman-scattering measurements on YbB6 samples in search for its topological Kondo phase. Both high-pressure powder XRD and Raman measurements show no trace of structural phase transitions in YbB6 up to 50 GPa. The nonmagnetic Yb2 + gradually change to magnetic Yb3 + above 18 GPa concomitantly with the increase in resistivity. However, the transition to the insulating state occurs only around 30 GPa, accompanied by the increase in the shear stress, and anomalies in the pressure dependence of the Raman T2 g mode and in the B atomic position. The resistivity at high pressures can be described by a model taking into account coexisting insulating and metallic channels with the activation energy for the insulating channel about 30 meV. We argue that YbB6 may become a topological Kondo insulator at high pressures above 35 GPa.

  5. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  6. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  7. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  8. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.; Flemban, Tahani H.

    2016-01-01

    ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc

  9. Band gap tuning in transition metal oxides by site-specific substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Chisholm, Jr., Matthew F; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Singh, David J; Choi, Woo Seok

    2013-12-24

    A transition metal oxide insulator composition having a tuned band gap includes a transition metal oxide having a perovskite or a perovskite-like crystalline structure. The transition metal oxide includes at least one first element selected form the group of Bi, Ca, Ba, Sr, Li, Na, Mg, K, Pb, and Pr; and at least one second element selected from the group of Ti, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. At least one correlated insulator is integrated into the crystalline structure, including REMO.sub.3, wherein RE is at least one Rare Earth element, and wherein M is at least one element selected from the group of Co, V, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe. The composition is characterized by a band gap of less of 4.5 eV.

  10. Insulator-metal transition of fluid molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamically compressed fluid hydrogen shows evidence for metallization at the relatively low pressure of 140 GPa (1.4 Mbar) while experiments on solid hydrogen made in a diamond-anvil cell have failed to detect any evidence for gap closure up to a pressure of 230 GPa (2.3 Mbar). Two possible mechanisms for metal- liclike resistivity are put forward. The first is that as a consequence of the large thermal disorder in the fluid (kT∼0.2 endash 0.3 eV) short-range molecular interactions lead to band tailing that extends the band edge into the gap, resulting in closure at a lower pressure than in the solid. The second mechanism argues that molecular dissociation creates H atoms that behave similar to n-type donors in a heavily doped semiconductor and undergo a nonmetal-metal Mott-type transition. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. PREPARATION OF METAL OXIDE POWDERS FROM METAL LOADED VERSATIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    KAKIHATA, Takayuki; USAMI, Kensuke; YAMAMOTO, Hideki; SHIBATA, Junji

    1998-01-01

    A production process for metal oxide powders was developed using a solvent extraction method. Versatic Acid 10 and D2EHPA solutions containing copper, zinc and nickel were used for a precipitation-stripping process, where oxalic acid was added to the solution as a precipitation reagent.Copper, zinc and nickel oxalates were easily formed in an aqueous phase, and 99.9% of precipitation was obtained for each metal during this process. These metal oxalates were easily converted to metal oxides by...

  12. Dynamic conductivity from audio to optical frequencies of semiconducting manganites approaching the metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Mayr, F.; Loidl, A.

    2006-07-01

    We report the frequency-dependent conductivity of the manganite system La1-xSrxMnO3 (x0.2) when approaching the metal-insulator transition from the insulating side. Results from low-frequency dielectric measurements are combined with spectra in the infrared region. For low doping levels the behavior is dominated by hopping transport of localized charge carriers at low frequencies and by phononic and electronic excitations in the infrared region. For the higher Sr contents the approach of the metallic state is accompanied by the successive suppression of the hopping contribution at low frequencies and by the development of polaronic excitations in the infrared region, which finally become superimposed by a strong Drude contribution in the fully metallic state.

  13. Dynamic conductivity from audio to optical frequencies of semiconducting manganites approaching the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Mayr, F.; Loidl, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the frequency-dependent conductivity of the manganite system La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (x≤0.2) when approaching the metal-insulator transition from the insulating side. Results from low-frequency dielectric measurements are combined with spectra in the infrared region. For low doping levels the behavior is dominated by hopping transport of localized charge carriers at low frequencies and by phononic and electronic excitations in the infrared region. For the higher Sr contents the approach of the metallic state is accompanied by the successive suppression of the hopping contribution at low frequencies and by the development of polaronic excitations in the infrared region, which finally become superimposed by a strong Drude contribution in the fully metallic state. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  15. Low leakage Ru-strontium titanate-Ru metal-insulator-metal capacitors for sub-20 nm technology node in dynamic random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, M., E-mail: Mihaela.Ioana.Popovici@imec.be; Swerts, J.; Redolfi, A.; Kaczer, B.; Aoulaiche, M.; Radu, I.; Clima, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Jurczak, M. [Imec, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2014-02-24

    Improved metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIMCAP) stacks with strontium titanate (STO) as dielectric sandwiched between Ru as top and bottom electrode are shown. The Ru/STO/Ru stack demonstrates clearly its potential to reach sub-20 nm technology nodes for dynamic random access memory. Downscaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density (J{sub g}) of the MIMCAPs, and physical thickness of the STO have been realized by control of the Sr/Ti ratio and grain size using a heterogeneous TiO{sub 2}/STO based nanolaminate stack deposition and a two-step crystallization anneal. Replacement of TiN with Ru as both top and bottom electrodes reduces the amount of electrically active defects and is essential to achieve a low leakage current in the MIM capacitor.

  16. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Foran, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  17. Insulator-metal transition in substrate-independent VO2 thin film for phase-change devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohammad; Walia, Sumeet; Ahmed, Taimur; Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2017-12-20

    Vanadium has 11 oxide phases, with the binary VO 2 presenting stimuli-dependent phase transitions that manifest as switchable electronic and optical features. An elevated temperature induces an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) as the crystal reorients from a monoclinic state (insulator) to a tetragonal arrangement (metallic). This transition is accompanied by a simultaneous change in optical properties making VO 2 a versatile optoelectronic material. However, its deployment in scalable devices suffers because of the requirement of specialised substrates to retain the functionality of the material. Sensitivity to oxygen concentration and larger-scale VO 2 synthesis have also been standing issues in VO 2 fabrication. Here, we address these major challenges in harnessing the functionality in VO 2 by demonstrating an approach that enables crystalline, switchable VO 2 on any substrate. Glass, silicon, and quartz are used as model platforms to show the effectiveness of the process. Temperature-dependent electrical and optical characterisation is used demonstrating three to four orders of magnitude in resistive switching, >60% chromic discrimination at infrared wavelengths, and terahertz property extraction. This capability will significantly broaden the horizon of applications that have been envisioned but remained unrealised due to the lack of ability to realise VO 2 on any substrate, thereby exploiting its untapped potential.

  18. Electronic Structure Evolution across the Peierls Metal-Insulator Transition in a Correlated Ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bhobe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal compounds often undergo spin-charge-orbital ordering due to strong electron-electron correlations. In contrast, low-dimensional materials can exhibit a Peierls transition arising from low-energy electron-phonon-coupling-induced structural instabilities. We study the electronic structure of the tunnel framework compound K_{2}Cr_{8}O_{16}, which exhibits a temperature-dependent (T-dependent paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic-metal transition at T_{C}=180  K and transforms into a ferromagnetic insulator below T_{MI}=95  K. We observe clear T-dependent dynamic valence (charge fluctuations from above T_{C} to T_{MI}, which effectively get pinned to an average nominal valence of Cr^{+3.75} (Cr^{4+}∶Cr^{3+} states in a 3∶1 ratio in the ferromagnetic-insulating phase. High-resolution laser photoemission shows a T-dependent BCS-type energy gap, with 2G(0∼3.5(k_{B}T_{MI}∼35  meV. First-principles band-structure calculations, using the experimentally estimated on-site Coulomb energy of U∼4  eV, establish the necessity of strong correlations and finite structural distortions for driving the metal-insulator transition. In spite of the strong correlations, the nonintegral occupancy (2.25 d-electrons/Cr and the half-metallic ferromagnetism in the t_{2g} up-spin band favor a low-energy Peierls metal-insulator transition.

  19. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-10-14

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO₂), manganese dioxide (MnO₂), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co₃O₄), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO₂, MnO₂, NiO, Co₃O₄ and nickel cobaltite (NiCo₂O₄), and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  20. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4), and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors. PMID:28347088

  1. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2, manganese dioxide (MnO2, nickel oxides (NiO and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4, and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  2. Conduction and rectification in NbO{sub x}- and NiO-based metal-insulator-metal diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osgood, Richard M., E-mail: richard.m.osgood.civ@mail.mil; Giardini, Stephen; Carlson, Joel [US Army Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC), 15 General Greene Ave., Natick, Massachusetts 01760 (United States); Periasamy, Prakash; Guthrey, Harvey; O' Hayre, Ryan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Chin, Matthew; Nichols, Barbara; Dubey, Madan [RF and Electronics Division, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Fernandes, Gustavo; Kim, Jin Ho; Xu, Jimmy [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Parilla, Philip; Berry, Joseph; Ginley, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Conduction and rectification in nanoantenna-coupled NbO{sub x}- and NiO-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes (“nanorectennas”) are studied by comparing new theoretical predictions with the measured response of nanorectenna arrays. A new quantum mechanical model is reported and agrees with measurements of current–voltage (I–V) curves, over 10 orders of magnitude in current density, from [NbO{sub x}(native)-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}]- and NiO-based samples with oxide thicknesses in the range of 5–36 nm. The model, which introduces new physics and features, including temperature, electron effective mass, and image potential effects using the pseudobarrier technique, improves upon widely used earlier models, calculates the MIM diode's I–V curve, and predicts quantitatively the rectification responsivity of high frequency voltages generated in a coupled nanoantenna array by visible/near-infrared light. The model applies both at the higher frequencies, when high-energy photons are incident, and at lower frequencies, when the formula for classical rectification, involving derivatives of the I–V curve, may be used. The rectified low-frequency direct current is well-predicted in this work's model, but not by fitting the experimentally measured I–V curve with a polynomial or by using the older Simmons model (as shown herein). By fitting the measured I–V curves with our model, the barrier heights in Nb-(NbO{sub x}(native)-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5})-Pt and Ni-NiO-Ti/Ag diodes are found to be 0.41/0.77 and 0.38/0.39 eV, respectively, similar to literature reports, but with effective mass much lower than the free space value. The NbO{sub x} (native)-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} dielectric properties improve, and the effective Pt-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} barrier height increases as the oxide thickness increases. An observation of direct current of ∼4 nA for normally incident, focused 514 nm continuous wave laser beams are reported, similar in magnitude to recent reports

  3. Rapid optical determination of topological insulator nanoplate thickness and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of 2D antimony telluride (Sb2Te3 nanoplates in ambient conditions is elucidated. These materials exhibit an anisotropic oxidation mode, and CVD synthesized samples oxidize at a much faster rate than exfoliated samples investigated in previous studies. Optical measurement techniques are introduced to rapidly measure the oxidation modes and thickness of 2D materials. Auger characterization were conducted to confirm that oxygen replaces tellurium as opposed to antimony under ambient conditions. No surface morphology evolution was detected in AFM before and after exposure to air. These techniques were employed to determine the origin of the thickness dependent color change effect in Sb2Te3. It is concluded that this effect is a combination of refractive index change due to oxidation and Fresnel effects.

  4. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  5. Electrochemical analysis of metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Pikna, L.

    90-91, - (2003), s. 45-50 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : powder electroanalysis * Fe oxides * Mn oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  6. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  7. On the Mott transition and the new metal-insulator transitions in doped covalent and polar crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Begimkulov, U.; Kurbanov, U.T.; Yavidov, B.Y.

    2001-10-01

    The Mott transition and new metal-insulator transitions (MIT's) and their distinctive features in doped covalent semiconductors and polar compounds are studied within the continuum model of extrinsic carrier self-trapping, the Hubbard impurity band model (with on-site Coulomb repulsion and screening effects) and the extrinsic (bi)polaronic band model (with short- and long-range carrier-impurity, impurity-phonon and carrier-phonon interactions and intercarrier correlation) using the appropriate tight-binding approximations and variational methods. We have shown the formation possibility of large-radius localized one- and two-carrier impurity (or defect) states and narrow impurity bands in the band gap and charge transfer gap of these carrier-doped systems. The extrinsic Mott-Hubbard and (bi)polaronic insulating gaps are calculated exactly. The proper criterions for Mott transition, extrinsic excitonic and (bi)polaronic MIT's are obtained. We have demonstrated that the Mott transition occurs in doped covalent semiconductors (i.e. Si and Ge) and some insulators with weak carrier-phonon coupling near the large-radius dopants. While, in doped polar compounds (e.g. oxide high-T c superconductors (HTSC) and related materials) the MIT's are new extrinsic (or intrinsic) (bi)polaronic MIT's. We have found that the anisotropy of the dielectric (or (bi)polaronic) properties of doped cuprate HTSC is responsible for smooth (or continuous) MIT's, stripe formation and suppression of high-T c superconductivity. Various experimental results on in-gap states, bands and MIT's in doped covalent semiconductors, oxide HTSC and related materials are in good agreement with the developed theory of Mott transition and new (bi)polaronic MIT's. (author)

  8. Multicharged ion-induced emission from metal- and insulator surfaces related to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H.P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1997-01-01

    The edge region of magnetically confined plasmas in thermonuclear fusion experiments couples the hot plasma core with the cold first wall. We consider the dependence of plasma-wall interaction processes on edge plasma properties, with particular emphasis on the role of slow multicharged ions (MCI). After a short survey on the physics of slow MCI-surface interaction we discuss recent extensive studies on MCI-induced electron emission from clean metal surfaces conducted at impact velocities << 1 a.u., from which generally reliable total electron yields can be obtained. We then demonstrate the essentially different role of the MCI charge for electron emission from metallic and insulator surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we present recent results on slow MCI-induced `potential sputtering` of insulators which, in contrast to the well established kinetic sputtering, already occurs at very low ion impact energy and strongly increases with the MCI charge state. (J.P.N.). 55 refs.

  9. Practical Improvements to the Lee-More Conductivity Near the Metal-Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjarlais, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    The wide-range conductivity model of Lee and More is modified to allow better agreement with recent experimental data and theories for dense plasmas in the metal-insulator transition regime. Modifications primarily include a new ionization equilibrium model, consisting of a smooth blend between single ionization Saha (with a pressure ionization correction) and the generic Thomas-Fermi ionization equilibrium, a more accurate treatment of electron-neutral collisions using a polarization potential, and an empirical modification to the minimum allowed collision time. These simple modifications to the Lee-More algorithm permit a more accurate modeling of the physics near the metal-insulator transition, while preserving the generic Lee-More results elsewhere

  10. Practical improvements to the Lee-More conductivity near the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjarlais, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The wide-range conductivity model of Lee and More is modified to allow better agreement with recent experimental data and theories for dense plasmas in the metal-insulator transition regime. Modifications primarily include a new ionization equilibrium model, consisting of a smooth blend between single ionization Saha (with a pressure ionization correction) and the generic Thomas-Fermi ionization equilibrium, a more accurate treatment of electron-neutral collisions using a polarization potential, and an empirical modification to the minimum allowed collision time. These simple modifications to the Lee-More algorithm permit a more accurate modeling of the physics near the metal-insulator transition, while preserving the generic Lee-More results elsewhere. (orig.)

  11. Magnetoconductance of amorphous Yx-Si1-x alloys near the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.; Tourbot, R.; Boucher, B.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance experiments across the Metal-Insulator transition in amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloys using very high fields (H = 40T) and very low temperatures (T = 0.05K). Different and unusual behaviours are observed and can be explained assuming that the electron-electron interaction contribution dominates at low fields and localization corrections appears at very high fields. This is the opposite situation compared to usual weak localization regime

  12. Anomalous Insulator-Metal Transition in Boron Nitride-Graphene Hybrid Atomic Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    Juan de la Cierva” pro- gram (JCI-2010-08156), Spanish MICINN (FIS2010-21282- C02-01 and PIB2010US-00652), ACI-Promociona (ACI2009- 1036), “ Grupos ...percolation through metallic graphene networks and hopping conduction between edge states on randomly distributed insulating h-BN domains. REPORT...Tallahassee, Florida 32310, USA 3Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Fı́sica de Materiales, Centro de Fı́sica

  13. First-principles calculation of electric field gradients in metals, semiconductors, and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwanziger, J.W. [Dalhousie Univ, Dept Chem, Halifax, NS (Canada); Dalhousie Univ, Inst Res Mat, Halifax, NS (Canada); Torrent, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept Phys Theor and Appl, Bruyeres 91 (France)

    2008-07-01

    A scheme for computing electric field gradients within the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism of density functional theory is presented. On the basis of earlier work (M. Profeta, F. Mauri, C.J. Pickard, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 541, 2003) the present implementation handles metallic cases as well as insulators and semiconductors with equal efficiency. Details of the implementation, as well as applications and the discussion of the limitations of the PAW method for computing electric field gradients are presented. (authors)

  14. Voltage Control of Rare-Earth Magnetic Moments at the Magnetic-Insulator-Metal Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Alejandro O.; Cahaya, Adam B.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-01-01

    The large spin-orbit interaction in the lanthanides implies a strong coupling between their internal charge and spin degrees of freedom. We formulate the coupling between the voltage and the local magnetic moments of rare-earth atoms with a partially filled 4 f shell at the interface between an insulator and a metal. The rare-earth-mediated torques allow the power-efficient control of spintronic devices by electric-field-induced ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization switching.

  15. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in manganite films through surface exchange coupling with magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T Z; Gai, Z; Xu, X Y; Guo, H W; Yin, L F; Shen, J

    2011-04-15

    In strongly correlated electronic systems, the global transport behavior depends sensitively on spin ordering. We show that spin ordering in manganites can be controlled by depositing isolated ferromagnetic nanodots at the surface. The exchange field at the interface is tunable with nanodot density and makes it possible to overcome dimensionality and strain effects in frustrated systems to greatly increasing the metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance. These findings indicate that electronic phase separation can be controlled by the presence of magnetic nanodots.

  16. Metal-insulator transition in n-InSb under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, U.; Kraak, W.; Herrmann, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of applying hydrostatic compression (up to 12 kbar) to the galvanomagnetic properties of pure n-InSb crystals is investigated in order to get information about the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the localization of carriers and about the metal-insulator transition. Electrical resistivity and Hall coefficient are measured as a function of pressure for various excess donor concentrations as well as a function of temperature for various pressures

  17. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a f...

  18. Plasma metallization of aluminium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering ability of cermets of metallized granulas of aluminium and matrix materials, such as chromium, nickel and nichrome is studied. Deformation tests of samples of cermets with molybdenum coated granules show satisfactory results at normal and high temperatures without fracture of metall-oxide interfaces [ru

  19. Magnetic states, correlation effects and metal-insulator transition in FCC lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timirgazin, M. A.; Igoshev, P. A.; Arzhnikov, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu

    2016-12-01

    The ground-state magnetic phase diagram (including collinear and spiral states) of the single-band Hubbard model for the face-centered cubic lattice and related metal-insulator transition (MIT) are investigated within the slave-boson approach by Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The correlation-induced electron spectrum narrowing and a comparison with a generalized Hartree-Fock approximation allow one to estimate the strength of correlation effects. This, as well as the MIT scenario, depends dramatically on the ratio of the next-nearest and nearest electron hopping integrals {{t}\\prime}/t . In contrast with metallic state, possessing substantial band narrowing, insulator one is only weakly correlated. The magnetic (Slater) scenario of MIT is found to be superior over the Mott one. Unlike simple and body-centered cubic lattices, MIT is the first order transition (discontinuous) for most {{t}\\prime}/t . The insulator state is type-II or type-III antiferromagnet, and the metallic state is spin-spiral, collinear antiferromagnet or paramagnet depending on {{t}\\prime}/t . The picture of magnetic ordering is compared with that in the standard localized-electron (Heisenberg) model.

  20. Oxidation behaviour of metallic glass foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, B.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)], E-mail: bbarnard@utk.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. [Department of Materials Science, Keck Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the effects of porosity on the oxidation behaviour of bulk-metallic glasses were investigated. Porous Pd- and Fe-based bulk-metallic glass (BMG) foams and Metglas ribbons were studied. Oxidizing experiments were conducted at 70 deg. C, and around 80 deg. C below glass-transition temperatures, (T{sub g}s). Scanning-electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) studies revealed little evidence of oxidation at 70 deg. C. Specimens exhibited greater oxidation at T{sub g} - 80 deg. C. Oxides were copper-based for Pd-based foams, Fe-, Cr-, and Mo-based for Fe-based foams, and Co-based with borosilicates likely for the Metglas. Pd-based foams demonstrated the best oxidation resistance, followed by Metglas ribbons, followed by Fe-based foams.

  1. Plasmonic reflectors and high-Q nano-cavities based on coupled metal-insulator-metal waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contra-directional coupling, a composite structure consisting of two coupled metal-insulator-metal (MIM waveguides is proposed to act as an attractive plasmonic reflector. By introducing a defect into one of the MIM waveguides, we show that such a composite structure can be operated as a plasmonic nanocavity with a high quality factor. Both symmetric and anti-symmetric cavity modes are supported in the plasmonic cavity, and their resonance frequencies can be tuned by controlling the defect width. The present structures could have a significant impact for potential applications such as surface plasmon mirrors, filters and solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  2. Alkali metal hafnium oxide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Taylor, Scott Edward

    2018-05-08

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an alkali metal hafnate, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A2HfO3:Ce; wherein A is an alkali metal having a valence of 1, such as Li or Na; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The alkali metal hafnate are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  3. Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, R.A.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Medina, E.

    2005-01-01

    We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging

  4. Can disorder drive a Mott insulator into a metal in 2D?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Nandini; Heidarian, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    We find that isoelectronic disorder generates novel phases in a Mott insulator at half filling. For both binary disorder potentials and for random site disorder models, the Mott gap is destroyed locally generating puddles of gapless excitations. With increasing disorder, these puddles grow and rather surprising, form an inhomogeneous metal in 2D. Antiferromagnetic long range order is more robust than the Mott gap and persists into the metal, getting destroyed close to a critical disorder where doubly occupied and empty sites percolate. (author)

  5. Metal-insulator transition in one-dimensional lattices with chaotic energy sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, R.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: ripinto@ivic.ve; Rodriguez, M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Computacional, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Medina, E. [Laboratorio de Fisica Estadistica, Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Apartado 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    2005-06-20

    We study electronic transport through a one-dimensional array of sites by using a tight binding Hamiltonian, whose site-energies are drawn from a chaotic sequence. The correlation degree between these energies is controlled by a parameter regulating the dynamic Lyapunov exponent measuring the degree of chaos. We observe the effect of chaotic sequences on the localization length, conductance, conductance distribution and wave function, finding evidence of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a critical degree of chaos. The one-dimensional metallic phase is characterized by a Gaussian conductance distribution and exhibits a peculiar non-selfaveraging.

  6. Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Kocjan, Andraž; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Carosio, Federico; Camino, Giovanni; Antonietti, Markus; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-03-01

    High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30 °C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials.

  7. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  8. Synthesis of one-dimensional metal-containing insulated molecular wire with versatile properties directed toward molecular electronics materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Seki, Shu; Nakashima, Shigeto; Kiguchi, Manabu; Okoshi, Kento; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2014-02-05

    We report, herein, the design, synthesis, and properties of new materials directed toward molecular electronics. A transition metal-containing insulated molecular wire was synthesized through the coordination polymerization of a Ru(II) porphyrin with an insulated bridging ligand of well-defined structure. The wire displayed not only high linearity and rigidity, but also high intramolecular charge mobility. Owing to the unique properties of the coordination bond, the interconversion between the monomer and polymer states was realized under a carbon monoxide atmosphere or UV irradiation. The results demonstrated a high potential of the metal-containing insulated molecular wire for applications in molecular electronics.

  9. Absence of Mass Renormalization upon the Metal-Insulator Transition in La_1-xSr_xMnO_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T.; Asamitsu, A.; Tokura, Y.

    1998-03-01

    The low-temperature specific heat as well as the resistivity of La_1-xSr_xMnO3 crystals has been measured under magnetic fields to investigate the critical behavior of the metal-insulator (MI) transition, which is induced by carrier doping around a critical composition of x_c=0.17. We observed the reduction of specific heat by application of magnetic fields, which is due to the suppression of the contribution of spin wave. Thus, the magnetic contribution to the specific heat was carefully removed to extract the electronic contribution. The effective mass, derived from obtained electronic specific heat coefficient γ, is a few times as large as a bare mass in the ferromagnetic metallic state, e.g. γ = 3.5 (mJ/K^2 mole) at x=0.3, and does not critically increase around the critical point while showing the maximum value γ = 5.1 (mJ/K^2 mole) at x=0.18. This is in contrast with the conspicuous mass renormalization effect as observed for other transition metal oxide, eg. V_2O3 and LaTiO_3. The γ value rather decreases with the decrease of x from 0.18 to 0.15, namely in the immediate vicinity of the MI boundary. This suggests that the Fermi surface gradually shrinks towards the insulating phase and finally disappears at the MI phase boundary. This work was supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  10. Chemically Designed Metallic/Insulating Hybrid Nanostructures with Silver Nanocrystals for Highly Sensitive Wearable Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haneun; Lee, Seung-Wook; Joh, Hyungmok; Seong, Mingi; Lee, Woo Seok; Kang, Min Su; Pyo, Jun Beom; Oh, Soong Ju

    2018-01-10

    With the increase in interest in wearable tactile pressure sensors for e-skin, researches to make nanostructures to achieve high sensitivity have been actively conducted. However, limitations such as complex fabrication processes using expensive equipment still exist. Herein, simple lithography-free techniques to develop pyramid-like metal/insulator hybrid nanostructures utilizing nanocrystals (NCs) are demonstrated. Ligand-exchanged and unexchanged silver NC thin films are used as metallic and insulating components, respectively. The interfaces of each NC layer are chemically engineered to create discontinuous insulating layers, i.e., spacers for improved sensitivity, and eventually to realize fully solution-processed pressure sensors. Device performance analysis with structural, chemical, and electronic characterization and conductive atomic force microscopy study reveals that hybrid nanostructure based pressure sensor shows an enhanced sensitivity of higher than 500 kPa -1 , reliability, and low power consumption with a wide range of pressure sensing. Nano-/micro-hierarchical structures are also designed by combining hybrid nanostructures with conventional microstructures, exhibiting further enhanced sensing range and achieving a record sensitivity of 2.72 × 10 4 kPa -1 . Finally, all-solution-processed pressure sensor arrays with high pixel density, capable of detecting delicate signals with high spatial selectivity much better than the human tactile threshold, are introduced.

  11. Metal-insulator transition induced in CaVO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Man [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Laverock, Jude; Chen, Bo; Smith, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Lu Jiwei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-07

    Stoichiometric CaVO{sub 3} (CVO) thin films of various thicknesses were grown on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) (001) substrates using a pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The CVO films were capped with a 2.5 nm STO layer. We observed a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) in CVO films with thicknesses below 4 nm that was not observed in either thick CVO films or STO films. The emergence of this MIT can be attributed to the reduction in effective bandwidth due to a crossover from a three-dimensional metal to a two-dimensional insulator. The insulating phase was only induced with a drive current below 0.1 {mu}A. X-ray absorption measurements indicated different electronic structures for thick and very thin films of CVO. Compared with the thick film ({approx}60 nm), thin films of CVO (2-4 nm) were more two-dimensional with the V charge state closer to V{sup 4+}.

  12. Metal-insulator transition induced in CaVO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Man; Laverock, Jude; Chen, Bo; Smith, Kevin E.; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    Stoichiometric CaVO 3 (CVO) thin films of various thicknesses were grown on single crystal SrTiO 3 (STO) (001) substrates using a pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The CVO films were capped with a 2.5 nm STO layer. We observed a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) in CVO films with thicknesses below 4 nm that was not observed in either thick CVO films or STO films. The emergence of this MIT can be attributed to the reduction in effective bandwidth due to a crossover from a three-dimensional metal to a two-dimensional insulator. The insulating phase was only induced with a drive current below 0.1 μA. X-ray absorption measurements indicated different electronic structures for thick and very thin films of CVO. Compared with the thick film (∼60 nm), thin films of CVO (2–4 nm) were more two-dimensional with the V charge state closer to V 4+ .

  13. Tunneling conductance oscillations in spin-orbit coupled metal-insulator-superconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapri, Priyadarshini; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    The tunneling conductance for a device consisting of a metal-insulator-superconductor (MIS) junction is studied in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) via an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find that the tunneling conductance as a function of an effective barrier potential that defines the insulating layer and lies intermediate to the metallic and superconducting electrodes, displays an oscillatory behavior. The tunneling conductance shows high sensitivity to the RSOC for certain ranges of this potential, while it is insensitive to the RSOC for others. Additionally, when the period of oscillations is an odd multiple of a certain value of the effective potential, the conductance spectrum as a function of the biasing energy demonstrates a contrasting trend with RSOC, compared to when it is not an odd multiple. The explanations for the observation can be found in terms of a competition between the normal and Andreev reflections. Similar oscillatory behavior of the conductance spectrum is also seen for other superconducting pairing symmetries, thereby emphasizing that the insulating layer plays a decisive role in the conductance oscillations of a MIS junction. For a tunable Rashba coupling, the current flowing through the junction can be controlled with precision.

  14. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  15. Local structural distortion and electronic modifications in PrNiO3 across the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piamonteze, C.; Tolentino, H.C.N.; Ramos, A.Y.; Massa, N. E.; Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Casais, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Local electronic and structural properties of PrNiO3 perovskite were studied by means of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at Ni K and L edges. The EXAFS results at Ni K edge show a structural transition from three different Ni-O bond-lengths at the insulating phase to two Ni-O bond-lengths above TMI. These results were interpreted as being due to a transition from a structure with two different Ni sites at the insulating phase to one distorted Ni site at the metallic phase. The Ni L edge spectra show a remarkable difference between the spectra measured at the insulating and metallic phases that indicates a decreasing degree of hybridization between Ni3d and O2p bands from the metallic to the insulating phase

  16. Electric field-triggered metal-insulator transition resistive switching of bilayered multiphasic VOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seokjae; Lee, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Jungyeon; Park, Jucheol; Seo, Hyungtak

    2018-01-01

    Electric field-triggered Mott transition of VO2 for next-generation memory devices with sharp and fast resistance-switching response is considered to be ideal but the formation of single-phase VO2 by common deposition techniques is very challenging. Here, VOx films with a VO2-dominant phase for a Mott transition-based metal-insulator transition (MIT) switching device were successfully fabricated by the combined process of RF magnetron sputtering of V metal and subsequent O2 annealing to form. By performing various material characterizations, including scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy, the film is determined to have a bilayer structure consisting of a VO2-rich bottom layer acting as the Mott transition switching layer and a V2O5/V2O3 mixed top layer acting as a control layer that suppresses any stray leakage current and improves cyclic performance. This bilayer structure enables excellent electric field-triggered Mott transition-based resistive switching of Pt-VOx-Pt metal-insulator-metal devices with a set/reset current ratio reaching 200, set/reset voltage of less than 2.5 V, and very stable DC cyclic switching upto 120 cycles with a great set/reset current and voltage distribution less than 5% of standard deviation at room temperature, which are specifications applicable for neuromorphic or memory device applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Superconductor-Metal-Insulator transition in two dimensional Ta thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Gyu; Kim, Eunseong

    2013-03-01

    Superconductor-insulator transition has been induced by tuning film thickness or magnetic field. Recent electrical transport measurements of MoGe, Bi, Ta thin films revealed an interesting intermediate metallic phase which intervened superconducting and insulating phases at certain range of magnetic field. Especially, Ta thin films show the characteristic IV behavior at each phase and the disorder tuned intermediate metallic phase [Y. Li, C. L. Vicente, and J. Yoon, Physical Review B 81, 020505 (2010)]. This unexpected metallic phase can be interpreted as a consequence of vortex motion or contribution of fermionic quasiparticles. In this presentation, we report the scaling behavior during the transitions in Ta thin film as well as the transport measurements in various phases. Critical exponents v and z are obtained in samples with wide ranges of disorder. These results reveal new universality class appears when disorder exceeds a critical value. Dynamical exponent z of Superconducting sample is found to be 1, which is consistent with theoretical prediction of unity. z in a metallic sample is suddenly increased to be approximately 2.5. This critical exponent is much larger than the value found in other system and theoretical prediction. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  18. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating and metallic GaAs single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Gan, Z.; Reyes, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    The coupling of electron and nuclear spins in n-GaAs changes significantly as the donor concentration n increases through the insulator-metal critical concentration nC˜1.2×1016cm-3 . The present measurements of the Ga71 relaxation rates W made as a function of magnetic field (1-13T) and temperature (1.5-300K) for semi-insulating GaAs and for three doped n-GaAs samples with donor concentrations n=5.9×1015 , 7×1016 , and 2×1018cm-3 , show marked changes in the relaxation behavior with n . Korringa-like relaxation is found in both metallic samples for T30K phonon-induced nuclear quadrupolar relaxation is dominant. The relaxation rate measurements permit determination of the electron probability density at Ga71 sites. A small Knight shift of -3.3ppm was measured on the most metallic (2×1018cm-3) sample using magic-angle spinning at room temperature. For the n=5.9×1015cm-3 sample, a nuclear relaxation model involving the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction, rapid spin diffusion, and exchange coupled local moments is proposed. While the relaxation rate behavior with temperature for the weakly metallic sample, n=7×1016cm-3 , is similar to that found for the just-insulating sample, the magnetic field dependence is quite different. For the 5.9×1015cm-3 sample, increasing the magnetic field leads to a decrease in the relaxation rate, while for the 7×1016cm-3 sample this results in an increase in the relaxation rate ascribed to an increase in the density of states at the Fermi level as the Landau level degeneracy is increased.

  19. Metal-insulator transition in disordered systems from the one-body density matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Resta, Raffaele; Souza, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    The insulating state of matter can be probed by means of a ground state geometrical marker, which is closely related to the modern theory of polarization (based on a Berry phase). In the present work we show that this marker can be applied to determine the metal-insulator transition in disordered...... the one-body density matrix. The approach has a general ab initio formulation and could in principle be applied to realistic disordered materials by standard electronic structure methods....... systems. In particular, for noninteracting systems the geometrical marker can be obtained from the configurational average of the norm-squared one-body density matrix, which can be calculated within open as well as periodic boundary conditions. This is in sharp contrast to a classification based...

  20. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  1. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  2. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag, gold (Au, zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and magnesium oxide (MgO have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

  3. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  4. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocomposites of iron oxide with conducting polymer in the form of powders of varying compositions have been studied to understand the effects of particle size, cluster size and magnetic inter-particle interactions. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated to be ∼ 10–20 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the ...

  5. Plasma Deposited SiO2 for Planar Self-Aligned Gate Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Semi-Insulating InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabory, Charles N.; Young, Paul G.; Smith, Edwyn D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors were fabricated on InP substrates using a planar self-aligned gate process. A 700-1000 A gate insulator of Si02 doped with phosphorus was deposited by a direct plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 mTorr, 275 C, 5 W, and power density of 8.5 MW/sq cm. High frequency capacitance-voltage measurements were taken on MIS capacitors which have been subjected to a 700 C anneal and an interface state density of lxl0(exp 11)/eV/cq cm was found. Current-voltage measurements of the capacitors show a breakdown voltage of 107 V/cm and a insulator resistivity of 10(exp 14) omega cm. Transistors were fabricated on semi-insulating InP using a standard planar self-aligned gate process in which the gate insulator was subjected to an ion implantation activation anneal of 700 C. MIS field effect transistors gave a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 23 mS/mm for a gate length of 3 microns. The drain current drift saturated at 87.5% of the initial current, while reaching to within 1% of the saturated value after only 1x10(exp 3). This is the first reported viable planar InP self-aligned gate transistor process reported to date.

  6. Liquid metal flows in insulating elements of self-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molokov, S.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid metal flows in insulating rectangular ducts in strong magnetic fields are considered with reference to poloidal concepts of self-cooled blankets. Although the major part of the flow in poloidal blanket concepts is close to being fully developed, manifolds, expansions, contractions, elbows, etc., which are necessary elements in blanket designs, cause three-dimensional effects. The present investigation demonstrates the flow pattern in basic insulating geometries for actual and more advanced liquid metal blanket concepts and discusses the ways to avoid pressure losses caused by flow redistribution. Flows in several geometries, such as symmetric and non-symmetric 180 turns with and without manifolds, sharp and linear expansions with and without manifolds, etc., have been considered. They demonstrate the attractiveness of poloidal concepts of liquid metal blankets, since they guarantee uniform conditions for heat transfer. If changes in the duct cross-section occur in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field (ideally a coolant should always flow in the radial-poloidal plane), the disturbances are local and the slug velocity profile is reached roughly at a distance equivalent to one duct width from the manifolds, expansions, etc. The effects of inertia in these flows are unimportant for the determination of the pressure drop and velocity profiles in the core of the flow but may favour heat transfer characteristics via instabilities and strongly anisotropic turbulence. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woung

    Finding a promising material and constructing a new method to have both high energy and power are key issues for future energy storage systems. This dissertation addresses three different materials systems to resolve those issues. Pseudocapacitive materials such as RuO2 and MnO2 display high capacitance but Nb2O5, displays a different charge storage mechanism, one highly dependent on its crystal phase rather than its surface area. Various sol-gel techniques were used to synthesize the different phases of Nb2O5 and electrochemical testing was used to study their charge storage with some phases displaying comparable charge storage to MnO2. To overcome the electrical limitations of using an insulating material, the core-shell structure (Nb2O 5/C) was also examined and the method could be generalized to improve other pseudocapacitors. Besides electronic conductivity, the diffusion of the electrolyte ions through the shell material is a critical factor for fast charging/discharging in the core-shell structure. This dissertation also involves another topic, a reconfigurable electrode, that displays both high energy and power density. By constructing a reconfigurable electrode which has different electrical properties (metallic or insulating state) depending on the amount of intercalated `guest' ions into `host' material, it can be used as a battery or electrochemical capacitor material in the insulating or metallic state respectively. Metal oxide bronzes having metal-insulator transition were investigated in this study.

  8. Topotactic Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial SrFeO x Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Amit; Shin, Dongwon; Yoo, Tae Sup; Kim, Minu; Kang, Tae Dong

    2017-01-01

    Multivalent transition metal oxides provide fascinating and rich physics related to oxygen stoichiometry. In particular, the adoptability of various valence states of transition metals enables perovskite oxides to display mixed (oxygen) ionic and electronic conduction and catalytic activity useful in many practical applications, including solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), rechargeable batteries, gas sensors, and memristive devices. For proper realization of the ionic conduction and catalytic activity, it is essential to understand the reversible oxidation and reduction process, which is governed by oxygen storage/release steps in oxides. Topotactic phase transformation facilitates the redox process in perovskites with specific oxygen vacancy ordering by largely varying the oxygen concentration of a material without losing the lattice framework. The concentration and diffusion of oxide ions (O 2– ), the valence state of the transition metal cations, and the thermodynamic structural integrity together provide fundamental understanding and ways to explicitly control the redox reaction.[6] In addition, it offers an attractive route for tuning the emergent physical properties of transition metal oxides, via strong coupling between the crystal lattice and electronic structure.

  9. Sharpness and intensity modulation of the metal-insulator transition in ultrathin VO2 films by interfacial structure manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ryan; Goswami, Ankur; Pal, Soupitak; Schofield, Kalvin; Bukhari, Syed Asad Manzoor; Thundat, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic (insulator) to tetragonal (metallic) upon heating above 340 K, accompanied by abrupt changes to its electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. Not only is this transition scientifically intriguing, but there are also numerous applications in sensing, memory, and optoelectronics. Here we investigate the effect different substrates and the processing conditions have on the characteristics metal-insulator transition (MIT), and how the properties can be tuned for specific applications. VO2 thin films were grown on c -plane sapphire (0001) and p-type silicon by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution x-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy reveals textured epitaxial growth on sapphire by domain-matching epitaxy, while the presence of a native oxide layer on silicon prevented any preferential growth resulting in a polycrystalline film. An orientation relationship of (010)VO2|| (0001)Al 2O3 was established for VO2 grown on sapphire, while no such relationship was found for VO2 grown on silicon. Surface-energy minimization is the driving force behind grain growth, as the lowest energy VO2 plane grew on silicon, while on sapphire the desire for epitaxial growth was dominant. Polycrystallinity of films grown on silicon caused a weaker and less prominent MIT than observed on sapphire, whose MIT was higher in magnitude and steeper in slope. The position of the MIT was shown to depend on the competing effects of misfit strain and grain growth. Higher deposition temperatures caused an increase in the MIT, while compressive strain resulted in a decreased MIT.

  10. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO 2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management

  11. Pressure-induced metal-insulator transition in spinel compound CuV2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.; Koyama, K.; Hedo, M.; Uwatoko, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the pressure effect on electrical properties of CuV 2 S 4 , we performed the electrical resistivity measurements under high pressures up to 8 GPa for a high-quality polycrystalline sample. The charge density wave (CDW) transition temperatures increase with increasing pressure. The residual resistivity rapidly increases with increasing pressure over 4 GPa, and the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity at 8 GPa exhibits a semiconducting behavior below about 150 K, indicating that a pressure-induced metal-insulator transition occurs in CuV 2 S 4 at 8 GPa

  12. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kota, E-mail: kotaito@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO{sub 2} film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  13. Electrochemical reduction of cerium oxide into metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claux, Benoit [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Universite de Grenoble, LEPMI-ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Serp, Jerome, E-mail: jerome.serp@cea.f [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Fouletier, Jacques [Universite de Grenoble, LEPMI-ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-02-28

    The Fray Farthing and Chen (FFC) and Ono and Suzuki (OS) processes were developed for the reduction of titanium oxide to titanium metal by electrolysis in high temperature molten alkali chloride salts. The possible transposition to CeO{sub 2} reduction is considered in this study. Present work clarifies, by electro-analytical techniques, the reduction pathway leading to the metal. The reduction of CeO{sub 2} into metal was feasible via an indirect mechanism. Electrolyses on 10 g of CeO{sub 2} were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical process efficiency. Ca metal is electrodeposited at the cathode from CaCl{sub 2}-KCl solvent and reacts chemically with ceria to form not only metallic cerium, but also cerium oxychloride.

  14. Interaction of slow highly-charged ions with metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction of slow highly charged ions with insulator as well as metallic surfaces is discussed. In addition to the usual flat surface targets, studies with thin foils having a multitude of straight holes of ∼100 nm in diameter (micro-capillary foil) are introduced, which provide various unique information on the above surface interaction. In the case of an insulator micro-capillary foil, a so-called guiding effect was observed, where slow highly charged ions can transmit through the capillary tunnel keeping their initial charge state even when the capillary axis is tilted against the incident beam. A similar guiding effect has recently been found for slow highly-charged ions transmitted through a single tapered glass capillary. In both cases, the guiding effects are expected to be governed by a self-organized charging and discharging of the inner-wall of the insulator capillary. One of the prominent features of this guiding effect with the tapered capillary is the formation of a nano-size beam, which can be applied in various fields of science including surface nano-modification/analysis, nano-surgery of living cells, etc

  15. Preparation and dielectric investigation of organic metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures with a ferroelectric polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in the semiconductor is confined to the interface region between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors using dielectric spectroscopy. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements at different frequencies as well as capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements after applying different poling voltages were carried out. The C-V measurements yielded information about the frequency dependence of the depletion layer width as well as the number of charges stored at the semiconductor/ insulator interface. The results are compared to numerical calculations based on a model introduced by S. L. Miller (JAP, 72(12), 1992). The C-f measurements revealed three main relaxation processes. An equivalent circuit has been developed to model the frequency response of the MIS capacitor. With this model the origin of the three relaxations may be deduced.

  16. Progress in metal-insulator-metal waveguide lasers at near-infrared wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marell, M.J.H.; Hill, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Strong light con¯nement can be achieved in metallic cavities which can con¯ne light to volumes with dimensions considerably smaller than the wavelength of light. It was commonly believed, however, that the high losses in metals are prohibitive for laser peration in metallic nano-cavities. Recently

  17. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  18. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  19. Improved description of metal oxide stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Thomas Stenbæk; Olsen, Thomas; Bligaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The renormalized adiabatic PBE (rAPBE) method has recently been shown to comprise a significant improvement over the random phase approximation (RPA) for total energy calculations of simple solids and molecules. Here we consider the formation energies of 19 group I and II metal oxides and a few...... transition-metal oxides. The mean absolute error relative to experiments is 0.21 eV and 0.38 eV per oxygen atom for rAPBE and RPA, respectively, and thus the rAPBE method greatly improves the description of metal-oxygen bonds across a wide range of oxides. The failure of the RPA can be partly attributed...... to the lack of error cancellation between the correlation energy of the oxide on the one hand and the bulk metal and oxygen molecule on the other hand, which are all separately predicted much too negative by the RPA. We ascribe the improved performance of the rAPBE to its significantly better description...

  20. Two-order parameters theory of the metal-insulator phase transition kinetics in the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskii, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The metal-insulator phase transition is considered within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau approach for the phase transition described with two coupled order parameters. One of the order parameters is the mass density which variation is responsible for the origin of nonzero overlapping of the two different electron bands and the appearance of free electron carriers. This transition is assumed to be a first-order phase one. The free electron carriers are described with the vector-function representing the second-order parameter responsible for the continuous phase transition. This order parameter determines mostly the physical properties of the metal-insulator transition and leads to a singularity of the surface tension at the metal-insulator interface. The magnetic field is involved into the consideration of the system. The magnetic field leads to new singularities of the surface tension at the metal-insulator interface and results in a drastic variation of the phase transition kinetics. A strong singularity in the surface tension results from the Landau diamagnetism and determines anomalous features of the metal-insulator transition kinetics.

  1. Direct detection of metal-insulator phase transitions using the modified Backus-Gilbert method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybyshev Maksim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the (semimetal-insulator phase transition can be extremely difficult if the local order parameter which characterizes the ordered phase is unknown. In some cases, it is even impossible to define a local order parameter: the most prominent example of such system is the spin liquid state. This state was proposed to exist in the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice in a region between the semimetal phase and the antiferromagnetic insulator phase. The existence of this phase has been the subject of a long debate. In order to detect these exotic phases we must use alternative methods to those used for more familiar examples of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We have modified the Backus-Gilbert method of analytic continuation which was previously used in the calculation of the pion quasiparticle mass in lattice QCD. The modification of the method consists of the introduction of the Tikhonov regularization scheme which was used to treat the ill-conditioned kernel. This modified Backus-Gilbert method is applied to the Euclidean propagators in momentum space calculated using the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. In this way, it is possible to reconstruct the full dispersion relation and to estimate the mass gap, which is a direct signal of the transition to the insulating state. We demonstrate the utility of this method in our calculations for the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice. We also apply the method to the metal-insulator phase transition in the Hubbard-Coulomb model on the square lattice.

  2. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} for integration into three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assaud, Loic [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); ICMMO-ERIEE, Universite Paris-Sud / Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pitzschel, Kristina; Barr, Maissa K.S.; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbuecken, Margrit; Santinacci, Lionel [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); Monier, Guillaume [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS, Institut Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2017-12-15

    HfO{sub 2} nanotubes have been fabricated via a template-assisted deposition process for further use in three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices. HfO{sub 2} thin layers were grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) in anodic alumina membranes (AAM). The ALD was carried out using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and water as Hf and O sources, respectively. Long exposure durations to the precursors have been used to maximize the penetration depth of the HfO{sub 2} layer within the AAM and the effect of the process temperature was investigated. The morphology, the chemical composition, and the crystal structure were studied as a function of the deposition parameters using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. As expected, the HfO{sub 2} layers grown at low-temperature (T = 150 C) were amorphous, while for a higher temperature (T = 250 C), polycrystalline films were observed. The electrical characterizations have shown better insulating properties for the layers grown at low temperature. Finally, TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN multilayers were grown in an AAM as proof-of-concept for three-dimensional MIM nanostructures. (orig.)

  4. Low-frequency noise in AlTiO/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Son Phuong; Ui, Toshimasa; Nguyen, Tuan Quy; Shih, Hong-An; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu, E-mail: tosikazu@jaist.ac.jp [Center for Nano Materials and Technology, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-05-28

    Using aluminum titanium oxide (AlTiO, an alloy of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) as a high-k gate insulator, we fabricated and investigated AlTiO/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors. From current low-frequency noise (LFN) characterization, we find Lorentzian spectra near the threshold voltage, in addition to 1/f spectra for the well-above-threshold regime. The Lorentzian spectra are attributed to electron trapping/detrapping with two specific time constants, ∼25 ms and ∼3 ms, which are independent of the gate length and the gate voltage, corresponding to two trap level depths of 0.5–0.7 eV with a 0.06 eV difference in the AlTiO insulator. In addition, gate leakage currents are analyzed and attributed to the Poole-Frenkel mechanism due to traps in the AlTiO insulator, where the extracted trap level depth is consistent with the Lorentzian LFN.

  5. Optimization of synthesis protocols to control the nanostructure and the morphology of metal oxide thin films for memristive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, G., E-mail: giacomo.baldi@cnr.it; Bosi, M.; Attolini, G.; Berzina, T.; Mosca, R.; Ponraj, J. S.; Iannotta, S. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Giusti, G.; Nozar, P.; Toccoli, T.; Verucchi, R. [IMEM-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo – I-38123 Trento (Italy); Collini, C.; Lorenzelli, L. [FBK Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    We propose a multi-technique approach based on in-vacuum synthesis of metal oxides to optimize the memristive properties of devices that use a metal oxide thin film as insulating layer. Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) is based on supersonic beams seeded by clusters of the metal oxide. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films can be grown at room temperature, controlling the oxide stoichiometry from titanium metal up to a significant oxygen excess. Pulsed Electron beam Deposition (PED) is suitable to grow crystalline thin films on large areas, a step towards producing device arrays with controlled morphology and stoichiometry. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique to grow materials layer-by-layer, finely controlling the chemical and structural properties of the film up to thickness of 50-80 nm. We will present a few examples of metal-insulator-metal structures showing a pinched hysteresis loop in their current-voltage characteristic. The structure, stoichiometry and morphology of the metal oxide layer, either aluminum oxide or titanium dioxide, is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Raman scattering.

  6. Excitonic metal-insulator phase transition of the Mott type in compressed calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, T. O.; Sarry, A. M.; Sarry, M. F.; Skidan, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    It has been experimentally found that, under the static compression of a calcium crystal at room temperature, it undergoes a series of structural phase transitions: face-centered cubic lattice → body-centered cubic lattice → simple cubic lattice. It has been decided to investigate precisely the simple cubic lattice (because it is an alternative lattice) with the aim of elucidating the possibility of the existence of other (nonstructural) phase transitions in it by using for this purpose the Hubbard model for electrons with half-filled ns-bands and preliminarily transforming the initial electronic system into an electron-hole system by means of the known Shiba operators (applicable only to alternative lattices). This transformation leads to the fact that, in the new system of fermions, instead of the former repulsion, there is an attraction between electrons and holes. Elementary excitations of this new system are bound boson pairs—excitons. This system of fermions has been quantitatively analyzed by jointly using the equation-of-motion method and the direct algebraic method. The numerical integration of the analytically exact transcendental equations derived from the first principles for alternative (one-, two-, and three-dimensional) lattices has demonstrated that, in systems of two-species (electrons + hole) fermions, temperature-induced metal-insulator phase transitions of the Mott type are actually possible. Moreover, all these crystals are in fact excitonic insulators. This conclusion is in complete agreement with the analytically exact calculations of the ground state of a one-dimensional crystal (with half-filled bands), which were performed by Lieb and Wu with the aim to find out the Mott insulator-metal transition of another type.

  7. Metal-insulator transition in 2D: the role of interactions and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrinakis, George

    2007-01-01

    We present a model for the metal-insulator transition in 2D, observed in the recent years. Our starting point consists of two ingredients only, which are ubiquitous in the experiments: Coulomb interactions and weak disorder spin scattering (coming from the interfaces of the heterostructures in question). In a diagramatic approach, we predict the existence of a characteristic temperature T 0 =T 0 (n,ω H ), n being the density of carriers, and ω H the Zeeman energy, below which these systems become metallic, due to the onset of strong spin-density correlations. This is in very good agreement with experiments, and corroborates the fact that varying n and ω H are equivalent ways into/out of the metallic regime. The conductivity, calculated as a function of temperature and ω H in the metallic state, compares favorably to experiment. Moreover, we give an explicit expression for the conventional weak disorder contributions to the conductivity in the frame of our model. We comment on the nature of the transition, we calculate the specific heat of the system and we discuss the fate of the metallic state in the limit of zero temperature

  8. Probable metal-insulator transition in Ag{sub 4}SSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebushchak, V.A., E-mail: dva@igm.nsc.ru [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Pr. Ac. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pal’yanova, G.A.; Seryotkin, Yu.V. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Pr. Ac. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Drebushchak, T.N. [Novosibirsk State University, Ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, SB RAS, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • New phase transition in Ag{sub 4}SSe was discovered with scanning calorimetry and supported with X-ray powder diffraction. • The thermal effect relates to the anomaly in electrical and thermal conductivity of Ag{sub 4}SSe. • Similar thermal and electrical effects in K{sub 3}Cu{sub 8}S{sub 6} are explained with the metal-insulator transition. - Abstract: New phase transition (285 K) in low-temperature monoclinic Ag{sub 4}SSe was found out below the α-β transition (358 K) after the measurements with differential scanning calorimetry. The transition reveals significant hysteresis (over 30 K). X-ray powder diffraction shows that the superlattice with doubled a and b parameters of the unit cell exists below the new transition point. The signs of this new phase transition can be found in thermal and electrical conductivity of Ag{sub 4}SSe published in literature. Elusive phase transition in Ag{sub 2}Se shows similar properties. The new transition is likely related to the metal-insulator type transition, like K{sub 3}Cu{sub 8}S{sub 6}.

  9. Effect of surface states on electrical characteristic of metal - insulator - semiconductor (MIS) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altindal, S.; Doekme, I.; Tataroglu, A.; Sahingoez, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) Schottky barrier diodes which is consider distribution of interface states in equilibrium with semiconductor were determined at two (low and high) temperature. The interface states were responsible for non-ideal behavior of the forward I-V characteristic of diodes. Both diodes (n and p type Si) showed non-ideal behavior with an ideality factor 1.6 and 1.85 respectively at room temperature. The higher values of n-type Si were attributed to an order of magnitude higher density of interface states in the both diodes. The effect of an interfacial insulator layer between the metal and semiconductor are also studied. The high density of interface states also caused a reduction in the barrier height of the MIS diode. It is shown that by using Norde function at low and high temperature, barrier height □ b , series resistance R s and ideality factor n can be determined even in the case 1 s obtained from Norde function strongly depend on temperature, and decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the potential barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The mean density of interface states N ss decreases with increasing temperature. Particularly at low temperature the I-V characteristics are controlled by interface states density

  10. Strain-induced metal-insulator phase coexistence in perovskite manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K H; Lookman, T; Bishop, A R

    2004-03-25

    The coexistence of distinct metallic and insulating electronic phases within the same sample of a perovskite manganite, such as La(1-x-y)Pr(y)Ca(x)MnO3, presents researchers with a tool for tuning the electronic properties in materials. In particular, colossal magnetoresistance in these materials--the dramatic reduction of resistivity in a magnetic field--is closely related to the observed texture owing to nanometre- and micrometre-scale inhomogeneities. Despite accumulated data from various high-resolution probes, a theoretical understanding for the existence of such inhomogeneities has been lacking. Mechanisms invoked so far, usually based on electronic mechanisms and chemical disorder, have been inadequate to describe the multiscale, multiphase coexistence within a unified picture. Moreover, lattice distortions and long-range strains are known to be important in the manganites. Here we show that the texturing can be due to the intrinsic complexity of a system with strong coupling between the electronic and elastic degrees of freedom. This leads to local energetically favourable configurations and provides a natural mechanism for the self-organized inhomogeneities over both nanometre and micrometre scales. The framework provides a physical understanding of various experimental results and a basis for engineering nanoscale patterns of metallic and insulating phases.

  11. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  12. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Sheikh, Arif D.; Guan, Xinwei; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    . In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment

  13. Quantum criticality around metal-insulator transitions of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2007-03-01

    Quantum criticality of metal-insulator transitions in correlated electron systems is shown to belong to an unconventional universality class with violation of the Ginzburg-Landau-Wilson (GLW) scheme formulated for symmetry breaking transitions. This unconventionality arises from an emergent character of the quantum critical point, which appears at the marginal point between the Ising-type symmetry breaking at nonzero temperatures and the topological transition of the Fermi surface at zero temperature. We show that Hartree-Fock approximations of an extended Hubbard model on square lattices are capable of such metal-insulator transitions with unusual criticality under a preexisting symmetry breaking. The obtained universality is consistent with the scaling theory formulated for Mott transitions and with a number of numerical results beyond the mean-field level, implying that preexisting symmetry breaking is not necessarily required for the emergence of this unconventional universality. Examinations of fluctuation effects indicate that the obtained critical exponents remain essentially exact beyond the mean-field level. It further clarifies the whole structure of singularities by a unified treatment of the bandwidth-control and filling-control transitions. Detailed analyses of the criticality, containing diverging carrier density fluctuations around the marginal quantum critical point, are presented from microscopic calculations and reveal the nature as quantum critical “opalescence.” The mechanism of emerging marginal quantum critical point is ascribed to a positive feedback and interplay between the preexisting gap formation present even in metals and kinetic energy gain (loss) of the metallic carrier. Analyses of crossovers between GLW type at nonzero temperature and topological type at zero temperature show that the critical exponents observed in (V,Cr)2O3 and κ-ET -type organic conductors provide us with evidence for the existence of the present marginal

  14. Magnetotransport investigations of the two-dimensional metallic state in silicon metal-oxid-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinz, A.

    2002-03-01

    For more than two decades it was the predominant view among the physical community that the every two-dimensional (2D) disordered electron system becomes insulating as the temperature approaches the absolute zero temperature (0 Kelvin or -273.15 o C). Two-dimensional means that the movement of the charge carriers is confined in one direction by a potential so that the carriers can move freely only perpendicular to the confinement. The most famous physical realization of a 2D system is the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (Si-MOSFET). It is one of the basic elements of most electronic devices in our daily life. The working principle is very simple. Charges are attracted to the semiconductor-oxide interface by an electric field applied between the metallic gate and the semiconductor, so that a 2D conductive channel is formed. The charge density can be adjusted by the voltage from zero up to 10 13 cm -2 . In 1994 Kravchenko and coworkers made a very important discovery. They studied high mobility Si-MOSFETs and found that for densities below a certain critical value, nc, the resistivity increases as the temperature is decreased below 2 K, whereas for densities above $n c $ the resistivity decreases unexpectedly. The transition from insulating to metallic behavior, known as metal-insulator transition (MIT), was obviously a contradiction to the commonly accepted theories which predict insulating behavior for any density. The insulating behavior is a consequence of the wave properties of electrons which leads to interference in disordered media and thus to enhanced backscattering. In the subsequent years, experimental studies were performed on a variety of 2D systems, which qualitatively showed a similar behavior. All the investigated samples had one thing in common. The interaction energy between the carriers was considerable higher than their mean kinetic energy due to their movement in the 2D plane. Since the electron-electron interaction was

  15. Strain engineering and one-dimensional organization of metal-insulator domains in single-crystal vanadium dioxide beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J; Ertekin, E; Srinivasan, V; Fan, W; Huang, S; Zheng, H; Yim, J W L; Khanal, D R; Ogletree, D F; Grossman, J C; Wu, J

    2009-11-01

    Correlated electron materials can undergo a variety of phase transitions, including superconductivity, the metal-insulator transition and colossal magnetoresistance. Moreover, multiple physical phases or domains with dimensions of nanometres to micrometres can coexist in these materials at temperatures where a pure phase is expected. Making use of the properties of correlated electron materials in device applications will require the ability to control domain structures and phase transitions in these materials. Lattice strain has been shown to cause the coexistence of metallic and insulating phases in the Mott insulator VO(2). Here, we show that we can nucleate and manipulate ordered arrays of metallic and insulating domains along single-crystal beams of VO(2) by continuously tuning the strain over a wide range of values. The Mott transition between a low-temperature insulating phase and a high-temperature metallic phase usually occurs at 341 K in VO(2), but the active control of strain allows us to reduce this transition temperature to room temperature. In addition to device applications, the ability to control the phase structure of VO(2) with strain could lead to a deeper understanding of the correlated electron materials in general.

  16. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  17. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Tony J.; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) use increasing, and NPs ultimately discharged to marine systems. • Metal ion dissolution from NPs causes oxidative stress at relevant concentrations. • Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of NPs likely at all levels of marine food webs. • Biofilms and filter feeders are major NP accumulators, but many Classes lack study. • Current release levels unlikely to cause chronic damage, but may be a future issue. -- Exposure to metal (oxide) nanoparticles causes sub-lethal effects in marine organisms, the extent of which is related principally to the organisms' feeding regime, habitat and lifestyle

  18. Handleable shapes of thermal insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J. T.

    1989-01-17

    Handleable and machineable shapes of thermal insulation material are made by compacting finely divided thermal insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb insulation material into the cells of a reinforcing honeycomb structure. The finely divided thermal insulation material may be, for example, silica aerogel, pyrogenic silica, carbon black, silica gel, volatilised silica, calcium silicate, vermiculate or perlite, or finely divided metal oxides such as alumina or titania. The finely divided thermal insulation material may include an infra-red opacifier and/or reinforcing fibres. The reinforcing honeycomb structure may be made from, for example, metals such as aluminium foil, inorganic materials such as ceramics, organic materials such as plastics materials, woven fabrics or paper. A rigidiser may be employed. The shapes of thermal insulation material are substantially rigid and may be machines, for example by mechanical or laser cutting devices, or may be formed, for example by rolling, into curved or other shaped materials. 12 figs.

  19. Optical study on metal-insulator change in PrFe4P12 under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irizawa, Akinori; Sato, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Masayo; Nanba, Takao; Matsunami, Masaharu; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The optical study has been performed on filled-skutterudite PrFe 4 P 12 applying pressure up to 16 GPa. The reflectivity at far-infrared (FIR) region showed that the metallic reflectivity looses its intensity and the weak phonon peaks at ambient pressure become prominent with pressures at lower temperature. It insists that the electronic states near Fermi level in this compound changes drastically from metallic properties to insulating ones at high pressures and low temperatures, and the insulating phase persists up to 16 GPa against the electrical resistivity data under pressure

  20. The inaccuracy of heat transfer characteristics for non-insulated and insulated spherical containers neglecting the influence of heat radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, King-Leung; Salazar, Jose Luis Leon; Prasad, Leo; Chen, Wen-Lih

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, the differences of heat transfer characteristics for insulated and non-insulated spherical containers between considering and neglecting the influence of heat radiation are studied by the simulations in some practical situations. It is found that the heat radiation effect cannot be ignored in conditions of low ambient convection heat coefficients (such ambient air) and high surface emissivities, especially for the non-insulated and thin insulated cases. In most practical situations when ambient temperature is different from surroundings temperature and the emissivity of insulation surface is different from that of metal wall surface, neglecting heat radiation will result in inaccurate insulation effect and heat transfer errors even with very thick insulation. However, the insulation effect considering heat radiation will only increase a very small amount after some dimensionless insulated thickness (such insulation thickness/radius ≥0.2 in this study), thus such dimensionless insulated thickness can be used as the optimum thickness in practical applications. Meanwhile, wrapping a material with low surface emissivity (such as aluminum foil) around the oxidized metal wall or insulation layer (always with high surface emissivity) can achieve very good insulated effect for the non-insulated or thin insulated containers.

  1. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  2. Investigation of self-powered gamma flux detectors with Lead(II) oxide serving as both emitter and insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, H.; Yue, S.; Jonkmans, G.; Sur, B.; Hilborn, J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Lead(II) oxide as the electron-emitting component and the insulating component of self-powered flux detectors is a concept that had not been previously explored. Detectors constructed from various combinations of electrodes (stainless steel, Al, Pb, and W) and insulating materials (Al 2 O 3 and PbO) were irradiated in a 427 Gy/h gamma field. Although high gamma sensitivities were achieved, PbO did not prove to be a strong emitter of gamma-induced electrons. Nevertheless, PbO did serve as a better insulator than one that is currently in use, namely alumina. (author)

  3. Probing charge transfer during metal-insulator transitions in graphene-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaj, I.; Sambri, A.; Miseikis, V.; Stornaiuolo, D.; di Gennaro, E.; Coletti, C.; Pellegrini, V.; Miletto Granozio, F.; Roddaro, S.

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) at the interface between LaAlO3 (LAO) and SrTiO3 (STO) perovskite oxides display a wide class of tunable phenomena ranging from superconductivity to metal-insulator transitions. Most of these effects are strongly sensitive to surface physics and often involve charge transfer mechanisms, which are, however, hard to detect. In this work, we realize hybrid field-effect devices where graphene is used to modulate the transport properties of the LAO/STO 2DES. Different from a conventional gate, graphene is semimetallic and allows us to probe charge transfer with the oxide structure underneath the field-effect electrode. In LAO/STO samples with a low initial carrier density, graphene-covered regions turn insulating when the temperature is lowered to 3 K, but conduction can be restored in the oxide structure by increasing the temperature or by field effect. The evolution of graphene's electron density is found to be inconsistent with a depletion of LAO/STO, but it rather points to a localization of interfacial carriers in the oxide structure.

  4. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} capacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, No. 1, Nantai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of {+-} 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of {+-} 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors.

  5. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO3 capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of ± 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 at an applied field of ± 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO 2 /Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors

  6. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially......, sensors for measuring the temperatures in an operating HT-PEM (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell are developed for detecting in-plane temperature variations. 5 different tracks for embedded thermal sensors are investigated. The fuel cell MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) is quite...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  7. Use of cermet thin film resistors with nitride passivated metal insulator field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. A.; Harrap, V.

    1971-01-01

    Film deposition of cermet resistors on same chip with metal nitride oxide silicon field effect transistors permits protection of contamination sensitive active devices from contaminants produced in cermet deposition and definition processes. Additional advantages include lower cost, greater reliability, and space savings.

  8. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  9. Nanostructured hydrophobic DC sputtered inorganic oxide coating for outdoor glass insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Gupta, H.O. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chandra, R., E-mail: ramesfic@gmail.com [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Deposition of contamination on outdoor glass insulators and its physical and economical consequences were discussed. • Synthesis of nanostructured hydrophobic HfO{sub 2} film on glass as a remedial measure by varying DC sputtering power. • Investigated and correlated structural, optical, electrical and hydrophobic properties of HfO{sub 2} films with respect to power. • Optimum results were obtained at a 50 W DC sputtering power. - Abstract: We report the structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured hydrophobic inorganic hafnium oxide coating for outdoor glass insulator using DC sputtering technique to combat contamination problem. The properties were studied as a function of DC power. The characterization of the films was done using X-ray diffraction, EDS, surface profilometer, AFM, impedance analyser and water contact angle measurement system. The DC power was varied from 30 to 60 W and found to have a great impact on the properties of hafnium oxide. All the deposited samples were polycrystalline with nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces. The intensity of crystallinity of the film was found to be dependent on sputtering power and hydrophobicity was correlated to the nanoscale roughness of the films. The optical property reveals 80% average transmission for all the samples. The refractive index was found in the range of 1.85–1.92, near to the bulk value. The band gap calculated from transmission data was >5.3 eV for all deposited samples ensuring dielectric nature of the films. Surface energy calculated by two methods was found minimum for the film deposited at 50 W sputtering power. The resistivity was also high enough (∼10{sup 4} Ω cm) to hinder the flow of leakage current through the film. The dielectric constant (ε) was found to be thickness dependent and also high enough (ε{sub max} = 23.12) to bear the large electric field of outdoor insulators.

  10. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used as the basis for an analysis of the electrochemical process, where by water is split to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen. We develop a method for obtaining the thermochemistry of the electrochemical water splitting process as a function of the bias...... directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...

  11. Diamond logic inverter with enhancement-mode metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. W., E-mail: liu.jiangwei@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M. [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Watanabe, E.; Oosato, H. [Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Koide, Y., E-mail: koide.yasuo@nims.go.jp [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nanofabrication Platform, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Center of Materials Research for Low Carbon Emission, NIMS, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    A diamond logic inverter is demonstrated using an enhancement-mode hydrogenated-diamond metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) coupled with a load resistor. The gate insulator has a bilayer structure of a sputtering-deposited LaAlO{sub 3} layer and a thin atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer. The source-drain current maximum, extrinsic transconductance, and threshold voltage of the MISFET are measured to be −40.7 mA·mm{sup −1}, 13.2 ± 0.1 mS·mm{sup −1}, and −3.1 ± 0.1 V, respectively. The logic inverters show distinct inversion (NOT-gate) characteristics for input voltages ranging from 4.0 to −10.0 V. With increasing the load resistance, the gain of the logic inverter increases from 5.6 to as large as 19.4. The pulse response against the high and low input voltages shows the inversion response with the low and high output voltages.

  12. Controlled thermoelectric response of a tunable Rashba coupled metal-insulator-superconductor junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapri, Priyadarshini; Adhikary, Priyanka; Sinha, Shubham; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric effect for metal, insulator and the superconductor junctions has been studied with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) being present at the interfaces via modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. We find that the thermopower, as a function of an effective barrier potential that characterizes the intermediate insulating layer, displays an oscillatory behavior. Interesting interplay between the strength of RSOC and the effective barrier potential has been carried out in details in this regard. For specific ranges of the effective barrier potential, RSOC enhances the thermopower, while the reverse happens for other values. Moreover it is found that the effective barrier potential plays a crucial role in determining the thermopower spectrum. For a tunable Rashba coupling, the thermopower of the junction can be controlled with precision, which may useful for the thermoelectric applications, at low temperatures. Further the efficiency of the system is obtained for different pairing correlations of the superconducting lead where we find that the system with a d-wave symmetry is more efficient as compared to a s-wave correlation, in some selective regions of effective barrier potential. It is found that for some selective regions of effective barrier potential, the efficiency of the system increases with RSOC and the opposite happens for other values.

  13. Broadband and wide angle near-unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal thin film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    Broadband unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal (GIM) structures is demonstrated in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The spectral characteristics possess broadband absorption peaks, by simply choosing a stack of GIM, while no nanofabrication steps and patterning are required, and thus can be easily fabricated to cover a large area. The electromagnetic (EM) waves can be entirely trapped and the absorption can be greatly enhanced are verified with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The position and the number of the absorption peak can be totally controlled by adjusting the thickness of the insulator layer. The proposed absorber maintains high absorption (above 90%) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and for angles of incidence up to 80°. This work opens up a promising approach to realize perfect absorption (PA) with ultra-thin film, which could implicate many potential applications in optical detection and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Device characteristics of antenna-coupled metal-insulator-metal diodes (rectenna) using Al2O3, TiO2, and Cr2O3 as insulator layer for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inac, Mesut; Shafique, Atia; Ozcan, Meric; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2015-09-01

    Antenna-coupled metal-insulator-metal devices are most potent candidate for future energy harvesting devices. The reason for that they are ultra-high speed devices that can rectify the electromagnetic radiation at high frequencies. In addition to their speed, they are also small devices that can have more number of devices in unit area. In this work, it is aimed design and develop a device which can harvest and detect IR radiation.

  15. Soft Coulomb gap and asymmetric scaling towards metal-insulator quantum criticality in multilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byoung Hee; Bae, Jung Jun; Joo, Min-Kyu; Choi, Homin; Han, Gang Hee; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Young Hee

    2018-05-24

    Quantum localization-delocalization of carriers are well described by either carrier-carrier interaction or disorder. When both effects come into play, however, a comprehensive understanding is not well established mainly due to complexity and sparse experimental data. Recently developed two-dimensional layered materials are ideal in describing such mesoscopic critical phenomena as they have both strong interactions and disorder. The transport in the insulating phase is well described by the soft Coulomb gap picture, which demonstrates the contribution of both interactions and disorder. Using this picture, we demonstrate the critical power law behavior of the localization length, supporting quantum criticality. We observe asymmetric critical exponents around the metal-insulator transition through temperature scaling analysis, which originates from poor screening in insulating regime and conversely strong screening in metallic regime due to free carriers. The effect of asymmetric scaling behavior is weakened in monolayer MoS 2 due to a dominating disorder.

  16. Infrared-transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion device with thin-film-transistor-type structure on a glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Katase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion was demonstrated on a glass substrate by using thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2 as the active layer in a three-terminal thin-film-transistor-type device with water-infiltrated glass as the gate insulator. Alternative positive/negative gate-voltage applications induce the reversible protonation/deprotonation of a VO2 channel, and two-orders of magnitude modulation of sheet-resistance and 49% modulation of IR-transmittance were simultaneously demonstrated at room temperature by the metal-insulator phase conversion of VO2 in a non-volatile manner. The present device is operable by the room-temperature protonation in an all-solid-state structure, and thus it will provide a new gateway to future energy-saving technology as an advanced smart window.

  17. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel with an inner metal coating covered with a high temperature resistant thermal insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The thermal insulator covering the metal coating of a reactor vessel is designed for resisting high temperatures. It comprises one or several porous layers of ceramic fibers or of stacked metal foils, covered with a layer of bricks or ceramic tiles. The latter are fixed in position by fasteners comprising pins fixed to the coating and passing through said porous layers and fasteners (nut or bolts) for individually fixing the bricks to said pins, whereas ceramic plugs mounted on said bricks or tiles provide for the thermal insulation of the pins and of the nuts or bolts; such a thermal insulation can be applied to high-temperature reactors or to fast reactors [fr

  18. Metal-Insulator-Metal Single Electron Transistors with Tunnel Barriers Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karbasian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.

  19. Light scattering by epitaxial VO{sub 2} films near the metal-insulator transition point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Sergiy, E-mail: sergiy.lysenko@upr.edu; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Figueroa, Jose; Vargas, Kevin; Cordero, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Aparicio, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico-Ponce, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732 (United States); Sepúlveda, Nelson [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Experimental observation of metal-insulator transition in epitaxial films of vanadium dioxide is reported. Hemispherical angle-resolved light scattering technique is applied for statistical analysis of the phase transition processes on mesoscale. It is shown that the thermal hysteresis strongly depends on spatial frequency of surface irregularities. The transformation of scattering indicatrix depends on sample morphology and is principally different for the thin films with higher internal elastic strain and for the thicker films where this strain is suppressed by introduction of misfit dislocations. The evolution of scattering indicatrix, fractal dimension, surface power spectral density, and surface autocorrelation function demonstrates distinctive behavior which elucidates the influence of structural defects and strain on thermal hysteresis, twinning of microcrystallites, and domain formation during the phase transition.

  20. Surface antiferromagnetism and incipient metal-insulator transition in strained manganite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio; Colizzi, G.; Filippetti, A.; Fiorentini, Vincenzo; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the (001) surface of the ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under an epitaxial compressive strain favors antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the surface layers, coexisting with ferromagnetic (FM) bulk order. Surface antiferromagnetism is accompanied by a very marked surface-related spectral pseudogap, signaling an incomplete metal-insulator transition at the surface. The different relaxation and rumpling of the MnO2 and LaO surface planes in the two competing magnetic phases cause distinct work-function changes, which are of potential diagnostic use. The AF phase is recognized as an extreme surface-assisted case of the combination of in-plane AF super-exchange and vertical FM double-exchange couplings that rules magnetism in manganites under in-plane compression.

  1. Local distortion induced metal-to-insulator phase transition in PrRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, D.; Heffner, R.H.; Jeong, I.-K.; Bauer, E.D.; Bridges, F.; Yuhasz, W.M.; Maple, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on PrRu 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 P 12 to study the metal-to-insulator (MI) phase transition in PrRu 4 P 12 . No Pr displacement was observed across the MI transition temperature from the EXAFS data. Instead, our EXAFS data clearly show that a Ru displacement is associated with this MI transition. The very high Debye temperature for the Ru-P bond (Θ D =690 K) suggests that a slight rotation/displacement of relatively rigid RuP 6 octahedra leads to this small Ru displacement, which accompanies the MI transition at 62 K in PrRu 4 P 12

  2. Metal-insulator crossover in superconducting cuprates in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, P.A.; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu

    2001-02-01

    The metal-insulator crossover of the in-plane resistivity upon temperature decrease, recently observed in several classes of cuprate superconductors, when a strong magnetic field suppresses the superconductivity, is explained using the U(1)xSU(2) Chern-Simons gauge field theory. The origin of this crossover is the same as that for a similar phenomenon observed in heavily underdoped cuprates without magnetic field. It is due to the interplay between the diffusive motion of the charge carriers and the 'peculiar' localization effect due to short-range antiferromagnetic order. We also calculate the in-plane transverse magnetoresistance which is in a fairly good agreement with available experimental data. (author)

  3. Surface antiferromagnetism and incipient metal-insulator transition in strained manganite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2013-06-21

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the (001) surface of the ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under an epitaxial compressive strain favors antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the surface layers, coexisting with ferromagnetic (FM) bulk order. Surface antiferromagnetism is accompanied by a very marked surface-related spectral pseudogap, signaling an incomplete metal-insulator transition at the surface. The different relaxation and rumpling of the MnO2 and LaO surface planes in the two competing magnetic phases cause distinct work-function changes, which are of potential diagnostic use. The AF phase is recognized as an extreme surface-assisted case of the combination of in-plane AF super-exchange and vertical FM double-exchange couplings that rules magnetism in manganites under in-plane compression.

  4. Metal-Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  5. Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satija, Indubala I.; Dakin, Daniel C.; Clark, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. For Abelian gauges, such transitions occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case include the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta

  6. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  7. Ground state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in rare earth nickelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Thorsten; Bisogni, Valentina; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir [Research Department Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Catalano, Sara; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Zubko, Pavlo; Triscone, Jean-Marc [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, University of Geneva (Switzerland); Green, Robert J.; Balandeh, Shadi; Sawatzky, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Perovskite rare-earth (Re) nickelates ReNiO{sub 3} continue to attract a lot of interest owing to their intriguing properties like a sharp metal to insulator transition (MIT), unusual magnetic order and expected superconductivity in specifically tuned super-lattices. Full understanding of these materials, however, is hampered by the difficulties in describing their electronic ground state (GS). From X-ray absorption (XAS) at the Ni 2p{sub 3/2} edge of thin films of NdNiO{sub 3} and corresponding RIXS maps vs. incident and transferred photon energies we reveal that the electronic GS configuration of NdNiO{sub 3} is composed of delocalized and localized components. Our study conveys that a Ni 3d{sup 8}-like configuration with holes at oxygen takes on the leading role in the GS and the MIT of ReNiO{sub 3} as proposed by recent model theories.

  8. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  9. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David William

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including cobalt antimonate and vanadium antimonate. Reactivity measurements were made using a continuous flow microreactor, which was used in conjunction with a variety of characterisation techniques to determine relationships between the catalytic behaviour and the properties of the materials. The ratio of Fe/Sb in the iron antimonate catalyst affects the reactivity of the system under steady state conditions, with additional iron beyond the stoichiometric value being detrimental to the acrolein selectivity, while extra antimony provides a means of enhancing the selectivity by decreasing acrolein combustion. Studies on the single antimony oxides of iron antimonate have shown a similarity between the reactivity of 'Sb 2 O 5 ' and FeSbO 4 , and a significant difference between these and the Sb 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 4 phases, implying that the mixed oxide catalyst has a surface mainly comprised of Sb 5+ . The lack of reactivity of Sb 2 O 4 implies a similarity of the surface with

  10. Critical metal-insulator transition and divergence in a two-particle irreducible vertex in disordered and interacting electron systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janiš, Václav; Pokorný, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "045143-1"-"045143-11" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal-insulator transition * disordered and interacting electron systems * dynamical mean-field theory * critical behavior Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  11. Metal-insulator transition in NiS.sub.2-x./sub.Se.sub.x./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Baldassarre, L.; Schachner, B.; Rabia, K.; Kuntscher, C.A.; Korotin, D. M.; Anisimov, V.I.; McLeod, J.A.; Kurmaev, E.Z.; Moewes, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2010), 035112/1-035112/6 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : metal-insulator transition * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v81/i3/e035122

  12. New Light on the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2: A Terahertz Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, Bernd M.; Thoman, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the metal-insulator (MI) transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), thin films with Terahertz Time-Domains Spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The capability of detecting both amplitude and phase of the transmission characteristics as the phase of the transmitted THz signal switches at a markedly...

  13. 49 CFR 178.358 - Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack. 178.358 Section 178.358 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.358 Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam...

  14. Extracting and focusing of surface plasmon polaritons inside finite asymmetric metal/insulator/metal structure at apex of optical fiber by subwavelength holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikane, Yasushi; Murai, Kensuke; Nakano, Motohiro

    2013-09-01

    We have been studied a finite asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure on glass plate for near-future visible light communication (VLC) system with white LED illuminations in the living space (DOI: 10.1117/12.929201). The metal layers are vacuum-evaporated thin silver (Ag) films (around 50 nm and 200 nm, respectively), and the insulator layer (around 150 nm) is composed of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). A characteristic narrow band filtering of the MIM structure at visible region might cause a confinement of intense surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at specific monochromatic frequency inside a subwavelength insulator layer of the MIM structure. Central wavelength and depth of such absorption dip in flat spectral reflectance curve is controlled by changing thicknesses of both insulator and thinner metal layers. On the other hand, we have proposed a twin-hole pass-through wave guide for SPPs in thick Ag film (DOI: 10.1117/12.863587). At that time, the twin-hole converted a incoming plane light wave into a pair of channel plasmon polaritons (CPPs), and united them at rear surface of the Ag film. This research is having an eye to extract, guide, and focus the SPPs through a thicker metal layer of the MIM with FIBed subwavelength pass-through holes. The expected outcome is a creation of noble, monochromatic, and tunable fiber probe for scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) with intense white light sources. Basic experimental and FEM simulation results will be presented.

  15. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  16. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , and SnO 2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga 2 O, In 2 O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO 2 , somewhat lower for In 2 O 3 , and the lowest for Ga 2 O 3 . Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides

  17. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  18. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs’ preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance.

  19. Tailored plasmon-induced transparency in attenuated total reflection response in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Hirai, Yusuke; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2017-12-19

    We demonstrated tailored plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metal (Au)-insulator (SiO 2 )-metal (Ag) (MIM) structure, where the Fano interference between the MIM waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode induced a transparency window in an otherwise opaque wavenumber (k) region. A series of structures with different thicknesses of the Ag layer were prepared and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response was examined. The height and width of the transparency window, as well as the relevant k-domain dispersion, were controlled by adjusting the Ag layer thickness. To confirm the dependency of PIT on Ag layer thickness, we performed numerical calculations to determine the electric field amplitude inside the layers. The steep k-domain dispersion in the transparency window is capable of creating a lateral beam shift known as the Goos-Hänchen shift, for optical device and sensor applications. We also discuss the Fano interference profiles in a ω - k two-dimensional domain on the basis of Akaike information criteria.

  20. Electrical transport and capacitance characteristics of metal-insulator-metal structures using hexagonal and cubic boron nitride films as dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teii, Kungen; Kawamoto, Shinsuke; Fukui, Shingo; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2018-04-01

    Metal-insulator-metal capacitor structures using thick hexagonal and cubic boron nitride (hBN and cBN) films as dielectrics are produced by plasma jet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and their electrical transport and capacitance characteristics are studied in a temperature range of 298 to 473 K. The resistivity of the cBN film is of the order of 107 Ω cm at 298 K, which is lower than that of the hBN film by two orders of magnitude, while it becomes the same order as the hBN film above ˜423 K. The dominant current transport mechanism at high fields (≥1 × 104 V cm-1) is described by the Frenkel-Poole emission and thermionic emission models for the hBN and cBN films, respectively. The capacitance of the hBN film remains stable for a change in alternating-current frequency and temperature, while that of the cBN film has variations of at most 18%. The dissipation factor as a measure of energy loss is satisfactorily low (≤5%) for both films. The origin of leakage current and capacitance variation is attributed to a high defect density in the film and a transition interlayer between the substrate and the film, respectively. This suggests that cBN films with higher crystallinity, stoichiometry, and phase purity are potentially applicable for dielectrics like hBN films.

  1. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  2. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  3. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  4. Covalent bonding in heavy metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Hrovat, Dave A.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2017-04-07

    Novel theoretical methods were used to quantify the magnitude and the energetic contributions of 4f/5f-O2p and 5d/6d-O2p interactions to covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide oxides. Although many analyses have neglected the involvement of the frontier d orbitals, the present study shows that f and d covalency are of comparable importance. Two trends are identified. As is expected, the covalent mixing is larger when the nominal oxidation state is higher. More subtly, the importance of the nf covalent mixing decreases sharply relative to (n+1)d as the nf occupation increases. Atomic properties of the metal cations that drive these trends are identified.

  5. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  6. Electronic properties of InAs-based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuryshev, G L; Valisheva, N A

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of electronic processes in InAs-based MIS structures operating in the charge injection device mode and using as photodetectors in spectral range 2.5-3.05 mu m are investigated. A two-layer system consisting of anodic oxide and low-temperature silicon dioxide is used as an insulator. It is shown that fluoride-containing components that is introduced into the electrolyte decreases the value of the built-in charge and the surface state static density down to minimal measurable values <= 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 2 eV sup - sup 2. Physical and chemical characteristics of the surface states at the InAs-dielectric interface are discussed on the basis of data on phase composition of anodic oxides obtained by means of X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy. Anomalous field generation was also observed under the semiconductor non-equilibrium depletion. The processes of tunnel generation and the noise behavior of MIS structures under non-equilibrium depletion are investigated

  7. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  8. Photo-response of a P3HT:PCBM blend in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devynck, M.; Rostirolla, B.; Watson, C. P.; Taylor, D. M., E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are investigated, in which the insulator is cross-linked polyvinylphenol and the active layer a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Admittance spectra and capacitance-voltage measurements obtained in the dark both display similar behaviour to those previously observed in P3HT-only devices. However, the photo-capacitance response is significantly enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM case, where exciton dissociation leads to electron transfer into the PCBM component. The results are consistent with a network of PCBM aggregates that is continuous through the film but with no lateral interconnection between the aggregates at or near the blend/insulator interface.

  9. Interaction of terbium group metal oxides with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodop'yanov, A.G.; Baranov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of terbium group metals from oxides is investigated using thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Interaction of metal oxides with carbon covers dissociation of metal oxides and reduction by carbon monoxide, which contribution into general reduction depends on CO pressure. Temperatures of reaction beginning for batch initial components at P=1.3x10 -4 and P CO =0.1 MPa and of formation of oxycarbide melts are determined

  10. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  11. Electrostatic doping of a Mott insulator in an oxide heterostructure: the case of LaVO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Andreas; Pfaff, Florian; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph [Physikalisches Insititut and Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Boschker, Hans; Kamp, Martin; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA-plus Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of a quasi-two-dimensional electron system at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} has triggered intense investigations of oxide heterostructures with other material combinations. The hope is that by combining a polar overlayer with a non-polar substrate electronic reconstruction will lead to highly mobile interface charge carriers with special properties. The formation of a conducting interface layer in epitaxial LaVO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, where LaVO{sub 3} is a Mott insulator, is studied by transport measurements and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We identify an insulator-to-metal transition above a critical LaVO{sub 3} thickness with transport properties similar to those recently reported for LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces. Interestingly, our photoemission measurements give evidence that electronic charge is transferred exclusively to the LaVO{sub 3}-side of the interface caused by an electronic reconstruction within the film itself. This opens the opportunity to study a band-filling controlled Mott transition induced by a purely electrostatic mechanism.

  12. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Finely divided powders are prepared by first reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. After the reaction of water in the solution with urea is complete, the resulting molten urea solution is heated to cause metal values in solution to precipitate. The resulting mixture containing precipitated metal values is heated to evaporate volatile material, leaving a dry powder containing the metal values. Detailed examples are given. (U.K.)

  13. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  14. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V) metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip) temperature (Tss) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2) in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5). The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500 ˚ C and 7.5 × 10-2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  15. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  16. Adjusting the Parameters of Metal Oxide Gapless Surge Arresters’ Equivalent Circuits Using the Harmony Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Christodoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate circuit modeling of metal oxide gapless surge arresters is critical for insulation coordination studies. Metal oxide arresters present a dynamic behavior for fast front surges; namely, their residual voltage is dependent on the peak value, as well as the duration of the injected impulse current, and should therefore not only be represented by non-linear elements. The aim of the current work is to adjust the parameters of the most frequently used surge arresters’ circuit models by considering the magnitude of the residual voltage, as well as the dissipated energy for given pulses. In this aim, the harmony search method is implemented to adjust parameter values of the arrester equivalent circuit models. This functions by minimizing a defined objective function that compares the simulation outcomes with the manufacturer’s data and the results obtained from previous methodologies.

  17. Scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, J.; Martel, R.; Solomon, P.; Chan, K.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.; Benedict, J.; Tanner, M.; Thomas, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel length metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) involving nanolithography and molecular-beam epitaxy. The active channel is undoped and is defined by a combination of nanometer-scale patterning and anisotropic etching of an n ++ layer grown on a silicon on insulator wafer. The method is self-limiting and can produce MOSFET devices with channel lengths of less than 10 nm. Measurements on the first batch of n-MOSFET devices fabricated with this approach show very good output characteristics and good control of short-channel effects. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Spin-Driven Emergent Antiferromagnetism and Metal-Insulator Transition in Nanoscale p-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Paul C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement of the charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom can give rise to emergent behavior especially in thin films, surfaces and interfaces. Often, materials that exhibit those properties require large spin orbit coupling. We hypothesize that the emergent behavior can also occur due to spin, electron and phonon interactions in widely studied simple materials such as Si. That is, large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is not an essential requirement for emergent behavior. The central hypothesis is that when one of the specimen dimensions is of the same order (or smaller) as the spin diffusion length, then non-equilibrium spin accumulation due to spin injection or spin-Hall effect (SHE) will lead to emergent phase transformations in the non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. In this experimental work, we report spin mediated emergent antiferromagnetism and metal insulator transition in a Pd (1 nm)/Ni81Fe19 (25 nm)/MgO (1 nm)/p-Si (~400 nm) thin film specimen. The spin-Hall effect in p-Si, observed through Rashba spin-orbit coupling mediated spin-Hall magnetoresistance behavior, is proposed to cause the spin accumulation and resulting emergent behavior. The phase transition is discovered from the diverging behavior in longitudinal third harmonic voltage, which is related to the thermal conductivity and heat capacity.

  19. Characterization of micro-resonator based on enhanced metal insulator semiconductor capacitor for glucose recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Rajendra; Kim, E S; Jo, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-03-01

    We present a concept for the characterization of micro-fabricated based resonator incorporating air-bridge metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor to continuously monitor an individual's state of glucose levels based on frequency variation. The investigation revealed that, the micro-resonator based on MIS capacitor holds considerable promise for implementation and recognition as a glucose sensor for human serum. The discrepancy in complex permittivity as a result of enhanced capacitor was achieved for the detection and determination of random glucose concentration levels using a unique variation of capacitor that indeed results in an adequate variation of the resonance frequency. Moreover, the design and development of micro-resonator with enhanced MIS capacitor generate a resolution of 112.38 × 10 -3 pF/mg/dl, minimum detectable glucose level of 7.45mg/dl, and a limit of quantification of 22.58mg/dl. Additionally, this unique approach offers long-term reliability for mediator-free glucose sensing with a relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low dielectric constant-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukah, Ndubuisi Benjamin

    This thesis describes a study of PFB and pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with low dielectric constant (k) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) and cross-linked PVP (c-PVP) gate dielectrics. A physical method -- matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) -- of fabricating all-polymer field-effect transistors and MIS capacitors that circumvents inherent polymer dissolution and solvent-selectivity problems, is demonstrated. Pentacene-based OFETs incorporating PMMA and PVP gate dielectrics usually have high operating voltages related to the thickness of the dielectric layer. Reduced PMMA layer thickness (≤ 70 nm) was obtained by dissolving the PMMA in propylene carbonate (PC). The resulting pentacene-based transistors exhibited very low operating voltage (below -3 V), minimal hysteresis in their transfer characteristics, and decent electrical performance. Also low voltage (within -2 V) operation using thin (≤ 80 nm) low-k and hydrophilic PVP and c-PVP dielectric layers obtained via dissolution in high dipole moment and high-k solvents -- PC and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is demonstrated to be a robust means of achieving improved electrical characteristics and high operational stability in OFETs incorporating PVP and c-PVP dielectrics.

  1. On some contrast reversals in SEM: Application to metal/insulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Contrast changes of SEM images with experimental conditions (beam energy, angle of detection, etc.) are analyzed by combining physical arguments based on secondary electron emission (SEE) to instrumental arguments involving detection. Possible occurrences of contrast reversals are explored to illustrate these changes in a striking manner. Deduced from SEE yield data, simulated SEM images show a material contrast reversal for a Pt/quartz specimen, a result partly supported by real images of a Cr/quartz integrated circuit. A shift of reversal energy with the detector's position is deduced from a difference in secondary electrons (SE) angular distributions between metals and insulators. Similarly, changes of topographic contrast with detection conditions, specimen composition and angle of tilt are investigated and a possible contrast reversal is again indicated. Finally, it is shown how charging contrast deduced from the expected evolution of SEE yield during irradiation is amplified by in-lens detection: a point illustrated by a contrast reversal of images of SiC particles. The main application concerns a proper interpretation of SEM images that is essential in the investigation of devices obtained from lithographic processes. The discussion on material contrast outlines the difficulty in generalizing the present analysis based on published data and experimental strategies based on implementing specific attachments in the SEM or on biasing the specimen holder are suggested.

  2. Gadolinium oxide coated fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors for thermal neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Steven A., E-mail: steven.vitale@ll.mit.edu; Gouker, Pascale M.

    2013-09-01

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors coated with gadolinium oxide are shown to be effective thermal neutron dosimeters. The theoretical neutron detection efficiency is calculated to be higher for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for other practical converter materials. Proof-of-concept dosimeter devices were fabricated and tested during thermal neutron irradiation. The transistor current changes linearly with neutron dose, consistent with increasing positive charge in the SOI buried oxide layer generated by ionization from high energy {sup 157}Gd(n,γ){sup 158}Gd conversion electrons. The measured neutron sensitivity is approximately 1/6 the maximum theoretical value, possibly due to electron–hole recombination or conversion electron loss in interconnect wiring above the transistors. -- Highlights: • A novel Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated FDSOI MOSFET thermal neutron dosimeter is presented. • Dosimeter can detect charges generated from {sup 157}Gd(n,γ){sup 158}Gd conversion electrons. • Measured neutron sensitivity is comparable to that calculated theoretically. • Dosimeter requires zero power during operation, enabling new application areas.

  3. Dirac topological insulator in the dz2 manifold of a honeycomb oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, J. L.; Pardo, V.

    2016-09-01

    We show by means of ab initio calculations and tight-binding modeling that an oxide system based on a honeycomb lattice can sustain topologically nontrivial states if a single orbital dominates the spectrum close to the Fermi level. In such a situation, the low-energy spectrum is described by two Dirac equations that become nontrivially gapped when spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is switched on. We provide one specific example but the recipe is general. We discuss a realization of this starting from a conventional spin-1/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet whose states close to the Fermi energy are dz2 orbitals. Switching off magnetism by atomic substitution and ensuring that the electronic structure becomes two-dimensional is sufficient for topologicality to arise in such a system. By deriving a tight-binding Wannier Hamiltonian, we find that the gap in such a model scales linearly with SOC, opposed to other oxide-based topological insulators, where smaller gaps tend to appear by construction of the lattice. We show that the quantum spin Hall state in this system survives in the presence of off-plane magnetism and the orbital magnetic field and we discuss its Landau level spectra, showing that our recipe provides a dz2 realization of the Kane-Mele model.

  4. Metal-insulator transition in SrTi1−xVxO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Man; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    Epitaxial SrTi 1−x V x O 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films were grown on (001)-oriented (LaAlO 3 ) 0.3 (Sr 2 AlTaO 6 ) 0.7 (LSAT) substrates using the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The transport study revealed a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 95 K for x = 0.67. The films with higher vanadium concentration (x > 0.67) were metallic corresponding to a Fermi liquid system. In the insulating phase (x < 0.67), the resistivity behavior was governed by Mott's variable range hopping mechanism. The possible mechanisms for the induced MIT are discussed, including the effects of electron correlation, lattice distortion, and Anderson localization

  5. Electric-field driven insulator-metal transition and tunable magnetoresistance in ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Chen, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangyang; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Electrical control of the multistate phase in semiconductors offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in the future semiconductor spintronics. Here, by applying an external electric field, we have observed a gate-induced insulator-metal transition (MIT) with the temperature dependence of resistivity in ZnO thin films. Due to a high-density carrier accumulation, we have shown the ability to inverse change magnetoresistance in ZnO by ionic liquid gating from 10% to -2.5%. The evolution of photoluminescence under gate voltage was also consistent with the MIT, which is due to the reduction of dislocation. Our in-situ gate-controlled photoluminescence, insulator-metal transition, and the conversion of magnetoresistance open up opportunities in searching for quantum materials and ZnO based photoelectric devices.

  6. Interface properties of Fe/MgO/Cu-phthalocyanine metal-insulator-organic semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nyunjong; Bae, Yujeong; Kim, Taehee; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid interface structures consisting of organic copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ferromagnetic metal Fe(001) with and without a MgO(001) cover were investigated by using surface sensitive techniques of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. A systematic study of the energy level alignment at the interfaces was carried out. For the hybrid interfaces considered here, our results indicate that the insertion of an artificially-grown ultra-thin oxide layer MgO(001) can prevent Femi level pinning and induce a rather large interface dipole, thereby resulting in remarkable CuPc Fermi level shifts when the thickness of the CuPc film is less than 3 nm. This study provides a better understanding of spin filtering in MgO-based organic spin devices and a new way to alter the interface electronic structure of metal/organic semiconductor hybrid systems.

  7. Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN: Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Wei, D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Nepal, N. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Garces, N. Y. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Hite, J. K. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Meyer, H. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddy, C. R. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Baker, Troy [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Mayo, Ashley [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Schmitt, Jason [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Edgar, J. H. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We report the benefits of dry oxidation of n -GaN for the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. GaN thin films grown on sapphire by MOCVD were thermally oxidized for 30, 45 and 60 minutes in a pure oxygen atmosphere at 850 °C to produce thin, smooth GaOx layers. Moreover, the GaN sample oxidized for 30 minutes had the best properties. Its surface roughness (0.595 nm) as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was the lowest. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed it had the best saturation in accumulation region and the sharpest transition from accumulation to depletion regions. Under gate voltage sweep, capacitance-voltage hysteresis was completely absent. The interface trap density was minimum (Dit = 2.75×1010 cm–2eV–1) for sample oxidized for 30 mins. These results demonstrate a high quality GaOx layer is beneficial for GaN MOSFETs.

  8. Metal-as-insulation variant of no-insulation HTS winding technique: pancake tests under high background magnetic field and high current at 4.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécrevisse, T.; Badel, A.; Benkel, T.; Chaud, X.; Fazilleau, P.; Tixador, P.

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of a project aiming at fabricating a 10 T high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert to operate in a 20 T background field, we are investigating the behavior of pancakes consisting of a REBCO HTS tape co-wound with a stainless steel tape (metal-as-insulation (MI) coil). The MI winding is inducing a significant turn-to-turn electrical resistance which helps to reduce the charging time delay. Despite this resistance, the self-protection feature of no-insulation coils is still enabled, thanks to the voltage limit of the power supply. We have built a single pancake coil representative of the pancake that will be used in the insert and performed tests under very high background magnetic field. Our coil experienced over 100 heater induced quenches without a measureable increase of its internal resistance. We have gathered stability and quench behavior data for magnetic fields and engineering current densities (je ) in the range of 0–17 T and 0–635 A mm‑2 respectively. We also present our very first experiments on the insert/outsert interaction in the case of a resistive magnet fault. We show that if self-protection of the MI winding is really effective in the case of a MI coil quench, a major issue comes from the outsert fault which induces a huge current inside the MI coil.

  9. Viscoelasticity of metallic, polymeric and oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J.M. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]. E-mail: Jean-marc.Pelletier@insa-lyon.fr; Gauthier, C. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Munch, E. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-12-20

    Present work addresses on mechanical spectroscopy experiments performed on bulk metallic glasses (Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be alloys, Mg-Y-Cu alloys), on oxide glasses (SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO) and on amorphous polymers (polyethylene terephtalate (PET), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), etc.). It appears that whatever the nature of the chemical bonding involved in the material, we observe strong relaxation effects in an intermediate temperature range, near the glass transition temperature. In addition, when crystallization occurs in the initially amorphous material, similar evolution is observed in all the materials. A method is proposed to properly separate elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic contributions to the deformation. Finally a physical model is given to describe these viscoelastic phenomena.

  10. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  11. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-08-28

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O{sub 2} and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ∼ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality

  12. Synchronization of pairwise-coupled, identical, relaxation oscillators based on metal-insulator phase transition devices: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Abhinav; Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman; Raychowdhury, Arijit

    2015-02-01

    Computing with networks of synchronous oscillators has attracted wide-spread attention as novel materials and device topologies have enabled realization of compact, scalable and low-power coupled oscillatory systems. Of particular interest are compact and low-power relaxation oscillators that have been recently demonstrated using MIT (metal-insulator-transition) devices using properties of correlated oxides. Further the computational capability of pairwise coupled relaxation oscillators has also been shown to outperform traditional Boolean digital logic circuits. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamics and synchronization of a system of two such identical coupled relaxation oscillators implemented with MIT devices. We focus on two implementations of the oscillator: (a) a D-D configuration where complementary MIT devices (D) are connected in series to provide oscillations and (b) a D-R configuration where it is composed of a resistor (R) in series with a voltage-triggered state changing MIT device (D). The MIT device acts like a hysteresis resistor with different resistances in the two different states. The synchronization dynamics of such a system has been analyzed with purely charge based coupling using a resistive (RC) and a capacitive (CC) element in parallel. It is shown that in a D-D configuration symmetric, identical and capacitively coupled relaxation oscillator system synchronizes to an anti-phase locking state, whereas when coupled resistively the system locks in phase. Further, we demonstrate that for certain range of values of RC and CC, a bistable system is possible which can have potential applications in associative computing. In D-R configuration, we demonstrate the existence of rich dynamics including non-monotonic flows and complex phase relationship governed by the ratios of the coupling impedance. Finally, the developed theoretical formulations have been shown to explain experimentally measured waveforms of such pairwise coupled

  13. Spin and Charge Transport in 2D Materials and Magnetic Insulator/Metal Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamou, Walid

    Spintronic devices are very promising for future information storage, logic operations and computation and have the potential to replace current CMOS technology approaching the scaling limit. In particular, the generation and manipulation of spin current enables the integration of storage and logic within the same circuit for more powerful computing architectures. In this thesis, we examine the manipulation of spins in 2D materials such as graphene and metal/magnetic insulator heterostructures. In particular, we investigate the feasibility for achieving magnetization switching of a nanomagnet using graphene as a nonmagnetic channel material for All Spin Logic Device applications. Using in-situ MBE deposition of nanomagnet on graphene spin valve, we demonstrate the presence of an interfacial spin dephasing at the interface between the graphene and the nanomagnet. By introducing a Cu spacer between the nanomagnet and graphene, we demonstrate that this interfacial effect is related to an exchange interaction between the spin current and the disordered magnetic moment of the nanomagnet in the first monolayer. In addition to the newly discovered interfacial spin relaxation effect, the extracted contact resistance area product of the nanomagnet/graphene interface is relatively high on the order of 1Omicrom2. In practice, reducing the contact resistance will be as important as eliminating the interfacial relaxation in order to achieve magnetization switching. Furthermore, we examine spin manipulation in a nonmagnetic Pt using an internal magnetic exchange field produced by the adjacent magnetic insulator CoFe2O4 grown by MBE. Here, we report the observation of a strong magnetic proximity effect of Pt deposited on top of a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) inverse spinel material Cobalt Ferrite (CFO, CoFe 2O4). The CFO was grown by MBE and its magnetization was characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) demonstrating the strong out of plane magnetic

  14. Experimental and modeling study of the capacitance-voltage characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor based on pentacene/parylene

    KAUST Repository

    Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.; Satyala, Nikhil T.; Mejia, Israel I.; Mao, Duo; Gowrisanker, Srinivas; Alshareef, Husam N.; Stiegler, Harvey J.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Pieper, Ron J.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) capacitors consisting of pentacene as an organic semiconductor and parylene as the dielectric have been investigated by experimental, analytical, and numerical

  15. Electronic and atomic structure at metal-oxide heterointerfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Christoph Friedrich

    2013-07-01

    The results of a series of investigations on modern oxide materials using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) combined with the X-ray standing wave (XSW) method are described in this thesis. The combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray standing waves enables the electronic structure to be measured with a spatial resolution in the picometer range. Under suitable preparation conditions, a quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is formed at the heterointerfaces of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) with polar oxides, such as lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) or lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}). Samples were grown at the ESRF and in Naples and surface X-ray diffraction confirmed the excellent epitaxial quality of the films. The XSW-method was used to reconstruct images of the structure of LaAlO{sub 3} layers in real space. These images give evidence of distortions in the LaAlO{sub 3} structure which facilitate the compensation of the potential differences. Furthermore, XSW/HAXPES measurements permit the Ti and Sr,O contributions to the 2DEG close to the Fermi level to be identified unambiguously. The analysis shows that the 3d band crosses the Fermi level and that some density of states is associated with oxygen vacancies. Superlattices of SrTiO{sub 3} with polar calcium cuprate (CaCuO{sub 2}) were investigated by HAXPES. Similar to the case of SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}, the polarity of CaCuO{sub 2} should lead to a diverging surface potential. The core level spectra from Ca, Sr, and Ti show that there is a redistribution mechanism for oxygen which compensates the potential differences. When the oxygen concentration is enhanced these superstructures become superconducting (T{sub C} = 40 K). The increased oxidation of the superconducting material is revealed by the additional components in the core level spectra of the metal atoms and in the appearance of a new screening channel in Cu 2p core level spectra, which signals the hole

  16. Electronic and atomic structure at metal-oxide heterointerfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Christoph Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The results of a series of investigations on modern oxide materials using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) combined with the X-ray standing wave (XSW) method are described in this thesis. The combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray standing waves enables the electronic structure to be measured with a spatial resolution in the picometer range. Under suitable preparation conditions, a quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is formed at the heterointerfaces of strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) with polar oxides, such as lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) or lanthanum gallate (LaGaO 3 ). Samples were grown at the ESRF and in Naples and surface X-ray diffraction confirmed the excellent epitaxial quality of the films. The XSW-method was used to reconstruct images of the structure of LaAlO 3 layers in real space. These images give evidence of distortions in the LaAlO 3 structure which facilitate the compensation of the potential differences. Furthermore, XSW/HAXPES measurements permit the Ti and Sr,O contributions to the 2DEG close to the Fermi level to be identified unambiguously. The analysis shows that the 3d band crosses the Fermi level and that some density of states is associated with oxygen vacancies. Superlattices of SrTiO 3 with polar calcium cuprate (CaCuO 2 ) were investigated by HAXPES. Similar to the case of SrTiO 3 /LaAlO 3 , the polarity of CaCuO 2 should lead to a diverging surface potential. The core level spectra from Ca, Sr, and Ti show that there is a redistribution mechanism for oxygen which compensates the potential differences. When the oxygen concentration is enhanced these superstructures become superconducting (T C = 40 K). The increased oxidation of the superconducting material is revealed by the additional components in the core level spectra of the metal atoms and in the appearance of a new screening channel in Cu 2p core level spectra, which signals the hole doping of the CaCuO 2 blocks. Magnetoresistive

  17. Spin dynamics of the Kondo insulator CeNiSn approaching the metallic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, A.; Aeppli, G.; Mason, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    The spin dynamics of Kondo insulators has been studied by high-resolution magnetic neutron spectroscopy at a triple-axes spectrometer on CeNi1-xCuxSn single crystals using a vertical 9 T magnet. While upon doping (x = 0.13) the spin gap of the Kondo insulator CeNiSn collapses at the transition to...

  18. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A.; Nelson, R.N.; Donn, B.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs

  19. Enhanced ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, and large magnetoresistance in La1-xCaxMn1-xRuxO3 free of eg-orbital double-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. F.; Du, Z. Z.; Liu, H. M.; Li, X.; Yan, Z. B.; Dong, S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-03-01

    The structure, ionic valences, magnetism, and magneto-transport behaviors of mixed valence oxides La1-xCaxMn1-xRuxO3 are systematically investigated. The simultaneous substitutions of La3+ and Mn3+ ions by Ca2+ and Ru4+, respectively, are confirmed by the structural and ionic valence characterizations, excluding the presence of Mn4+ and Ru3+ ions. The enhanced ferromagnetism, induced metal-insulator transition, and remarkable magnetoresistance effect are demonstrated when the substitution level x is lower than ˜0.6, in spite of the absence of the Mn3+-Ru4+ eg-orbital double-exchange. These anomalous magnetotransport effects are discussed based on the competing multifold interactions associated with the Mn3+-Ru4+ super-exchange and strong Ru4+-Ru4+ hopping, while the origins for the metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance effect remain to be clarified.

  20. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented

  1. Conduction and rectification in NbO x - and NiO-based metal-insulator-metal diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osgood, Richard M.; Giardini, Stephen; Carlson, Joel; Periasamy, Prakash; Guthrey, Harvey; O' Hayre, Ryan; Chin, Matthew; Nichols, Barbara; Dubey, Madan; Fernandes, Gustavo; Kim, Jin Ho; Xu, Jimmy; Parilla, Philip; Berry, Joseph; Ginley, David

    2016-09-01

    Conduction and rectification in nanoantenna-coupled NbOx- and NiO-based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes ('nanorectennas') are studied by comparing new theoretical predictions with the measured response of nanorectenna arrays. A new quantum mechanical model is reported and agrees with measurements of current-voltage (I-V) curves, over 10 orders of magnitude in current density, from [NbOx(native)-Nb2O5]- and NiO-based samples with oxide thicknesses in the range of 5-36 nm. The model, which introduces new physics and features, including temperature, electron effective mass, and image potential effects using the pseudobarrier technique, improves upon widely used earlier models, calculates the MIM diode's I-V curve, and predicts quantitatively the rectification responsivity of high frequency voltages generated in a coupled nanoantenna array by visible/near-infrared light. The model applies both at the higher frequencies, when high-energy photons are incident, and at lower frequencies, when the formula for classical rectification, involving derivatives of the I-V curve, may be used. The rectified low-frequency direct current is well-predicted in this work's model, but not by fitting the experimentally measured I-V curve with a polynomial or by using the older Simmons model (as shown herein). By fitting the measured I-V curves with our model, the barrier heights in Nb-(NbOx(native)-Nb2O5)-Pt and Ni-NiO-Ti/Ag diodes are found to be 0.41/0.77 and 0.38/0.39 eV, respectively, similar to literature reports, but with effective mass much lower than the free space value. The NbOx (native)-Nb2O5 dielectric properties improve, and the effective Pt-Nb2O5 barrier height increases as the oxide thickness increases. An observation of direct current of ~4 nA for normally incident, focused 514 nm continuous wave laser beams are reported, similar in magnitude to recent reports. This measured direct current is compared to the prediction for rectified direct current

  2. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals

  3. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2004-07-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  4. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, and Ultrafast Dynamics of Metal, Metal Oxide, and Semiconductor Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Damon Andreas

    2013-01-01

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND ULTRAFAST DYNAMICS OF METAL, METAL OXIDE, AND SEMICONDUCTOR NANOMATERIALSABSTRACTThe optical properties of each of the three main classes of inorganic nanomaterials, metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors differ greatly due to the intrinsically different nature of the materials. These optical properties are among the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials with applications spanning cancer treatment, sensors, lasers, and solar cells. One techn...

  6. Superlattice formation lifting degeneracy protected by nonsymmorphic symmetry through a metal-insulator transition in RuAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Keiki; Kuwata, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Junichi; Tou, Hideki; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro; Ohta, Hitoshi; Harima, Hisatomo

    2018-05-01

    A single crystal of RuAs obtained with the Bi-flux method shows obvious successive metal-insulator transitions at TMI 1˜255 K and TMI 2˜195 K. The x-ray diffraction measurement reveals the formation of a superlattice of 3 ×3 ×3 of the original unit cell below TMI 2, accompanied by a change of the crystal system from the orthorhombic structure to the monoclinic one. Simple dimerization of the Ru ions is not seen in the ground state. The multiple As sites observed in the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrum also demonstrate the formation of the superlattice in the ground state, which is clarified to be nonmagnetic. The divergence in 1 /T1 at TMI 1 shows that a symmetry lowering by the metal-insulator transition is accompanied by strong critical fluctuations of some degrees of freedom. Using the structural parameters in the insulating state, the first-principles calculation reproduces successfully the reasonable size of nuclear quadrupole frequencies νQ for the multiple As sites, ensuring the high validity of the structural parameters. The calculation also gives a remarkable suppression in the density of states near the Fermi level, although the gap opening is insufficient. A coupled modulation of the calculated Ru d -electron numbers and the crystal structure proposes the formation of a charge density wave in RuAs. Some lacking factors remain, but it is shown that a lifting of degeneracy protected by the nonsymmorphic symmetry through the superlattice formation is a key ingredient for the metal-insulator transition in RuAs.

  7. Redox switching and oxygen evolution at oxidized metal and metal oxide electrodes: iron in base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael E G; Doyle, Richard L; Brandon, Michael P

    2011-12-28

    Outstanding issues regarding the film formation, redox switching characteristics and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalytic behaviour of multicycled iron oxyhydroxide films in aqueous alkaline solution have been revisited. The oxide is grown using a repetitive potential multicycling technique, and the mechanism of the latter hydrous oxide formation process has been discussed. A duplex layer model of the oxide/solution interphase region is proposed. The acid/base behaviour of the hydrous oxide and the microdispersed nature of the latter material has been emphasised. The hydrous oxide is considered as a porous assembly of interlinked octahedrally coordinated anionic metal oxyhydroxide surfaquo complexes which form an open network structure. The latter contains considerable quantities of water molecules which facilitate hydroxide ion discharge at the metal site during active oxygen evolution, and also charge compensating cations. The dynamics of redox switching has been quantified via analysis of the cyclic voltammetry response as a function of potential sweep rate using the Laviron-Aoki electron hopping diffusion model by analogy with redox polymer modified electrodes. Steady state Tafel plot analysis has been used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of oxygen evolution. Tafel slope values of ca. 60 mV dec(-1) and ca. 120 mV dec(-1) are found at low and high overpotentials respectively, whereas the reaction order with respect to hydroxide ion activity changes from ca. 3/2 to ca. 1 as the potential is increased. These observations are rationalised in terms of a kinetic scheme involving Temkin adsorption and the rate determining formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the oxide surface. The dual Tafel slope behaviour is ascribed to the potential dependence of the surface coverage of adsorbed intermediates.

  8. Beginning point of metal to insulator transition for Bi-2223 superconducting matrix doped with Eu nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Standard measurements such as bulk density, ρ-T, J ct , XRD, SEM and EDX examinations for characterization of the samples. •Role of Eu inclusions on the microstructural, electrical and superconducting properties of Bi-2223 phase. •Determination of metal to insulator transition due to Eu impurities in the Bi-2223 superconducting matrix. •From the Eu content level of x = 0.5 onwards, destruction of the superconducting phases. •Constant retrogression of the microstructural and superconducting properties with the Eu individuals. -- Abstract: This comprehensive study examines the change of the microstructural, electrical and superconducting properties of the Eu doped Bi 1.8 Pb 0.4 Eu x Sr 2 Ca 2.2 Cu 3.0 O y ceramic cuprates (with x ⩽ 0.7) produced by the conventional solid state reaction method at the constant annealing temperature of 840 °C for 24 h with the aid of the standard characterization measurements such as bulk density, dc resistivity (ρ-T), transport critical current density (J c ), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) examinations. For the full characterization of the pure and Eu doped Bi-2223 samples, the degree of granularity (from the bulk density and porosity measurements); the room temperature resistivity, onset–offset critical transition temperature, variation of transition temperature, hole carrier concentration, spin-gap opening temperature and thermodynamic fluctuations (from the dc resistivity experiments); the texturing, crystal structure, crystallite size, phase purity and cell parameters (from the XRD investigations); the variation of the flux pinning centers and the boundary weak-links between the superconducting grains (from the critical current density values); the crystallinity, specimen surface morphology, grain connectivity between the superconducting grains and grain size distribution (from the SEM examinations), the elemental compositions and

  9. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity in all-oxide heterojunction devices based on correlated "metallic" oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Brent A; Lee, Sungki; Schroeder, Lauren E; Martin, Lane W

    2013-11-20

    n-n Schottky, n-n ohmic, and p-n Schottky heterojunctions based on TiO2 /correlated "metallic" oxide couples exhibit strong solar-light absorption driven by the unique electronic structure of the "metallic" oxides. Photovoltaic and photocatalytic responses are driven by hot electron injection from the "metallic" oxide into the TiO2 , enabling new modalities of operation for energy systems. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Substitution effect on metal-insulator transition of K2V8O16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Masahiko; Koishi, Shigenori; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Gotou, Hirotada; Yagi, Takehiko; Ueda, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the substitution of various ions on the metal-insulator (MI) transition at 170 K in K 2 V 8 O 16 has been investigated. Both Rb and Ti form complete solid solution systems: K 2-x Rb x V 8 O 16 and K 2 V 8-y Ti y O 16 , respectively. The substitution of Rb for K or of Ti for V splits the transition into two transitions: the high-temperature transition is a first-order MI transition from a tetragonal structure to a tetragonal structure, and the low-temperature transition is a second-order transition to a monoclinic structure. In K 2-x Rb x V 8 O 16 , the former terminates to an MI transition at around 220 K in Rb 2 V 8 O 16 , while the latter disappears at x > 0.6. In K 2 V 8-y Ti y O 16 , both transitions disappear at y > 0.5. The substitution of Cr for V also results in a similar splitting of the transition and the rapid disappearance of both transitions. The substitution of Na or Ba for K suppresses the MI transition without any splitting of the transition, although the solubility of both ions is limited. These substitution effects reveal that the MI transition of K 2 V 8 O 16 consists of two parts: a first-order MI transition and a parasitic second-order structural transition; the substitution of some ions causes a clear splitting of these transitions, probably due to the difference between the chemical pressure effects on the two transitions. The first-order MI transition is very sensitive to charge randomness, suggesting the charge ordering nature of the MI transition, while the second-order structural transition is very sensitive to both charge and structural randomnesses. (author)

  11. High-field Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization in silicon below the metal-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyev, Anatoly E; Cory, David G; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-04-21

    Single crystal silicon is an excellent system to explore dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), as it exhibits a continuum of properties from metallic to insulating as a function of doping concentration and temperature. At low doping concentrations DNP has been observed to occur via the solid effect, while at very high-doping concentrations an Overhauser mechanism is responsible. Here we report the hyperpolarization of (29)Si in n-doped silicon crystals, with doping concentrations in the range of (1-3) × 10(17) cm(-3). In this regime exchange interactions between donors become extremely important. The sign of the enhancement in our experiments and its frequency dependence suggest that the (29)Si spins are directly polarized by donor electrons via an Overhauser mechanism within exchange-coupled donor clusters. The exchange interaction between donors only needs to be larger than the silicon hyperfine interaction (typically much smaller than the donor hyperfine coupling) to enable this Overhauser mechanism. Nuclear polarization enhancement is observed for a range of donor clusters in which the exchange energy is comparable to the donor hyperfine interaction. The DNP dynamics are characterized by a single exponential time constant that depends on the microwave power, indicating that the Overhauser mechanism is a rate-limiting step. Since only about 2% of the silicon nuclei are located within 1 Bohr radius of the donor electron, nuclear spin diffusion is important in transferring the polarization to all the spins. However, the spin-diffusion time is much shorter than the Overhauser time due to the relatively weak silicon hyperfine coupling strength. In a 2.35 T magnetic field at 1.1 K, we observed a DNP enhancement of 244 ± 84 resulting in a silicon polarization of 10.4 ± 3.4% following 2 h of microwave irradiation.

  12. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  13. Accelerated thermal and radiation-oxidation combined degradation of electric cable insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Toshiaki; Seguchi, Tadao; Yoshida, Kenzo

    1986-03-01

    For the development of accelerated testing methodology to estimate the life time of electric cable, which is installed in radiation field such as a nuclear reactor containment vessel, radiation and thermal combined degradation of cable insulation and jacketing materials was studied. The materials were two types of formulated polyethylene, ethylene-propylene rubber, Hypalon, and Neoprene. With Co-60 γ-rays the materials were irradiated up to 0.5 MGy under vacuum and in oxygen under pressure, then exposed to thermal aging at elevated temperature in oxygen. The degradation was investigated by the tensile test, gelfraction, and swelling measurements. The thermal degradation rate for each sample increases with increase of oxygen concentration, i.e. oxygen pressure, during the aging, and tends to saturate above 0.2 MPa of oxygen pressure. Then, the effects of irradiation and the temperature on the thermal degradation rate were investigated at the oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa in the temperature range from 110 deg C to 150 deg C. For all of samples irradiated in oxygen, the following thermal degradation rate was accelerated by several times comparing with unirradiated samples, while the rate of thermal degradation for the sample except Neoprene irradiated under vacuum was nearly equal to that of unirradiated one. By the analysis of thermal degradation rate against temperature using Arrhenius equation, it was found that the activation energy tends to decrease for the samples irradiated in oxidation condition. (author)

  14. Preparation and characterization of several transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, A.; Dwight, K.

    1989-01-01

    The structure-property relationships of several conducting transition metal oxides, as well as their preparative methods, are presented in this paper. The importance of preparing homogeneous phases with precisely known stoichiometry is emphasized. A comparison is also made of the various techniques used to prepare both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. For transition metal oxides, the metallic properties are discussed either in terms of metal-metal distances which are short enough to result in metallic behavior, or in terms of the formation of a π* conduction band resulting from covalent metal-oxygen interactions. Metallic behavior is observed when the conduction bands are populated with either electrons or holes. The concentration of these carriers can be affected by either cation or anion substitutions. The discussion in this presentation will be limited to the elements Re, Ti, V, Cr, Mo, and Cu

  15. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  16. Dielectrophoretic alignment of metal and metal oxide nanowires and nanotubes: a universal set of parameters for bridging prepatterned microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijenburg, A W; Maas, M G; Rodijk, E J B; Ahmed, W; Kooij, E S; Carlen, E T; Blank, D H A; ten Elshof, J E

    2011-03-15

    Nanowires and nanotubes were synthesized from metals and metal oxides using templated cathodic electrodeposition. With templated electrodeposition, small structures are electrodeposited using a template that is the inverse of the final desired shape. Dielectrophoresis was used for the alignment of the as-formed nanowires and nanotubes between prepatterned electrodes. For reproducible nanowire alignment, a universal set of dielectrophoresis parameters to align any arbitrary nanowire material was determined. The parameters include peak-to-peak potential and frequency, thickness of the silicon oxide layer, grounding of the silicon substrate, and nature of the solvent medium used. It involves applying a field with a frequency >10(5) Hz, an insulating silicon oxide layer with a thickness of 2.5 μm or more, grounding of the underlying silicon substrate, and the use of a solvent medium with a low dielectric constant. In our experiments, we obtained good results by using a peak-to-peak potential of 2.1 V at a frequency of 1.2 × 10(5) Hz. Furthermore, an indirect alignment technique is proposed that prevents short circuiting of nanowires after contacting both electrodes. After alignment, a considerably lower resistivity was found for ZnO nanowires made by templated electrodeposition (2.2-3.4 × 10(-3) Ωm) compared to ZnO nanorods synthesized by electrodeposition (10 Ωm) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) (500 Ωm). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  18. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for converting uranium oxide to uranium metal is described comprising the steps of heating uranium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent to a temperature sufficient to reduce the uranium oxide to uranium metal and form a heterogeneous mixture of a uranium metal product and oxide by-products, heating the mixture in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature sufficient to convert uranium metal in the mixture to uranium hydride, cooling the resulting uranium hydride-containing mixture to a temperature sufficient to produce a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium hydride, magnetically separating the cooled uranium hydride from the mixture, and thereafter heating the separated uranium hydride in an inert atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the uranium hydride to uranium metal

  19. Magnon spintronics in non-collinear magnetic insulator/metal heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqeel, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on the growth of complex magnetic materials with unique magnetic properties and experimental investigation of fundamental spintronics phenomena in these magnetic insulators with magnetic orders varying from collinear to noncollinear chiral spin

  20. c -Axis Dimer and Its Electronic Breakup: The Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Ti2 O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. F.; Koethe, T. C.; Hu, Z.; Weinen, J.; Agrestini, S.; Zhao, L.; Gegner, J.; Ott, H.; Panaccione, G.; Wu, Hua; Haverkort, M. W.; Roth, H.; Komarek, A. C.; Offi, F.; Monaco, G.; Liao, Y.-F.; Tsuei, K.-D.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Tanaka, A.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2018-04-01

    We report on our investigation of the electronic structure of Ti2 O3 using (hard) x-ray photoelectron and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the distinct satellite structures in the spectra, we have been able to establish unambiguously that the Ti-Ti c -axis dimer in the corundum crystal structure is electronically present and forms an a1 ga1 g molecular singlet in the low-temperature insulating phase. Upon heating, we observe a considerable spectral weight transfer to lower energies with orbital reconstruction. The insulator-metal transition may be viewed as a transition from a solid of isolated Ti-Ti molecules into a solid of electronically partially broken dimers, where the Ti ions acquire additional hopping in the a -b plane via the egπ channel, the opening of which requires consideration of the multiplet structure of the on-site Coulomb interaction.

  1. Measuring the lateral charge-carrier mobility in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors via Kelvin-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Valeria; Pietsch, Manuel; Strunk, Karl-Philipp; Melzer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We report a Kelvin-probe method to investigate the lateral charge-transport properties of semiconductors, most notably the charge-carrier mobility. The method is based on successive charging and discharging of a pre-biased metal-insulator-semiconductor stack by an alternating voltage applied to one edge of a laterally confined semiconductor layer. The charge carriers spreading along the insulator-semiconductor interface are directly measured by a Kelvin-probe, following the time evolution of the surface potential. A model is presented, describing the device response for arbitrary applied biases allowing the extraction of the lateral charge-carrier mobility from experimentally measured surface potentials. The method is tested using the organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene), and the extracted mobilities are validated through current voltage measurements on respective field-effect transistors. Our widely applicable approach enables robust measurements of the lateral charge-carrier mobility in semiconductors with weak impact from the utilized contact materials.

  2. Measuring the lateral charge-carrier mobility in metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors via Kelvin-probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Valeria; Pietsch, Manuel; Strunk, Karl-Philipp; Melzer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We report a Kelvin-probe method to investigate the lateral charge-transport properties of semiconductors, most notably the charge-carrier mobility. The method is based on successive charging and discharging of a pre-biased metal-insulator-semiconductor stack by an alternating voltage applied to one edge of a laterally confined semiconductor layer. The charge carriers spreading along the insulator-semiconductor interface are directly measured by a Kelvin-probe, following the time evolution of the surface potential. A model is presented, describing the device response for arbitrary applied biases allowing the extraction of the lateral charge-carrier mobility from experimentally measured surface potentials. The method is tested using the organic semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene), and the extracted mobilities are validated through current voltage measurements on respective field-effect transistors. Our widely applicable approach enables robust measurements of the lateral charge-carrier mobility in semiconductors with weak impact from the utilized contact materials.

  3. Magnetic Excitations across the Metal-Insulator Transition in the Pyrochlore Iridate Eu2Ir2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sae Hwan; Yuan, Bo; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Chang-Yong; Tian, Zhaoming; Qiu, Yang; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kim, Young-June

    2018-04-01

    We report a resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the magnetic excitation spectrum in a highly insulating Eu2 Ir2 O7 single crystal that exhibits a metal-insulator transition at TMI=111 (7 ) K . A propagating magnon mode with a 20 meV bandwidth and a 28 meV magnon gap is found in the excitation spectrum at 7 K, which is expected in the all-in-all-out magnetically ordered state. This magnetic excitation exhibits substantial softening as the temperature is raised towards TMI and turns into a highly damped excitation in the paramagnetic phase. Remarkably, the softening occurs throughout the whole Brillouin zone including the zone boundary. This observation is inconsistent with the magnon renormalization expected in a local moment system and indicates that the strength of the electron correlation in Eu2 Ir2 O7 is only moderate, so that electron itinerancy should be taken into account in describing its magnetism.

  4. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  5. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  6. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  7. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anatase TiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  8. Charge driven metal-insulator transitions in LaMnO3|SrTiO3 (111) superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    Interfaces of perovskite oxides, due to the strong interplay between the lattice, charge and spin degrees of freedom, can host various phase transitions, which is particularly interesting if these transitions can be tuned by external fields. Recently, ferromagnetism was found together with a seemingly insulating state in superlattices of manganites and titanates. We therefore study the (111) oriented $(\\\\text{LaMnO}_3)_{6-x}\\\\vert(\\\\text{SrTiO}_3)_{6+x}~(x = -0.5, 0, 0.5)$ superlattices by means of ab initio calculations, predicting a ferromagnetic ground state due to double exchange in all cases. We shed light on the ferromagnetic coupling in the LaMnO3 region and at the interfaces. The insulating states of specific superlattices can be understood on the basis of Jahn-Teller modes and electron/hole doping.

  9. Charge driven metal-insulator transitions in LaMnO3|SrTiO3 (111) superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio; Tahini, Hassan Ali; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Interfaces of perovskite oxides, due to the strong interplay between the lattice, charge and spin degrees of freedom, can host various phase transitions, which is particularly interesting if these transitions can be tuned by external fields. Recently, ferromagnetism was found together with a seemingly insulating state in superlattices of manganites and titanates. We therefore study the (111) oriented $(\\text{LaMnO}_3)_{6-x}\\vert(\\text{SrTiO}_3)_{6+x}~(x = -0.5, 0, 0.5)$ superlattices by means of ab initio calculations, predicting a ferromagnetic ground state due to double exchange in all cases. We shed light on the ferromagnetic coupling in the LaMnO3 region and at the interfaces. The insulating states of specific superlattices can be understood on the basis of Jahn-Teller modes and electron/hole doping.

  10. Effect of CO on surface oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Fu, Y.; Xie, R.

    1997-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25 and 200 deg C have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS);respectively. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface layer of uranium metal leads to partial reduction of surface oxide and results in U4f photoelectron peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide is decreased and O1s/O4f ratio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide. The investigation indicates the surface layer of uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (author)

  11. Fabrication of Arrays of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanotubes by Shadow Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The

  12. Topotactic Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial SrFeOx Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Amit; Shin, Dongwon; Yoo, Tae Sup; Kim, Minu; Kang, Tae Dong; Lee, Jaekwang; Roh, Seulki; Jung, In-Ho; Hwang, Jungseek; Kim, Sung Wng; Noh, Tae Won; Ohta, Hiromichi; Choi, Woo Seok

    2017-10-01

    Topotactic phase transformation enables structural transition without losing the crystalline symmetry of the parental phase and provides an effective platform for elucidating the redox reaction and oxygen diffusion within transition metal oxides. In addition, it enables tuning of the emergent physical properties of complex oxides, through strong interaction between the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom. In this communication, the electronic structure evolution of SrFeO x epitaxial thin films is identified in real-time, during the progress of reversible topotactic phase transformation. Using real-time optical spectroscopy, the phase transition between the two structurally distinct phases (i.e., brownmillerite and perovskite) is quantitatively monitored, and a pressure-temperature phase diagram of the topotactic transformation is constructed for the first time. The transformation at relatively low temperatures is attributed to a markedly small difference in Gibbs free energy compared to the known similar class of materials to date. This study highlights the phase stability and reversibility of SrFeO x thin films, which is highly relevant for energy and environmental applications exploiting the redox reactions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B. [Shiraz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neri, G., E-mail: gneri@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  14. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Maria L.; Alexandrov, Vitaly; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr 2 O 3 . This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl 2 O 4 . Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3–10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr 2 O 3 has a plate-like structure with 1.2–1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl 2 O 4 has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular direction providing an additional

  15. A Systematic Transport and Thermodynamic Study of Heavy Transition Metal Oxides with Hexagonal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrouna, Kamal

    There is no apparent, dominant interaction in heavy transition metal oxides (TMO), especially in 5d-TMO, where all relevant interactions are of comparable energy scales, and therefore strongly compete. In particular, the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) strongly competes with the electron-lattice and on-site Coulomb interaction (U). Therefore, any tool that allows one to tune the relative strengths of SOI and U is expected to offer an opportunity for the discovery and study of novel materials. BaIrO3 is a magnetic insulator driven by SOI, whereas the isostructural BaRuO3 is a paramagnetic metal. The contrasting ground states have been shown to result from the critical role of SOI in the iridate. This dissertation thoroughly examines a wide array of newly observed novel phenomena induced by adjusting the relative strengths of SOI and U via a systematic chemical substitution of the Ru4+(4d 4) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e., in high quality single crystals of BaIr1--x RuxO3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0). Our investigation of structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties reveals that Ru substitution directly rebalances the competing energies so profoundly that it generates a rich phase diagram for BaIr 1--xRuxO 3 featuring two major effects: (1) Light Ru doping (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) prompts a simultaneous and precipitous drop in both the magnetic ordering temperature TC and the electrical resistivity, which exhibits metal-insulator transition at around TC. (2) Heavier Ru doping (0.41 ≤ x ≤ 0.82) induces a robust metallic and spin frustration state. For comparison and contrast, we also substituted Rh4+(4d 5) ions for Ir4+(5d5) ions in BaIrO3, i.e. in BaIr1--xRhxO 3(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1), where Rh only reduces the SOI, but without altering the band filling. Hence, this system remains tuned at the Mott instability and is very susceptible to disorder scattering which gives rise to Anderson localization. KEYWORDS: spin-orbit interaction, heavy transition metal oxides

  16. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M

    2014-08-14

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties as the graphene oxide transformation to reduced-graphene oxide is a key step in the synthesis of the electrode materials. Polarized behavior of the synchrotron X-rays and the angular dependency of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) have been utilized to study the orientation of the σ and π bonds of the graphene oxide and graphene oxide-metal oxide nanocomposites. The core-level transitions of individual metal oxides and that of the graphene oxide nanocomposite showed that the interaction of graphene oxide with the metal oxide nanostructures has not altered the electronic structure of either of them. As the restoration of the π network is important for good electrical conductivity, the C K edge NEXAFS spectra of reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites confirms the same through increased intensity of the sp 2 -derived unoccupied states π* band. A pronounced angular dependency of the reduced sample and the formation of excitonic peaks confirmed the formation of extended conjugated network.

  17. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  18. Stochastic IMT (Insulator-Metal-Transition Neurons: An Interplay of Thermal and Threshold Noise at Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Parihar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks can harness stochasticity in multiple ways to enable a vast class of computationally powerful models. Boltzmann machines and other stochastic neural networks have been shown to outperform their deterministic counterparts by allowing dynamical systems to escape local energy minima. Electronic implementation of such stochastic networks is currently limited to addition of algorithmic noise to digital machines which is inherently inefficient; albeit recent efforts to harness physical noise in devices for stochasticity have shown promise. To succeed in fabricating electronic neuromorphic networks we need experimental evidence of devices with measurable and controllable stochasticity which is complemented with the development of reliable statistical models of such observed stochasticity. Current research literature has sparse evidence of the former and a complete lack of the latter. This motivates the current article where we demonstrate a stochastic neuron using an insulator-metal-transition (IMT device, based on electrically induced phase-transition, in series with a tunable resistance. We show that an IMT neuron has dynamics similar to a piecewise linear FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron and incorporates all characteristics of a spiking neuron in the device phenomena. We experimentally demonstrate spontaneous stochastic spiking along with electrically controllable firing probabilities using Vanadium Dioxide (VO2 based IMT neurons which show a sigmoid-like transfer function. The stochastic spiking is explained by two noise sources - thermal noise and threshold fluctuations, which act as precursors of bifurcation. As such, the IMT neuron is modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU process with a fluctuating boundary resulting in transfer curves that closely match experiments. The moments of interspike intervals are calculated analytically by extending the first-passage-time (FPT models for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU process to include a

  19. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thouless energy as a unifying concept for Josephson junctions tuned through the Mott metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvildar-Zadeh, A. N.; Freericks, J. K.; Nikolić, B. K.

    2006-05-01

    The Thouless energy was introduced in the 1970s as a semiclassical energy for electrons diffusing through a finite-sized conductor. It turns out to be an important quantum-mechanical energy scale for many systems ranging from disordered metals to quantum chaos to quantum chromodynamics. In particular, it has been quite successful in describing the properties of Josephson junctions when the barrier is a diffusive normal-state metal. The Thouless energy concept can be generalized to insulating barriers by extracting an energy scale from the two-probe Kubo conductance of a strongly correlated electron system (metallic or insulating) via a generalized definition of the quantum-mechanical level spacing to many-body systems. This energy scale is known to determine the crossover from tunneling to Ohmic (thermally activated) transport in normal tunnel junctions. Here we use it to illustrate how the quasiclassical picture of transport in Josephson junctions is modified as the strongly correlated barrier passes through the Mott transition. Surprisingly, we find the quasiclassical form holds well beyond its putative realm of validity.

  2. Catalytic activity of metall-like carbides in carbon oxide oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Kosolapova, T.Ya.; Rafal, A.N.; Kirillova, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of carbon oxide oxidation upon carbides of hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, zirconium and chromium is studied. Probable mechanism of the catalysts action is suggested. The established character of the change of the carbide catalytic activity is explained by the change of d-electron contribution to the metal-metal interaction

  3. Synthesis and functionalisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, VJ

    2013-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including calcium oxide, gold, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesised using a range of techniques including reduction, co-precipitation and spinning disc technology. SPIOs were primarily synthesised via a co-precipitation method using iron (II) chloride, iron (III) chloride and ammonia; a spinning disc reactor and gaseous ammonia were trialled successfully for scale up, producing spherical particles of 10-40 nm in diameter a...

  4. Mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials as supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ma, Jan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2012-08-08

    Supercapacitors have attracted huge attention in recent years as they have the potential to satisfy the demand of both huge energy and power density in many advanced technologies. However, poor conductivity and cycling stability remains to be the major challenge for its widespread application. Various strategies have been developed for meeting the ever-increasing energy and power demands in supercapacitors. This Research News article aims to review recent progress in the development of mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials, especially metal oxide nanoparticles confined in ordered mesoporous carbon and 1D metal oxides coated with a layer of mesoporous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor applications. In addition, a recent trend in supercapacitor development - hierarchical porous graphitic carbons (HPGC) combining macroporous cores, mesoporous walls, and micropores as an excellent support for metal oxides - is also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  6. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  7. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  8. Influence of the disorder in doped germanium changed by compensation on the critical indices of the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzsch, R.; Reich, Ch.; Ionov, A.N.; Ginodman, V.; Slimak, I.; Fozooni, P.; Lea, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a critical review of the present status of the critical exponent puzzle of the metal-insulator transition of doped semiconductors with the emphasis on the role of meso- and macroscopy inhomogeneity caused by the disorder of acceptors and donors in the crystals. By using the isotopic and engineering and the neutron transmutation doping of germanium we found for low compensations (at K = 1.4 and 12%) that the critical exponents of the localization length and the dielectric constant are nearly ν = 1/2 and ξ = 1, which double for medium compensations (at K = 39 and 54%) to ν 1 and ξ = 2, respectively

  9. Metal-Insulator Phase Transition in thin VO2 films: A Look from the Far Infrared Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, B. M.; Thoman, A.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) displays a well-known metal-insulator (MI) transition at atemperature of 68oC. The MI transition in VO2 has been studied extensively by a widerange of optical, electrical, structural, and magnetic measurements. In spite of this there isstill some controversy about the nature...... temperature hysteresis of the far-infrared transmission through thethin film with temperature. Interestingly the temperature-dependent transmissionamplitude shows a markedly different switching temperature than the transmission phase.This effect has not been observed before, and is very important...

  10. Unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped dual metal gate fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rathnamala; Katti, Guruprasad; Havaldar, Dnyanesh S.; DasGupta, Nandita; DasGupta, Amitava

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped, dual metal gate (DMG) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) MOSFETs based on the solution of 2D Poisson's equation. 2D Poisson's equation is solved analytically for appropriate boundary conditions using separation of variables technique. The solution is then extended to obtain the threshold voltage of the FDSOI MOSFET. The model is able to handle any kind of non-uniform doping, viz. vertical, lateral as well as laterally asymetric channel (LAC) profile in the SOI film in addition to the DMG structure. The analytical results are validated with the numerical simulations using the device simulator MEDICI.

  11. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  12. Metallization of uranium oxide powders by lithium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. S.; Seo, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments on the reduction of uranium oxide powders into metal by lithium were performed in order to determine the equipment setup and optimum operation conditions. The method of filtration using the porous magnesia filter was introduced to recover uranium metal powders produced. Based on the laboratory scale experimental results, mock-up scale (20 kg U/batch) metallizer was designed and made. The applicability to the metallization process was estimated with respect to the thermal stability of the porous magnesia filter in the high temperature molten salt, the filtration of the fine uranium metal powders, and the operability of the equipment

  13. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  14. Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.

  15. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  16. Converged G W quasiparticle energies for transition metal oxide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönenc, Zeynep; Kim, Bongjae; Liu, Peitao; Kresse, Georg; Franchini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    The ab initio calculation of quasiparticle (QP) energies is a technically and computationally challenging problem. In condensed matter physics, the most widely used approach to determine QP energies is the G W approximation. Although the G W method has been widely applied to many typical semiconductors and insulators, its application to more complex compounds such as transition metal oxide perovskites has been comparatively rare, and its proper use is not well established from a technical point of view. In this work, we have applied the single-shot G0W0 method to a representative set of transition metal oxide perovskites including 3 d (SrTiO3, LaScO3, SrMnO3, LaTiO3, LaVO3, LaCrO3, LaMnO3, and LaFeO3), 4 d (SrZrO3, SrTcO3, and Ca2RuO4 ), and 5 d (SrHfO3, KTaO3, and NaOsO3) compounds with different electronic configurations, magnetic orderings, structural characteristics, and band gaps ranging from 0.1 to 6.1 eV. We discuss the proper procedure to obtain well-converged QP energies and accurate band gaps within single-shot G0W0 by comparing the conventional approach based on an incremental variation of a specific set of parameters (number of bands, energy cutoff for the plane-wave expansion and number of k points) and the basis-set extrapolation scheme [J. Klimeš et al., Phys. Rev. B 90, 075125 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075125]. Although the conventional scheme is not supported by a formal proof of convergence, for most cases it delivers QP energies in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by the basis-set correction procedure and it is by construction more useful for calculating band structures. In addition, we have inspected the difference between the adoption of norm-conserving and ultrasoft potentials in G W calculations and found that the norm violation for the d shell can lead to less accurate results in particular for charge-transfer systems and late transition metals. A minimal statistical analysis indicates that the correlation of the G W data

  17. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.; Birch, W.; Facer, R.I.; Stuart, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors. In the arrangement described the reactor vessel is clad with thermal insulation comprising a layer of insulating blocks spaced from the wall and from each other; each block is rigidly secured to the wall, and the interspaces are substantially closed against convectional flow of liquid by resilient closure members. A membrane covering is provided for the layer of blocks, with venting means to allow liquid from the reactor vessel to penetrate between the covering and the layer of blocks. The membrane covering may comprise a stainless steel sheet ribbed in orthogonal pattern to give flexibility for the accommodation of thermal strain. The insulating blocks may be comprised of stainless steel or cellular or porous material and may be hollow shells containing ceramic material or gas fillings. (U.K.)

  18. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  19. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  20. Heterogeneous Partial (ammOxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation Catalysis on Mixed Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Védrine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of heterogeneous partial (ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH of hydrocarbons. The review has been voluntarily restricted to metal oxide-type catalysts, as the partial oxidation field is very broad and the number of catalysts is quite high. The main factors of solid catalysts for such reactions, designated by Grasselli as the “seven pillars”, and playing a determining role in catalytic properties, are considered to be, namely: isolation of active sites (known to be composed of ensembles of atoms, Me–O bond strength, crystalline structure, redox features, phase cooperation, multi-functionality and the nature of the surface oxygen species. Other important features and physical and chemical properties of solid catalysts, more or less related to the seven pillars, are also emphasized, including reaction sensitivity to metal oxide structure, epitaxial contact between an active phase and a second phase or its support, synergy effect between several phases, acid-base aspects, electron transfer ability, catalyst preparation and activation and reaction atmospheres, etc. Some examples are presented to illustrate the importance of these key factors. They include light alkanes (C1–C4 oxidation, ethane oxidation to ethylene and acetic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O and Nb doped NiO, propene oxidation to acrolein on BiMoCoFe-O systems, propane (ammoxidation to (acrylonitrile acrylic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O mixed oxides, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride on VPO: (VO2P2O7-based catalyst, and isobutyric acid ODH to methacrylic acid on Fe hydroxyl phosphates. It is shown that active sites are composed of ensembles of atoms whose size and chemical composition depend on the reactants to be transformed (their chemical and size features and the reaction mechanism, often of Mars and van Krevelen type. An important aspect is the fact that surface composition and surface crystalline structure vary with reaction on stream until

  1. General observation of the memory effect in metal-insulator-ITO structures due to indium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Xu, Huihua; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Yu; Rogach, Andrey L; Shen, Yingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on metal oxides, organic molecules and inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have been studied extensively in recent years. Different memory switching mechanisms have been proposed and shown to be closely related to the device architectures. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of an ITO/active layer/InGa structure can yield nonvolatile resistive memory behavior in a variety of active materials, including polymers, organic small molecules, and colloidal NCs. Through the electrode material and thickness-dependent study, we show that the ON state of the devices is associated with filamentary conduction induced by indium diffusion from the ITO electrode, occurring mostly within around 40–50 nm from the ITO/active layer interface. A negative differential resistance (NDR) regime is observed during transition from the ON to OFF state, and is explained by the space charge limited current (SCLC) effect due to hole injection at the ITO/active layer interface. Our study reveals the impact of indium diffusion at the ITO/active layer interface, an important factor that should be taken into consideration when designing thin printed RRAM devices. (paper)

  2. How to control spin-Seebeck current in a metal-quantum dot-magnetic insulator junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Gu, Lei; Wu, Ruqian

    The control of the spin-Seebeck current is still a challenging task for the development of spin caloritronic devices. Here, we construct a spin-Seebeck device by inserting a quantum dot (QD) between the metal lead and magnetic insulator. Using the slave-particle approach and noncrossing approximation, we find that the spin-Seebeck effect increases significantly when the energy level of the QD locates near the Fermi level of the metal lead due to the enhancement of spin flipping and occurrences of quantum resonance. Since this can be easily realized by applying a gate voltage in experiments, the spin-Seebeck device proposed here can also work as a thermovoltaic transistor. Moreover, the optimal correlation strength and the energy level position of the QD are discussed to maximize the spin-Seebeck current as required for applications in controllable spin caloritronic devices.

  3. The metallic interface between the two band insulators LaGaO3 and SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-06-28

    The formation of metallic interface states between the two band insulators LaGaO3 and SrTiO3 is studied by the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method based on density functional theory.Structural optimization of the atomic positions points to only small changes of the chemical bonding at the interface. The n-type (LaO/TiO2) and p-type (GaO2/SrO) interfaces turn out to be metallic. Reduction of the O content increases the conductivity of the n-type interface, while the p-type interface can be turned gradually from a hole doped into an electron doped state.

  4. The metallic interface between the two band insulators LaGaO3 and SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra

    2011-01-01

    The formation of metallic interface states between the two band insulators LaGaO3 and SrTiO3 is studied by the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method based on density functional theory.Structural optimization of the atomic positions points to only small changes of the chemical bonding at the interface. The n-type (LaO/TiO2) and p-type (GaO2/SrO) interfaces turn out to be metallic. Reduction of the O content increases the conductivity of the n-type interface, while the p-type interface can be turned gradually from a hole doped into an electron doped state.

  5. Intrinsic Dirac half-metal and quantum anomalous Hall phase in a hexagonal metal-oxide lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-juan; Zhang, Chang-wen; Zhang, Shu-feng; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-shi; Yan, Shi-shen

    2017-11-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has attracted extensive attention due to time-reversal symmetry broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and spin-orbit coupling. However, the experimental observations of the QAH effect are still challenging due to its small nontrivial bulk gap. Here, based on density functional theory and Berry curvature calculations, we propose the realization of intrinsic QAH effect in two-dimensional hexagonal metal-oxide lattice, N b2O3 , which is characterized by the nonzero Chern number (C =1 ) and chiral edge states. Spin-polarized calculations indicate that it exhibits a Dirac half-metal feature with temperature as large as TC=392 K using spin-wave theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is switched on, N b2O3 becomes a QAH insulator. Notably, the nontrivial topology is robust against biaxial strain with its band gap reaching up to Eg=75 meV , which is far beyond room temperature. A tight-binding model is further constructed to understand the origin of nontrivially electronic properties. Our findings on the Dirac half-metal and room-temperature QAH effect in the N b2O3 lattice can serve as an ideal platform for developing future topotronics devices.

  6. Designing Metallic and Insulating Nanocrystal Heterostructures to Fabricate Highly Sensitive and Solution Processed Strain Gauges for Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Seok; Lee, Seung-Wook; Joh, Hyungmok; Seong, Mingi; Kim, Haneun; Kang, Min Su; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Mo; Oh, Soong Ju

    2017-12-01

    All-solution processed, high-performance wearable strain sensors are demonstrated using heterostructure nanocrystal (NC) solids. By incorporating insulating artificial atoms of CdSe quantum dot NCs into metallic artificial atoms of Au NC thin film matrix, metal-insulator heterostructures are designed. This hybrid structure results in a shift close to the percolation threshold, modifying the charge transport mechanism and enhancing sensitivity in accordance with the site percolation theory. The number of electrical pathways is also manipulated by creating nanocracks to further increase its sensitivity, inspired from the bond percolation theory. The combination of the two strategies achieves gauge factor up to 5045, the highest sensitivity recorded among NC-based strain gauges. These strain sensors show high reliability, durability, frequency stability, and negligible hysteresis. The fundamental charge transport behavior of these NC solids is investigated and the combined site and bond percolation theory is developed to illuminate the origin of their enhanced sensitivity. Finally, all NC-based and solution-processed strain gauge sensor arrays are fabricated, which effectively measure the motion of each finger joint, the pulse of heart rate, and the movement of vocal cords of human. This work provides a pathway for designing low-cost and high-performance electronic skin or wearable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metal-insulator transition in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures with large spacer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.

    1991-10-01

    Analytical results are presented for the mobility of a two-dimensional electron gas in a heterostructure with a thick spacer layer α. Due to multiple-scattering effects a metal-insulator transition occurs at a critical electron density Nc=N1/2i/(4π1/2α) (Ni is the impurity density). The transport mean free path l(t) (calculated in Born approximation) at the metal-insulator transition is l(t)c=2α. A localization criterion in terms of the renormalized single-particle mean free path l(sr) is presented: kFcl(sr)c=(1/2)1/2 (kFc is the Fermi wave number at the critical density). I compare the theoretical results with recent experimental results found in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs heterostructures with large spacer width: 1200<α<2800 Å. Remote impurity doping and homogeneous background doping are considered. The only fitting parameter used for the theoretical results is the background doping density NB=6×1013 cm-3. My theory is in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Interactions of hydrogen isotopes and oxides with metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Cleaver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results. (authors)

  9. Interactions of hydrogen isotopes and oxides with metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G. R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Cleaver, J. [Idaho State Univ., 921 South 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results. (authors)

  10. Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results

  11. Deep electron traps in HfO_2-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, L. Sambuco; Lipovetzky, J.; Carbonetto, S.H.; García Inza, M.A.; Redin, E.G.; Campabadal, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO_2) is currently considered to be a good candidate to take part as a component in charge-trapping nonvolatile memories. In this work, the electric field and time dependences of the electron trapping/detrapping processes are studied through a constant capacitance voltage transient technique on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with atomic layer deposited HfO_2 as insulating layer. A tunneling-based model is proposed to reproduce the experimental results, obtaining fair agreement between experiments and simulations. From the fitting procedure, a band of defects is identified, located in the first 1.7 nm from the Si/HfO_2 interface at an energy level E_t = 1.59 eV below the HfO_2 conduction band edge with density N_t = 1.36 × 10"1"9 cm"−"3. A simplified analytical version of the model is proposed in order to ease the fitting procedure for the low applied voltage case considered in this work. - Highlights: • We characterized deep electron trapping/detrapping in HfO_2 structures. • We modeled the experimental results through a tunneling-based model. • We obtained an electron trap energy level of 1.59 eV below conduction band edge. • We obtained a spatial trap distribution extending 1.7 nm within the insulator. • A simplified tunneling front model is able to reproduce the experimental results.

  12. The base metal of the oxide-coated cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poret, F.; Roquais, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxide-coated cathode has been the most widely used electron emitter in vacuum electronic devices. From one manufacturing company to another the emissive oxide is either a double-Ba, Sr-or a triple-Ba, Sr, Ca-oxide, having always the same respective compositions. Conversely, the base metal composition is very often proprietary because of its importance in the cathode emission performances. The present paper aims at explaining the operation of the base metal through a review. After a brief introduction, the notion of activator is detailed along with their diffusivities and their associated interfacial compounds. Then, the different cathode life models are described prior to few comments on the composition choice of a base metal. Finally, the specificities of the RCA/Thomson 'bimetal' base metal are presented with a discussion on the optimized composition choice illustrated by a long-term life-test of five different melts

  13. Interaction between extended and localized electronic states in the region of the metal to insulator transition in semiconductor alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teubert, Joerg

    2008-07-01

    The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about

  14. Interaction between extended and localized electronic states in the region of the metal to insulator transition in semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubert, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about

  15. Metal Oxide/Graphene Composites for Supercapacitive Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Baek, Seungmin; Lee, Seungyeol; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-04-05

    Graphene composites with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have been extensively investigated owing to their potential applications in the fields of fuel cells, batteries, sensing, solar cells, and catalysis. Among them, much research has focused on supercapacitor applications and have come close to realization. Composites include monometal oxides of cobalt, nickel, manganese, and iron, as well as their binary and ternary oxides. In addition, their morphological control and hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes have also been investigated. This review presents the current trends in research on metal oxide/graphene composites for supercapacitors. Furthermore, methods are suggested to improve the properties of electrochemical capacitor electrodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  17. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario; Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock

  18. Application of a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Wisner, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for applying a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate for the creation of a robust, high temperature catalyst system for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in propulsion systems. The method begins by forming a prepared substrate material consisting of a metallic inner substrate and a bound layer of a noble metal intermediate. Alternatively, a bound ceramic coating, or frit, may be introduced between the metallic inner substrate and noble metal intermediate when the metallic substrate is oxidation resistant. A high-activity catalyst slurry is applied to the surface of the prepared substrate and dried to remove the organic solvent. The catalyst layer is then heat treated to bind the catalyst layer to the surface. The bound catalyst layer is then activated using an activation treatment and calcinations to form the high-activity catalyst system.

  19. Metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called "small size effect", yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given.

  20. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of benzene fraction on transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikov, E. B.; Vishnetskaya, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    It is established that molecular oxygen is able to oxidize thiophene selectively in a mixture with benzene on V2O5 · MoO3. The introduction of thiophene inhibits the oxidation of benzene. It is shown that the conversion of thiophene during operation of the catalyst is reduced at first and then increases until it reaches its initial value.

  2. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products.

  3. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  4. Oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses, developed since the late 1980's, have very interesting mechanical properties, which can be considered for many applications including working under oxidizing atmosphere conditions at high temperatures. It is therefore interesting to study their oxidation resistance and to characterize the oxide scale formed on alloys surface. The fundamental objective of this thesis is to enhance the understanding of the role of various thermodynamic and chemistry parameters on the oxidation behaviour of the Zr-based bulk metallic glasses at high temperature under dry air, to determine the residual stresses in the oxide layer, in comparison with their crystalline alloys with the same chemical composition after an annealing treatment. The oxidation kinetics of these glasses and the crystalline structure of oxide scale ZrO 2 depend on the temperature and the oxidation duration: for short periods of oxidation or at a temperature below Tg, the kinetics follows a parabolic law, whereas, if the sample is oxidized at T ≥ Tg, the kinetics can be divided into two parts. The crystalline counterparts are oxidized by a parabolic rule whatever the temperature; for long oxidation duration at a temperature close to Tg, the kinetics becomes more complex because of the crystallisation of the glasses during the oxidation tests. Also the crystalline structure of the oxide layers depends on the oxidation temperature: the oxide layer consists only in tetragonal Zirconia at T ≤ Tg, while monoclinic Zirconia was formed at higher temperature. The mechanism of the formation of the oxide scale is due to both the interior diffusion of Oxygen ions and the external diffusion of Zirconium ions. However the diffusion of Zirconium ions slows gradually during the crystallisation process of the glass matrix. When the crystallisation is completed, the formation of Zirconia is controlled by only the internal diffusion of oxygen ions. The corresponding residual stresses

  5. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  6. Solvothermal synthesis and electrical conductivity model for the zinc oxide-insulated oil nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.P.; Wang, H.; Dong, M.; Ma, Z.C.; Wang, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of nanofluid, ZnO-insulated oil nanofluid was prepared from ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal method. Electrical property measurement shows that the electrical conductivity increases by 973 times after adding 0.75% volumetric fraction of ZnO nanoparticles into the insulated oil. A linear dependence of the electrical conductivity on the volumetric fraction has been observed, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity reveals a nonlinear relationship. An electrical conductivity model is established for the nanofluid by considering both the Brownian motion and electrophoresis of the ZnO nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► Stable ZnO-insulated oil nanofluid was successfully prepared. ► The electrical conductivity of the ZnO nanofluid is investigated. ► A new model is established to explain the electrical properties of the nanofluid.

  7. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties...

  8. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  9. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  10. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  11. Stability of polarization in organic ferroelectric metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitz, Rene; Fruebing, Peter; Gerhard, Reimund [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Taylor, Martin [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor Gwynedd, LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) offer the prospect of an organic-based memory device. Since the charge transport in such devices is confined to the interface between the insulator and the semiconductor, the focus of the present study was on the investigation of this region. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of all-organic MIS devices with poly(vinylidenefluoride- trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as gate insulator and poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) as semiconductor were carried out. When the structure was driven into depletion, a positive flat-band voltage shift was observed arising from the change in polarization state of the ferroelectric insulator. When driven into accumulation, the polarization was reversed. It is shown that both polarization states are stable. However, negative charge trapped at the interface during the depletion cycle masks the negative shift in flat-band voltage expected during the sweep to accumulation voltages. Measurements on P(VDF-TrFE)/P3HT based FeFETs yield further evidence for fixed charges at the interface. Output characteristics suggest the injection of negative charges into the interface region when a depletion voltage is applied between source and gate contact.

  12. Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350 0 C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS

  13. Are metallothioneins equally good biomarkers of metal and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Branco, Diana; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Several researchers investigated the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) in the presence of metals, namely Cadmium (Cd). Fewer studies observed the induction of MTs due to oxidizing agents, and literature comparing the sensitivity of MTs to different stressors is even more scarce or even nonexistent. The role of MTs in metal and oxidative stress and thus their use as a stress biomarker, remains to be clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of MTs as a biomarker in Cerastoderma edule, a bivalve widely used as bioindicator, a laboratory assay was conducted aiming to assess the sensitivity of MTs to metal and oxidative stressors. For this purpose, Cd was used to induce metal stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), being an oxidizing compound, was used to impose oxidative stress. Results showed that induction of MTs occurred at very different levels in metal and oxidative stress. In the presence of the oxidizing agent (H2O2), MTs only increased significantly when the degree of oxidative stress was very high, and mortality rates were higher than 50 percent. On the contrary, C. edule survived to all Cd concentrations used and significant MTs increases, compared to the control, were observed in all Cd exposures. The present work also revealed that the number of ions and the metal bound to MTs varied with the exposure conditions. In the absence of disturbance, MTs bound most (60-70 percent) of the essential metals (Zn and Cu) in solution. In stressful situations, such as the exposure to Cd and H2O2, MTs did not bind to Cu and bound less to Zn. When organisms were exposed to Cd, the total number of ions bound per MT molecule did not change, compared to control. However the sort of ions bound per MT molecule differed; part of the Zn and all Cu ions where displaced by Cd ions. For organisms exposed to H2O2, each MT molecule bound less than half of the ions compared to control and Cd conditions, which indicates a partial oxidation of thiol groups in the cysteine

  14. Preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Soo; Jang, Hee Dong; Lim, Young Woong; Kim, Sung Don; Lee, Hi Sun; Lee, Hoo In; Kim, Chul Joo; Shim, Gun Joo; Jang, Dae Kyu [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Metal oxide fine powders finds many applications in industry as new materials. It is very much necessary for the development of such powders to improve the domestic industry. The purpose of present research is to develop a process for the preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder. This project is consisted of two main subjects. (1) Production of ultrafine metal oxide powder: Ultrafine metal oxide powder is defined as a metal oxide powder of less than 100 nanometer in particle size. Experiments for the control of particle size and distributions in the various reaction system and compared with results of (2 nd year research). Various reaction systems were adopted for the development of feasible process. Ultrafine particles could be prepared even higher concentration of TiCl{sub 4} and lower gas flowrate compared to TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 2} system in the TiCl{sub 4}-Air-H{sub 2}O system. Ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders also prepared with the change of concentration and gas flowrate. Experiments on the treatment of surface characteristics of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} powders were investigated using esterification and surface treating agents. A mathematical model that can predict the particle size and distribution was also developed. (2) Preparation of cerium oxide for high-grade polishing powder: Used cerium polishing powder was recycled for preparation of high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. Also, cerium hydroxide which was generated as by-product in processing of monazite ore was used as another material. These two materials were leached respectively by using acid, and the precipitate was gained in each leached solution by adjusting pH of the solution, and by selective crystallization. These precipitates were calcined to make high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. The effect of several experimental variables were investigated, and the optimum conditions were obtained through the experiments. (author). 81 refs., 49 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Valko, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  16. Metal/metal-oxide interfaces: A surface science approach to the study of adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C.H.F.; Kidd, K.B.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Metal-oxide/metal interfaces play an important role, for example, in the joining of an oxide ceramic to a metal for sealing applications. In order to probe the chemical and physical properties of such an interface, we have performed Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) and temperature programed desorption (TPD) experiments on a model system composed of very thin films of Cr, Fe, Ni, or Cu evaporated onto a very thin thermally grown oxide on a W single crystal. Monolayer films of Fe and Cr were found (by AES) to completely wet the oxide surface upon deposition, and were stable up to temperatures at which the films desorbed ({approx}1300 K). In contrast, monolayer Ni and Cu films formed three-dimensional islands exposing the oxidized W surface either upon annealing (Ni) or even upon room-temperature deposition (Cu). The relative interfacial interaction between the overlayer metal and the oxide, as assessed by TPD, increases in the series Cu{lt}Ni{lt}Fe{lt}Cr. This trend follows the heats of formation of the various oxides of these metals.

  17. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-01-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  18. Surface modification and functionalization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neouze, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Metal or metal oxide nanoparticles possess unique features compared to equivalent larger-scale materials. For applications, it is often necessary to stabilize or functionalize such nanoparticles. Thus, modification of the surface of nanoparticles is an important chemical challenge. In this survey,

  19. Polymer-supported metals and metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Guibal, E.; Quignard, F.; SenGupta, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique properties in regard to sorption behaviors, magnetic activity, chemical reduction, ligand sequestration among others. To this end, attempts are being continuously made to take advantage of them in multitude of applications including separation, catalysis, environmental remediation, sensing, biomedical applications and others. However, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles lack chemical stability and mechanical strength. They exhibit extremely high pressure drop or head loss in fixed-bed column operation and are not suitable for any flow-through systems. Also, nanoparticles tend to aggregate; this phenomenon reduces their high surface area to volume ratio and subsequently reduces effectiveness. By appropriately dispersing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles into synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, many of the shortcomings can be overcome without compromising the parent properties of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the appropriate choice of the polymer host with specific functional groups may even lead to the enhancement of the properties of nanoparticles. The synthesis of hybrid materials involves two broad pathways: dispersing the nanoparticles (i) within pre-formed or commercially available polymers; and (ii) during the polymerization process. This review presents a broad coverage of nanoparticles and polymeric/biopolymeric host materials and the resulting properties of the hybrid composites. In addition, the review discusses the role of the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host functionalized polymer in harnessing the desirable properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for intended applications.

  20. The Resonance Absorption of Uranium Metal and Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E; Lundgren, G

    1962-06-15

    The resonance integrals for uranium metal and uranium oxide have been determined for a 1/E flux. The following results were obtained Metal RI 2.95 + 25.8{radical}(S/M); Oxide RI = 4.15 + 26.6{radical}(S/M). The oxide value agrees with the expression found earlier at this laboratory. But the result for the metal is 4. 5 % larger than the earlier one. In addition, the resonance absorption in a R1 fuel rod has been compared with that for a cadmium-covered rod placed in an approximate cell boundary flux. The former came out 3 % larger than the latter. A comparison of the fuel rod absorption with that for a 1/E flux yields a corresponding figure of 7 %. The neutron flux was monitored below the lowest resonance in uranium.

  1. Preventing Bacterial Infections using Metal Oxides Nanocoatings on Bone Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceac, L. D.; Straticiuc, S.; Hanganu, E.; Stafie, L.; Calin, G.; Gavrilescu, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bone implant removal is caused by infection that occurs around it possibly acquired after surgery or during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to reveal some metal oxides applied as coatings on bone implant thus limiting the usual antibiotics-resistant bacteria colonization. Therefore ZnO, TiO2 and CuO were synthesized and structurally and morphologically analized in order to use them as an alternative antimicrobial agents deposited on bone implant. XRD, SEM, and FTIR characterization techniques were used to identify structure and texture of these nanoscaled metal oxides. These metal oxides nanocoatings on implant surface play a big role in preventing bacterial infection and reducing surgical complications.

  2. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  3. Effect of oxygen on decomposition of nitrous oxide over various metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Maeshima, Hajime; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2001-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of oxygen on decomposition of nitrous oxide over various metal oxide catalysts was investigated. The activity of nitrous oxide decomposition significantly decreased over CuO, Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Fe 2 O 3 , SnO 2 , In 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 by reversible adsorption of oxygen onto the active sites. On the contrary to this, there was no or small change in the activity of TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, La 2 O 3 and CaO. A good correlation was observed between the degree of inhibition and the heat of formation of metal oxides. On the basis of kinetic model, the reduction of catalytic activity in the presence of oxygen was rationalized with the strength of oxygen adsorption on the metal oxide surface. (author)

  4. Metal-insulator transition in Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In studied by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speiser, E.; Hinrichs, K.; Cobet, C.; Esser, N. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Chandola, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gensch, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany); Wippermann, S.; Schmidt, W.G. [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany); Bechstedt, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerpertheorie und -Optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Richter, W. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Fleischer, K.; McGilp, J.F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the surface vibrational modes and optical response of Si(111)-(4 x 1)/(8 x 2)-In are compiled and a comparison to ab initio calculations performed within DFT-LDA formalism is given. Surface resonant Raman spectroscopy allows identifying a number of surface phonons with high spectral precision. The phase transition of the (4 x 1)-(8 x 2) surface structure is found to be accompanied by characteristic changes of the surface phonons, which are discussed with respect to various structural models suggested. The optical anisotropy of the (8 x 2) phase shows that the anisotropic Drude tail of the (4 x 1) phase is replaced by two peaks at 0.50 and 0.72 eV. The spectroscopic signatures of the (4 x 1) and (8 x 2) phases agree with a metal-insulator transition. The mid-IR-anisotropic optical response of the insulating (8 x 2) phase is interpreted in terms of electronic single particle excitations between surface electronic bands related to the In-nanowire surface. Comparison of the measured optical transitions with DFT ab initio calculations for the hexagon model and the trimer model of the (8 x 2) structure shows evidence for the existence of the hexagon structure. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Transient transition from free carrier metallic state to exciton insulating state in GaAs by ultrafast photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, X. C.; Song, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Xiu; Gu, Peng; Liu, Shi-Bing; Li, Fan; Meng, Jian-Qiao; Duan, Yu-Xia; Liu, H. Y.

    2018-03-01

    We present systematic studies of the transient dynamics of GaAs by ultrafast time-resolved reflectivity. In photoexcited non-equilibrium states, we found a sign reverse in reflectivity change ΔR/R, from positive around room temperature to negative at cryogenic temperatures. The former corresponds to a free carrier metallic state, while the latter is attributed to an exciton insulating state, in which the transient electronic properties is mostly dominated by excitons, resulting in a transient metal–insulator transition (MIT). Two transition temperatures (T 1 and T 2) are well identified by analyzing the intensity change of the transient reflectivity. We found that photoexcited MIT starts emerging at T 1 as high as ∼ 230 K, in terms of a dip feature at 0.4 ps, and becomes stabilized below T 2 that is up to ∼ 180 K, associated with a negative constant after 40 ps. Our results address a phase diagram that provides a framework for the inducing of MIT through temperature and photoexcitation, and may shed light on the understanding of light-semiconductor interaction and exciton physics.

  6. Universal medium-range order of amorphous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide; Nakamura, Hisao

    2013-10-11

    We propose that the structure of amorphous metal oxides can be regarded as a dual-dense-random-packing structure, which is a superposition of the dense random packing of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the medium-range order of amorphous HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, and Cu2O is characterized by the pentagonal-bipyramid arrangement of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms, and prove the validity of our dual-random-sphere-packing model. In other words, we find that the pentagonal medium-range order is universal independent of type of metal oxide.

  7. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  8. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  9. Metal Oxide Nano structures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L. H.; Patil, D. S.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nano structured materials have attracted wide attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties, which make these materials potentially suitable for applications in electronics, optics, photonics, and sensors. Some metal oxides show a wide variety of morphologies such as nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes, nano rings, and nano belts. Synthesis and investigation of these metal-oxide nano structures are beneficial not only for understanding the fundamental phenomena in low dimensional systems, but also for developing new-generation nano devices with high performance.

  10. New Digital Metal-Oxide (MOx Sensor Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rüffer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of metal oxide gas sensors in Internet of Things (IoT devices and mobile platforms like wearables and mobile phones offers new opportunities for sensing applications. Metal-oxide (MOx sensors are promising candidates for such applications, thanks to the scientific progresses achieved in recent years. For the widespread application of MOx sensors, viable commercial offerings are required. In this publication, the authors show that with the new Sensirion Gas Platform (SGP a milestone in the commercial application of MOx technology has been reached. The architecture of the new platform and its performance in selected applications are presented.

  11. Method for continuous synthesis of metal oxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark W.

    2015-09-08

    A method for the rapid and continuous production of crystalline mixed-metal oxides from a precursor solution comprised of a polymerizing agent, chelated metal ions, and a solvent. The method discharges solution droplets of less than 500 .mu.m diameter using an atomizing or spray-type process into a reactor having multiple temperature zones. Rapid evaporation occurs in a first zone, followed by mixed-metal organic foam formation in a second zone, followed by amorphous and partially crystalline oxide precursor formation in a third zone, followed by formation of the substantially crystalline mixed-metal oxide in a fourth zone. The method operates in a continuous rather than batch manner and the use of small droplets as the starting material for the temperature-based process allows relatively high temperature processing. In a particular embodiment, the first zone operates at 100-300.degree. C., the second zone operates at 300-700.degree. C., and the third operates at 700-1000.degree. C., and fourth zone operates at at least 700.degree. C. The resulting crystalline mixed-metal oxides display a high degree of crystallinity and sphericity with typical diameters on the order of 50 .mu.m or less.

  12. Metal Phosphate-Supported Pt Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshuang Qian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2 have often been used to prepare supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation and other reactions, whereas metal phosphate-supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation were rarely reported. Metal phosphates are a family of metal salts with high thermal stability and acid-base properties. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, denoted as Ca-P-O here also has rich hydroxyls. Here we report a series of metal phosphate-supported Pt (Pt/M-P-O, M = Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, La catalysts for CO oxidation. Pt/Ca-P-O shows the highest activity. Relevant characterization was conducted using N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR. This work furnishes a new catalyst system for CO oxidation and other possible reactions.

  13. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  14. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  15. Reduction of the Jahn-Teller distortion at the insulator-to-metal transition in mixed valence manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, J.L.; Suaaidi, M.; Fontcuberta, J.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    1997-01-01

    The insulator-to-metal transition in the manganite La 0.52 Y 0.15 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 (T IM ∼115 K) has been studied by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. The cell volume contraction at the Curie point is accompanied by a remarkable decrease of the Jahn-Teller distortion in MnO 6 octahedra. The change of the Mn-O bond lengths at T IM is anisotropic and brings about a drop out of the basal-plane collective distortion mode Q 2 , proposed to be the deformation responsible for the band split of e g↑ orbitals. This is consistent with the double-exchange picture, and precludes simple ferromagnetic exchange. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. The metal-insulator transition of RNiO3 perovskites. What can we learn from neutron diffraction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarde, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    RNiO 3 perovskites (R = rare earth) provide a remarkable opportunity to study the relationship between structural and physical properties since by moving along the 4f rare earth series, the evolution of several transport and magnetic properties can be nicely correlated to the steric effects associated with the lanthanide contraction. The most appealing example is probably the metal-insulator transition discovered for the compounds with R≠La, whose critical temperature T M-I increases with decreasing size of the rare earth ion. In this lecture, a summary of the most relevant neutron diffraction results on this system is presented. Moreover, the nickelates are used as an example to illustrate the performance of the diffractometers HRPT and DMCG to be installed at the SINQ. (author) 12 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  17. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M.; Vogel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  18. First- and second-order metal-insulator phase transitions and topological aspects of a Hubbard-Rashba system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers a model consisting of a kinetic term, Rashba spin-orbit coupling and short-range Coulomb interaction at zero temperature. The Coulomb interaction is decoupled by a mean-field approximation in the spin channel using field theory methods. The results feature a first-order phase transition for any finite value of the chemical potential and quantum criticality for vanishing chemical potential. The Hall conductivity is also computed using the Kubo formula in a mean-field effective Hamiltonian. In the limit of infinite mass the kinetic term vanishes and all the phase transitions are of second order; in this case the spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism adds a ferromagnetic metallic phase to the system and features a zero-temperature quantization of the Hall conductivity in the insulating one.

  19. The metal-insulator transition of RNiO{sub 3} perovskites. What can we learn from neutron diffraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medarde, M L [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    RNiO{sub 3} perovskites (R = rare earth) provide a remarkable opportunity to study the relationship between structural and physical properties since by moving along the 4f rare earth series, the evolution of several transport and magnetic properties can be nicely correlated to the steric effects associated with the lanthanide contraction. The most appealing example is probably the metal-insulator transition discovered for the compounds with R{ne}La, whose critical temperature T{sub M-I} increases with decreasing size of the rare earth ion. In this lecture, a summary of the most relevant neutron diffraction results on this system is presented. Moreover, the nickelates are used as an example to illustrate the performance of the diffractometers HRPT and DMCG to be installed at the SINQ. (author) 12 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  20. Ca-site substitution induced a metal-insulator transition in manganite CaMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, D.; Nunes, M.R.; Silveira, C.; Matos, I.; Lopes, A.B.; Melo Jorge, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the A-site doping in Mn(IV)-rich perovskite manganites Ca 1-x Ho x MnO 3 , over a large homogeneity range (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.4), has been performed. A significant increase in the lattice parameters indicated the presence of mixed valence state of Mn: Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ . The substitution of calcium by holmium also induces strong changes in the electrical properties. We found that small Ho concentration produces an important decrease in the electrical resistivity and induces an electrical transition, the temperature corresponding to the metal-insulator transition (T MI ) shifts with the holmium content. This electrical behavior is attributed to the Mn 3+ ions content and a charge order effect

  1. Optical Response of Cu1-xZnxIr2S4 Due to Metal--Insulator Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Matsunami, M.; Nanba, T.; Cao, G.; Suzuki, H.; Isobe, M.; Matsumoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    The mother material CuIr 2 S 4 of the thiospinel system Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 undergoes a temperature-induced metal--insulator (Mi) transition. We report the temperature dependence of the optical reflection spectra of Cu 1-x Zn x Ir 2 S 4 (x ≤ 0.5) at the temperatures of 8-300 K in the energy regions of 0.005--30 eV in order to study the change in the electronic structure due to the Zn substitution for Cu. Zn substitution induced mainly the splitting of the hybridization band between the Ir-5d(t 2g ) and S-3 p states crossing the E F . Obtained optical conductivity (σ ) spectrum is discussed in relation to the change in the electronic structure close to the E F . (author)

  2. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO2, SnO2, NbO2, ZrO2, SiO2, Ta2O5 and Nb2O5) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in ...

  3. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  4. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene.

  5. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory

  6. Application of metal oxide refractories for melting and casting reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, N.C. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Townsend, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been conducted to develop metal oxide refractories for containment of molten uranium and uranium alloys. Since uranium and uranium alloys are readily susceptable to the formation of complex oxides, carbides, nitrides, intermetallic compounds, and suboxide reactions, severe problems exist for the production of quality castings. These contamination reactions are dependent on temperature, pressure, and molten metal interfacial reactions. The need for high purity metals to meet specification repeatedly has resulted in the development of improved metal oxide refractories and sophisticated furnace controls. Applications of Y 2 O 3 for use as a crucible and mold coating, precision molds and cores, and high temperature castable ceramics are discussed. Experimental results on melt impurity levels, thermal controls during melting, surface interactions and casting quality are presented

  7. Flexible Metal Oxide/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Neuromorphic Devices on Flexible Conducting Graphene Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Li Qiang; Liu, Yang Hui; Feng, Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flexible metal oxide/graphene oxide hybrid multi-gate neuron transistors were fabricated on flexible graphene substrates. Dendritic integrations in both spatial and temporal modes were successfully emulated, and spatiotemporal correlated logics were obtained. A proof-of-principle visual system model for emulating lobula giant motion detector neuron was investigated. Our results are of great interest for flexible neuromorphic cognitive systems.

  8. Numerical studies on a plasmonic temperature nanosensor based on a metal-insulator-metal ring resonator structure for optical integrated circuit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-mahmod, Md. Jubayer; Hyder, Rakib; Islam, Md Zahurul

    2017-07-01

    A nanosensor, based on a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic ring resonator, is proposed for potential on-chip temperature sensing and its performance is evaluated numerically. The sensor components can be fabricated by using planar processes on a silicon substrate, making its manufacturing compatible to planar electronic fabrication technology. The sensor, constructed using silver as the metal rings and a thermo-optic liquid ethanol film between the metal layers, is capable of sensing temperature with outstanding optical sensitivity, as high as -0.53 nm/°C. The resonance wavelength is found to be highly sensitive to the refractive index of the liquid dielectric film. The resonance peak can be tuned according to the requirement of intended application by changing the radii of the ring resonator geometries in the design phase. The compact size, planar and silicon-based design, and very high resolutions- these characteristics are expected to make this sensor technology a preferred choice for lab-on-a-chip applications, as compared to other contemporary sensors.

  9. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide

  10. Design and development of polyphenylene oxide foam as a reusable internal insulation for LH2 tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Material specification and fabrication process procedures for foam production are presented. The properties of mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity were measured and related to foam quality. Properties unique to the foam such as a gas layer insulation, density gradient parallel to the fiber direction, and gas flow conductance in both directions were correlated with foam quality. Inspection and quality control tests procedures are outlined and photographs of test equipment and test specimens are shown.

  11. Long-wavelength behaviour of charge-charge structure factor in insulating and metallic ground state of condensed hydrogen under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-09-01

    Using the quantum Monte Carlo charge-charge structure factor S qq (k) it is argued that (i) in the metallic phase the small k expasion is non-analytic at order k 5 , reflecting plasmon dispersion, while in the insulating phase the non-analyticity occurs at O(k 3 ), due to van der Waals interaction between the protons. (author) [pt

  12. First-order metal-insulator transitions in the extended Hubbard model due to self-consistent screening of the effective interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, M.; van Loon, E. G. C. P.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Wehling, T. O.

    2018-04-01

    While the Hubbard model is the standard model to study Mott metal-insulator transitions, it is still unclear to what extent it can describe metal-insulator transitions in real solids, where nonlocal Coulomb interactions are always present. By using a variational principle, we clarify this issue for short- and long-range nonlocal Coulomb interactions for half-filled systems on bipartite lattices. We find that repulsive nonlocal interactions generally stabilize the Fermi-liquid regime. The metal-insulator phase boundary is shifted to larger interaction strengths to leading order linearly with nonlocal interactions. Importantly, nonlocal interactions can raise the order of the metal-insulator transition. We present a detailed analysis of how the dimension and geometry of the lattice as well as the temperature determine the critical nonlocal interaction leading to a first-order transition: for systems in more than two dimensions with nonzero density of states at the Fermi energy the critical nonlocal interaction is arbitrarily small; otherwise, it is finite.

  13. Direct comparison of the electrical properties in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon and metal/aluminum oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with equivalent oxide thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho-Myoung; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Kim, Jong-Guk [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won-Ju; Koh, Jung-Hyuk [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun Mo [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-31

    We examine the electrical properties of metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS) capacitors with two different blocking oxides, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, under the influence of the same electric field. The thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is set to 150 A, which is electrically equivalent to a thickness of the SiO{sub 2} layer of 65 A, in the MONOS structure for this purpose. The capacitor with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer shows a larger capacitance-voltage memory window of 8.6 V, lower program voltage of 7 V, faster program/erase speeds of 10 ms/1 {mu}s, lower leakage current of 100 pA and longer data retention than the one with the SiO{sub 2} blocking layer does. These improvements are attributed to the suppression of the carrier transport to the gate electrode afforded by the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer physically thicker than the SiO{sub 2} one, as well as the effective charge-trapping by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the deep energy levels in the nitride layer.

  14. Kinetic and catalytic analysis of mesoporous metal oxides on the oxidation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaba, Morena S.; Noh, Ji-Hyang; Mokgadi, Keabetswe; Meijboom, Reinout

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and catalytic activity of different mesoporous transition metal oxides, silica (SiO2), copper oxide (CuO), chromium oxide (Cr2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) cobalt oxide (Co3O4), cerium oxide (CeO2) and nickel oxide (NiO), on the oxidation of a pollutant dye, Rhodamine B (RhB). These metal oxides were synthesized by inverse micelle formation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET) and H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR). UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to monitor the time-resolved absorbance of RhB at λmax = 554 nm. Mesoporous copper oxide was calcined at different final heating temperatures of 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C, and each mesoporous copper oxide catalyst showed unique physical properties and catalytic behavior. Mesoporous CuO-550 with the smallest characteristic path length δ, proved to be the catalyst of choice for the oxidation of RhB in aqueous media. We observed that the oxidation of RhB in aqueous media is dependent on the crystallite size and characteristic path length of the mesoporous metal oxide. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to fit the experimental data and to prove that the reaction occurs on the surface of the mesoporous CuO. The thermodynamic parameters, EA, ΔH#, ΔS# and ΔG# were calculated and catalyst recycling and reusability were demonstrated.

  15. Direct chemical reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium and calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, Leah N.; Lessing, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A process of direct reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium metal as the reducing agent is discussed. After reduction of the oxide to metal, the metal is separated by density from the other components of the reaction mixture and can be easily removed upon cooling. The direct reduction technique consistently produces high purity (98%–99% pure) neptunium metal.

  16. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  17. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  18. Quasi-Two-Dimensional h-BN/β-Ga2O3 Heterostructure Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Mastro, Michael A; Tadjer, Marko J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    β-gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure-based quasi-two-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were demonstrated by integrating mechanical exfoliation of (quasi)-two-dimensional materials with a dry transfer process, wherein nanothin flakes of β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN were utilized as the channel and gate dielectric, respectively, of the MISFET. The h-BN dielectric, which has an extraordinarily flat and clean surface, provides a minimal density of charged impurities on the interface between β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN, resulting in superior device performances (maximum transconductance, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and threshold voltage) compared to those of the conventional back-gated configurations. Also, double-gating of the fabricated device was demonstrated by biasing both top and bottom gates, achieving the modulation of the threshold voltage. This heterostructured wide-band-gap nanodevice shows a new route toward stable and high-power nanoelectronic devices.

  19. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates

  20. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  1. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, Glenn Geoffrey [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu2O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu2O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N2 and CO2. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu2O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  2. Shock Hazard Prevention through Self-Healing Insulative Coating on SSA Metallic Bearings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space suit contains metallic bearings at the wrist, neck, and waist, which are exposed to the space environment. There is a need to maintain a high degree of...

  3. Shock Hazard Prevention through Self-Healing Insulative Coating on SSA Metallic Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space suit assembly (SSA) contains metallic bearings at the wrist, neck, and waist, which are exposed to space environment, and pose a potential shock hazard....

  4. Experimental demonstration on the ultra-low source/drain resistance by metal-insulator-semiconductor contact structure in In0.53Ga0.47As field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-H. Liao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we demonstrate the ultra-low contact resistivity of 6.7 × 10−9 Ω/cm2 by inserting 0.6-nm-ZnO between Al and InGaAs(Si: 1.5 × 1019 cm−3. The metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diode with 0.6-nm-ZnO exhibits nearly zero (0.03 eV barrier height. We apply this contact structure on the source/drain of implant-free In0.53Ga0.47As quantum-well metal-oxide-semiconductor field- effect transistors. The excellent on-state performance such as saturation drain current of 3 × 10−4 A/μm and peak transconductance of 1250 μS/μm is obtained which is attributed to the ultra-low source/drain resistance of 190 Ω-μm.

  5. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  6. Two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides and oxides for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibilities of hydrogen evolution by basal planes of 2D metal dichalcogenides and oxides in the 2H and 1T class of structures using the hydrogen binding energy as a computational activity descriptor. For some groups of systems like the Ti, Zr, and Hf dichalcogenides the hydrogen...

  7. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  8. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  9. Metal/oxide/semiconductor interface investigated by monoenergetic positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Tanigawa, S.; Ohji, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Variable-energy positron-beam studies have been carried out for the first time on a metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure of polycrystalline Si/SiO 2/Si-substrate. We were successful in collecting injected positrons at the SiO 2/Si interface by the application of an electric field between the MOS electrodes.

  10. Positron studies of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, H. L.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.

    1993-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy provides a new probe to study the properties of interface traps in metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). Using positrons, we have examined the behavior of the interface traps as a function of gate bias. We propose a simple model to explain the positron annihilation spectra from the interface region of a MOS capacitor.

  11. Transition metal oxide loaded MCM catalysts for photocatalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transition metal oxide (TiO2, Fe2O3, CoO) loaded MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized by a two-step .... washed consecutively with water and ethanol, and cal- cined at 823 K for 5 .... conversion was observed in 1 h when the reaction was.

  12. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2,2) na...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006 Section 721.10006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer...

  14. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2017-07-10

    Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.

  15. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... decrease of pH value by MeOx, a synergism of acidic and chloride ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  16. In Situ Study of Noncatalytic Metal Oxide Nanowire Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Jiang, Hua; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    a catalyst is still widely disputed and unclear. Here, we show that the nanowire growth during metal oxidation is limited by a nucleation of a new layer. On the basis of in situ transmission electron microscope investigations we found that the growth occurs layer by layer at the lowest specific surface...

  17. Characterization of quaternary metal oxide films by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D.L.; Thompson, A.C.; Russo, R.E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A high demand for thin films in industrial technology has been responsible for the creation of new techniques for the fabrication of such films. One highly effective method for the syntheses of variable composition thin films is pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). The technique has a large number of characteristics which make it an attractive approach for making films. It offers rapid deposition rates, congruent material transfer, simple target requirements from which to make the films, in situ multilayer deposition, and no gas composition or pressure requirements. Additionally, the technique can also afford crystalline films and films with novel structures. Pulsed-laser deposition can be used to make films of semiconductors, insulators, high-temperature superconductors, diamond-like films, and piezoelectric materials. Quaternary metal oxides involving calcium, nickel, and potassium have been shown to be quite effective in the catalysis of coal gasification and methane coupling. One approach to incorporating all three of the metal oxides into one phase is the use of laser ablation to prepare films of the catalysts so that they may be used for coatings, smooth surfaces on which to conduct detailed studies of gas-solid interface reactions that are involved in catalytic processes, and other applications. The problem of dissimilar boiling points of the three metal oxides system is overcome, since the laser ablation process effects the volatilization of all three components from the laser target essentially simultaneously. There is strong interest in gaining an understanding of the chemical and morphological aspects of the films that are deposited. Phenomena such as lattice defects and chemical heterogeneity are of interest. The experimental data discussed here are restricted to the matrix homogeneity of the films themselves for films which were void of microparticles.

  18. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  19. Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Soohyung; Mutz, Niklas; Schultz, Thorsten; Blumstengel, Sylke; Han, Ali; Aljarb, Areej; Li, Lain-Jong; List-Kratochvil, Emil J W; Amsalem, Patrick; Koch, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the excitonic nature of excited states in two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is of key importance to make use of their optical and charge transport properties in optoelectronic applications. We contribute to this by the direct experimental determination of the exciton binding energy (E b,exc) of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 on two fundamentally different substrates, i.e. the insulator sapphire and the metal gold. By combining angle-resolved direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy we measure the electronic band gap (E g), and by reflectance measurements the optical excitonic band gap (E exc). The difference of these two energies is E b,exc. The values of E g and E b,exc are 2.11 eV and 240 meV for MoS2 on sapphire, and 1.89 eV and 240 meV for WSe2 on sapphire. On Au E b,exc is decreased to 90 meV and 140 meV for MoS2 and WSe2, respectively. The significant E b,exc reduction is primarily due to a reduction of E g resulting from enhanced screening by the metal, while E exc is barely decreased for the metal support. Energy level diagrams determined at the K-point of the 2D TMDCs Brillouin zone show that MoS2 has more p-type character on Au as compared to sapphire, while WSe2 appears close to intrinsic on both. These results demonstrate that the impact of the dielectric environment of 2D TMDCs is more pronounced for individual charge carriers than for a correlated electron–hole pair, i.e. the exciton. A proper dielectric surrounding design for such 2D semiconductors can therefore be used to facilitate superior optoelectronic device function.

  20. Direct determination of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 exciton binding energies on insulating and metallic substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Soohyung

    2018-01-03

    Understanding the excitonic nature of excited states in two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is of key importance to make use of their optical and charge transport properties in optoelectronic applications. We contribute to this by the direct experimental determination of the exciton binding energy (E b,exc) of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2 on two fundamentally different substrates, i.e. the insulator sapphire and the metal gold. By combining angle-resolved direct and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy we measure the electronic band gap (E g), and by reflectance measurements the optical excitonic band gap (E exc). The difference of these two energies is E b,exc. The values of E g and E b,exc are 2.11 eV and 240 meV for MoS2 on sapphire, and 1.89 eV and 240 meV for WSe2 on sapphire. On Au E b,exc is decreased to 90 meV and 140 meV for MoS2 and WSe2, respectively. The significant E b,exc reduction is primarily due to a reduction of E g resulting from enhanced screening by the metal, while E exc is barely decreased for the metal support. Energy level diagrams determined at the K-point of the 2D TMDCs Brillouin zone show that MoS2 has more p-type character on Au as compared to sapphire, while WSe2 appears close to intrinsic on both. These results demonstrate that the impact of the dielectric environment of 2D TMDCs is more pronounced for individual charge carriers than for a correlated electron–hole pair, i.e. the exciton. A proper dielectric surrounding design for such 2D semiconductors can therefore be used to facilitate superior optoelectronic device function.